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Sample records for treg cell expression

  1. CD11c-expressing cells affect Treg behavior in the meninges during CNS infection1

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    O’Brien, Carleigh A.; Overall, Christopher; Konradt, Christoph; O’Hara Hall, Aisling C.; Hayes, Nikolas W.; Wagage, Sagie; John, Beena; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Harris, Tajie H.

    2017-01-01

    Treg cells play an important role in the CNS during multiple infections as well as autoimmune inflammation, but the behavior of this cell type in the CNS has not been explored. In mice, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to a Th1-polarized parasite-specific effector T cell response in the brain. Similarly, the Treg cells in the CNS during T. gondii infection are Th1-polarized, exemplified by T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression. Unlike effector CD4+ T cells, an MHC Class II tetramer reagent specific for T. gondii did not recognize Treg cells isolated from the CNS. Likewise, TCR sequencing revealed minimal overlap in TCR sequence between effector and regulatory T cells in the CNS. Whereas effector T cells are found in the brain parenchyma where parasites are present, Treg cells were restricted to the meninges and perivascular spaces. The use of intravital imaging revealed that activated CD4+ T cells within the meninges were highly migratory, while Treg cells moved more slowly and were found in close association with CD11c+ cells. To test whether the behavior of Tregs in the meninges is influenced by interactions with CD11c+ cells, mice were treated with anti-LFA-1 antibodies to reduce the number of CD11c+ cells in this space. The anti-LFA-1 treatment led to fewer contacts between Tregs and the remaining CD11c+ cells and increased the speed of Treg cell migration. These data suggest that Treg cells are anatomically restricted within the CNS and the interaction with CD11c+ populations regulates their local behavior during T. gondii infection. PMID:28389591

  2. Homeostasis and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo: lessons from TCR-transgenic Tregs

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    Attridge, Kesley; Walker, Lucy S K

    2014-01-01

    The identification of CD25 and subsequently Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) as markers for regulatory T cells (Tregs) has revolutionized our ability to explore this population experimentally. In a similar vein, our understanding of antigen-specific Treg responses in vivo owes much to the fortuitous generation of T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic Tregs. This has permitted tracking of Tregs with a defined specificity in vivo, facilitating analysis of how encounter with cognate antigen shapes Treg homeostasis and function. Here, we review the key lessons learned from a decade of analysis of TCR-transgenic Tregs and set this in the broader context of general progress in the field. Use of TCR-transgenic Tregs has led to an appreciation that Tregs are a highly dynamic proliferative population in vivo, rather than an anergic population as they were initially portrayed. It is now clear that Treg homeostasis is positively regulated by encounter with self-antigen expressed on peripheral tissues, which is likely to be relevant to the phenomenon of peripheral repertoire reshaping that has been described for Tregs and the observation that the Treg TCR specificities vary by anatomical location. Substantial evidence has also accumulated to support the role of CD28 costimulation and interleukin-2 in Treg homeostasis. The availability of TCR-transgenic Tregs has enabled analysis of Treg populations that are sufficient or deficient in particular genes, without the comparison being confounded by repertoire alterations. This approach has yielded insights into genes required for Treg function in vivo, with particular progress being made on the role of ctla-4 in this context. As the prospect of manipulating Treg populations in the clinic becomes reality, a full appreciation of the rules governing their homeostasis will prove increasingly important. PMID:24712457

  3. TGF-β induces the expression of Nedd4 family-interacting protein 1 (Ndfip1) to silence IL-4 production during iTreg cell differentiation

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    Beal, Allison M.; Ramos-Hernández, Natalia; Riling, Chris R.; Nowelsky, Erin A.; Oliver, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    Mice deficient for the adaptor Ndfip1 develop inflammation at sites of environmental antigen exposure. We show here that these animals contain fewer inducible regulatory (iTreg) cells. In vitro, Ndfip1-deficient T cells express normal levels of the transcription factor Foxp3 during the first 48 hours of iTreg cell differentiation, however this cannot be sustained. Abortive Foxp3 expression is because Ndfip1–/– cells produce interleukin 4 (IL-4). We demonstrate that Ndfip1 is transiently unregulated during iTreg cell differentiation in a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) dependent manner. Once expressed Ndfip1 promotes Itch-mediated degradation of the transcription factor JunB, thus preventing IL-4 production. Based on these data, we propose that TGF-β signaling induces Ndfip1 expression to silence IL-4 production, thus permitting iTreg cell differentiation. PMID:22080920

  4. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection.

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    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell-depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production as well as T-bet and receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t expression compared with mice treated with the isotype control antibody. In contrast, NK cell depletion significantly increased Treg in cell number and related transcription factor (Foxp3) expression. The opposite trends of changes of Th1/Th17 and Treg led to significant reduction in the Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios. The data implicate that NK cells play an important role in host defence against chlamydial lung infection, mainly through maintaining Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  5. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in CD4+ T cells contributes to alleviation of Th17/Treg imbalance in collagen-induced arthritis.

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    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Yan; Cai, Huan-Huan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines, is expressed in T lymphocytes. However, the role of T cell-expressed TH in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is less clear. Herein, we aimed to show the contribution of TH expression by CD4 + T cells to alleviation of helper T (Th)17/regulatory T (Treg) imbalance in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of RA. CIA was prepared by intradermal injection of collagen type II (CII) at tail base of DBA1/J mice. Expression of TH in the spleen and the ankle joints was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Percentages of TH-expressing Th17 and Treg cells in splenic CD4 + T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Overexpression and knockdown of TH gene in CD4 + T cells were taken to evaluate effects of TH on Th17 and Treg cells in CIA. TH expression was upregulated in both the inflamed tissues (spleen and ankle joints) and the CD4 + T cells of CIA mice. In splenic CD4 + T cells, the cells expressing TH were increased during CIA. These cells that expressed more TH in CIA were mainly Th17 cells rather than Treg cells. TH gene overexpression in CD4 + T cells from CIA mice reduced Th17 cell percentage as well as Th17-related transcription factor and cytokine expression and secretion, whereas TH gene knockdown enhanced the Th17 cell activity. In contrast, TH gene overexpression increased Treg-related cytokine expression and secretion in CD4 + T cells of CIA mice, while TH gene knockdown decreased the Treg cell changes. Collectively, these findings show that CIA induces TH expression in CD4 + T cells, particularly in Th17 cells, and suggest that the increased TH expression during CIA represents an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  6. Expression of Foxp3 in colorectal cancer but not in Treg cells correlates with disease progression in patients with colorectal cancer.

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    Mia Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg expressing the transcription factor forkhead-box protein P3 (Foxp3 have been identified to counteract anti-tumor immune responses during tumor progression. Besides, Foxp3 presentation by cancer cells itself may also allow them to evade from effector T-cell responses, resulting in a survival benefit of the tumor. For colorectal cancer (CRC the clinical relevance of Foxp3 has not been evaluated in detail. Therefore the aim of this study was to study its impact in colorectal cancer (CRC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Gene and protein analysis of tumor tissues from patients with CRC was performed to quantify the expression of Foxp3 in tumor infiltrating Treg and colon cancer cells. The results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patients overall survival. Serial morphological analysis demonstrated Foxp3 to be expressed in cancer cells. High Foxp3 expression of the cancer cells was associated with poor prognosis compared to patients with low Foxp3 expression. In contrast, low and high Foxp3 level in tumor infiltrating Treg cells demonstrated no significant differences in overall patient survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly suggest that Foxp3 expression mediated by cancer cells rather than by Treg cells contribute to disease progression.

  7. Expression of selected genes of dendritic and Treg cells in blood and skin of morphea patients treated with UVA1 phototherapy

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    Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka J.; Kowalczyk, Michał J.; Żaba, Ryszard W.; Adamski, Zygmunt; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Morphea is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin. Dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a significant role in development of autoimmune and tolerance mechanisms. The aim of the study was to establish the expression of selected genes of plasmacytoid and myeloid DC, Treg cells, and the microenvironment of cytokines (interleukin-17A (IL-17A), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)) in blood and skin of morphea patients. In addition, the effect of UVA1 phototherapy on expression of the aforementioned genes was evaluated. Material and methods The study was performed on 15 blood and 10 skin samples from patients with morphea. The evaluation included expression of CLEC4C (C-type lectin domain family 4, member C receptor), Lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75), Forkhead box p3 (foxp3) transcription factor, IL-17A and TGF-β genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in skin samples both before and after UVA1 phototherapy using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The study revealed lower expression of CLEC4C before (p = 0.010) and after (p = 0.009) phototherapy and lower expression of IL-17A before (p = 0.038) phototherapy in PBMC of patients with morphea vs. the control group. Expression of CLEC4C in PBMC correlated negatively (rho = –0.90; p = 0.001) with activity of disease after phototherapy. No significant differences were found between expression of analysed genes before and after UVA1 therapy in PBMC and skin of morphea patients. Conclusions The results do not confirm the involvement of analysed subsets of DC and Tregs in UVA1 phototherapy in morphea, but point to CLEC4C as a possible biomarker associated with the disease activity. PMID:29593811

  8. Challenges in cryopreservation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for clinical therapeutic applications.

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    Golab, Karolina; Leveson-Gower, Dennis; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Grzanka, Jakub; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Krzystyniak, Adam; Millis, J Michael; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Witkowski, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    Promising results of initial studies applying ex-vivo expanded regulatory T cell (Treg) as a clinical intervention have increased interest in this type of the cellular therapy and several new clinical trials involving Tregs are currently on the way. Methods of isolation and expansion of Tregs have been studied and optimized to the extent that such therapy is feasible, and allows obtaining sufficient numbers of Tregs in the laboratory following Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines. Nevertheless, Treg therapy could even more rapidly evolve if Tregs could be efficiently cryopreserved and stored for future infusion or expansions rather than utilization of only freshly isolated and expanded cells as it is preferred now. Currently, our knowledge regarding the impact of cryopreservation on Treg recovery, viability, and functionality is still limited. Based on experience with cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cryopreservation may have a detrimental effect on Tregs, can decrease Treg viability, cause abnormal cytokine secretion, and compromise expression of surface markers essential for proper Treg function and processing. Therefore, optimal strategies and conditions for Treg cryopreservation in conjunction with cell culture, expansion, and processing for clinical application still need to be investigated and defined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Time-resolved transcriptome and proteome landscape of human regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation reveals novel regulators of FOXP3

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Angelika; Marabita, Francesco; Kiani, Narsis A.; Gross, Catharina C.; Johansson, Henrik J.; É liá s, Szabolcs; Rautio, Sini; Eriksson, Matilda; Fernandes, Sunjay Jude; Silberberg, Gilad; Ullah, Ubaid; Bhatia, Urvashi; Lä hdesmä ki, Harri; Lehtiö , Janne; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Wiendl, Heinz; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Tegner, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundRegulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 are crucial mediators of self-tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases but possibly hampering tumor rejection. Clinical manipulation of Tregs is of great interest

  10. Acid Sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a Negative Regulator of Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Development.

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    Zhou, Yuetao; Salker, Madhuri S; Walker, Britta; Münzer, Patrick; Borst, Oliver; Gawaz, Meinrad; Gulbins, Erich; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) is required for the maintenance of tolerance to various tissue antigens and to protect the host from autoimmune disorders. However, Treg may, indirectly, support cancer progression and bacterial infections. Therefore, a balance of Treg function is pivotal for adequate immune responses. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a rate limiting enzyme involved in the production of ceramide by breaking down sphingomyelin. Previous studies in T-cells have suggested that ASM is involved in CD28 signalling, T lymphocyte granule secretion, degranulation, and vesicle shedding similar to the formation of phosphatidylserine-exposing microparticles from glial cells. However, whether ASM affects the development of Treg has not yet been described. Splenocytes, isolated Naive T lymphocytes and cultured T cells were characterized for various immune T cell markers by flow cytometery. Cell proliferation was measured by Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, cell cycle analysis by Propidium Iodide (PI), mRNA transcripts by q-RT PCR and protein expression by Western Blotting respectively. ASM deficient mice have higher number of Treg compared with littermate control mice. In vitro induction of ASM deficient T cells in the presence of TGF-β and IL-2 lead to a significantly higher number of Foxp3+ induced Treg (iTreg) compared with control T-cells. Further, ASM deficient iTreg has less AKT (serine 473) phosphorylation and Rictor levels compared with control iTreg. Ceramide C6 led to significant reduction of iTreg in both ASM deficient and WT mice. The reduction in iTreg leads to induction of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 but not IFN-γ mRNA levels. ASM is a negative regulator of natural and iTreg. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Dendritic cells decreased the concomitant expanded Tregs and Tregs related IL-35 in cytokine-induced killer cells and increased their cytotoxicity against leukemia cells.

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    Ying Pan

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are potent immunosuppressive cells and essential for inducing immune tolerance. Recent studies have reported that Tregs and Tregs related cytokines can inhibit the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells, but dendritic cells co-cultured CIK (DC-CIK cells can be used for induction of a specific immune response by blocking of Tregs and TGF-β, IL-10. As a novel identified cytokine, IL-35 is specially produced by Tregs and plays an essential role in immune regulation. However, it remains unknown whether IL-35 roles in tumor immunotherapy mediated by CIK and DC-CIK cells. In this study, we cultured CIK and DC-CIK cells from the same healthy adult samples, and investigated their phenotype, proliferation, cytotoxic activity against leukemia cell lines K562 and NB4 by FCM and CCK-8, measured IL-35, TGF-β and IL-10 protein by ELISA, detected Foxp3, IL-35 and IL-35 receptor mRNA by Real-time PCR, respectively. We found Tregs and IL-35 concomitantly expanded by a time-dependent way during the generation of CIK cells, but DC significantly down-regulated the expression of them and simultaneously up-regulated the proliferation ability as well as cytotoxic activity of CIK cells against leukemia cell lines. Therefore, our data suggested that DC decreased concomitant expanded Tregs and Tregs related IL-35 in CIK cells and might contribute to improve their cytotoxicity against leukemia cells in vitro.

  12. Foxp3 regulates ratio of Treg and NKT cells in a mouse model of asthma.

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    Lu, Yanming; Guo, Yinshi; Xu, Linyun; Li, Yaqin; Cao, Lanfang

    2015-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways causes asthma. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) both play critical roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. Activation of Treg cells requires Foxp3, whereas whether Foxp3 may regulate the ratio of Treg and NKT cells to affect asthma is uncertain. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma, we either increased Treg cells by lentivirus-mediated forced expression of exogenous Foxp3, or increased NKT cells by stimulation with its activator α-GalCer. We found that the CD4+CD25+ Treg cells increased by forced Foxp3 expression, and decreased by α-GalCer, while the CD3+CD161+ NKT cells decreased by forced Foxp3 expression, and increased by α-GalCer. Moreover, forced Foxp3 expression, but not α-GalCer, significantly alleviated the hallmarks of asthma. Furthermore, forced Foxp3 increased levels of IL_10 and TGFβ1, and α-GalCer increased levels of IL_4 and INFγ in the OVA-treated lung. Taken together, our study suggests that Foxp3 may activate Treg cells and suppress NKT cells in asthma. Treg and NKT cells may antagonize the effects of each other in asthma.

  13. Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP.

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    Elkord, Eyad; Abd Al Samid, May; Chaudhary, Belal

    2015-08-21

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players of immune regulation/dysregulation both in physiological and pathophysiological settings. Despite significant advances in understanding Treg function, there is still a pressing need to define reliable and specific markers that can distinguish different Treg subpopulations. Herein we show for the first time that markers of activated Tregs [latency associated peptide (LAP) and glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32)] are expressed on CD4+FoxP3- T cells expressing Helios (FoxP3-Helios+) in the steady state. Following TCR activation, GARP/LAP are up-regulated on CD4+Helios+ T cells regardless of FoxP3 expression (FoxP3+/-Helios+). We show that CD4+GARP+/-LAP+ Tregs make IL-10 immunosuppressive cytokine but not IFN-γ effector cytokine. Further characterization of FoxP3/Helios subpopulations showed that FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs proliferate in vitro significantly less than FoxP3+Helios- Tregs upon TCR stimulation. Unlike FoxP3+Helios- Tregs, FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs secrete IL-10 but not IFN-γ or IL-2, confirming they are bona fide Tregs with immunosuppressive characteristics. Taken together, Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP, and FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs have more suppressive characteristics, compared with FoxP3+Helios- Tregs. Our work implies that therapeutic modalities for treating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, allergies and graft rejection should be designed to induce and/or expand FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs, while therapies against cancers or infectious diseases should avoid such expansion/induction.

  14. Expansion of Human Tregs from Cryopreserved Umbilical Cord Blood for GMP-Compliant Autologous Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy

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    Howard R. Seay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood is a traditional and convenient source of cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thymic regulatory T cells (Tregs are also present in cord blood, and there is growing interest in the use of autologous Tregs to provide a low-risk, fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched cell product for treating autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. Here, we describe a good manufacturing practice (GMP-compatible Treg expansion protocol using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in a mean 2,092-fold expansion of Tregs over a 16-day culture for a median yield of 1.26 × 109 Tregs from single-donor cryopreserved units. The resulting Tregs passed prior clinical trial release criteria for Treg purity and sterility, including additional rigorous assessments of FOXP3 and Helios expression and epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR. Compared with expanded adult peripheral blood Tregs, expanded cord blood Tregs remained more naive, as assessed by continued expression of CD45RA, produced reduced IFN-γ following activation, and effectively inhibited responder T cell proliferation. Immunosequencing of the T cell receptor revealed a remarkably diverse receptor repertoire within cord blood Tregs that was maintained following in vitro expansion. These data support the feasibility of generating GMP-compliant Tregs from cord blood for adoptive cell transfer therapies and highlight potential advantages in terms of safety, phenotypic stability, autoantigen specificity, and tissue distribution.

  15. Recombinant ESAT-6-CFP10 Fusion Protein Induction of Th1/Th2 Cytokines and FoxP3 Expressing Treg Cells in Pulmonary TB.

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    Dolly Jackson-Sillah

    Full Text Available Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10 are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-specific antigens that are secreted by actively metabolising bacteria and contribute to the virulence of the bacteria. Their ability to induce Treg and Th2 responses, particularly during the first two weeks of treatment, has not been comprehensively examined to date. The purpose of this work was to characterise Th1, Th2 and Treg responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in TB patients before and during the intensive phase of treatment and in healthy M.bovis BCG vaccinated donors.Forty-six newly diagnosed, HIV-negative, smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 20 healthy donors were recruited in the UK and Ghana. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were used in ex vivo ELISPOT and in vitro cultures to identify immunological parameters of interest.The study confirmed that protective immune responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 are impaired in active TB but improved during treatment: circulating antigen-specific IL-4-producing T-cells were increased in untreated TB but declined by two weeks of treatment while the circulating antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T cells which showed a transient rise at one week of treatment, persisted at baseline levels at two months of treatment. In vitro T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production were reduced, while IL-4 and CD4(+FoxP3(+CD25(hi cell expression were increased in response to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in untreated TB. These responses were reversed during early treatment of TB.These observations support further investigations into the possible utility of these parameters as markers of active disease and favourable treatment outcomes.

  16. Recombinant ESAT-6-CFP10 Fusion Protein Induction of Th1/Th2 Cytokines and FoxP3 Expressing Treg Cells in Pulmonary TB.

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    Jackson-Sillah, Dolly; Cliff, Jacqueline M; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Dickson, Emmanuel; Sowah, Sandra; Tetteh, John K A; Addo, Kwasi K; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Bothamley, Graham; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2013-01-01

    Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens that are secreted by actively metabolising bacteria and contribute to the virulence of the bacteria. Their ability to induce Treg and Th2 responses, particularly during the first two weeks of treatment, has not been comprehensively examined to date. The purpose of this work was to characterise Th1, Th2 and Treg responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in TB patients before and during the intensive phase of treatment and in healthy M.bovis BCG vaccinated donors. Forty-six newly diagnosed, HIV-negative, smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 20 healthy donors were recruited in the UK and Ghana. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used in ex vivo ELISPOT and in vitro cultures to identify immunological parameters of interest. The study confirmed that protective immune responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 are impaired in active TB but improved during treatment: circulating antigen-specific IL-4-producing T-cells were increased in untreated TB but declined by two weeks of treatment while the circulating antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T cells which showed a transient rise at one week of treatment, persisted at baseline levels at two months of treatment. In vitro T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production were reduced, while IL-4 and CD4(+)FoxP3(+)CD25(hi) cell expression were increased in response to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in untreated TB. These responses were reversed during early treatment of TB. These observations support further investigations into the possible utility of these parameters as markers of active disease and favourable treatment outcomes.

  17. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

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    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  18. The GARP/Latent TGF-β1 complex on Treg cells modulates the induction of peripherally derived Treg cells during oral tolerance.

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    Edwards, Justin P; Hand, Timothy W; Morais da Fonseca, Denise; Glass, Deborah D; Belkaid, Yasmine; Shevach, Ethan M

    2016-06-01

    Treg cells can secrete latent TGF-β1 (LTGF-β1), but can also utilize an alternative pathway for transport and expression of LTGF-β1 on the cell surface in which LTGF-β1 is coupled to a distinct LTGF-β binding protein termed glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP)/LRRC32. The function of the GARP/LTGF-β1 complex has remained elusive. Here, we examine in vivo the roles of GARP and TGF-β1 in the induction of oral tolerance. When Foxp3(-) OT-II T cells were transferred to wild-type recipient mice followed by OVA feeding, the conversion of Foxp3(-) to Foxp3(+) OT-II cells was dependent on recipient Treg cells. Neutralization of IL-2 in the recipient mice also abrogated this conversion. The GARP/LTGF-β1 complex on recipient Treg cells, but not dendritic cell-derived TGF-β1, was required for efficient induction of Foxp3(+) T cells and for the suppression of delayed hypersensitivity. Expression of the integrin αvβ8 by Treg cells (or T cells) in the recipients was dispensable for induction of Foxp3 expression. Transient depletion of the bacterial flora enhanced the development of oral tolerance by expanding Treg cells with enhanced expression of the GARP/LTGF-β1 complex. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Foxp3+ Treg expanded from patients with established diabetes reduce Helios expression while retaining normal function compared to healthy individuals.

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    Weiting Du

    Full Text Available Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg play a crucial role in regulating immune tolerance. The use of Treg to restore immune tolerance is considered an attractive novel approach to inhibit autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes (T1D, and to prevent rejection of organ transplants. In view of the goal of developing autologous Treg-based cell therapy for patients with long-term (>15 years T1D, it will be necessary to expand a sufficient amount of functional Treg in vitro in order to study and compare Treg from T1D patients and healthy subjects. Our results have demonstrated that there is a comparable frequency of Treg in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of patients with long-term T1D relative to those in healthy subjects; however, Th1 cells, but not Th17 cells, were increased in the T1D patients. Further, more Treg in PBLs from T1D patients than from healthy subjects expressed the CD45RO(+ memory cell phenotype, suggesting they were antigen-experienced cells. After isolation, Treg from both T1D patients and healthy subjects were successfully expanded with high purity. Although there was no difference in Helios expression on Treg in PBLs, in vitro expansion led to fewer Helios-expressing Treg from T1D patients than healthy subjects. While more Th1-like Treg expressing IFN-γ or TNF-α were found in the PBLs of T1D patients than healthy controls, there was no such difference in the expanded Treg. Importantly, expanded Treg from both subject groups were able to suppress autologous or allogeneic CD8(+ effector T cells equally well. Our findings demonstrate that a large number of ex vivo expanded functional Treg can be obtained from long-term T1D patients, although fewer expanded Treg expressed a high level of Helios. Thus, based on the positive outcomes, these potent expanded Treg from diabetic human patients may be useful in treating T1D or preventing islet graft rejection.

  20. Functional and genomic analyses of FOXP3-transduced Jurkat-T cells as regulatory T (Treg)-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon-Young; Kim, Han-Jong; Hurt, Elaine M.; Chen, Xin; Howard, O.M. Zack; Farrar, William L.

    2007-01-01

    FOXP3, a forkhead transcription factor is essential for the development and function of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs). In contrast to conversion of murine naive T cells to Tregs by transduction of Foxp3, it is controversial whether ectopic expression of FOXP3 in human CD4 + T cells is sufficient for acquisition of suppressive activity. Here, we show that retroviral transduction of FOXP3 induces a Treg phenotype in human leukemic CD4 + Jurkat-T cells, evidenced by increased expression of Treg-associated cell surface markers as well as inhibition of cytokine production. Furthermore, FOXP3-transduced Jurkat-T cells suppress the proliferation of human CD4 + CD25 - T cells. Additionally, DNA microarray analysis identifies Treg-related genes regulated by FOXP3. Our study demonstrates that enforced expression of FOXP3 confers Treg-like properties on Jurkat-T cells, which can be a convenient and efficient Treg-like cell model for further study to identify Treg cell surface markers and target genes regulated by FOXP3

  1. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-β–induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice

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    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A.; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4+ T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility. PMID:21543717

  2. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-beta-induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-05-24

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility.

  3. Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Adalid-Peralta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host’s inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC, the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possible mechanisms of Treg induction in human NC. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC from healthy human donors, cocultivated with autologous CD4+ naïve cells either in the presence or absence of cysticerci, promoted CD25highFoxp3+ Treg differentiation. An increased Treg induction was observed when cysticerci were present. Moreover, an augmentation of suppressive-related molecules (SLAMF1, B7-H1, and CD205 was found in parasite-induced DC differentiation. Increased Tregs and a higher in vivo DC expression of the regulatory molecules SLAMF1 and CD205 in NC patients were also found. SLAMF1 gene was downregulated in NC patients with extraparenchymal cysticerci, exhibiting higher inflammation levels than patients with parenchymal parasites. Our findings suggest that cysticerci may modulate DC to favor a suppressive environment, which may help parasite establishment, minimizing the excessive inflammation, which may lead to tissue damage.

  4. Cysticerci drive dendritic cells to promote in vitro and in vivo Tregs differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Fragoso, Gladis; Cárdenas, Graciela; Rosetti, Marcos; Casanova-Hernández, Didier; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host's inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC), the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possible mechanisms of Treg induction in human NC. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) from healthy human donors, cocultivated with autologous CD4(+) naïve cells either in the presence or absence of cysticerci, promoted CD25(high)Foxp3+ Treg differentiation. An increased Treg induction was observed when cysticerci were present. Moreover, an augmentation of suppressive-related molecules (SLAMF1, B7-H1, and CD205) was found in parasite-induced DC differentiation. Increased Tregs and a higher in vivo DC expression of the regulatory molecules SLAMF1 and CD205 in NC patients were also found. SLAMF1 gene was downregulated in NC patients with extraparenchymal cysticerci, exhibiting higher inflammation levels than patients with parenchymal parasites. Our findings suggest that cysticerci may modulate DC to favor a suppressive environment, which may help parasite establishment, minimizing the excessive inflammation, which may lead to tissue damage.

  5. SF Treg cells transcribing high levels of Bcl-2 and microRNA-21 demonstrate limited apoptosis in RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Smigielska, Katarzyna; Park, Ji-Ah; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Kim, Hye-Won; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Lee, Eun-Bong; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Treg cells in the SF of RA patients. Methods. Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral blood and SF of RA patients and analysed by flow cytometry for expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and binding of the apoptosis marker

  6. Cell banking for regulatory T cell-based therapy: strategies to overcome the impact of cryopreservation on the Treg viability and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołąb, Karolina; Grose, Randall; Placencia, Veronica; Wickrema, Amittha; Solomina, Julia; Tibudan, Martin; Konsur, Evelyn; Ciepły, Kamil; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Millis, J Michael; Fung, John; Witkowski, Piotr

    2018-02-09

    The first clinical trials with adoptive Treg therapy have shown safety and potential efficacy. Feasibility of such therapy could be improved if cells are cryopreserved and stored until optimal timing for infusion. Herein, we report the evaluation of two cell-banking strategies for Treg therapy: 1) cryopreservation of CD4 + cells for subsequent Treg isolation/expansion and 2) cryopreservation of ex-vivo expanded Tregs (CD4 + CD25 hi CD127 lo/- cells). First, we checked how cryopreservation affects cell viability and Treg markers expression. Then, we performed Treg isolation/expansion with the final products release testing. We observed substantial decrease in cell number recovery after thawing and overnight culture. This observation might be explained by the high percentage of necrotic and apoptotic cells found just after thawing. Furthermore, we noticed fluctuations in percentage of CD4 + CD25 hi CD127 - and CD4 + FoxP3 + cells obtained from cryopreserved CD4 + as well as Treg cells. However, after re-stimulation Tregs expanded well, presented a stable phenotype and fulfilled the release criteria at the end of expansions. Cryopreservation of CD4 + cells for subsequent Treg isolation/expansion and cryopreservation of expanded Tregs with re-stimulation and expansion after thawing, are promising solutions to overcome detrimental effects of cryopreservation. Both of these cell-banking strategies for Treg therapy can be applied when designing new clinical trials.

  7. Differential responses of human regulatory T cells (Treg and effector T cells to rapamycin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Strauss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RAPA promotes the expansion of CD4(+ CD25(highFoxp3(+ regulatory T cells via mechanisms that remain unknown. Here, we studied expansion, IL-2R-gamma chain signaling, survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis in human Treg responding to RAPA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD4(+CD25(+ and CD4(+CD25(neg T cells were isolated from PBMC of normal controls (n = 21 using AutoMACS. These T cell subsets were cultured in the presence of anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies and 1000 IU/mL IL-2 for 3 to 6 weeks. RAPA (1-100 nM was added to half of the cultures. After harvest, the cell phenotype, signaling via the PI3K/mTOR and STAT pathways, expression of survival proteins and Annexin V binding were determined and compared to values obtained with freshly-separated CD4(+CD25(high and CD4(+CD25(neg T cells. Suppressor function was tested in co-cultures with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4(+CD25(neg or CD8(+CD25(neg T-cell responders. The frequency and suppressor activity of Treg were increased after culture of CD4(+CD25(+ T cells in the presence of 1-100 nM RAPA (p<0.001. RAPA-expanded Treg were largely CD4(+CD25(highFoxp3(+ cells and were resistant to apoptosis, while CD4(+CD25(neg T cells were sensitive. Only Treg upregulated anti-apoptotic and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins. Treg expressed higher levels of the PTEN protein than CD4(+CD25(neg cells. Activated Treg+/-RAPA preferentially phosphorylated STAT5 and STAT3 and did not utilize the PI3K/mTOR pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RAPA favors Treg expansion and survival by differentially regulating signaling, proliferation and sensitivity to apoptosis of human effector T cells and Treg after TCR/IL-2 activation.

  8. Helios expression and Foxp3 TSDR methylation of IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg from kidney transplant recipients with good long-term graft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Trojan

    Full Text Available There is circumstantial evidence that IFNy+ Treg might have clinical relevance in transplantation. IFNy+ Treg express IFNy receptors and are induced by IFNy. In the present study we investigated in kidney transplant recipients with good long-term stable graft function the absolute cell counts of IFNy+ Treg subsets and whether their expression of Foxp3 is stable or transient.Helios expression determined by eight-color-fluorescence flow cytometry and methylation status of the Foxp3 Treg specific demethylation region (TSDR served as indicators for stability of Foxp3 expression. Methylation status was investigated in enriched IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg preparations originating from peripheral blood using high resolution melt analysis. A total of 136 transplant recipients and 52 healthy controls were studied.Proportions of IFNy+ Treg were similar in patients and healthy controls (0.05% and 0.04% of all CD4+ lymphocytes; p = n.s.. Patients also had similar absolute counts of IFNy producing Helios+ and Helios- Treg (p = n.s.. Most of the IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg in transplant recipients had a methylated Foxp3 TSDR, however, there was a sizeable proportion of IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg with demethylated Foxp3 TSDR. Male and female patients showed more frequently methylated IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg than male and female controls (all p<0.05.Kidney transplant recipients with good long-term stable graft function have similar levels of IFNy+ Treg as healthy controls. IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg subsets in patients consist of cells with stable and cells with transient Foxp3 expression; however, patients showed more frequently methylated IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg than controls. The data show increased levels of Treg subsets with stable as well as transient Foxp3 expression in patients with stable allograft acceptance compared to healthy controls.

  9. Time-resolved transcriptome and proteome landscape of human regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation reveals novel regulators of FOXP3

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Angelika

    2018-04-27

    BackgroundRegulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 are crucial mediators of self-tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases but possibly hampering tumor rejection. Clinical manipulation of Tregs is of great interest, and first-in-man trials of Treg transfer have achieved promising outcomes. Yet, the mechanisms governing induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation and the regulation of FOXP3 are incompletely understood.ResultsTo gain a comprehensive and unbiased molecular understanding of FOXP3 induction, we performed time-series RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and proteomics profiling on the same samples during human iTreg differentiation. To enable the broad analysis of universal FOXP3-inducing pathways, we used five differentiation protocols in parallel. Integrative analysis of the transcriptome and proteome confirmed involvement of specific molecular processes, as well as overlap of a novel iTreg subnetwork with known Treg regulators and autoimmunity-associated genes. Importantly, we propose 37 novel molecules putatively involved in iTreg differentiation. Their relevance was validated by a targeted shRNA screen confirming a functional role in FOXP3 induction, discriminant analyses classifying iTregs accordingly, and comparable expression in an independent novel iTreg RNA-Seq dataset.ConclusionThe data generated by this novel approach facilitates understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying iTreg generation as well as of the concomitant changes in the transcriptome and proteome. Our results provide a reference map exploitable for future discovery of markers and drug candidates governing control of Tregs, which has important implications for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases.

  10. Malignant Tregs express low molecular splice forms of FOXP3 in Sézary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, T; Gjerdrum, L M; Ralfkiaer, E

    2008-01-01

    Sézary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. During disease progression, immunodeficiency develops; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we study the regulatory T cell (Treg) function and the expression of FOXP3...... in SS. We demonstrate that malignant T cells in 8 of 15 patients stain positive with an anti-FOXP3 antibody. Western blotting analysis shows expression of two low molecular splice forms of FOXP3, but not of wild-type (wt) FOXP3. The malignant T cells produce interleukin-10 and TGF-beta and suppress...... the growth of non-malignant T cells. The Treg phenotype and the production of suppressive cytokines are driven by aberrant activation of Jak3 independent of the FOXP3 splice forms. In contrast to wt FOXP3, the low molecular splice forms of FOXP3 have no inhibitory effect on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF...

  11. GILZ Promotes Production of Peripherally Induced Treg Cells and Mediates the Crosstalk between Glucocorticoids and TGF-β Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Bereshchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T (Treg cells expressing the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 control immune responses and prevent autoimmunity. Treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs has been shown to increase Treg cell frequency, but the mechanisms of their action on Treg cell induction are largely unknown. Here, we report that glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ, a protein induced by GCs, promotes Treg cell production. In mice, GILZ overexpression causes an increase in Treg cell number, whereas GILZ deficiency results in impaired generation of peripheral Treg cells (pTreg, associated with increased spontaneous and experimental intestinal inflammation. Mechanistically, we found that GILZ is required for GCs to cooperate with TGF-β in FoxP3 induction, while it enhances TGF-β signaling by binding to and promoting Smad2 phosphorylation and activation of FoxP3 expression. Thus, our results establish an essential GILZ-mediated link between the anti-inflammatory action of GCs and the regulation of TGF-β-dependent pTreg production.

  12. Increased IL-35 producing Tregs and CD19+IL-35+ cells are associated with disease progression in leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    The clinical forms of leprosy consist of a spectrum that reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae; it provides an ideal model to study the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation in humans. IL-10 and TGF-β producing Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression and M. leprae specific T cells anergy. In leprosy, involvement of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs remain unstudied. To study the role of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs in the human leprosy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA) for 48h. Intracellular cytokine IL-35 was evaluated in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells by FACS. Expression of PD-1 on CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells and its ligand (PD-L1) on B cells, CD11c cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS). Serum IL-35 level was estimated by ELISA. The frequency of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs cells were found to be high in leprosy patients (pleprosy patients. This study point out a shift in our understanding of the immunological features that mediate and regulate the immune suppression and the disease progression in leprosy patients with a new paradigm (IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs) that is beyond TGF-β and IL-10 producing Treg cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methionine enkephalin (MENK) inhibits tumor growth through regulating CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Meng, Yiming; Plotnikoff, Nicolas P; Youkilis, Gene; Griffin, Noreen; Wang, Enhua; Lu, Changlong; Shan, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Methionine enkephalin (MENK), an endogenous neuropeptide, plays an crucial role in both neuroendocrine and immune systems. CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are identified as a major subpopulation of T lymphocytes in suppressing immune system to keep balanced immunity. The aim of this research work was to elucidate the mechanisms via which MENK interacts with Tregs in cancer situation. The influence of MENK on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mediated conversion from naïve CD4+CD25- T cells to CD4+CD25+ Tregs was determined and the data from flow cytometry (FCM) analysis indicated that MENK effectively inhibited the expression of Foxp3 during the process of TGF-βinduction. Furthermore, this inhibiting process was accompanied by diminishing phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, confirmed by western blot (WB) analysis and immunofluorescence (IF) at molecular level. We established sarcoma mice model with S180 to investigate whether MENK could modulate Tregs in tumor circumstance. Our findings showed that MENK delayed the development of tumor in S180 tumor bearing mice and down-regulated level of Tregs. Together, these novel findings reached a conclusion that MENK could inhibit Tregs activity directly and retard tumor development through down-regulating Tregs in mice. This work advances the deepening understanding of the influence of MENK on Tregs in cancer situation, and relation of MENK with immune system, supporting the implication of MENK as a new strategy for cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Regulatory T cells (Treg and Their Roles in Immune System with Respect to Immunopathological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kondělková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress immune response, thereby maintaining homeostasis and self-tolerance. It has been shown that Tregs are able to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytokine production and play a critical role in preventing autoimmunity. Different subsets with various functions of Treg cells exist. Tregs can be usually identified by flow cytometry. The most specific marker for these cells is FoxP3, which is localized intracellulary. Selected surface markers such as CD25high (high molecular density and CD127low (low molecular density could serve as surrogate markers to detect Tregs in a routine clinical practice. Dysregulation in Treg cell frequency or functions may lead to the development of autoimmune disease. Therapeutical Treg modulation is considered to be a promising therapeutical approach to treat some selected disorders, such as allergies, and to prevent allograft rejection.

  15. TGF-β induces the expression of the adaptor Ndfip1 to silence IL-4 production during iTreg cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Allison M; Ramos-Hernández, Natalia; Riling, Chris R; Nowelsky, Erin A; Oliver, Paula M

    2011-11-13

    Mice deficient in the adaptor Ndfip1 develop inflammation at sites of environmental antigen exposure. We show here that such mice had fewer inducible regulatory T cells (iT(reg) cells). In vitro, Ndfip1-deficient T cells expressed normal amounts of the transcription factor Foxp3 during the first 48 h of iT(reg) cell differentiation; however, this expression was not sustained. Abortive Foxp3 expression was caused by production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) by Ndfip1(-/-) cells. We found that Ndfip1 expression was transiently upregulated during iT(reg) cell differentiation in a manner dependent on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Once expressed, Ndfip1 promoted degradation of the transcription factor JunB mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch, thus preventing IL-4 production. On the basis of our data, we propose that TGF-β signaling induces Ndfip1 expression to silence IL-4 production, thus permitting iT(reg) cell differentiation.

  16. β-cell-specific IL-2 therapy increases islet Foxp3+Treg and suppresses type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark C; Garland, Alaina L; Nicolson, Sarah C; Li, Chengwen; Samulski, R Jude; Wang, Bo; Tisch, Roland

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical cytokine for the homeostasis and function of forkhead box p3-expressing regulatory T cells (Foxp3(+)Tregs). Dysregulation of the IL-2-IL-2 receptor axis is associated with aberrant Foxp3(+)Tregs and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Treatment with recombinant IL-2 has been reported to enhance Foxp3(+)Tregs and suppress different models of autoimmunity. However, efficacy of IL-2 therapy is dependent on achieving sufficient levels of IL-2 to boost tissue-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs while avoiding the potential toxic effects of systemic IL-2. With this in mind, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector gene delivery was used to localize IL-2 expression to the islets of NOD mice. Injection of a double-stranded AAV vector encoding IL-2 driven by a mouse insulin promoter (dsAAVmIP-IL2) increased Foxp3(+)Tregs in the islets but not the draining pancreatic lymph nodes. Islet Foxp3(+)Tregs in dsAAVmIP-IL2-treated NOD mice exhibited enhanced fitness marked by increased expression of Bcl-2, proliferation, and suppressor function. In contrast, ectopic IL-2 had no significant effect on conventional islet-infiltrating effector T cells. Notably, β-cell-specific IL-2 expression suppressed late preclinical type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that β-cell-specific IL-2 expands an islet-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs pool that effectively suppresses ongoing type 1 diabetes long term.

  17. The Balance of Th1/Th2 and LAP+Tregs/Th17 Cells Is Crucial for Graft Survival in Allogeneic Corneal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. CD4+LAP+ T cells are newly discovered regulatory T cells (Tregs. The aim of this study is to investigate the balance of Th1/Th2 and LAP+Tregs/Th17 in mice after allogeneic corneal transplantation. Methods. A total of 65 mice received orthotopic penetrating transplantation. According to the survival scores of the grafts, the mice were divided into the rejection group and the survival group 3 weeks after transplantation. Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells in the ipsilateral drainage lymph nodes and spleens were measured with flow cytometry. The related cytokines in aqueous humor were also analyzed. Results. The frequencies of Foxp3+Tregs, GARP+Tregs, and LAP+Tregs in the survival group were significantly higher than those in the rejection group. And the expression trend of CD4+LAP+ T cells and CD4+GARP+ T cells was consistent. The level of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, and IL-17A markedly increased in aqueous humor during corneal allograft rejection. The ratio of Th1/Th2 and Th17/LAP+Tregs significantly increased in the rejection group at the 3rd week after corneal transplantation. Conclusion. LAP+Tregs might be regarded as substitute for Foxp3+Tregs. The balance of Th1/Th2 and LAP+Tregs/Th17 is crucial for corneal allograft survival.

  18. The success of assisted reproduction technologies in relation to composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and different Treg subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberger, V; Schober, L; Rehnitz, J; Schaier, M; Zeier, M; Meuer, S; Schmitt, E; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Steinborn, A

    2013-11-01

    Are there differences in composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and distinct Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) between successfully and non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women? Non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women have a decreased percentage of naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs and an increased percentage of HLA-DR(-)-memory Tregs within the total Treg pool. Immunosuppressive Tregs play a significant role in human reproduction and studies have shown that their number and function are reduced in reproductive failure and complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and preterm labor. However, no data exist concerning the importance of Tregs for a successful outcome following assisted reproduction technologies. Blood samples were obtained from 210 women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, where 14 patients were excluded due to biochemical pregnancy or missed abortion. Age control blood samples were collected from 20 neonates and 176 healthy female volunteers. The study was performed between October 2010 and March 2012. In this study, we determined prospectively the quantity and composition of the total CD4(+)CD127(low+/-)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)-Treg pool and three different Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) in all women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. We examined whether there were differences between those who became pregnant (n = 36) and those who did not (n = 160). The blood samples were collected within 1 h before the embryo transfer and analyzed by six-color flow cytometry. In order to evaluate these results with regard to the normal age-related changes in composition of the total Treg pool, the same analysis was performed using samples of umbilical cord blood and from healthy female volunteers aged between 17 and 76 years. The composition of the total Treg pool was documented for successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women (n = 5) throughout their pregnancy and we assessed the

  19. Clinical Grade Regulatory CD4+ T Cells (Tregs: Moving Toward Cellular-Based Immunomodulatory Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Duggleby

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are CD4+ T cells that are key players of immune tolerance. They are powerful suppressor cells, able to impact the function of numerous immune cells, including key effectors of inflammation such as effector T cells. For this reason, Tregs are an ideal candidate for the development of cell therapy approaches to modulate immune responses. Treg therapy has shown promising results so far, providing key knowledge on the conditions in which these cells can provide protection and demonstrating that they could be an alternative to current pharmacological immunosuppressive therapies. However, a more comprehensive understanding of their characteristics, isolation, activation, and expansion is needed to be able design cost effective therapies. Here, we review the practicalities of making Tregs a viable cell therapy, in particular, discussing the challenges faced in isolating and manufacturing Tregs and defining what are the most appropriate applications for this new therapy.

  20. IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg subsets with stable and unstable Foxp3 expression in kidney transplant recipients with good long-term graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Karina; Unterrainer, Christian; Aly, Mostafa; Zhu, Li; Weimer, Rolf; Bulut, Nuray; Morath, Christian; Opelz, Gerhard; Daniel, Volker

    2016-10-29

    Treg are a heterogenous cell population. In the present study we attempted to identify Treg subsets that might contribute to stable and good long-term graft function. Lymphocyte and Treg subsets were studied in 136 kidney transplant recipients with good long-term graft function and in 52 healthy control individuals using eight-color-fluorescence flow cytometry. Foxp3 TSDR methylation status was investigated in enriched IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg preparations using high resolution melt analysis. Compared with healthy controls, patients showed strong associations of IFNy secreting Helios+ and Helios- Treg with Treg that co-expressed perforin and/or CTLA4 (CD152; pterm graft function possess IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg with stable and unstable Foxp3 expression in the blood. They co-express CD28, HLADR, CTLA4, CXCR3, Lselectin, TGFβ, perforin and FasL and might contribute to the establishment and maintenance of good long-term graft function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Forced LIGHT expression in prostate tumors overcomes Treg mediated immunosuppression and synergizes with a prostate tumor therapeutic vaccine by recruiting effector T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lisa; Da Silva, Diane M; Verma, Bhavna; Gray, Andrew; Brand, Heike E; Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Kanodia, Shreya; Kast, W Martin

    2015-02-15

    LIGHT, a ligand for lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) and herpes virus entry mediator, is predominantly expressed on activated immune cells and LTβR signaling leads to the recruitment of lymphocytes. The interaction between LIGHT and LTβR has been previously shown to activate immune cells and result in tumor regression in a virally-induced tumor model, but the role of LIGHT in tumor immunosuppression or in a prostate cancer setting, where self antigens exist, has not been explored. We hypothesized that forced expression of LIGHT in prostate tumors would shift the pattern of immune cell infiltration toward an anti-tumoral milieu, would inhibit T regulatory cells (Tregs) and would induce prostate cancer tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific T cells that would eradicate tumors. Real Time PCR was used to evaluate expression of forced LIGHT and other immunoregulatory genes in prostate tumors samples. For in vivo studies, adenovirus encoding murine LIGHT was injected intratumorally into TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cell tumor bearing mice. Chemokine and cytokine concentrations were determined by multiplex ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to phenotype tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of LIGHT on the tumor cell surface. Tumor-specific lymphocytes were quantified via ELISpot assay. Treg induction and Treg suppression assays determined Treg functionality after LIGHT treatment. LIGHT in combination with a therapeutic vaccine, PSCA TriVax, reduced tumor burden. LIGHT expression peaked within 48 hr of infection, recruited effector T cells that recognized mouse prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) into the tumor microenvironment, and inhibited infiltration of Tregs. Tregs isolated from tumor draining lymph nodes had impaired suppressive capability after LIGHT treatment. Forced LIGHT treatment combined with PSCA TriVax therapeutic vaccination delays prostate cancer progression in mice by recruiting effector T lymphocytes to the tumor and inhibiting Treg mediated

  2. Hypomethylation of the Treg-Specific Demethylated Region in FOXP3 Is a Hallmark of the Regulatory T-cell Subtype in Adult T-cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yayoi; Shimazu, Yutaka; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Nagai, Yuya; Sugino, Noriko; Fujii, Sumie; Kawahara, Masahiro; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-02-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Because of its immunosuppressive property and resistance to treatment, patients with ATL have poor prognoses. ATL cells possess the regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, such as CD4 and CD25, and usually express forkhead box P3 (FOXP3). However, the mechanisms of FOXP3 expression and its association with Treg-like characteristics in ATL remain unclear. Selective demethylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) in the FOXP3 gene leads to stable FOXP3 expression and defines natural Tregs. Here, we focus on the functional and clinical relationship between the epigenetic pattern of the TSDR and ATL. Analysis of DNA methylation in specimens from 26 patients with ATL showed that 15 patients (58%) hypomethylated the TSDR. The FOXP3(+) cells were mainly observed in the TSDR-hypomethylated cases. The TSDR-hypomethylated ATL cells exerted more suppressive function than the TSDR-methylated ATL cells. Thus, the epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 gene identified a distinct subtype with Treg properties in heterogeneous ATL. Furthermore, we observed that the hypomethylation of TSDR was associated with poor outcomes in ATL. These results suggest that the DNA methylation status of the TSDR is an important hallmark to define this heterogeneous disease and to predict ATL patient prognosis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Analysis of miR-146a and miR-142-3p as Potential Markers of Freshly Isolated or In Vitro-Expanded Human Treg cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrøm, K; Pedersen, A E; Gad, M

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Tregs) are pivotal for prevention of autoimmunity. The use of Tregs is therefore of increasing interest in in vitro drug screening assays as well as for a cytotherapy per se against autoimmune disorders. For both purposes, in vitro expansion of peripheral blood Tregs...... in the same markers in activated tTregs as opposed to naïve tTregs. In vitro-expanded Tregs could be identified based on FOXP3 expression, but with loss of a discriminate profile for miRNA candidates and a decline in FOXP3 when activated tTregs were expanded. Our data demonstrate miR-146a and 142-3p...... and cytotherapy as FOXP3 is pivotal for suppressive function....

  4. Kaempferol enhances the suppressive function of Treg cells by inhibiting FOXP3 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang; Luo, Xuerui; Tsun, Andy; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Dan; Li, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid found in many vegetables and fruits. Epidemiologic studies have described that Kaempferol intake could reduce risk of cancer, especially lung, gastric, pancreatic and ovarian cancers. Recent studies have shown that Kaempferol could also be beneficial to the body to defend against inflammation, and infection by bacteria and viruses; however, the molecular mechanism of its immunoregulatory function remains largely unknown. Through screening a small molecule library of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), we identified that Kaempferol could enhance the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Kaempferol was found to increase FOXP3 expression level in Treg cells and prevent pathological symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis in a rat animal model. Kaempferol could also reduce PIM1-mediated FOXP3 phosphorylation at S422. Our study reveals a molecular mechanism that underlies the anti-inflammatory action of Kaempferol for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclic AMP-Responsive Element-Binding Protein (CREB is Critical in Autoimmunity by Promoting Th17 but Inhibiting Treg Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms that govern differential T cell development into pro-inflammatory Th17 vs. regulatory T (Treg cells remain unclear. Here, we show that selective deletion of CREB in T cells or Th17 cells impaired Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and led to resistance to autoimmune diseases. Mechanistically, CREB, activated by CD3-PKC-ϴ signaling, plays a key role in regulating Th17 cell differentiation, at least in part through directly binding to the Il17-Il17f gene locus. Unexpectedly, although dispensable for FOXP3 expression and for the homeostasis and suppressive function of thymus-derived Treg cells, CREB negatively regulates the survival of TGF-β-induced Treg cells, and deletion of CREB resulted in increased FOXP3+ Treg cells in the intestine and protection in a colitis model. Thus, CREB is critical in autoimmune diseases by promoting Th17 cell and inhibiting de novo Treg cell generation.

  6. 3, 3'-Diindolylmethane alleviates steatosis and the progression of NASH partly through shifting the imbalance of Treg/Th17 cells to Treg dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; She, Weimin; Wang, Fuping; Li, Jing; Wang, Jiyao; Jiang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to discuss the effects of 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) on methionine-choline-deficient (MCD)-diet induced mouse nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the potential mechanisms. NASH mice were administrated with or without DIM at different concentrations for 8 weeks. Both the in-vivo and in-vitro effects of DIM on Treg/Th17 imbalance during NASH progression were analyzed. The in-vivo blocking of CD25 or IL-17 was performed to respectively deplete respective function of Treg or Th17 subset. Besides, with the assistance of AhR antagonist CH223191 and anti-TLR4 neutralizing antibody, we designed the in-vitro DIM-incubation experiments to discuss the roles of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on DIM's effects when shifting Treg/Th17 imbalance. Notably, in NASH mouse models, DIM alleviated hepatic steatosis and inflammation, and shifted the Treg/Th17 imbalance from MCD diet-induced Th17 dominance to Treg dominance. In-vitro, DIM not only significantly up-regulated the mRNAs of Foxp3 (Treg-specific) in purified spleen CD4(+) T cells, but also enhanced the immunosuppressive function of these Treg cells. Besides, DIM significantly up-regulated the proteins of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 whereas down-regulated those of TLR4 on CD4(+) T cells from MCD-diet mice. Moreover, blocking AhR attenuated while blocking TLR4 enhanced the effects of DIM when regulating Treg/Th17 imbalance. Conclusively, DIM could be used as a potential therapeutic candidate to treat NASH based on its dramatic induction of Treg dominance to alleviate intra-hepatic inflammation, suggesting us a clue that the dietary cruciferous vegetables (containing abundant DIM) might exist as a protective factor for patients with NASH-related liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multifaceted effects of synthetic TLR2 ligand and Legionella pneumophilia on Treg-mediated suppression of T cell activation

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    Sutmuller Roger PM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory T cells (Treg play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. The immune suppressive effects of Tregs should however be limited in case effective immunity is required against pathogens or cancer cells. We previously found that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 agonist, Pam3CysSK4, directly stimulated Tregs to expand and temporarily abrogate their suppressive capabilities. In this study, we evaluate the effect of Pam3CysSK4 and Legionella pneumophila, a natural TLR2 containing infectious agent, on effector T (Teff cells and dendritic cells (DCs individually and in co-cultures with Tregs. Results TLR2 agonists can directly provide a co-stimulatory signal inducing enhanced proliferation and cytokine production of naive CD4+ Teff cells. With respect to cytokine production, DCs appear to be most sensitive to low amounts of TLR agonists. Using wild type and TLR2-deficient cells in Treg suppression assays, we accordingly show that all cells (e.g. Treg, Teff cells and DCs contributed to overcome Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cell proliferation. Furthermore, while TLR2-stimulated Tregs readily lost their ability to suppress Teff cell proliferation, cytokine production by Teff cells was still suppressed. Similar results were obtained upon stimulation with TLR2 ligand containing bacteria, Legionella pneumophila. Conclusions These findings indicate that both synthetic and natural TLR2 agonists affect DCs, Teff cells and Treg directly, resulting in multi-modal modulation of Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cells. Moreover, Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cell proliferation is functionally distinct from suppression of cytokine secretion.

  8. TH17, TH22 and Treg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Wolff

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H17, T(H22 and T(Reg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H1 and T(H2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1. These results suggest that CD4(+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.

  9. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, ITE induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ameliorates experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abron, Jessicca D; Singh, Narendra P; Mishra, Manoj K; Price, Robert L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Singh, Udai P

    2018-04-19

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health-care cost. The precise etiology of IBD is unknown, but clear evidence suggests that intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Recent studies have shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppresses autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we investigated if nontoxic ligand of AhR, 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), can attenuate dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our studies demonstrated that in mice that received ITE treatment, in-vivo colitis pathogenesis, including a decrease in body weight, was significantly reversed along with the systemic and intestinal inflammatory cytokines. ITE increased the expression of Tregs in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and colon lamina propria lymphocytes (cLPL) of mice with colitis when compared to controls. This induction of Tregs was reversed by AhR antagonist treatment in-vitro. ITE treatment also increased dendritic cells (DCs; CD11c+) and decreased F4/80+ (macrophage) from the spleen, MLNs and cLPL in mice with colitis. ITE also reversed the systemic and intestinal frequency of CD4+T cells during colitis and suppressed inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6 and IL-1 as well as induced IL-10 levels. These findings suggest that ITE attenuates colitis through induction of Tregs and reduction in inflammatory CD4+ T cells and cytokines. Thus, our work demonstrates that the nontoxic endogenous AhR ligand ITE, may serve as a therapeutic modality to treat IBD.

  10. [Th17 and Treg cell levels in patients with sarcoidosis and their relation to disease activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yue-song; Wang, Hua-ying; Lv, Ding-feng; Fu, Zhong-ming; Yu, Wan-jun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the Th17 cell and Treg cell levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and their relation to disease activation and glucocorticoids treatment. Twenty-three sarcoidosis patients admitted in Yinzhou People's Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013 and 25 healthy subjects (controls) were included in this study. The blood samples and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected in all patients before and after glucocorticoids treatment. The serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) levels were detected. The percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry, the concentrations of cytokines in serum and supernatants of BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of ROR-γt and Foxp3 mRNA transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The potential correlation between the percentages of Th17 or Treg cells and SACE levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy controls, significantly higher frequencies of Th17 cells (4.34%±0.89% vs 1.60% ± 0.42%), lower frequencies of Treg cells (1.28% ± 0.37% vs 3.39% ± 0.50%) in peripheral blood were observed. Higher level of ROR-γt mRNA (21.31 ± 3.55 vs 3.63 ± 1.00) and lower level of Foxp3 mRNA (1.60 ± 0.24 vs 3.12 ± 0.76) in peripheral blood were detected in sarcoidosis patients in active stage (before glucocorticoids treatment) (all PSACE (r= 0.781). The imbalance of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood and airway may be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, which was associated with the activity of disease, and the treatment of glucocorticoids may achieve a therapeutic effect by correcting the immune imbalance.

  11. Interactions between Th1 cells and Tregs affect regulation of hepatic fibrosis in biliary atresia through the IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jie; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie; Yan, Wenbo; Wu, Jin; Yan, Junkai; Zhou, Kejun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Xia, Qiang; Cai, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4 + T helper (Th) cells have important roles in bile duct injury of biliary atresia (BA). However, their impacts on liver fibrosis are undefined. Between 2013 and 2016, 146 patients with various stages of BA were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood, liver biopsy and lymph node samples were collected. Flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and immunostaining were used to characterize lymphocytes from BA patients. Deficiency of Tregs was observed along with increased Th1, Th2 and Th17 frequencies in the peripheral blood and livers of BA patients. The levels of peripheral and intrahepatic Th1 cells positively correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis. Furthermore, Th1 cells were located in close proximity to activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and areas of fibrosis in BA livers. In culture, Th1 cells accelerated the proliferation and secretion of profibrogenic markers of HSCs through the IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway. Of note, Tregs blocked the Th1-stimulated effects on HSCs by inhibiting Th1-induced activation of STAT1. Consistent with the results of in vitro study, intrahepatic IFN-γ/STAT1 levels increased in relation to the severity of liver fibrosis in BA patients, and the altered balance between MMP2 and TIMP1 expressions in livers may contribute to increased deposition of extracellular matrix and fibrosis. Finally, to identify the effects of Th1 cells on Tregs, we demonstrated that Th1 cells upregulated the proportion of aTreg cells by secreting IFN-γ cytokine. Thus, aberrant Th1 immune responses in BA promote the proliferation and secretion of HSCs through the IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway. The regulation of HSCs by the interactions between Tregs and Th1 cells might be part of the mechanism underlying progressive liver fibrosis and may be a suitable target for therapy.

  12. Treg cell-IgA axis in maintenance of host immune homeostasis with microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ting; Elson, Charles O.; Cong, Yingzi

    2010-01-01

    The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  13. Depletion of Treg cells augments the therapeutic effect of cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2006), s. 202-204 ISSN 0015-5500 Grant - others:EU-FP6-Clinigene(XE) 018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Treg cells * cancer vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.387, year: 2006

  14. Reconstitution of Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells after paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Ryder, Lars P; Lennox-Hvenekilde, David

    2018-01-01

    behind these associations have not been investigated previously. We hypothesized that increased levels of IL-7 post-transplant alters the balance between immune-regulatory T cell subsets during the post-transplant lymphocyte recovery towards a more pro-inflammatory profile. We quantified Th17 cells, Tc17.......025). The plasma level of IL-7 at day +90 correlated inversely with Th17 cell counts (rs=-0.65, P=0.0002) and the proportion of Tc17 cells (rs=0.64, P=0.0005) at day +90, but not with Tregs. Furthermore, high IL-7 levels at day +7 were predictive of a less naïve T-cell phenotype at day +90. These findings add...

  15. Differential Effects of Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins on Experimental Atopic and Contact Dermatitis Mediated by Treg and Th17 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Yong; Gupta, Dipika; Kim, Chang H.; Dziarski, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Skin protects the body from the environment and is an important component of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis are among the most frequent inflammatory skin diseases and are both determined by multigenic predisposition, environmental factors, and aberrant immune response. Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (Pglyrps) are expressed in the skin and we report here that they modulate sensitivity to experimentally-induced atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis. Pglyrp3 −/− and Pglyrp4 −/− mice (but not Pglyrp2 −/− mice) develop more severe oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis than wild type (WT) mice. The common mechanism underlying this increased sensitivity of Pglyrp3 −/− and Pglyrp4 −/− mice to atopic dermatitis is reduced recruitment of Treg cells to the skin and enhanced production and activation Th17 cells in Pglyrp3 −/− and Pglyrp4 −/− mice, which results in more severe inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation. This mechanism is supported by decreased inflammation in Pglyrp3 −/− mice following in vivo induction of Treg cells by vitamin D or after neutralization of IL-17. By contrast, Pglyrp1 −/− mice develop less severe oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis and also oxazolone-induced contact dermatitis than WT mice. Thus, Pglyrp3 and Pglyrp4 limit over-activation of Th17 cells by promoting accumulation of Treg cells at the site of chronic inflammation, which protects the skin from exaggerated inflammatory response to cell activators and allergens, whereas Pglyrp1 has an opposite pro-inflammatory effect in the skin. PMID:21949809

  16. In-vitro inhibition of IFNγ+ iTreg mediated by monoclonal antibodies against cell surface determinants essential for iTreg function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Volker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IFNγ-producing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ PBL represent a subtype of iTreg that are associated with good long-term graft outcome in renal transplant recipients and suppress alloresponses in-vitro. To study the mechanism of immunosuppression, we attempted to block cell surface receptors and thereby inhibited the function of this iTreg subset in-vitro using monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Methods PBL of healthy control individuals were stimulated polyclonally in-vitro in the presence of monoclonal antibodies or recombinant proteins against/of CD178, CD152, CD279, CD28, CD95, and HLA-DR. Induction of IFNγ+ iTreg and proliferation of effector cells was determined using four-color fluorescence flow cytometry. Blockade of iTreg function was analyzed using polyclonally stimulated co-cultures with separated CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL. Results High monoclonal antibody concentrations inhibited the induction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+IFNγ+ PBL (anti-CD152, anti-CD279, anti-CD95: p +CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL (anti-CD178, anti-CD152, anti-CD279, anti-CD95: p +CD25+Foxp3+IFNγ+ PBL (rCD152 and rCD95: p +CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL showed lower cell proliferation than co-cultures with CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ- PBL (p +CD25+CD127-IFNγ- PBL-containing co-cultures in the presence of monoclonal antibody (anti-CD28, anti-CD152, anti-CD279: p +CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL (with the exception anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody: p +CD25+CD127-IFNγ- PBL but do not efficiently block suppressive iTreg function in co-cultures with CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL. Conclusions CD178, CD152, CD279, CD28, CD95, and HLA-DR determinants are important for induction and suppressive function of IFNγ+ iTreg.

  17. Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the expression of Th17, Treg, TGF-beta1, and IL-6 in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guo-Xin; Li, Xin-Zhong

    2017-11-01

    The effects of laser irradiation on the expression of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells and their related cytokines, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), respectively, in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were investigated. 38 patients with psoriasis vulgaris in the stable state were selected as the treatment group that was treated twice a week for eight weeks. Another 38 healthy persons were chosen as the control group. Before and after treatment, the percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in the patients’ peripheral blood were detected using flow cytometry, the content of TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the patients’ sera were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the extent and severity of lesions were determined by weighing the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). After laser treatment, the percentage of Th17 cells, the Th17/Treg cell ratio and the level of IL-6 in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the same patients before the treatment (P  psoriasis vulgaris was 84.21%, and the PASI score was significantly lower (P  psoriasis vulgaris.

  18. Depletion of Treg cells inhibits minimal residual disease after surgery of HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Bieblová, Jana; Rosalia, Rodney Alexander; Frič, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2006), s. 1567-1571 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * residual tumour disease * Treg cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2006

  19. Dynamics of antigen presentation to transgene product-specific CD4+ T cells and of Treg induction upon hepatic AAV gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q Perrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerogenic hepatic microenvironment impedes clearance of viral infections but is an advantage in viral vector gene transfer, which often results in immune tolerance induction to transgene products. Although the underlying tolerance mechanism has been extensively studied, our understanding of antigen presentation to transgene product-specific CD4+ T cells remains limited. To address this, we administered hepatotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV8 vector expressing cytoplasmic ovalbumin (OVA into wt mice followed by adoptive transfer of transgenic OVA-specific T cells. We find that that the liver-draining lymph nodes (celiac and portal are the major sites of MHC II presentation of the virally encoded antigen, as judged by in vivo proliferation of DO11.10 CD4+ T cells (requiring professional antigen-presenting cells, e.g., macrophages and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg induction. Antigen presentation in the liver itself contributes to activation of CD4+ T cells egressing from the liver. Hepatic-induced Treg rapidly disseminate through the systemic circulation. By contrast, a secreted OVA transgene product is presented in multiple organs, and OVA-specific Treg emerge in both the thymus and periphery. In summary, liver draining lymph nodes play an integral role in hepatic antigen presentation and peripheral Treg induction, which results in systemic regulation of the response to viral gene products.

  20. 3-bromopyruvate ameliorate autoimmune arthritis by modulating Th17/Treg cell differentiation and suppressing dendritic cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Okano, Takaichi; Saegusa, Jun; Nishimura, Keisuke; Takahashi, Soshi; Sendo, Sho; Ueda, Yo; Morinobu, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cellular metabolism plays an important role in regulating immune cell functions. In immune cell differentiation, both interleukin-17-producing T (Th17) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) exhibit increased glycolysis through the upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase-2 (HK2). Blocking glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose was recently shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation while promoting regulatory T (Treg) cell generation. However, 2-DG inhibits all i...

  1. 3-bromopyruvate ameliorate autoimmune arthritis by modulating Th17/Treg cell differentiation and suppressing dendritic cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Takaichi; Saegusa, Jun; Nishimura, Keisuke; Takahashi, Soshi; Sendo, Sho; Ueda, Yo; Morinobu, Akio

    2017-02-10

    Recent studies have shown that cellular metabolism plays an important role in regulating immune cell functions. In immune cell differentiation, both interleukin-17-producing T (Th17) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) exhibit increased glycolysis through the upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase-2 (HK2). Blocking glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose was recently shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation while promoting regulatory T (Treg) cell generation. However, 2-DG inhibits all isoforms of HK. Thus, it is unclear which isoform has a critical role in Th17 cell differentiation and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Here we demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA), a specific HK2 inhibitor, significantly decreased the arthritis scores and the histological scores in SKG mice, with a significant increase in Treg cells, decrease in Th17 cells, and decrease in activated DCs in the spleen. In vitro, BrPA facilitated the differentiation of Treg cells, suppressed Th17 cells, and inhibited the activation of DCs. These results suggested that BrPA may be a therapeutic target of murine arthritis. Although the role of IL-17 is not clarified in the treatment of RA, targeting cell metabolism to alter the immune cell functions might lead to a new therapeutic strategy for RA.

  2. Anti-IL-2 treatment impairs the expansion of T(reg cell population during acute malaria and enhances the Th1 cell response at the chronic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A Zago

    Full Text Available Plasmodium chabaudi infection induces a rapid and intense splenic CD4(+ T cell response that contributes to both disease pathogenesis and the control of acute parasitemia. The subsequent development of clinical immunity to disease occurs concomitantly with the persistence of low levels of chronic parasitemia. The suppressive activity of regulatory T (T(reg cells has been implicated in both development of clinical immunity and parasite persistence. To evaluate whether IL-2 is required to induce and to sustain the suppressive activity of T(reg cells in malaria, we examined in detail the effects of anti-IL-2 treatment with JES6-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb on the splenic CD4(+ T cell response during acute and chronic P. chabaudi AS infection in C57BL/6 mice. JES6-1 treatment on days 0, 2 and 4 of infection partially inhibits the expansion of the CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ cell population during acute malaria. Despite the concomitant secretion of IL-2 and expression of high affinity IL-2 receptor by large CD4(+ T cells, JES6-1 treatment does not impair effector CD4(+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production. However, at the chronic phase of the disease, an enhancement of cellular and humoral responses occurs in JES6-1-treated mice, with increased production of TNF-α and parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. Furthermore, JES6-1 mAb completely blocked the in vitro proliferation of CD4(+ T cells from non-treated chronic mice, while it further increased the response of CD4(+ T cells from JES6-1-treated chronic mice. We conclude that JES6-1 treatment impairs the expansion of T(reg cell population during early P. chabaudi malaria and enhances the Th1 cell response in the late phase of the disease.

  3. Changes of Treg and Th17 cells balance in the development of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Song Liang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies suggest that in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection regulate T (Treg cells and interlukin-17-producing T help cells (Th17 are mutually antagonistic in the immune response. This study is aimed to reveal the cell differentiation environment and the significance of Treg and Th17 balance in the development of acute and chronic HBV infection. Methods Ten patients with acute HBV infection (AHB and forty-eight patients with chronic HBV infection, including 12 asymptomatic HBV carriers (HBV carriers, 18 chronic hepatitis B patients (CHB and 18 acute-on-chronic HBV-related liver failure (ACHBLF were enrolled. Treg and Th17 cells differentiation related cytokine levels were detected by using ELISA. Flow cytometry was employed to count the Treg and Th17 frequency in peripheral blood. Results Compared to health controls both AHB and ACHBLF patients favoured Th17 cell differentiation, accompanied by a higher proportion of peripheral Th17 cells (P  Conclusions Th17 cells are involved in acute and chronic HBV infection, especially in AHB and ACHBLF. CHB and ACHBLF patients manifested obvious Treg/Th17 ratio imbalance, which might be linked to disease progression and the continuous HBV infection.

  4. Effect of EBI3 on radiation-induced immunosuppression of cervical cancer HeLa cells by regulating Treg cells through PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-An; Niyazi, Hu-Er-Xi-Dan; Hong, Wen; Tuluwengjiang, Gu-Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yang; Su, Wei-Peng; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of EBI3 on radiation-induced immunosuppression of cervical cancer HeLa cells by regulating Treg cells through PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway. A total of 43 adult female Wistar rats were selected and injected with HeLa cells in the caudal vein to construct a rat model of cervical cancer. All model rats were randomly divided into the radiotherapy group ( n = 31) and the control group ( n = 12). The immunophenotype of Treg cells was detected by the flow cytometry. The protein expressions of EBI3, PD-1, and PD-L1 in cervical cancer tissues were tested by the streptavidin-peroxidase method. HeLa cells in the logarithmic growth phase were divided into four groups: the blank, the negative control group, the EBI3 mimics group, and the EBI3 inhibitors group. Western blotting was used to detect PD-1 and PD-L1 protein expressions. MTT assay was performed to measure the proliferation of Treg cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle and apoptosis, and CD4 + /CD8 + T cell ratio in each group. Compared with before and 1 week after radiotherapy, the percentages of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells were significantly decreased in the radiotherapy group at 1 month after radiotherapy. Furthermore, down-regulation of EBI3 and up-regulation of PD-1 and PD-L1 were observed in cervical cancer tissues at 1 month after radiotherapy. In comparison to the blank and negative control groups, increased expression of EBI3 and decreased expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were found in the EBI3 mimics group. However, the EBI3 inhibitors group had a lower expression of EBI3 and higher expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 than those in the blank and negative control groups. The EBI3 mimics group showed an increase in the optical density value (0.43 ± 0.05), while a decrease in the optical density value (0.31 ± 0.02) was found in the EBI3 inhibitors group. Moreover, compared with the blank and negative control groups, the apoptosis rates

  5. Commensal oral bacteria antigens prime human dendritic cells to induce Th1, Th2 or Treg differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitar, A N; Ihan Hren, N; Ihan, A

    2006-02-01

    In various immunopathologic conditions, bacterial flora induce an immune response which results in inflammatory manifestations, e.g. periapical granuloma. Dendritic cells provide the main orchestration of specific immune responses. The aim of our study was to test the capacity of distinct oral bacterial antigens (prepared from Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bacteroides spp.) to prime human dendritic cells for stimulation of the T-lymphocyte response. To assess the T-lymphocyte response, the expression of CD25, CD69, intracellular interferon gamma (cIFN-gamma), and intracellular interleukin 4 (cIL-4) was determined. Dendritic cells were prepared from leukocyte buffy coat from healthy blood donors. Monocytes were stimulated with IL-4 and GM-CSF and dendritic cells activated with bacterial lysates. Cell suspensions contained up to 90% dendritic cells, which represented 2-12% of the initial number of mononuclear cells. Lymphocyte subsets that developed in lymphocyte cultures after 1 week of stimulation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Dendritic cells, primed with antigens of Bacteroides fragilis have shown significantly higher activation and expression of intercellular IFN-gamma by T lymphocytes compared to negative controls. The dendritic cells primed with antigens of P. acnes had no effect on T-lymphocyte activation or cytokine production; instead they induced differentiation of T lymphocytes into CD25bright cells (regulatory T cells) with a potentially inhibitory effect on immune response. Dendritic cells primed with antigens of S. mitis induced increased expression of cIL-4. We conclude that commensal oral bacteria antigens prepared from B. fragilis, S. mitis, and P. acnes prime human dendritic cells to induce Th1, Th2, and T(reg) differentiation, respectively. This may advance our understanding of immunopathologic manifestations in the oral cavity and offer new possibilities for redirecting immune responses in mucosal vaccination.

  6. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Mesquita Júnior, D. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruvinel, W.M. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biomedicina, Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Araujo, J.A.P. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G. [Disciplina de Imunologia Clínica e Alergia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.E.C. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-22

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25{sup +/high}CD127{sup Ø/low}FoxP3{sup +}, and effector T cells were defined as CD25{sup +}CD127{sup +}FoxP3{sup Ø}. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4{sup +}TREG and CD28{sup +}TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L{sup +}TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR{sup +}, HLA-DR{sup +}, OX40{sup +}, and CD45RO{sup +} cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L{sup +} cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L{sup +}TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease.

  7. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25 +/high CD127 Ø/low FoxP3 + , and effector T cells were defined as CD25 + CD127 + FoxP3 Ø . The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4 + TREG and CD28 + TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L + TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR + , HLA-DR + , OX40 + , and CD45RO + cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L + cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L + TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease

  8. Ctla-4 modulates the differentiation of inducible Foxp3+ Treg cells but IL-10 mediates their function in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Verhagen

    Full Text Available In vitro induced Foxp3+ T regulatory (iTreg cells form a novel and promising target for therapeutic tolerance induction. However, the potential of these cells as a target for the treatment of various immune diseases, as well as the factors involved in their development and function, remain debated. Here, we demonstrate in a myelin basic protein (MBP-specific murine model of CNS autoimmune disease that adoptive transfer of antigen-specific iTreg cells ameliorates disease progression. Moreover, we show that the co-stimulatory molecule CTLA-4 mediates in vitro differentiation of iTreg cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the secreted, immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 controls the ability of antigen-specific iTreg cells to suppress autoimmune disease. Overall, we conclude that antigen-specific iTreg cells, which depend on various immune regulatory molecules for their differentiation and function, represent a major target for effective immunotherapy of autoimmune disease.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of multiple T helper subsets in leprosy reveals distinct patterns of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs markers expression in clinical forms and reactional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Marques, Heloisa; Binelli, Larissa Sarri; Malange, Mariana Silva Vieira; Devides, Amanda Carreira; Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Ghidella, Cassio Cesar; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Farias Fernandes; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    2017-12-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference among clinical forms of leprosy can be associated with the immune response of patients, mainly by T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Then, aiming at clarifying the immune response, the expression of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs profiles were evaluated by qPCR in 87 skin biopsies from leprosy patients. Additionally, cytokines and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were determined in serum by ELISA. The results showed that the expression of various targets (mRNA) related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs were significantly modulated in leprosy when compared with healthy individuals, suggesting the presence of a mixed profile. In addition, the targets related to Th1 predominated in the tuberculoid pole and side and Th2 and Tregs predominated in the lepromatous pole and side; however, Th17 targets showed a mixed profile. Concerning reactional events, Tregs markers were decreased and IL-15 was increased in reversal reaction and IL-17F, CCL20 and IL-8 in erythema nodosum leprosum, when compared with the respective non-reactional leprosy patients. Additionally, ELISA analysis demonstrated that IL-22, IL-6, IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibody levels were significantly higher in the serum of patients when compared with healthy individuals, and IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were also increased in the lepromatous pole and side. Together, these results indicate that Th1, Th2 and Th17 are involved in the determination of clinical forms of leprosy and suggest that decreased Tregs activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of reactional events.

  10. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in Regulatory T Cell and Th17 differentiation1

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Justin P.; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X.; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    GARP/LRRC32 has previously been defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T-cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation, but in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on ...

  11. Bone marrow CD11b(+)F4/80(+) dendritic cells ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis through modulating the balance between Treg and Th17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Fu, Jingjing; Sheng, Kangliang; Li, Ying; Song, Shanshan; Li, Peipei; Song, Shasha; Wang, Qingtong; Chen, Jingyu; Yu, Jianhua; Wei, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) are well-known to show an immunosuppressive function. In this study we determine the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of transferred bone marrow (BM) CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Murine BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were generated under the stimulation of GM-CSF and IL-4, and the function of BM CD11b(+) F4/80(+) DCs was identified by measuring the levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were transferred to CIA mice by intravenous injections. The histopathology of joint and spleen were evaluated. T lymphocyte proliferation, Treg and Th17 subsets were analyzed. The expressions of Foxp3, Helios and RORγt in T lymphocytes co-cultured with BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were measured in vitro. We found that BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs induced by GM-CSF and IL-4 could express high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and IDO. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs significantly reduced the pathologic scores in joints and spleens, which correlated significantly with the reduced T lymphocyte proliferation and Th17 cell number, and with the increased Tregs number. In vitro, OVA-pulsed BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs promoted Treg cell expansion, enhanced IL-10 and CTLA-4 protein expression, augmented Foxp3 and Helios mRNA expression, and inhibited RORγt and IL-17 mRNA expression. Taken together, BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs are able to ameliorate the development and severity of CIA, at least partly by inducing Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion and suppressing Th17 function. The BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs might have a promising immunotherapeutic potential for autoimmune arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Total glucosides of paeony ameliorates TNBS‑induced colitis by modulating differentiation of Th17/Treg cells and the secretion of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haihua; Zhang, Wenyou; Jiang, Xuepei; Chen, Renpin; Huang, Xielin; Huang, Zhiming

    2017-12-01

    The imbalance between effector CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg) cells and their associated cytokines, have been associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Total glycosides of paeony (TGP) is an alternative immunomodulatory agent that is widely used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of TGP in a rat model of colitis induced by 2,4,6‑trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). TGP was administered intragastrically 24 h after the TNBS intrarectal instillation for 7 days. TGP treatment ameliorated the clinical status and reversed the histopathologic severity of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, TGP inhibited the levels of Th17‑associated cytokines interleukin (IL)‑17, IL‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑α, whereas the expression levels of Treg‑associated cytokines IL‑10, transforming growth factor‑β in the plasma, colon, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Additionally, TGP reduced the percentage of Th17 cells; however, the proportion of Treg cells in the spleen and MLN was increased. The present study also observed a suppression of Th17‑associated transcription factor, termed retinoid‑related orphan receptor‑γt (ROR‑γt). However, expression of the Treg‑associated transcription factor forkhead boxp3 was increased in the TGP treatment group. Therefore, the present findings suggest that TGP has a regulatory role in modulating the balance of Th17 and Treg cells to ameliorate the TNBS‑induced colitis and support the strategy of using TGP to treat IBD.

  13. Deletion of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulates Treg in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Erden, Ozlem; Wilson, Andrew; Sipple, Jared M.; Schick, Jonathan; Mehta, Parinda; Myers, Kasiani C.; Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Davies, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder associated with bone marrow (BM) failure and leukemia. Recent studies demonstrate variable immune defects in FA. However, the cause for FA immunodeficiency is unknown. Here we report that deletion of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulates the suppressive activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs), shown functionally as exacerbation of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) in mice. Recipient mice of Fanca−/− or Fancd2−/− BM chimeras exhibited severe acute GVHD after allogeneic BM transplantation (BMT). T cells from Fanca−/− or Fancd2−/− mice induced higher GVHD lethality than those from wild-type (WT) littermates. FA Tregs possessed lower proliferative suppression potential compared with WT Tregs, as demonstrated by in vitro proliferation assay and BMT. Analysis of CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs indicated that loss of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulated Foxp3 target gene expression. Additionally, CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs of Fanca−/− or Fancd2−/− mice were less efficient in suppressing the production of GVHD-associated inflammatory cytokines. Consistently, aberrant NF-κB activity was observed in infiltrated T cells from FA GVHD mice. Conditional deletion of p65 in FA Tregs decreased GVHD mortality. Our study uncovers an essential role for FA proteins in maintaining Treg homeostasis, possibly explaining, at least in part, the immune deficiency reported in some FA patients. PMID:24501220

  14. Deletion of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulates Treg in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Erden, Ozlem; Wilson, Andrew; Sipple, Jared M; Schick, Jonathan; Mehta, Parinda; Myers, Kasiani C; Steinbrecher, Kris A; Davies, Stella M; Pang, Qishen

    2014-03-20

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder associated with bone marrow (BM) failure and leukemia. Recent studies demonstrate variable immune defects in FA. However, the cause for FA immunodeficiency is unknown. Here we report that deletion of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulates the suppressive activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs), shown functionally as exacerbation of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) in mice. Recipient mice of Fanca(-/-) or Fancd2(-/-) BM chimeras exhibited severe acute GVHD after allogeneic BM transplantation (BMT). T cells from Fanca(-/-) or Fancd2(-/-) mice induced higher GVHD lethality than those from wild-type (WT) littermates. FA Tregs possessed lower proliferative suppression potential compared with WT Tregs, as demonstrated by in vitro proliferation assay and BMT. Analysis of CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs indicated that loss of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulated Foxp3 target gene expression. Additionally, CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs of Fanca(-/-) or Fancd2(-/-) mice were less efficient in suppressing the production of GVHD-associated inflammatory cytokines. Consistently, aberrant NF-κB activity was observed in infiltrated T cells from FA GVHD mice. Conditional deletion of p65 in FA Tregs decreased GVHD mortality. Our study uncovers an essential role for FA proteins in maintaining Treg homeostasis, possibly explaining, at least in part, the immune deficiency reported in some FA patients.

  15. Oral myeloid cells uptake allergoids coupled to mannan driving Th1/Treg responses upon sublingual delivery in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, I; López-Relaño, J; Viñuela, M; Tudela, J-I; Angelina, A; Benito-Villalvilla, C; Díez-Rivero, C M; Cases, B; Manzano, A I; Fernández-Caldas, E; Casanovas, M; Palomares, O; Subiza, J L

    2018-04-01

    Polymerized allergoids coupled to nonoxidized mannan (PM-allergoids) may represent novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells (DCs). PM-allergoids are better captured by DCs than native allergens and favor Th1/Treg cell responses upon subcutaneous injection. Herein we have studied in mice the in vivo immunogenicity of PM-allergoids administered sublingually in comparison with native allergens. Three immunization protocols (4-8 weeks long) were used in Balb/c mice. Serum antibody levels were tested by ELISA. Cell responses (proliferation, cytokines, and Tregs) were assayed by flow cytometry in spleen and lymph nodes (LNs). Allergen uptake was measured by flow cytometry in myeloid sublingual cells. A quick antibody response and higher IgG2a/IgE ratio were observed with PM-allergoids. Moreover, stronger specific proliferative responses were seen in both submandibular LNs and spleen cells assayed in vitro. This was accompanied by a higher IFNγ/IL-4 ratio with a quick IL-10 production by submandibular LN cells. An increase in CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + Treg cells was detected in LNs and spleen of mice treated with PM-allergoids. These allergoids were better captured than native allergens by antigen-presenting (CD45 + MHC-II + ) cells obtained from the sublingual mucosa, including DCs (CD11b + ) and macrophages (CD64 + ). Importantly, all the differential effects induced by PM-allergoids were abolished when using oxidized instead of nonoxidized PM-allergoids. Our results demonstrate for the first time that PM-allergoids administered through the sublingual route promote the generation of Th1 and FOXP3 + Treg cells in a greater extent than native allergens by mechanisms that might well involve their better uptake by oral antigen-presenting cells. © 2018 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Roquin Suppresses the PI3K-mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit T Helper Cell Differentiation and Conversion of Treg to Tfr Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Katharina; Hu, Desheng; Guimaraes, Joao C; Alterauge, Dominik; Edelmann, Stephanie; Raj, Timsse; Kranich, Jan; Behrens, Gesine; Heiseke, Alexander; Floess, Stefan; Klein, Juliane; Maiser, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; Hrabĕ de Angelis, Martin; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Noessner, Elfriede; Brocker, Thomas; Huehn, Jochen; Krug, Anne B; Zavolan, Mihaela; Baumjohann, Dirk; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2017-12-19

    Roquin proteins preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here we showed that deletion of Roquin-encoding alleles specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells also caused the activation of conventional T cells. Roquin-deficient Treg cells downregulated CD25, acquired a follicular Treg (Tfr) cell phenotype, and suppressed germinal center reactions but could not protect from colitis. Roquin inhibited the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway by upregulation of Pten through interfering with miR-17∼92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR, and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced Akt-mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, whereas inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient T cells corrected enhanced Tfh and Th17 or reduced iTreg cell differentiation. Thereby, Roquin-mediated control of PI3K-mTOR signaling prevents autoimmunity by restraining activation and differentiation of conventional T cells and specialization of Treg cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of PD1/PDL1 pathway, and TH17 and treg cells in maternal tolerance to the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Tripathi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance of the fetus by the maternal immune system is regulated through various mechanisms involving the different immune cells, both in the periphery and locally at the feto-maternal interface. The maternal T lymphocytes are aware of the paternal fetal antigens and a state of dynamic T cell homeostasis is maintained in the uterus during gestation, which involves increase in antigen-specific regulatory T cell (Treg proliferation, increase in apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells, and inhibition of excessive inflammation post successful implantation to ensure tolerance to the fetus. The Tregs play an important role in the maintenance of tolerance during gestation. Recently, the inflammatory T helper type 17 (Th17 cells are reported to have a role in loss of tolerance to the fetus. The interaction between costimulatory molecule programmed death 1 (PD1 and its ligand PDL1 is known to play a role in regulating both the Tregs and Th17 cells. Here we discuss how the PD1/PDL1 pathway affects these two T cell populations and its role in feto-maternal tolerance.

  18. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Generated with Tofacitinib Ameliorate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis through Modulation of Th17/Treg Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that dendritic cells (DCs play a pivotal role in triggering self-specific responses. Conversely, tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs, a specialized subset, induce tolerance and negatively regulate autoreactive responses. Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor developed by Pfizer for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is probable to be a promising candidate for inducing tolDCs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of tolDCs induced by tofacitinib in a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- specific experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model and to investigate their effects on Th17/Treg balance in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Our results revealed that tofacitinib-treated DCs maintained a steady semimature phenotype with a low level of proinflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules. DCs treated by tofacitinib also induced antigen-specific T cells hyporesponsiveness in a concentration-dependent manner. Upon intravenous injection into EAE mice, MOG pulsed tolDCs significantly dampened disease activity, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT disturbed Th17/Treg balance with a remarkable decrease of Th1/Th17 cells and an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs. Overall, DCs modified by tofacitinib exhibited a typical tolerogenic phenotype, and the antigen-specific tolDCs may represent a new avenue of research for the development of future clinical treatments for MS.

  19. Neuronal IFN-beta-induced PI3K/Akt-FoxA1 signalling is essential for generation of FoxA1(+)Treg cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Marin, Andrea; Ejlerskov, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Neurons reprogramme encephalitogenic T cells (Tenc) to regulatory T cells (Tregs), either FoxP3(+)Tregs or FoxA1(+)Tregs. We reported previously that neuronal ability to generate FoxA1(+)Tregs was central to preventing neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice...... lacking interferon (IFN)-β were defective in generating FoxA1(+)Tregs in the brain. Here we show that lack of neuronal IFNβ signalling is associated with the absence of programme death ligand-1 (PDL1), which prevents their ability to reprogramme Tenc cells to FoxA1(+)Tregs. Passive transfer-EAE via IFNβ......-competent Tenc cells to mice lacking IFNβ and active induced-EAE in mice lacking its receptor, IFNAR, in the brain (Nes(Cre):Ifnar(fl/fl)) result in defective FoxA1(+)Tregs generation and aggravated neuroinflammation. IFNβ activates neuronal PI3K/Akt signalling and Akt binds to transcription factor FoxA1...

  20. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Hu

    Full Text Available It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1 cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation.

  1. Human Tregs Made Antigen Specific by Gene Modification: The Power to Treat Autoimmunity and Antidrug Antibodies with Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R. Adair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs are potent immunosuppressive lymphocytes responsible for immune tolerance and homeostasis. Since the seminal reports identifying Tregs, vast research has been channeled into understanding their genesis, signature molecular markers, mechanisms of suppression, and role in disease. This research has opened the doors for Tregs as a potential therapeutic for diseases and disorders such as multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, transplantation, and immune responses to protein therapeutics, like factor VIII. Seminal clinical trials have used polyclonal Tregs, but the frequency of antigen-specific Tregs among polyclonal populations is low, and polyclonal Tregs may risk non-specific immunosuppression. Antigen-specific Treg therapy, which uses genetically modified Tregs expressing receptors specific for target antigens, greatly mitigates this risk. Building on the principles of T-cell receptor cloning, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, and a novel CAR derivative, called B-cell antibody receptors, our lab has developed different types of antigen-specific Tregs. This review discusses the current research and optimization of gene-modified antigen-specific human Tregs in our lab in several disease models. The preparations and considerations for clinical use of such Tregs also are discussed.

  2. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in Regulatory T Cell and Th17 differentiation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Justin P.; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X.; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    GARP/LRRC32 has previously been defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T-cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation, but in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on Tregs within the thymus and Treg precursors from the thymus concomitantly express GARP and Foxp3 upon exposure to IL-2. The expression of GARP is independent of TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 loading into GARP and is independent of furin-mediated processing of pro-TGF-β1 to latent TGF-β1. Specific deletion of GARP in CD4+ T cells results in lack of expression of latent-TGF-β1 on activated Tregs. GARP-deficient Tregs develop normally, are present in normal numbers in peripheral tissues, and are fully competent suppressors of the activation of T conventional cells in vitro. Activated Tregs expressing GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes are potent inducers of Th17 differentiation in the presence of exogenous IL-6 and inducers of Treg in the presence of IL-2. Induction of both Th17 producing cells and Treg is preferentially induced by Tregs expressing the latent-TGF-β1/GARP complex on their cell surface rather than by secreted latent-TGF-β1. PMID:23645881

  3. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in regulatory T cell and Th17 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Justin P; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M

    2013-06-01

    GARP/LRRC32 was defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation; however, in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on Tregs within the thymus, and Treg precursors from the thymus concomitantly express GARP and Foxp3 upon exposure to IL-2. The expression of GARP is independent of TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 loading into GARP and is independent of furin-mediated processing of pro-TGF-β1 to latent TGF-β1. Specific deletion of GARP in CD4(+) T cells results in lack of expression of latent TGF-β1 on activated Tregs. GARP-deficient Tregs develop normally, are present in normal numbers in peripheral tissues, and are fully competent suppressors of the activation of conventional T cells in vitro. Activated Tregs expressing GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes are potent inducers of Th17 differentiation in the presence of exogenous IL-6 and inducers of Treg in the presence of IL-2. Induction of both Th17-producing cells and Tregs is caused preferentially by Tregs expressing the latent TGF-β1/GARP complex on their cell surface rather than by secreted latent TGF-β1.

  4. Role of Fas and Treg Cells in Fracture Healing as Characterized in the Fas-Deficient (lpr) Mouse Model of Lupus†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Daukss, Dana M; Belkina, Anna C; Kakar, Sanjeev; Wigner, Nathan A; Cusher, Daniel; Graves, Dana; Einhorn, Thomas; Morgan, Elise; Gerstenfeld, Louis C

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that loss of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) signaling delayed fracture healing by delaying chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage resorption. Mechanistic studies showed that TNFα induced Fas expression within chondrocytes; however, the degree to which chondrocyte apoptosis is mediated by TNFα alone or dependent on the induction of Fas is unclear. This question was addressed by assessing fracture healing in Fas-deficient B6.MRL/Faslpr/J mice. Loss of Fas delayed cartilage resorption but also lowered bone fraction in the calluses. The reduced bone fraction was related to elevated rates of coupled bone turnover in the B6.MRL/Faslpr/J calluses, as evidenced by higher osteoclast numbers and increased osteogenesis. Analysis of the apoptotic marker caspase 3 showed fewer positive chondrocytes and osteoclasts in calluses of B6.MRL/Faslpr/J mice. To determine if an active autoimmune state contributed to increased bone turnover, the levels of activated T cells and Treg cells were assessed. B6.MRL/Faslpr/J mice had elevated Treg cells in both spleens and bones of B6.MRL/Faslpr/J but decreased percentage of activated T cells in bone tissues. Fracture led to ∼30% to 60% systemic increase in Treg cells in both wild-type and B6.MRL/Faslpr/J bone tissues during the period of cartilage formation and resorption but either decreased (wild type) or left unchanged (B6.MRL/Faslpr/J) the numbers of activated T cells in bone. These results show that an active autoimmune state is inhibited during the period of cartilage resorption and suggest that iTreg cells play a functional role in this process. These data show that loss of Fas activity specifically in chondrocytes prolonged the life span of chondrocytes and that Fas synergized with TNFα signaling to mediate chondrocyte apoptosis. Conversely, loss of Fas systemically led to increased osteoclast numbers during later periods of fracture healing and increased osteogenesis. These findings suggest that retention

  5. Role of Fas and Treg cells in fracture healing as characterized in the fas-deficient (lpr) mouse model of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Daukss, Dana M; Belkina, Anna C; Kakar, Sanjeev; Wigner, Nathan A; Cusher, Daniel; Graves, Dana; Einhorn, Thomas; Morgan, Elise; Gerstenfeld, Louis C

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies showed that loss of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) signaling delayed fracture healing by delaying chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage resorption. Mechanistic studies showed that TNFα induced Fas expression within chondrocytes; however, the degree to which chondrocyte apoptosis is mediated by TNFα alone or dependent on the induction of Fas is unclear. This question was addressed by assessing fracture healing in Fas-deficient B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice. Loss of Fas delayed cartilage resorption but also lowered bone fraction in the calluses. The reduced bone fraction was related to elevated rates of coupled bone turnover in the B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J calluses, as evidenced by higher osteoclast numbers and increased osteogenesis. Analysis of the apoptotic marker caspase 3 showed fewer positive chondrocytes and osteoclasts in calluses of B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice. To determine if an active autoimmune state contributed to increased bone turnover, the levels of activated T cells and Treg cells were assessed. B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice had elevated Treg cells in both spleens and bones of B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J but decreased percentage of activated T cells in bone tissues. Fracture led to ∼30% to 60% systemic increase in Treg cells in both wild-type and B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J bone tissues during the period of cartilage formation and resorption but either decreased (wild type) or left unchanged (B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J) the numbers of activated T cells in bone. These results show that an active autoimmune state is inhibited during the period of cartilage resorption and suggest that iTreg cells play a functional role in this process. These data show that loss of Fas activity specifically in chondrocytes prolonged the life span of chondrocytes and that Fas synergized with TNFα signaling to mediate chondrocyte apoptosis. Conversely, loss of Fas systemically led to increased osteoclast numbers during later periods of fracture healing and increased osteogenesis. These findings

  6. Interplay of T Helper 17 Cells with CD4+CD25high FOXP3+ Tregs in Regulation of Allergic Asthma in Pediatric Patients

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    Amit Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is evidence that Tregs are important to prevent allergic diseases like asthma but limited literature exists on role of TH17 cells in allergic diseases. Methods. Fifty children with asthma and respiratory allergy (study group and twenty healthy children (control group were recruited in this study. Total IgE levels and pulmonary function tests were assessed. The expression of Tregs and cytokines was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The average level of total IgE in study group (316.8 ± 189.8 IU/mL was significantly higher than controls (50 ± 17.5 IU/mL, P<0.0001. The frequency of TH17 cells and culture supernatant level of IL-17 in study group (12.09 ± 8.67 pg/mL was significantly higher than control group (2.01 ± 1.27 pg/mL, P<0.001. Alternatively, the frequency of FOXP3 level was significantly lower in study group [(49.00 ± 13.47%] than in control group [(95.91 ± 2.63%] and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ to CD4+CD25+ ratio was also significantly decreased in study group [(6.33 ± 2.18%] compared to control group [(38.61 ± 11.04%]. The total serum IgE level is negatively correlated with FOXP3 level (r=-0.5273, P<0.0001. The FOXP3 expression is negatively correlated with the IL-17 levels (r=-0.5631, P<0.0001 and IL-4 levels (r=-0.2836, P=0.0460. Conclusions. Imbalance in TH17/Tregs, elevated IL-17, and IL-4 response and downregulation of FOXP3 were associated with allergic asthma.

  7. Helios expression in regulatory T cells promotes immunosuppression, angiogenesis and the growth of leukemia cells in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Li, Dong; Huang, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Panpan; Shi, Qing; Zhang, Bing; Ju, Xiuli

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) characterized by the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) are crucial for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. However, FoxP3 does not function alone and Helios is considered a potential candidate for defining Treg subsets. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of Helios for identifying Tregs in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL). Our results demonstrated that patients with pre-B ALL had a higher percentage of Helios + FoxP3 + CD4 + Tregs. And there was a positive correlation between the expression of Helios and the suppressive function of Tregs, the risk gradation of ALL. Helios in combination with CD4 and FoxP3 may be an effective way to detect functional Tregs in pre-B ALL by promoting the secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Furthermore, Helios + Tregs could regulate angiogenesis in the BM niche of pre-B ALL via the VEGFA/VEGFR2 pathway. We also found Helios + Tregs decreased apoptosis rate of nalm-6 cells by up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. In summary, these data strongly imply the physiological importance of Helios expression in Tregs, and suggest that the manipulation of Helios may serve as a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Four types of Tregs in malignant lymphomas

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    Wang Jing

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulatory T cells (Tregs are a specialized subpopulation of CD4+ T cells, which act to suppress the activation of other immune cells. Tregs represent important modulators for the interaction between lymphomas and host microenvironment. Lymphomas are a group of serious and frequently fatal malignant diseases of lymphocytes. Recent studies revealed that some lymphoma T cells might adopt a Treg profile. Assessment of Treg phenotypes and genotypes in patients may offer prediction of outcome in many types of lymphomas including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Based on characterized roles of Tregs in lymphomas, we can categorize the various roles into four groups: (a suppressor Tregs; (b malignant Tregs; (c direct tumor-killing Tregs; and (d incompetent Tregs. The classification into four groups is significant in predicting prognosis and designing Tregs-based immunotherapies for treating lymphomas. In patients with lymphomas where Tregs serve either as suppressor Tregs or malignant Tregs, anti-tumor cytotoxicity is suppressed thus decreased numbers of Tregs are associated with a good prognosis. In contrast, in patients with lymphomas where Tregs serve as tumor-killing Tregs and incompetent Tregs, anti-tumor cytotoxicity is enhanced or anti-autoimmune Tregs activities are weakened thus increased numbers of Tregs are associated with a good prognosis and reduced numbers of Tregs are associated with a poor prognosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the various roles of Tregs in patients with lymphomas remain unknown. Therefore, further research is needed in this regard as well as the utility of Tregs as prognostic factors and therapy strategies in different lymphomas.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade exacerbates murine psoriasis-like disease by enhancing Th17 function and decreasing expansion of Treg cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hak-Ling; Napierata, Lee; Stedman, Nancy; Benoit, Stephen; Collins, Mary; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Young, Deborah A

    2010-02-01

    Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis respond well to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) blockers in general; however, there is now mounting evidence that a small cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who receive TNFalpha blockers develop psoriasis. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms underlying TNFalpha blockade-induced exacerbation of skin inflammation in murine psoriasis-like skin disease. Skin inflammation was induced in BALB/c scid/scid mice after they received CD4+CD45RB(high)CD25- (naive CD4) T cells from donor mice. These mice were treated with either anti-interleukin-12 (anti-IL-12)/23p40 antibody or murine TNFRII-Fc fusion protein and were examined for signs of disease, including histologic features, various cytokine levels in the serum, and cytokine or FoxP3 transcripts in the affected skin and draining lymph node (LN) cells. In a separate study, naive CD4+ T cells were differentiated into Th1 or Th17 lineages with anti-CD3/28 magnetic beads and appropriate cytokines in the presence or absence of TNFalpha. Cytokine gene expression from these differentiated cells was also determined. Neutralization of TNFalpha exacerbated skin inflammation and markedly enhanced the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22 but suppressed FoxP3 expression in the skin and reduced the number of FoxP3-positive Treg cells in the draining LNs. TNFalpha also demonstrated a divergent role during priming and reactivation of naive T cells. These results reveal a novel immunoregulatory role of TNFalpha on Th17 and Treg cells in some individuals, which may account for the exacerbation of skin inflammation in some patients who receive anti-TNF treatments.

  10. Gastric cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells impact peripheral blood mononuclear cells via disruption of Treg/Th17 balance to promote gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Chen, Bin; Sun, Xiao-Xian; Zhao, Xiang-Dong; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Li; Xu, Chang-Gen; Shen, Bo; Su, Zhao-Liang; Xu, Wen-Rong; Zhu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Gastric cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) are important resident stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and have been shown to play a key role in gastric cancer progression. Whether GC-MSCs exert a tumor-promoting function by affecting anti-tumor immunity is still unclear. In this study, we used GC-MSC conditioned medium (GC-MSC-CM) to pretreat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors. We found that GC-MSC-CM pretreatment markedly reversed the inhibitory effect of PBMCs on gastric cancer growth in vivo, but did not affect functions of PBMCs on gastric cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in vitro. PBMCs pretreated with GC-MSC-CM significantly promoted gastric cancer migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro and liver metastases in vivo. Flow cytometry analysis showed that GC-MSC-CM pretreatment increased the proportion of Treg cells and reduced that of Th17 cells in PBMCs. CFSE labeling and naïve CD4 + T cells differentiation analysis revealed that GC-MSC-CM disrupted the Treg/Th17 balance in PBMCs by suppressing Th17 cell proliferation and inducing differentiation of Treg cells. Overall, our collective results indicate that GC-MSCs impair the anti-tumor immune response of PBMCs through disruption of Treg/Th17 balance, thus providing new evidence that gastric cancer tissue-derived MSCs contribute to the immunosuppressive TME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Jofra Hernandez, Raisa; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L.; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)–mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA−/− Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA–treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID. Trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00598481/NCT00599781. PMID:22184407

  12. Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Aisha V; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2012-02-09

    Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA(-/-) Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA-treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID.

  13. Notch1 Signaling Regulates the Th17/Treg Immune Imbalance in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Xue, HaiBo; Gao, Tianqin; Gao, MeiLan; Zhang, YuJie

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the regulating effect of Notch1 signaling on Th17/Treg immune imbalance in psoriasis vulgaris (PV). Notch1, Hes-1, ROR γ t, Foxp3, IL-17, and IL-10 mRNA expression, as well as Th17 and Treg cell percentages in peripheral CD4 + T cells, were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry, and serum concentrations of IL-17 and IL-10 were detected by ELISA in 36 PV patients and 32 healthy controls. Additionally, CD4 + T cells from 12 PV patients were treated with γ -secretase inhibitor DAPT, and the above indexes were measured. PV patients presented distinct Th17/Treg immune imbalance and highly expressed Notch1 and Hes-1 mRNA levels, which were positively correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and the ratios of Th17/Treg and ROR γ t/Foxp3. DAPT treatment resulted in the obvious downregulation of Th17 cell percentage in cocultured CD4 + T cells, ROR γ t and IL-17 mRNA levels, and IL-17 concentration in cell-free supernatant from cocultured CD4 + T cells of PV patients in a dose-dependent manner, while there was no significant influence on Treg cell percentage, Foxp3, and IL-10 expression, therefore leading to the recovery of Th17/Treg immune imbalance. Notch1 signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of PV by regulating Th17/Treg immune imbalance.

  14. The beneficial effect of total glucosides of paeony on psoriatic arthritis links to circulating Tregs and Th1 cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Na; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Ding Xian; Xu, Li Qin; Fang, Hong; Wu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Total glycosides of peony (TGP) is a natural immuno-modulatory drug extracted from traditional Chinese herb peony. It has been approved by State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, data of TGP effect on psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is still scarce. In this study, 19 patients with PsA received 12-week treatment of TGP, and clinical efficacy in joint manifestations was evaluated by DAS28 at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Peripheral percentages of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and NK cells were analyzed, and serum Th1-type cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) as well as pro-inflammatory factors (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) were concomitantly examined. Six patients (32%) exhibited ≥25% decrease of DAS28 (responders). Interestingly, all responders displayed a continuous decrease in Treg and Th1 numbers during TGP treatment, concomitant with significant decreases in Th1-type cytokine levels. Serum IL-6 also showed a significant decline in responders. Non-responders lacked these sequential alterations. Thus, TGP merits further consideration as a promising therapeutic option for PsA. The result indicated that recovery of Tregs and Th1 may serve as prognostic markers to assess responsiveness to TGP treatment in PsA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Changes in natural Foxp3(+Treg but not mucosally-imprinted CD62L(negCD38(+Foxp3(+Treg in the circulation of celiac disease patients.

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    Marieke A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD is an intestinal inflammation driven by gluten-reactive CD4(+ T cells. Due to lack of selective markers it has not been determined whether defects in inducible regulatory T cell (Treg differentiation are associated with CD. This is of importance as changes in numbers of induced Treg could be indicative of defects in mucosal tolerance development in CD. Recently, we have shown that, after encounter of retinoic acid during differentiation, circulating gut-imprinted T cells express CD62L(negCD38(+. Using this new phenotype, we now determined whether alterations occur in the frequency of natural CD62L(+Foxp3(+ Treg or mucosally-imprinted CD62L(negCD38(+Foxp3(+ Treg in peripheral blood of CD patients. In particular, we compared pediatric CD, aiming to select for disease at onset, with adult CD. METHODS: Cell surface markers, intracellular Foxp3 and Helios were determined by flow cytometry. Foxp3 expression was also detected by immunohistochemistry in duodenal tissue of CD patients. RESULTS: In children, the percentages of peripheral blood CD4(+Foxp3(+ Treg were comparable between CD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Differentiation between natural and mucosally-imprinted Treg on the basis of CD62L and CD38 did not uncover differences in Foxp3. In adult patients on gluten-free diet and in refractory CD increased percentages of circulating natural CD62L(+Foxp3(+ Treg, but normal mucosally-imprinted CD62L(negCD38(+Foxp3(+ Treg frequencies were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our data exclude that significant numeric deficiency of mucosally-imprinted or natural Foxp3(+ Treg explains exuberant effector responses in CD. Changes in natural Foxp3(+ Treg occur in a subset of adult patients on a gluten-free diet and in refractory CD patients.

  16. Peritransplant Treg-Based Immunomodulation to Improve VCA Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    orthotopic limb allografts in conjunction with TCR mAb and/or WT or HDAC-/- Treg cell administration 6-12 Milestone(s) Achieved: Efficacy of polyclonal WT...demethylation for each population (WT Tregs, HDAC6-/- Tregs, HDAC11-/- Tregs). 10-12 Subtask 2: Perform orthotopic limb allografts in conjunction ...function, and assessment of TSDR demethylation. • Subtask 3: Perform orthotopic limb allografts in conjunction with TCR mAb and/or WT or HDAC-/- Treg cell

  17. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32

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    Sugiyama Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of Tregs has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32, also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP, has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated Tregs. However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of Tregs expressing LRRC32. Results Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated Tregs, we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ Tregs are distinct from LRRC32- Tregs with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ Tregs are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- Tregs. Conclusions A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent Treg populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of Tregs and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.

  18. Atherosclerosis-Driven Treg Plasticity Results in Formation of a Dysfunctional Subset of Plastic IFNγ+ Th1/Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Matthew J; Filipowicz, Adam R; Waseem, Tayab C; McGary, Christopher M; Crow, Kevin J; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Boldin, Mark; Lundberg, Patric S; Galkina, Elena V

    2016-11-11

    Forkhead box P3 + T regulatory cells (Tregs) are key players in maintaining immune homeostasis. Evidence suggests that Tregs respond to environmental cues to permit or suppress inflammation. In atherosclerosis, Th1-driven inflammation affects Treg homeostasis, but the mechanisms governing this phenomenon are unclear. Here, we address whether atherosclerosis impacts Treg plasticity and functionality in Apoe - /- mice, and what effect Treg plasticity might have on the pathology of atherosclerosis. We demonstrate that atherosclerosis promotes Treg plasticity, resulting in the reduction of CXCR3 + Tregs and the accumulation of an intermediate Th1-like interferon (IFN)-γ + CCR5 + Treg subset (Th1/Tregs) within the aorta. Importantly, Th1/Tregs arise in atherosclerosis from bona fide Tregs, rather than from T-effector cells. We show that Th1/Tregs recovered from atherosclerotic mice are dysfunctional in suppression assays. Using an adoptive transfer system and plasticity-prone Mir146a -/- Tregs, we demonstrate that elevated IFNγ + Mir146a -/- Th1/Tregs are unable to adequately reduce atherosclerosis, arterial Th1, or macrophage content within Apoe -/- mice, in comparison to Mir146a +/+ Tregs. Finally, via single-cell RNA-sequencing and real-time -polymerase chain reaction, we show that Th1/Tregs possess a unique transcriptional phenotype characterized by coexpression of Treg and Th1 lineage genes and a downregulation of Treg-related genes, including Ikzf2, Ikzf4, Tigit, Lilrb4, and Il10. In addition, an ingenuity pathway analysis further implicates IFNγ, IFNα, interleukin-2, interleukin-7, CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), T-cell receptor, and Csnk2b-related pathways in regulating Treg plasticity. Atherosclerosis drives Treg plasticity, resulting in the accumulation of dysfunctional IFNγ + Th1/Tregs that may permit further arterial inflammation and atherogenesis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. [Imiquimod combined with dendritic cell vaccine decreases Treg proportion and enhances anti-tumor responses in mice bearing melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shurong; Wang, Qiubo; Zhang, Yanli; Lu, Cuixiu; Li, Ping; Li, Yumei

    2017-02-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist imiquimod combined with dendritic cell (DC)-based tumor vaccine on melanoma in mice and the potential mechanism. Methods Melanoma-bearing mouse models were established by subcutanous injection of B16-OVA cells into C57BL/6 mice. DCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow and propagated in culture medium with recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) and recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (rmIL-4). DC vaccine (OVA-DC) was prepared by overnight incubation of DCs added with chicken ovalbumin. C57BL/6 mice were separated into four groups which were treated with PBS, topical imiquimod application, OVA-DC intradermal injection and imiquimod plus OVA-DC, respectively. The tumor size was calculated by digital vernier caliper. Peripheral blood CD4 + FOXP3 + Tregs of the tumor-bearing mice was detected by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of splenic lymphocyte against B16-OVA was assessed in vitro by CCK-8 assay. Results Compared with the other three groups, B16-OVA-bearing mice treated with imiquimod plus DC vaccine had the smallest tumor volume. The percentage of CD4 + FOXP3 + Tregs decreased significantly in the combined treated mice. The combined treatment enhanced significantly cytotoxicity of splenic lymphocytes against B16-OVA cells. Conclusion Imiquimod combined with antigen-pulsed-DC vaccine could reduce CD4 + FOXP3 + Treg proportion and promote anti-tumor effect in mice with melanoma.

  20. The role of T regulatory cells in kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanová, Anna

    2011-01-01

    T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg) belong to the CD4+ cell group. They are an essential part of the immunity system. Treg cells prevent from excessive activation of effector T cells and they keep the tolerance to the tissues of the body. They have high expression of CD25 and the transcription factor Foxp3. We distinguish two basic populations of Treg cells: natural Treg cells (nTreg) created in the thym and representing 5-10 % of all CD4+ cells, and induced Treg cells (iTreg), created from naive...

  1. A rare subset of skin-tropic regulatory T cells expressing Il10/Gzmb inhibits the cutaneous immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Vandenbon, Alexis; Honda, Tetsuya; Shand, Francis H W; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tomura, Michio

    2016-10-19

    Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node (dLN) have a strong immunosuppressive effect on the cutaneous immune response. However, the subpopulations responsible for their inhibitory function remain unclear. We investigated single-cell gene expression heterogeneity in Tregs from the dLN of inflamed skin in a contact hypersensitivity model. The immunosuppressive genes Ctla4 and Tgfb1 were expressed in the majority of Tregs. Although Il10-expressing Tregs were rare, unexpectedly, the majority of Il10-expressing Tregs co-expressed Gzmb and displayed Th1-skewing. Single-cell profiling revealed that CD43 + CCR5 + Tregs represented the main subset within the Il10/Gzmb-expressing cell population in the dLN. Moreover, CD43 + CCR5 + CXCR3 - Tregs expressed skin-tropic chemokine receptors, were preferentially retained in inflamed skin and downregulated the cutaneous immune response. The identification of a rare Treg subset co-expressing multiple immunosuppressive molecules and having tissue-remaining capacity offers a novel strategy for the control of skin inflammatory responses.

  2. Expression of GARP selectively identifies activated human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Kozhaya, Lina; Mercer, Frances; Khaitan, Alka; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2009-08-11

    The molecules that define human regulatory T cells (Tregs) phenotypically and functionally remain to be fully characterized. We recently showed that activated human Tregs express mRNA for a transmembrane protein called glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32). Here, using a GARP-specific mAb, we demonstrate that expression of GARP on activated Tregs correlates with their suppressive capacity. However, GARP was not induced on T cells activated in the presence of TGFbeta, which expressed high levels of FOXP3 and lacked suppressive function. Ectopic expression of FOXP3 in conventional T cells was also insufficient for induction of GARP expression in most donors. Functionally, silencing GARP in Tregs only moderately attenuated their suppressive activity. CD25+ T cells sorted for high GARP expression displayed more potent suppressive activity compared with CD25+GARP- cells. Remarkably, CD25+GARP- T cells expanded in culture contained 3-5 fold higher IL-17-secreting cells compared with either CD25+GARP+ or CD25-GARP- cells, suggesting that high GARP expression can potentially discriminate Tregs from those that have switched to Th17 lineage. We also determined whether GARP expression correlates with FOXP3-expressing T cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected subjects. A subset of HIV+ individuals with high percentages of FOXP3+ T cells did not show proportionate increase in GARP+ T cells. This finding suggests that higher FOXP3 levels observed in these HIV+ individuals is possibly due to immune activation rather than to an increase in Tregs. Our findings highlight the significance of GARP both in dissecting duality of Treg/Th17 cell differentiation and as a marker to identify bona fide Tregs during diseases with chronic immune activation.

  3. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor Specific for Donor HLA Class I Enhances the Potency of Human Regulatory T Cells in Preventing Human Skin Transplant Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, D A; Philippeos, C; Fruhwirth, G O; Ibrahim, M A A; Hannen, R F; Cooper, D; Marelli-Berg, F M; Watt, F M; Lechler, R I; Maher, J; Smyth, L A; Lombardi, G

    2017-04-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy using recipient-derived Tregs expanded ex vivo is currently being investigated clinically by us and others as a means of reducing allograft rejection following organ transplantation. Data from animal models has demonstrated that adoptive transfer of allospecific Tregs offers greater protection from graft rejection compared to polyclonal Tregs. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are clinically translatable synthetic fusion proteins that can redirect the specificity of T cells toward designated antigens. We used CAR technology to redirect human polyclonal Tregs toward donor-MHC class I molecules, which are ubiquitously expressed in allografts. Two novel HLA-A2-specific CARs were engineered: one comprising a CD28-CD3ζ signaling domain (CAR) and one lacking an intracellular signaling domain (ΔCAR). CAR Tregs were specifically activated and significantly more suppressive than polyclonal or ΔCAR Tregs in the presence of HLA-A2, without eliciting cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, CAR and ΔCAR Tregs preferentially transmigrated across HLA-A2-expressing endothelial cell monolayers. In a human skin xenograft transplant model, adoptive transfer of CAR Tregs alleviated the alloimmune-mediated skin injury caused by transferring allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells more effectively than polyclonal Tregs. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAR technology is a clinically applicable refinement of Treg therapy for organ transplantation. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. CD11c-Expressing Cells Affect Regulatory T Cell Behavior in the Meninges during Central Nervous System Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carleigh A; Overall, Christopher; Konradt, Christoph; O'Hara Hall, Aisling C; Hayes, Nikolas W; Wagage, Sagie; John, Beena; Christian, David A; Hunter, Christopher A; Harris, Tajie H

    2017-05-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the CNS during multiple infections, as well as autoimmune inflammation, but the behavior of this cell type in the CNS has not been explored. In mice, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to a Th1-polarized parasite-specific effector T cell response in the brain. Similarly, Tregs in the CNS during T. gondii infection are Th1 polarized, as exemplified by their T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression. Unlike effector CD4 + T cells, an MHC class II tetramer reagent specific for T. gondii did not recognize Tregs isolated from the CNS. Likewise, TCR sequencing revealed minimal overlap in TCR sequence between effector T cells and Tregs in the CNS. Whereas effector T cells are found in the brain parenchyma where parasites are present, Tregs were restricted to the meninges and perivascular spaces. The use of intravital imaging revealed that activated CD4 + T cells within the meninges were highly migratory, whereas Tregs moved more slowly and were found in close association with CD11c + cells. To test whether the behavior of Tregs in the meninges is influenced by interactions with CD11c + cells, mice were treated with anti-LFA-1 Abs to reduce the number of CD11c + cells in this space. The anti-LFA-1 treatment led to fewer contacts between Tregs and the remaining CD11c + cells and increased the speed of Treg migration. These data suggest that Tregs are anatomically restricted within the CNS, and their interaction with CD11c + populations regulates their local behavior during T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Regulatory CD4 T cells inhibit HIV-1 expression of other CD4 T cell subsets via interactions with cell surface regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingce; Robinson, Tanya O; Duverger, Alexandra; Kutsch, Olaf; Heath, Sonya L; Cron, Randy Q

    2018-03-01

    During chronic HIV-1 infection, regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) frequently represent the largest subpopulation of CD4 T cell subsets, implying relative resistant to HIV-1. When HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells was explored in vitro and ex vivo from patient samples, Tregs possessed lower levels of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in comparison with conventional effector and memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, Tregs suppressed HIV-1 expression in other CD4 T cells in an in vitro co-culture system. This suppression was mediated in part via multiple inhibitory surface proteins expressed on Tregs. Antibody blockade of CTLA-4, PD-1, and GARP on Tregs resulted in increased HIV-1 DNA integration and mRNA expression in neighboring CD4 T cells. Moreover, antibody blockade of Tregs inhibitory proteins resulted in increased HIV-1 LTR transcription in co-cultured CD4 T cells. Thus, Tregs inhibit HIV-1 infection of other CD4 T cell subsets via interactions with inhibitory cell surface proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Vazquez, Lorenzo; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Galicia-Velasco, Miriam; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Camacho-Mendoza, Catalina; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP) TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:26582240

  7. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Islas-Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  8. Intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia differentially affects circulating TC1, TH1, TH17 and TREG cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjertsen Bjørn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations suggest that immunological events early after chemotherapy, possibly during the period of severe treatment-induced cytopenia, are important for antileukemic immune reactivity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. We therefore investigated the frequencies of various T cell subsets (TC1, TH1, TH17 and CD25+ FoxP3+ TREG cells in AML patients with untreated disease and following intensive chemotherapy. Results Relative levels of circulating TC1 and TH1 cells were decreased in patients with severe chemotherapy-induced cytopenia, whereas TH17 levels did not differ from healthy controls. Increased levels of regulatory CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells were detected in AML patients with untreated disease, during chemotherapy-induced cytopenia and during regeneration after treatment. TH17 and TH1 levels were significantly higher in healthy males than females, but this gender difference was not detected during chemotherapy-induced cytopenia. Finally, exogenous IL17-A usually had no or only minor effects on proliferation of primary human AML cells. Conclusions We conclude that the effect of intensive AML chemotherapy differ between circulating T cell subsets, relative frequencies of TH17 cells are not affected by chemotherapy and this subset may affect AML cells indirectly through their immunoregulatory effects but probably not through direct effects of IL17-A.

  9. [Zaocys type II collagen regulates mesenteric lymph node Treg/Th17 cell balance in mice with collagen-induced arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Zhitao; Zhu, Junqing; Li, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of Zaocys type II collagen (ZCII) on the percentages of Treg/Th17 cells in mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes (MLNLs) in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by immunization with chicken type II collagen. Three weeks later, ZCII, purified by pepsin digestion, was orally administered in the mice for 7 consecutive days (daily dose of 10, 20, or 40 µg/kg). The severity of arthritis in each limb was evaluated using a macroscopic scoring system, and histopathological changes of the joint were observed microscopically with HE staining. The percentages of Treg and Th17 cells in MLNLs was detected by flow cytometry, and the levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the supernatant of MLNLs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with normal control mice, the mice with CIA had significantly higher scores for arthritis and histopathological changes, with also significantly increased percentages of Treg and Th17 cells in MLNLs and elevated levels of TGF-β and IL-17 in MLNL supernatant (P<0.05). In ZCII peptide-treated mice, the scores for arthritis and histopathological changes were significantly lower than those in CIA model group (P<0.05), and Treg cell percentage in MLNLs was up-regulated while Th17 cell percentage lowered; the level of TGF-β was increased but IL-17 was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Oral administration of ZCII improves CIA in mice by regulating the percentages of Treg/Th17 cells and the cytokine levels in MLNLs, suggesting the value of ZCII as a promising candidate agent for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Induction of granzyme B expression in T-cell receptor/CD28-stimulated human regulatory T cells is suppressed by inhibitors of the PI3K-mTOR pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Todd W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs can employ a cell contact- and granzyme B-dependent mechanism to mediate suppression of bystander T and B cells. Murine studies indicate that granzyme B is involved in the Treg-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment and in the Treg-mediated maintenance of allograft survival. In spite of its central importance, a detailed study of granzyme B expression patterns in human Tregs has not been performed. Results Our data demonstrated that natural Tregs freshly isolated from the peripheral blood of normal adults lacked granzyme B expression. Tregs subjected to prolonged TCR and CD28 triggering, in the presence of IL-2, expressed high levels of granzyme B but CD3 stimulation alone or IL-2 treatment alone failed to induce granzyme B. Treatment of Tregs with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin or the PI3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly suppressed granzyme B expression. However, neither rapamycin, as previously reported by others, nor LY294002 inhibited Treg proliferation or induced significant cell death in TCR/CD28/IL-2 stimulated cells. The proliferation rate of Tregs was markedly higher than that of CD4+ conventional T cells in the setting of rapamycin treatment. Tregs expanded by CD3/CD28/IL-2 stimulation without rapamycin demonstrated increased in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to Tregs expanded in the presence of rapamycin in both short term (6 hours and long term (48 hours cytotoxicity assays. Conclusion TCR/CD28 mediated activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway is important for granyzme B expression but not proliferation in regulatory T cells. These findings may indicate that suppressive mechanisms other than granzyme B are utilized by rapamycin-expanded Tregs.

  11. Thioredoxin induces Tregs to generate an immunotolerant tumor microenvironment in metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Dong, Haisheng; Li, Qi; Li, Yingxian; Hong, An

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer that is very difficult to treat. Additionally, the antitumor immune reaction of melanoma is still unclear. Here we demonstrate an association between the expression and secretion of the antioxidant protein thioredoxin (TRX) and increasing tumor stage and metastasis in melanoma. To elucidate the role of TRX in melanoma, we assessed the correlation of TRX expression with different disease parameters in melanoma. We also examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of modulating TRX levels in melanoma cells using various methods of TRX depletion and augmentation. We further explored the effects of TRX on the cytokine milieu and the ability of TRX to regulate the proportion and specific activities of T-cell populations. We demonstrate that TRX expression correlates with Treg representation in clinical samples and, that modulation of TRX influences the induction of Tregs and the generation of an immunotolerant cytokine profile in mouse serum. Using a murine metastatic melanoma model, we identified a tumor immunoevasion mechanism whereby melanoma cell-secreted TRX enhances Treg infiltration. TRX displays chemotactic effects in recruiting Tregs, stimulates the conversion of conventional T cells to Tregs, and confers survival advantage to Tregs in the tumor microenvironment. In turn, this increase of Tregs generates immunotolerance in tissues and therefore decreases antitumor immune reactions. These results elucidate a mechanism by which TRX promotes metastatic melanoma in part through Treg recruitment to inhibit T-cell antitumor effects and suggest that TRX antibody may be useful in the clinic as a therapy against melanoma. PMID:26405597

  12. Effect of thymosin alpha-1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xia; Qian, Feng; He, Hai-Yang; Liu, Kai-Jun; Lan, Yuan-Zhi; Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Fu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Ji; Shen, Zi-Gang; Li, Jian; Yin, Yi; Li, Jin-Tao; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) has been shown to have beneficial effects on numerous immune system parameters, but little is known about the effects of Tα1 on patients with gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Tα1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro, and to evaluate its efficacy as an immunoregulatory factor in patients with gastric carcinoma. We compared the effect of Tα1 on the frequency of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, especially the CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from gastric carcinoma patients (N = 35) and healthy donors (N = 22). We also analyzed the changes in the proliferation of PBMCs in response to treatment with Tα1, and examined the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines by PBMCs and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The treatment of PBMCs from gastric cancer patients, with Tα1 (50 µg/mL) alone increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (suppressive antitumor-specific Tregs) from 1.68 ± 0.697 to 2.19 ± 0.795% (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that Tα1 increases the percentage of Tregs and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in vitro

  13. Effect of thymosin alpha-1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xia [Institute of Immunology,Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Qian, Feng [Department of General Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); He, Hai-Yang; Liu, Kai-Jun [Institute of Immunology,Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Lan, Yuan-Zhi [Department of General Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Fu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Ji; Shen, Zi-Gang; Li, Jian; Yin, Yi; Li, Jin-Tao; Wu, Yu-Zhang [Institute of Immunology,Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-12-02

    Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) has been shown to have beneficial effects on numerous immune system parameters, but little is known about the effects of Tα1 on patients with gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Tα1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro, and to evaluate its efficacy as an immunoregulatory factor in patients with gastric carcinoma. We compared the effect of Tα1 on the frequency of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells, especially the CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from gastric carcinoma patients (N = 35) and healthy donors (N = 22). We also analyzed the changes in the proliferation of PBMCs in response to treatment with Tα1, and examined the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines by PBMCs and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The treatment of PBMCs from gastric cancer patients, with Tα1 (50 µg/mL) alone increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (suppressive antitumor-specific Tregs) from 1.68 ± 0.697 to 2.19 ± 0.795% (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that Tα1 increases the percentage of Tregs and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in vitro.

  14. Evaluation of PLGA containing anti-CTLA4 inhibited endometriosis progression by regulating CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid of mouse endometriosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Ma, Pingchuan; Liu, Lanxia; Ma, Guilei; Ma, Jingjing; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Yijin; Lin, Wanjun; Zhu, Yingjun

    2017-01-01

    Our study investigated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as protein delivery vehicles encapsulate CTLA-4-antibody (anti-CTLA-4) which is essential for CD4+CD25+Treg cells suppressive function exposing superior potential for inhibiting endometriosis progress in mouse model than single anti-CTLA-4. Anti-CTLA-4 loaded PLGA combined to ligands CTLA-4 in surface of CD4+CD25+Treg cells which distributed in peritoneal fluid of mouse endometriosis model. The particle size, zeta potential of the anti-CTLA-4 loaded nanoparticles was detected by dynamic light scattering. Morphology of nanoparticles was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated distribution of anti-CTLA-4 with PLGA or without in peritoneal fluid. Cumulative anti-CTLA-4 release from nanoparticles was evaluated by Micro BCA assay. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid was demonstrated by flow cytometer. In vitro experiment we co-culture ectopic endometrial cells (EEC) with isolated CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid (PF), proliferation and invasion of ectopic endometrial cells (EEC) was measured by BrdU ELISA assay and Matrigel invasion assay. In comparison with anti-CTLA-4 without nanoparticles, the bioconjugates PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 were tolerated in peritoneal fluid with a controlled release of anti-CTLA-4 in 3, 7, 14days. Moreover, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 had superior protective regulation ability to reduce level of CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid. Most strikingly, in vitro experiment, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 exhibited better ability in inhibiting proliferation and invasion of ectopic endometrial cells in co-culture system compared with anti-CTLA-4. Progressively, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 had better suppressive activity to inhibited IL-10 and TGF-beta secreted by CD4+CD25+Treg cells which indicating that PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 suppressed cells proliferation and invasion through reduced IL-10 and TGF-beta production. Thus, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 may

  15. Micro-RNA 10a Is Increased in Feline T Regulatory Cells and Increases Foxp3 Protein Expression Following In Vitro Transfection

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    Yan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg cells are activated during the course of lentiviral infection and exhibit heightened suppressor function when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Foxp3 is essential to Treg cell function and multiple studies have documented that lentivirus-activated Treg cells exhibit heightened Foxp3 expression when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Our hypothesis was that lentivirus-induced micro-RNAs (miRNAs contribute to heightened Treg cell suppressor function by stabilizing Foxp3 expression. We demonstrated that CD4+CD25+ T cells from both feline immunodeficiency virus infected (FIV+ cats and uninfected control cats exhibit increased miRNA 10a and 21 levels compared to autologous CD4+CD25− T cells but there was no difference in the levels of these miRNAs when Treg cells from FIV+ cats were compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Further, there was no increase in Foxp3 mRNA following transfection of miRNA 10a or 21 into a feline cell line. However, transfection with miRNA 10a resulted in increased Foxp3 protein expression.

  16. Spatially selective depleting tumor-associated negative regulatory T-(Treg) cells with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT): A new cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting target-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate rapidly induces a highly-selective cell death only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cells. Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting anti-tumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immune-suppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immuno-evasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies. We used CD25-targeted NIR-PIT to selectively deplete Tregs, thus activating CD8+ T and NK cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity. This not only resulted in regression of the treated tumor but also induced responses in separate untreated tumors of the same cell-line derivation. We conclude that CD25-targeted NIR-PIT causes spatially selective depletion of Tregs, thereby providing an alternative approach to cancer immunotherapy that can treat not only local tumors but also distant metastatic tumors.

  17. Polyclonal Recipient nTregs Are Superior to Donor or Third-Party Tregs in the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance

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    Nina Pilat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Induction of donor-specific tolerance is still considered as the “Holy Grail” in transplantation medicine. The mixed chimerism approach is virtually the only tolerance approach that was successfully translated into the clinical setting. We have previously reported successful induction of chimerism and tolerance using cell therapy with recipient T regulatory cells (Tregs to avoid cytotoxic recipient treatment. Treg therapy is limited by the availability of cells as large-scale expansion is time-consuming and associated with the risk of contamination with effector cells. Using a costimulation-blockade based bone marrow (BM transplantation (BMT model with Treg therapy instead of cytoreductive recipient treatment we aimed to determine the most potent Treg population for clinical translation. Here we show that CD4+CD25+ in vitro activated nTregs are superior to TGFβ induced iTregs in promoting the induction of chimerism and tolerance. Therapy with nTregs (but not iTregs led to multilineage chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in mice receiving as few as 0.5 × 106 cells. Moreover, we show that only recipient Tregs, but not donor or third-party Tregs, had a beneficial effect on BM engraftment at the tested doses. Thus, recipient-type nTregs significantly improve chimerism and tolerance and might be the most potent Treg population for translation into the clinical setting.

  18. Identification of a regulatory T cell specific cell surface molecule that mediates suppressive signals and induces Foxp3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wan, Qi; Kozhaya, Lina; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2008-07-16

    Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs) mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32), which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs) activated through the T cell receptor (TCR). Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T (T(N)) cells inhibited their proliferation and cytokine secretion upon TCR activation. Remarkably, GARP over-expression in T(N) cells induced expression of T(reg) master transcription factor Foxp3 and endowed them with a partial suppressive function. The extracellular but not the cytoplasmic region of GARP, was necessary for these functions. Silencing Foxp3 in human T(reg) cells reduced expression of GARP and attenuated their suppressive function. However, GARP function was not affected when Foxp3 was downregulated in GARP-overexpressing cells, while silencing GARP in Foxp3-overexpressing cells reduced their suppressive activity. These findings reveal a novel cell surface molecule-mediated regulatory mechanism, with implications for modulating aberrant immune responses.

  19. Identification of a regulatory T cell specific cell surface molecule that mediates suppressive signals and induces Foxp3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T (T(reg cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32, which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs activated through the T cell receptor (TCR. Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T (T(N cells inhibited their proliferation and cytokine secretion upon TCR activation. Remarkably, GARP over-expression in T(N cells induced expression of T(reg master transcription factor Foxp3 and endowed them with a partial suppressive function. The extracellular but not the cytoplasmic region of GARP, was necessary for these functions. Silencing Foxp3 in human T(reg cells reduced expression of GARP and attenuated their suppressive function. However, GARP function was not affected when Foxp3 was downregulated in GARP-overexpressing cells, while silencing GARP in Foxp3-overexpressing cells reduced their suppressive activity. These findings reveal a novel cell surface molecule-mediated regulatory mechanism, with implications for modulating aberrant immune responses.

  20. Phosphoproteomics Reveals Regulatory T Cell-Mediated DEF6 Dephosphorylation That Affects Cytokine Expression in Human Conventional T Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Rubin N.

    2017-09-25

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control key events of immune tolerance, primarily by suppression of effector T cells. We previously revealed that Tregs rapidly suppress T cell receptor (TCR)-induced calcium store depletion in conventional CD4CD25 T cells (Tcons) independently of IP levels, consequently inhibiting NFAT signaling and effector cytokine expression. Here, we study Treg suppression mechanisms through unbiased phosphoproteomics of primary human Tcons upon TCR stimulation and Treg-mediated suppression, respectively. Tregs induced a state of overall decreased phosphorylation as opposed to TCR stimulation. We discovered novel phosphosites (T595_S597) in the DEF6 (SLAT) protein that were phosphorylated upon TCR stimulation and conversely dephosphorylated upon coculture with Tregs. Mutation of these DEF6 phosphosites abrogated interaction of DEF6 with the IP receptor and affected NFAT activation and cytokine transcription in primary Tcons. This novel mechanism and phosphoproteomics data resource may aid in modifying sensitivity of Tcons to Treg-mediated suppression in autoimmune disease or cancer.

  1. T Helper 17 Cells Interplay with CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in Regulation of Inflammations and Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Jietang; Wang, Hong; Yang#, Xiao-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a recently identified CD4+ T helper subset that has been implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Th17, along with CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and other newly emergent T helper subsets, Th9 and Tfh, have expanded the Th1-Th2 paradigm. Although this newly proposed six-subset paradigm significantly improved our understanding on the differentiation of CD4+ T helper cell subsets and the regulation of T helper cells in inflammation and autoimmunity, many questions remain to be answered. In this overview, we will briefly review the following issues: a) Old Th1-Th2 paradigm versus new multi-subset paradigm; b) Structural features of IL-17 family cytokines; c) Th17 cells; d) Effects of IL-17 on various cell types and tissues; e) IL-17 receptor and signaling pathways; f) Th17-mediated inflammations; and g) Protective mechanisms of IL-17 in infections. Lastly, we will look into the interaction of Th17 and Treg in autoimmune diseases and inflammation: Th17 cells interplay with Tregs. Regulation of autoimmunity and inflammation lies in the interplays of the different T helper subsets, therefore, better understanding of these subsets’ interactions with one another would greatly improve our approaches in developing therapy to combat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:20515737

  2. Perspectives on Regulatory T Cell Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Kröger, Andrea; Garritsen, Henk S.P.; Buer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, Treg cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance Treg cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human Treg cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 ...

  3. Stabilizing human regulatory T cells for tolerance inducing immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuehui; Koenen, Hans Jpm; Slaats, Jeroen Hr; Joosten, Irma

    2017-08-01

    Many autoimmune diseases develop as a consequence of an altered balance between autoreactive immune cells and suppressive FOXP3 + Treg. Restoring this balance through amplification of Treg represents a promising strategy to treat disease. However, FOXP3 + Treg might become unstable especially under certain inflammatory conditions, and might transform into proinflammatory cytokine-producing cells. The issue of heterogeneity and instability of Treg has caused considerable debate in the field and has important implications for Treg-based immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss how Treg stability is defined and what the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of FOXP3 expression and the regulation of Treg stability are. Also, we elaborate on current strategies used to stabilize human Treg for clinical purposes. This review focuses on human Treg, but considering that cell-intrinsic mechanisms to regulate Treg stability in mice and in humans might be similar, data derived from mice studies are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibition regulates inflammation and enhances Tregs after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, S.W.; Gatza, E.; Hou, G.; Sun, Y; Whitfield, J.; Song, Y.; Oravecz-Wilson, K.; Tawara, I.; Dinarello, C.A.; Reddy, P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined immunological responses in patients receiving histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition (vorinostat) for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Vorinostat treatment increased histone acetylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from

  5. Hypoxia Enhances Immunosuppression by Inhibiting CD4+ Effector T Cell Function and Promoting Treg Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Westendorf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hypoxia occurs in many pathological conditions, including inflammation and cancer. Within this context, hypoxia was shown to inhibit but also to promote T cell responses. Due to this controversial function, we aimed to explore whether an insufficient anti-tumour response during colitis-associated colon cancer could be ascribed to a hypoxic microenvironment. Methods: Colitis-associated colon cancer was induced in wildtype mice, and hypoxia as well as T cell immunity were analysed in the colonic tumour tissues. In addition, CD4+ effector T cells and regulatory T cells were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and examined regarding their phenotype and function. Results: We observed severe hypoxia in the colon of mice suffering from colitis-associated colon cancer that was accompanied by a reduced differentiation of CD4+ effector T cells and an enhanced number and suppressive activity of regulatory T cells. Complementary ex vivo and in vitro studies revealed that T cell stimulation under hypoxic conditions inhibited the differentiation, proliferation and IFN-γ production of TH1 cells and enhanced the suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells. Moreover, we identified an active role for HIF-1α in the modulation of CD4+ T cell functions under hypoxic conditions. Conclusion: Our data indicate that oxygen availability can function as a local modulator of CD4+ T cell responses and thus influences tumour immune surveillance in inflammation-associated colon cancer.

  6. Suppressive and immunoprotective functions of Tregs

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    Pushpa ePandiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T lymphocytes, known as regulatory T cells or Tregs, have been proposed to be a lineage of professional immune suppressive cells that exclusively counteract the effects of the immunoprotective "helper" and "cytotoxic" lineages of T lymphocytes. Here we discuss new concepts on the mechanisms and functions of Tregs. There are several key points we emphasize: 1. Tregs exert suppressive effects both directly on effector T cells and indirectly through antigen-presenting cells (APCs; 2. Regulation can occur through a novel mechanism of cytokine consumption to regulate as opposed to the usual mechanism of cytokine/chemokine production; 3. In cases where CD4+ effector T cells are directly inhibited by Tregs, it is chiefly through a mechanism of lymphokine withdrawal apoptosis leading to polyclonal deletion (PCD; and 4. Contrary to the current view, we discuss new evidence that Tregs, similar to other T cells lineages, can promote protective immune responses in certain infectious contexts (Pandiyan et al. 2011; Chen et al 2011. Although these points are at variance to varying degrees with the standard model of Treg behavior, we will recount developing findings that support these new concepts.

  7. Interleukin 6 Present in Inflammatory Ascites from Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2-Expressing Regulatory T Cells

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    Nirmala Chandralega Kampan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEpithelial ovarian cancer (EOC remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2, as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF. IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs.MethodsAscites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control. In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2+ Tregs and TNFR2− Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC.ResultsHigh levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2+ Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2+ Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2+ Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ production by effector T cells, and was

  8. Feline glycoprotein A repetitions predominant anchors transforming growth factor beta on the surface of activated CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells and mediates AIDS lentivirus-induced T cell immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle M; Fogle, Jonathan E; Ross, Peter; Tompkins, Mary B

    2013-04-01

    Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for AIDS-lentivirus infection, our laboratory has previously demonstrated that T regulatory (Treg) cell-mediated immune T and B cell dysfunction contributes to lentivirus persistence and chronic disease through membrane bound transforming growth factor beta (mTGFb). Studying Treg cells in the context of infection has been problematic as no inducible marker for activated Treg cells had been identified. However, recent reports in human Treg studies have described a novel protein, glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), as a unique marker of activated human Treg cells that anchors mTGFb. Herein we extend these studies to the feline Treg system, identifying feline GARP and demonstrating that human and feline GARP proteins are homologous in structure, expression pattern, and ability to form a complex with TGFb. We further demonstrate that GARP and TGFb form a complex on the surface of activated Treg cells and that these GARP(+)TGFb(+) Treg cells are highly efficient suppressor cells. Analysis of expression of this Treg activation marker in the FIV-AIDS model reveals an up-regulation of GARP expressing Treg cells during chronic FIV infection. We demonstrate that the GARP(+) Treg cells from FIV-infected cats suppress T helper cells in vivo and that blocking GARP or TGFb eliminates this suppression. These data suggest that GARP is expressed in complex with TGFb on the surface of activated Treg cells and plays an important role in TGFb(+) Treg-mediated T cell immune suppression during lentivirus infection.

  9. Treg depletion inhibits efficacy of cancer immunotherapy: implications for clinical trials.

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    James F Curtin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg infiltrate human glioblastoma (GBM; are involved in tumor progression and correlate with tumor grade. Transient elimination of Tregs using CD25 depleting antibodies (PC61 has been found to mediate GBM regression in preclinical models of brain tumors. Clinical trials that combine Treg depletion with tumor vaccination are underway to determine whether transient Treg depletion can enhance anti-tumor immune responses and improve long term survival in cancer patients.Using a syngeneic intracrabial glioblastoma (GBM mouse model we show that systemic depletion of Tregs 15 days after tumor implantation using PC61 resulted in a decrease in Tregs present in tumors, draining lymph nodes and spleen and improved long-term survival (50% of mice survived >150 days. No improvement in survival was observed when Tregs were depleted 24 days after tumor implantation, suggesting that tumor burden is an important factor for determining efficacy of Treg depletion in clinical trials. In a T cell dependent model of brain tumor regression elicited by intratumoral delivery of adenoviral vectors (Ad expressing Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L and Herpes Simplex Type 1-Thymidine Kinase (TK with ganciclovir (GCV, we demonstrate that administration of PC61 24 days after tumor implantation (7 days after treatment inhibited T cell dependent tumor regression and long term survival. Further, depletion with PC61 completely inhibited clonal expansion of tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes in response to the treatment.Our data demonstrate for the first time, that although Treg depletion inhibits the progression/eliminates GBM tumors, its efficacy is dependent on tumor burden. We conclude that this approach will be useful in a setting of minimal residual disease. Further, we also demonstrate that Treg depletion, using PC61 in combination with immunotherapy, inhibits clonal expansion of tumor antigen-specific T cells, suggesting that new, more

  10. Follicular Lymphoma Tregs Have a Distinct Transcription Profile Impacting Their Migration and Retention in the Malignant Lymph Node.

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    Hristina Nedelkovska

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs infiltrating follicular lymphoma lymph nodes are quantitatively and qualitatively different than those infiltrating normal and reactive nodes. To gain insight into how such Treg populations differ, we performed RNA sequence (RNAseq analyses on flow sorted Tregs from all three sources. We identify several molecules that could contribute to the observed increased suppressive capacity of follicular lymphoma nodal tregs, including upregulation of CTLA-4, IL-10, and GITR, all confirmed by protein expression. In addition, we identify, and confirm functionally, a novel mechanism by which Tregs target to and accumulate within a human tumor microenvironment, through the down regulation of S1PR1, SELL (L-selectin and CCR7, potentially resulting in greater lymph node retention. In addition we identify and confirm functionally the upregulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 as well as the secretion of the chemokines CXCL13 and IL-16 demonstrating the unique ability of the follicular derived Tregs to localize and accumulate within not only the malignant lymph node, but also localize and accumulate within the malignant B cell follicle itself. Such findings offer significant new insights into how follicular lymphoma nodal Tregs may contribute to the biology of follicular lymphoma and identify several novel therapeutic targets.

  11. FOXP3 renders activated human regulatory T cells resistant to restimulation-induced cell death by suppressing SAP expression.

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    Katz, Gil; Voss, Kelsey; Yan, Toria F; Kim, Yong Chan; Kortum, Robert L; Scott, David W; Snow, Andrew L

    2018-05-01

    Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program that regulates effector T cell expansion, triggered by repeated stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR) in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Although CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) consume IL-2 and experience frequent TCR stimulation, they are highly resistant to RICD. Resistance in Tregs is dependent on the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, although the mechanism remains unclear. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1), that lack the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), are also resistant to RICD. Here we demonstrate that normal Tregs express very low levels of SAP compared to conventional T cells. FOXP3 reduces SAP expression by directly binding to and repressing the SH2D1A (SAP) promoter. Indeed, ectopic SAP expression restores RICD sensitivity in human FOXP3 + Tregs. Our findings illuminate the mechanism behind FOXP3-mediated RICD resistance in Tregs, providing new insight into their long-term persistence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Targeting CXCR4 reverts the suppressive activity of T-regulatory cells in renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Sara; Napolitano, Maria; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Desicato, Sonia; Maro, Salvatore Di; Marinelli, Luciana; Fragale, Alessandra; Buoncervello, Maria; Persico, Francesco; Gabriele, Lucia; Novellino, Ettore; Longo, Nicola; Pignata, Sandro; Perdonà, Sisto; Scala, Stefania

    2017-09-29

    With the intent to identify biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) the functional status of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) was investigated in primary RCC. Tregs were isolated from tumoral-(TT), peritumoral tissue-(PT) and peripheral blood-(PB) of 42 primary RCC patients and function evaluated through effector T cells (Teff) proliferation, cytokines release and demethylation of Treg Specific Region (TSDR). The highest value of Tregs was detected in TT with the uppermost amount of effector-Tregs-(CD4 + CD25 hi FOXP3 hi CD45RA - ). PB-RCC Tregs efficiently suppress Teff proliferation compared to healthy donor (HD)-Tregs and, at the intrapatient evaluation, TT-derived Tregs were the most suppressive. Higher demethylation TSDR was detected in TT- and PB-RCC Tregs vs HD-Tregs ( P <0,001). CXCR4 is highly expressed on Tregs, thus we wished to modulate Tregs function through CXCR4 inhibition. CXCR4 antagonism, elicited by a new peptidic antagonist, Peptide-R29, efficiently reversed Tregs suppression of Teff proliferation. Thus Tregs functional evaluation precisely reflects Tregs status and may be a reliable biomarker of tumoral immune response. In addition, treatment with CXCR4 antagonist, impairing Tregs function, could improve the anticancer immune response, in combination with conventional therapy and/or immunotherapy such as checkpoints inhibitors.

  13. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek V; Somani, Ally-Khan; Young, Andrew B; Massari, Jessica V; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Garaczi, Edina; Babineau, Denise; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2011-05-26

    Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of T(regs) has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. T(regs) also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of T(regs) has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32), also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated T(regs). However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of T(regs) expressing LRRC32. Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated T(regs), we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ T(regs) are distinct from LRRC32- T(regs) with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ T(regs) are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- T(regs). A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent T(reg) populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of T(regs) and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.

  14. KLRG1 impairs regulatory T-cell competitive fitness in the gut.

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    Meinicke, Holger; Bremser, Anna; Brack, Maria; Schrenk, Klaudia; Pircher, Hanspeter; Izcue, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Immune homeostasis requires the tight, tissue-specific control of the different CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cell populations. The cadherin-binding inhibitory receptor killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) is expressed by a subpopulation of Treg cells with GATA3 + effector phenotype. Although such Treg cells are important for the immune balance, especially in the gut, the role of KLRG1 in Treg cells has not been assessed. Using KLRG1 knockout mice, we found that KLRG1 deficiency does not affect Treg cell frequencies in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes or intestine, or frequencies of GATA3 + Treg cells in the gut. KLRG1-deficient Treg cells were also protective in a T-cell transfer model of colitis. Hence, KLRG1 is not essential for the development or activity of the general Treg cell population. We then checked the effects of KLRG1 on Treg cell activation. In line with KLRG1's reported inhibitory activity, in vitro KLRG1 cross-linking dampened the Treg cell T-cell receptor response. Consistently, lack of KLRG1 on Treg cells conferred on them a competitive advantage in the gut, but not in lymphoid organs. Hence, although absence of KLRG1 is not enough to increase intestinal Treg cells in KLRG1 knockout mice, KLRG1 ligation reduces T-cell receptor signals and the competitive fitness of individual Treg cells in the intestine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Transient Treg depletion enhances therapeutic anti‐cancer vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Wayne J.; Chee, Jonathan; Khong, Andrea; Cleaver, Amanda L.; Solin, Jessica N.; Ma, Shaokang; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; Dick, Ian; Holt, Robert A.; Creaney, Jenette; Boon, Louis; Robinson, Bruce; Lake, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in suppressing anti‐ immunity and their depletion has been linked to improved outcomes. To better understand the role of Treg in limiting the efficacy of anti‐cancer immunity, we used a Diphtheria toxin (DTX) transgenic mouse model to specifically target and deplete Treg. Methods Tumor bearing BALB/c FoxP3.dtr transgenic mice were subjected to different treatment protocols, with or without Treg depletion and tumor growth and survival monitored. Results DTX specifically depleted Treg in a transient, dose‐dependent manner. Treg depletion correlated with delayed tumor growth, increased effector T cell (Teff) activation, and enhanced survival in a range of solid tumors. Tumor regression was dependent on Teffs as depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells completely abrogated any survival benefit. Severe morbidity following Treg depletion was only observed, when consecutive doses of DTX were given during peak CD8 T cell activation, demonstrating that Treg can be depleted on multiple occasions, but only when CD8 T cell activation has returned to base line levels. Finally, we show that even minimal Treg depletion is sufficient to significantly improve the efficacy of tumor‐peptide vaccination. Conclusions BALB/c.FoxP3.dtr mice are an ideal model to investigate the full therapeutic potential of Treg depletion to boost anti‐tumor immunity. DTX‐mediated Treg depletion is transient, dose‐dependent, and leads to strong anti‐tumor immunity and complete tumor regression at high doses, while enhancing the efficacy of tumor‐specific vaccination at low doses. Together this data highlight the importance of Treg manipulation as a useful strategy for enhancing current and future cancer immunotherapies. PMID:28250921

  16. Novel effector phenotype of Tim-3+ regulatory T cells leads to enhanced suppressive function in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuqing; McMichael, Elizabeth L; Shayan, Gulidanna; Li, Jing; Chen, Kevin; Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Kane, Lawrence P; Lu, Binfeng; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-04-30

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important suppressive cells among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Treg express the well-known immune checkpoint receptor PD-1, which is reported to mark "exhausted" Treg with lower suppressive function. T cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim)-3, a negative regulator of Th1 immunity, is expressed by a sizeable fraction of TIL Tregs, but the functional status of Tim-3+ Tregs remains unclear. CD4+CTLA-4+CD25high Treg were sorted from freshly excised head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TIL based on Tim-3 expression. Functional and phenotypic features of these Tim-3+ and Tim-3- TIL Tregs were tested by in vitro suppression assays and multi-color flow cytometry. Gene expression profiling and NanoString analysis of Tim-3+ TIL Treg were performed. A murine HNSCC tumor model was used to test the effect of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on Tim-3+ Treg.  Results: Despite high PD-1 expression, Tim-3+ TIL Treg displayed a greater capacity to inhibit naïve T cell proliferation than Tim-3- Treg. Tim-3+ Treg from human HNSCC TIL also displayed an effector-like phenotype, with more robust expression of CTLA-4, PD-1, CD39 and IFN-γ receptor. Exogenous IFN-γ treatment could partially reverse the suppressive function of Tim-3+ TIL Treg. Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy downregulated Tim-3 expression on Tregs isolated from murine HNSCC tumors, and this treatment reversed the suppressive function of HNSCC TIL Tregs. Tim-3+ Treg are functionally and phenotypically distinct in HNSCC TIL, and are highly effective at inhibiting T cell proliferation despite high PD-1 expression.  IFN-γ induced by anti-PD-1 immunotherapy may be beneficial by reversing Tim-3+ Treg suppression. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Seth B; Chen, Yung-Yi; Muthana, Munitta; Welford, Abigail F; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Murdoch, Craig; De Palma, Michele; Lewis, Claire E

    2011-04-01

    Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors. Expression of its receptor, TIE2, defines a highly proangiogenic subpopulation of myeloid cells in circulation and tumors called TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs). Genetic depletion of TEMs markedly reduces tumor angiogenesis in various tumor models, emphasizing their essential role in driving tumor progression. Previously, we demonstrated that ANGPT2 augments the expression of various proangiogenic genes, the potent immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and a chemokine for regulatory T cells (Tregs), CCL17 by TEMs in vitro. We now show that TEMs also express higher levels of IL-10 than TIE2(-) macrophages in tumors and that ANGPT2-stimulated release of IL-10 by TEMs suppresses T cell proliferation, increases the ratio of CD4(+) T cells to CD8(+) T cells, and promotes the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Tregs. Furthermore, syngeneic murine tumors expressing high levels of ANGPT2 contained not only high numbers of TEMs but also increased numbers of Tregs, whereas genetic depletion of tumor TEMs resulted in a marked reduction in the frequency of Tregs in tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that ANGPT2-stimulated TEMs represent a novel, potent immunosuppressive force in tumors.

  18. Inhibition of FOXP3/NFAT interaction enhances T cell function after TCR stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Teresa; Villanueva, Lorea; Durántez, Maika; Gorraiz, Marta; Ruiz, Marta; Belsúe, Virginia; Riezu-Boj, José I.; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Oyarzábal, Julen; Bandukwala, Hozefa; Lourenço, Ana R.; Coffer, Paul J.; Sarobe, Pablo; Prieto, Jesús; Casares, Noelia; Lasarte, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) activity is modulated by a cooperative complex between the transcription factor NFAT and FOXP3, a lineage specification factor for Tregs. FOXP3/NFAT interaction is required to repress expression of IL-2, upregulate expression of the Treg markers CTLA4 and CD25, and confer

  19. Umbilical cord blood regulatory T-cell expansion and functional effects of tumor necrosis factor receptor family members OX40 and 4-1BB expressed on artificial antigen-presenting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker-Murray, Paul; Porter, Stephen B.; Merkel, Sarah C.; Londer, Aryel; Taylor, Dawn K.; Bina, Megan; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Rubinstein, Pablo; Van Rooijen, Nico; Golovina, Tatiana N.; Suhoski, Megan M.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Wagner, John E.; June, Carl H.; Riley, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we showed that human umbilical cord blood (UCB) regulatory T cells (Tregs) could be expanded approximately 100-fold using anti-CD3/28 monoclonal antibody (mAb)–coated beads to provide T-cell receptor and costimulatory signals. Because Treg numbers from a single UCB unit are limited, we explored the use of cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) preloaded with anti-CD3/28 mAbs to achieve higher levels of Treg expansion. Compared with beads, aAPCs had similar expansion properties while significantly increasing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) secretion and the potency of Treg suppressor function. aAPCs modified to coexpress OX40L or 4-1BBL expanded UCB Tregs to a significantly greater extent than bead- or nonmodified aAPC cultures, reaching mean expansion levels exceeding 1250-fold. Despite the high expansion and in contrast to studies using other Treg sources, neither OX40 nor 4-1BB signaling of UCB Tregs reduced in vitro suppression. UCB Tregs expanded with 4-1BBL expressing aAPCs had decreased levels of proapoptotic bim. UCB Tregs expanded with nonmodified or modified aAPCs versus beads resulted in higher survival associated with increased Treg persistence in a xeno-geneic graft-versus-host disease lethality model. These data offer a novel approach for UCB Treg expansion using aAPCs, including those coexpressing OX40L or 4-1BBL. PMID:18645038

  20. IL-34 is a Treg-specific cytokine and mediates transplant tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bézie, Séverine; Picarda, Elodie; Ossart, Jason; Tesson, Laurent; Usal, Claire; Renaudin, Karine; Anegon, Ignacio; Guillonneau, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines and metabolic pathway–controlling enzymes regulate immune responses and have potential as powerful tools to mediate immune tolerance. Blockade of the interaction between CD40 and CD40L induces long-term cardiac allograft survival in rats through a CD8+CD45RClo Treg potentiation. Here, we have shown that the cytokine IL-34, the immunoregulatory properties of which have not been previously studied in transplantation or T cell biology, is expressed by rodent CD8+CD45RClo Tregs and huma...

  1. Effector Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Immune Homeostasis Depend on the Transcription Factor Myb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Sheila; D'Amico, Angela; Cretney, Erika; Liao, Yang; Tellier, Julie; Bruggeman, Christine; Almeida, Francisca F; Leahy, Jamie; Belz, Gabrielle T; Smyth, Gordon K; Shi, Wei; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-01-17

    FoxP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Activated Treg cells undergo further differentiation into an effector state that highly expresses genes critical for Treg cell function, although how this process is coordinated on a transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking the transcription factor Myb in Treg cells succumbed to a multi-organ inflammatory disease. Myb was specifically expressed in, and required for the differentiation of, thymus-derived effector Treg cells. The combination of transcriptome and genomic footprint analyses revealed that Myb directly regulated a large proportion of the gene expression specific to effector Treg cells, identifying Myb as a critical component of the gene regulatory network controlling effector Treg cell differentiation and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CD4(+)CD25(+)Tregs express an increased LAG-3 and CTLA-4 in anterior chamber-associated immune deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.F.; Yang, P.Z.; Zhou, H.Y.; Li, B.; Huang, X.K.; Meng, Q.L.; Wang, L.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells have been proven to be essential for maintenance of peripheral tolerance and autoimmune diseases. ACAID is a model of immune privilege in the eye. Relatively little is known about the role and phenotype of these regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells in ACAID. Methods

  3. Foxp3 expression in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 specifically characterizes the thymically derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs. Limited evidence indicates that it is also expressed, albeit to a lesser extent, in tissues other than thymus and spleen, while, very recently, it was shown that Foxp3 is expressed by pancreatic carcinoma. This study was scheduled to investigate whether expression of Foxp3 transcripts and mature protein occurs constitutively in various tumor types. Materials and methods Twenty five tumor cell lines of different tissue origins (lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, erythroid leukemia, acute T-cell leukemia were studied. Detection of Foxp3 mRNA was performed using both conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR while protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using different antibody clones. Results Foxp3 mRNA as well as Foxp3 protein was detected in all tumor cell lines, albeit in variable levels, not related to the tissue of origin. This expression correlated with the expression levels of IL-10 and TGFb1. Conclusion We offer evidence that Foxp3 expression, characterizes tumor cells of various tissue origins. The biological significance of these findings warrants further investigation in the context of tumor immune escape, and especially under the light of current anti-cancer efforts interfering with Foxp3 expression.

  4. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma Patients

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    Godfred Futagbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma (eBL. This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. Methods: T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Results: CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 3 expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL patients (n = 4. In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower (p = 0.004 while IL-10 was significantly higher (p = 0.038, in eBL patients (n = 21 compared to controls (n = 16. Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria (n = 26 and eBL (n = 14 patients compared to healthy controls (n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively. Conclusion: The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells.

  5. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagbi, Godfred; Gyan, Ben; Nunoo, Harriet; Tetteh, John K.A.; Welbeck, Jennifer E.; Renner, Lorna Awo; Ofori, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Edoh, Dominic A.; Akanmori, Bartholomew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma (eBL). This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. Methods: T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Results: CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 3) expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL) patients (n = 4). In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower (p = 0.004) while IL-10 was significantly higher (p = 0.038), in eBL patients (n = 21) compared to controls (n = 16). Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria (n = 26) and eBL (n = 14) patients compared to healthy controls (n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively). Conclusion: The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells. PMID:28536409

  6. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagbi, Godfred; Gyan, Ben; Nunoo, Harriet; Tetteh, John K A; Welbeck, Jennifer E; Renner, Lorna Awo; Ofori, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Edoh, Dominic A; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2015-08-04

    The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma (eBL). This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls ( n = 3) expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL) patients ( n = 4). In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower ( p = 0.004) while IL-10 was significantly higher ( p = 0.038), in eBL patients ( n = 21) compared to controls ( n = 16). Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria ( n = 26) and eBL ( n = 14) patients compared to healthy controls ( n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively). The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells.

  7. Regulatory T cells: immune suppression and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Yisong Y

    2010-01-01

    Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) were originally identified as critical in maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The immunosuppressive functions of Tregs are widely acknowledged and have been extensively studied. Recent studies have revealed many diverse roles of Tregs in shaping the immune system and the inflammatory response. This review will discuss our efforts as well as the efforts of others towards understanding the multifaceted function of Treg...

  8. CBirTox is a selective antigen-specific agonist of the Treg-IgA-microbiota homeostatic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Alexander

    Full Text Available Cultivating an environment of mutualism between host cells and the microbiota is vital, and dysregulation of this relationship is associated with multiple immune disorders including metabolic and skin diseases, asthma, allergy, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. One prominent mechanism for maintaining homeostasis is the protective regulatory T cell (Treg- Immunoglobulin A (IgA pathway toward microbiota antigens, in which Tregs maintain homeostasis and provide critical survival factors to IgA+ B cells. In order to amplify the Treg-IgA pathway, we have generated a fusion protein, CBirTox, comprised of a portion of the carboxy terminus of CBir1, a microbiota flagellin, genetically coupled to Cholera Toxin B subunit (CTB via the A2 linker of CT. Both dendritic cells (DCs and B cells pulsed with CBirTox selectively induced functional CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs in vitro, and CBirTox augmented CD4+Foxp3+ cell numbers in vivo. The induced Foxp3 expression was independent of retinoic acid (RA signaling but was inhibited by neutralization of TGF-β. CBirTox treatment of B cells downregulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling. Furthermore, CBirTox-pulsed DCs induced substantial production of IgA from naïve B cells. Collectively these data demonstrate that CBirTox represents a novel approach to bolstering the Treg-IgA pathway at the host-microbiota interface.

  9. Treg subsets in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinoma: Characteristics, role, and therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, Egbert H.; te Velde, Anje A.

    2016-01-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) play an important role in the regulation of autoimmunity, autoinflammation, allergic diseases, infection, and the tumor environment. Different subsets are characterized that use a number of regulatory mechanisms. Tregs can influence the progression of inflammatory bowel

  10. Histone methylation mediates plasticity of human FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells by modulating signature gene expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiqi; Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yanke; Liu, Zhengwen; Yang, Xiaomei; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Yong

    2014-03-01

    CD4(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a heterogeneous and plastic T-cell lineage that plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and immune tolerance. However, the fate of human Treg cells after loss of FOXP3 expression and the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to such a phenotype switch remain to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrate that human CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(low/-) Treg cells convert to two subpopulations with distinctive FOXP3(+) and FOXP3(-) phenotypes following in vitro culture with anti-CD3/CD28 and interleukin-2. Digital gene expression analysis showed that upon in vitro expansion, human Treg cells down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4, ICOS, IKZF2 and LRRC32, but up-regulated a set of T helper lineage-associated genes, especially T helper type 2 (Th2)-associated, such as GATA3, GFI1 and IL13. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing of these subpopulations yielded genome-wide maps of their H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 profiles. Surprisingly, reprogramming of Treg cells was associated with differential histone modifications, as evidenced by decreased abundance of permissive H3K4me3 within the down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4 and LRRC32 loci, and increased abundance of H3K4me3 within the Th2-associated genes, such as IL4 and IL5; however, the H3K27me3 modification profile was not significantly different between the two subpopulations. In conclusion, this study revealed that loss of FOXP3 expression from human Treg cells during in vitro expansion can induce reprogramming to a T helper cell phenotype with a gene expression signature dominated by Th2 lineage-associated genes, and that this cell type conversion may be mediated by histone methylation events. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Histone methylation mediates plasticity of human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells by modulating signature gene expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiqi; Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yanke; Liu, Zhengwen; Yang, Xiaomei; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a heterogeneous and plastic T-cell lineage that plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and immune tolerance. However, the fate of human Treg cells after loss of FOXP3 expression and the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to such a phenotype switch remain to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrate that human CD4+ CD25high CD127low/− Treg cells convert to two subpopulations with distinctive FOXP3+ and FOXP3− phenotypes following in vitro culture with anti-CD3/CD28 and interleukin-2. Digital gene expression analysis showed that upon in vitro expansion, human Treg cells down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4, ICOS, IKZF2 and LRRC32, but up-regulated a set of T helper lineage-associated genes, especially T helper type 2 (Th2)-associated, such as GATA3, GFI1 and IL13. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing of these subpopulations yielded genome-wide maps of their H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 profiles. Surprisingly, reprogramming of Treg cells was associated with differential histone modifications, as evidenced by decreased abundance of permissive H3K4me3 within the down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4 and LRRC32 loci, and increased abundance of H3K4me3 within the Th2-associated genes, such as IL4 and IL5; however, the H3K27me3 modification profile was not significantly different between the two subpopulations. In conclusion, this study revealed that loss of FOXP3 expression from human Treg cells during in vitro expansion can induce reprogramming to a T helper cell phenotype with a gene expression signature dominated by Th2 lineage-associated genes, and that this cell type conversion may be mediated by histone methylation events. PMID:24152290

  12. Regulatory T cell frequencies and phenotypes following anti-viral vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Charlotte M T de Wolf

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Treg function in the prevention of excessive inflammation and maintenance of immunological homeostasis. However, these cells may also interfere with resolution of infections or with immune reactions following vaccination. Effects of Treg on vaccine responses are nowadays investigated, but the impact of vaccination on Treg homeostasis is still largely unknown. This may be a relevant safety aspect, since loss of tolerance through reduced Treg may trigger autoimmunity. In exploratory clinical trials, healthy adults were vaccinated with an influenza subunit vaccine plus or minus the adjuvant MF59®, an adjuvanted hepatitis B subunit vaccine or a live attenuated yellow fever vaccine. Frequencies and phenotypes of resting (rTreg and activated (aTreg subpopulations of circulating CD4+ Treg were determined and compared to placebo immunization. Vaccination with influenza vaccines did not result in significant changes in Treg frequencies and phenotypes. Vaccination with the hepatitis B vaccine led to slightly increased frequencies of both rTreg and aTreg subpopulations and a decrease in expression of functionality marker CD39 on aTreg. The live attenuated vaccine resulted in a decrease in rTreg frequency, and an increase in expression of activation marker CD25 on both subpopulations, possibly indicating a conversion from resting to migratory aTreg due to vaccine virus replication. To study the more local effects of vaccination on Treg in lymphoid organs, we immunized mice and analyzed the CD4+ Treg frequency and phenotype in draining lymph nodes and spleen. Vaccination resulted in a transient local decrease in Treg frequency in lymph nodes, followed by a systemic Treg increase in the spleen. Taken together, we showed that vaccination with vaccines with an already established safe profile have only minimal impact on frequencies and characteristics of Treg over time. These findings may serve as a bench-mark of inter-individual variation

  13. Effector Regulatory T Cells Reflect the Equilibrium between Antitumor Immunity and Autoimmunity in Adult T-cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureshino, Hiroshi; Shindo, Takero; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Watanabe, Eri; Satoh, Natsuko; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Kitamura, Hiroaki; Doi, Kazuko; Nagase, Kotaro; Kimura, Hiromi; Samukawa, Makoto; Kusunoki, Susumu; Miyahara, Masaharu; Shin-I, Tadasu; Suzuki, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Kimura, Shinya

    2016-08-01

    The regulatory T cells (Treg) with the most potent immunosuppressive activity are the effector Tregs (eTreg) with a CD45RA(-)Foxp3(++)CCR4(+) phenotype. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells often share the Treg phenotype and also express CCR4. Although mogamulizumab, a monoclonal antibody to CCR4, shows marked antitumor effects against ATL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, concerns have been raised that it may induce severe autoimmune immunopathology by depleting eTregs. Here, we present case reports for two patients with ATL who responded to mogamulizumab but developed a severe skin rash and autoimmune brainstem encephalitis. Deep sequencing of the T-cell receptor revealed that ATL cells and naturally occurring Tregs within the cell population with a Treg phenotype can be clearly distinguished according to CADM1 expression. The onset of skin rash and brainstem encephalitis was coincident with eTreg depletion from the peripheral blood, whereas ATL relapses were coincident with eTreg recovery. These results imply that eTreg numbers in the peripheral blood sensitively reflect the equilibrium between antitumor immunity and autoimmunity, and that mogamulizumab might suppress ATL until the eTreg population recovers. Close monitoring of eTreg numbers is crucial if we are to provide immunomodulatory treatments that target malignancy without severe adverse events. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(8); 644-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Non-suppressive regulatory T cell subset expansion in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Yoshiharu; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Uga, Sayuri; Higashi, Akifumi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been reported to play a pivotal role in the vascular remodeling of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recent studies have revealed that Tregs are heterogeneous and can be characterized by three phenotypically and functionally different subsets. In this study, we investigated the roles of Treg subsets in the pathogenesis of PAH in eight patients with PAH and 14 healthy controls. Tregs and their subsets in peripheral blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. Treg subsets were defined as CD4(+)CD45RA(+)FoxP3(low) resting Tregs (rTregs), CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(high) activated Tregs (aTregs), and CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(low) non-suppressive Tregs (non-Tregs). The proportion of Tregs among CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in PAH patients than in controls (6.54 ± 1.10 vs. 3.81 ± 0.28 %, p < 0.05). Of the three subsets, the proportion of non-Tregs was significantly elevated in PAH patients compared with controls (4.06 ± 0.40 vs. 2.79 ± 0.14 %, p < 0.01), whereas those of rTregs and aTregs were not different between the two groups. Moreover, the expression levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, a functional cell surface molecule, in aTregs (p < 0.05) and non-Tregs (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in PAH patients compared with controls. These results suggested the non-Treg subset was expanded and functionally activated in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from IPAH patients. We hypothesize that immunoreactions involving the specific activation of the non-Treg subset might play a role in the vascular remodeling of PAH.

  15. Freeze and Thaw of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Results in Loss of CD62L Expression and a Reduced Capacity to Protect against Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Florek

    Full Text Available The adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs in murine models of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT has been shown to protect recipient mice from lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD and this approach is being actively investigated in human clinical trials. Here, we examined the effects of cryopreservation on Tregs. We found that freeze and thaw of murine and human Tregs is associated with reduced expression of L-selectin (CD62L, which was previously established to be an important factor that contributes to the in vivo protective effects of Tregs. Frozen and thawed murine Tregs showed a reduced capacity to bind to the CD62L binding partner MADCAM1 in vitro as well as an impaired homing to secondary lymphoid organs in vivo. Upon adoptive transfer frozen and thawed Tregs failed to protect against lethal GVHD compared with fresh Tregs in a murine model of allogeneic HCT across major histocompatibility barriers. In summary, the direct administration of adoptively transferred frozen and thawed Tregs adversely affects their immunosuppressive potential which is an important factor to consider in the clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapies.

  16. Phosphoproteomics Reveals Regulatory T Cell-Mediated DEF6 Dephosphorylation That Affects Cytokine Expression in Human Conventional T Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Rubin N.; Binai, Nadine A.; Marabita, Francesco; Sui, Zhenhua; Altman, Amnon; Heck, Albert J. R.; Tegner, Jesper; Schmidt, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    (Tcons) independently of IP levels, consequently inhibiting NFAT signaling and effector cytokine expression. Here, we study Treg suppression mechanisms through unbiased phosphoproteomics of primary human Tcons upon TCR stimulation and Treg

  17. Regulatory T Cells in Skin Facilitate Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Zirak, Bahar; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Pauli, Mariela L; Truong, Hong-An; Lai, Kevin; Ahn, Richard; Corbin, Kaitlin; Lowe, Margaret M; Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Taravati, Keyon; Tan, Madeleine R; Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto R; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bertolini, Marta; Liao, Wilson; Nestle, Frank O; Paus, Ralf; Cotsarelis, George; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of T regs and HFSCs revealed that skin-resident Tregs preferentially express high levels of the Notch ligand family member, Jagged 1 (Jag1). Expression of Jag1 on Tregs facilitated HFSC function and efficient HF regeneration. Taken together, our work demonstrates that Tregs in skin play a major role in HF biology by promoting the function of HFSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of chorioamnionitis on regulatory T cells in moderate/late preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Cesar M; Wells, Casey B; Gisslen, Tate; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Chougnet, Claire A

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have a protective role for the control of immune activation and tissue damage. The effects of chorioamnionitis (chorio) on Treg in moderate/late preterm newborns are not known. We hypothesized that infants exposed to chorio would have decreased Treg frequency and/or function. We isolated mononuclear cells from adult peripheral blood and cord blood from term and moderate/late preterm infants who were classified for severity of chorio exposure. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for Treg frequency and phenotype. Treg suppression of activation of conventional T-cells (Tcon) was also quantified. Treg frequencies were similar in all groups of neonates, but lower than that found in adults. Newborn Treg had a naïve phenotype, with decreased levels of CD45RO, HLA-DR, CD39 and TIGIT compared to adult Treg and chorio did not affect the phenotype. Treg from preterm newborns exposed to severe chorio had higher expression of Ki67 compared to the other groups. Treg from preterm newborns were less suppressive than Treg from adults or term, and the level of suppression was reduced with severe chorio. Relative to term, Treg frequency and phenotype were not affected by prematurity and chorio but their functionality was decreased. Lower Treg activity may contribute to inflammation in newborns that is often associated with chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of chorioamnionitis on regulatory T cells in moderate/late preterm neonates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Cesar M.; Wells, Casey B.; Gisslen, Tate; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Chougnet, Claire A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have a protective role for the control of immune activation and tissue damage. The effects of chorioamnionitis (chorio) on Treg in moderate/late preterm newborns are not known. We hypothesized that infants exposed to chorio would have decreased Treg frequency and/or function. We isolated mononuclear cells from adult peripheral blood and cord blood from term and moderate/late preterm infants who were classified for severity of chorio exposure. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for Treg frequency and phenotype. Treg suppression of activation of conventional T-cells (Tcon) was also quantified. Treg frequencies were similar in all groups of neonates, but lower than that found in adults. Newborn Treg had a naïve phenotype, with decreased levels of CD45RO, HLA-DR, CD39 and TIGIT compared to adult Treg and chorio did not affect the phenotype. Treg from preterm newborns exposed to severe chorio had higher expression of Ki67 compared to the other groups. Treg from preterm newborns were less suppressive than Treg from adults or term, and the level of suppression was reduced with severe chorio. Relative to term, Treg frequency and phenotype were not affected by prematurity and chorio but their functionality was decreased. Lower Treg activity may contribute to inflammation in newborns that is often associated with chorioamnionitis. PMID:25451985

  20. Immune targeting of PD-1hi expressing cells during and after antiretroviral therapy in SIV-infected rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A.; Xiao, Peng; Hogg, Alison E.; Demberg, Thorsten; McKinnon, Katherine; Venzon, David; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; DiPasquale, Janet; Lee, Eun M.; Hudacik, Lauren; Pal, Ranajit; Sui, Yongjun; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Liu, Linda; Langermann, Solomon; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    High-level T cell expression of PD-1 during SIV infection is correlated with impaired proliferation and function. We evaluated the phenotype and distribution of T cells and Tregs during antiretroviral therapy plus PD-1 modulation (using a B7-DC-Ig fusion protein) and post-ART. Chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques received: 11 weeks of ART (Group A); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig (Group B); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig, then 12 weeks of B7-DC-Ig alone (Group C). Continuous B7-DC-Ig treatment (Group C) decreased rebound viremia post-ART compared to pre-ART levels, associated with decreased PD-1 hi expressing T cells and Tregs in PBMCs, and PD-1 hi Tregs in lymph nodes. It transiently decreased expression of Ki67 and α 4 β 7 in PBMC CD4 + and CD8 + Tregs for up to 8 weeks post-ART and maintained Ag-specific T-cell responses at low levels. Continued immune modulation targeting PD-1 hi cells during and post-ART helps maintain lower viremia, keeps a favorable T cell/Treg repertoire and modulates antigen-specific responses. - Highlights: • B7-DC-Ig modulates PD-1 hi cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques during and post-ART. • Continued PD-1 modulation post-ART maintains PD-1 hi cells at low levels. • Continued PD-1 modulation post-ART maintains a favorable T cell and Treg repertoire

  1. Immune targeting of PD-1{sup hi} expressing cells during and after antiretroviral therapy in SIV-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A.; Xiao, Peng; Hogg, Alison E.; Demberg, Thorsten; McKinnon, Katherine [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Venzon, David [Biostatistics and Data Management Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; DiPasquale, Janet [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lee, Eun M.; Hudacik, Lauren; Pal, Ranajit [Advanced Bioscience Laboratories Inc., Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Sui, Yongjun; Berzofsky, Jay A. [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Liu, Linda; Langermann, Solomon [Amplimmune Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Robert-Guroff, Marjorie, E-mail: guroffm@mail.nih.gov [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    High-level T cell expression of PD-1 during SIV infection is correlated with impaired proliferation and function. We evaluated the phenotype and distribution of T cells and Tregs during antiretroviral therapy plus PD-1 modulation (using a B7-DC-Ig fusion protein) and post-ART. Chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques received: 11 weeks of ART (Group A); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig (Group B); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig, then 12 weeks of B7-DC-Ig alone (Group C). Continuous B7-DC-Ig treatment (Group C) decreased rebound viremia post-ART compared to pre-ART levels, associated with decreased PD-1{sup hi} expressing T cells and Tregs in PBMCs, and PD-1{sup hi} Tregs in lymph nodes. It transiently decreased expression of Ki67 and α{sub 4}β{sub 7} in PBMC CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} Tregs for up to 8 weeks post-ART and maintained Ag-specific T-cell responses at low levels. Continued immune modulation targeting PD-1{sup hi} cells during and post-ART helps maintain lower viremia, keeps a favorable T cell/Treg repertoire and modulates antigen-specific responses. - Highlights: • B7-DC-Ig modulates PD-1{sup hi} cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques during and post-ART. • Continued PD-1 modulation post-ART maintains PD-1{sup hi} cells at low levels. • Continued PD-1 modulation post-ART maintains a favorable T cell and Treg repertoire.

  2. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are elevated and display an active phenotype in patients with chronic HCV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, H J; Gaardbo, J C; Ronit, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood and liver tissue in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection and in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection. In a cross-sectional study were included 51 patients with chronic HCV infection, 24...... patients with HIV/HCV co-infection and 24 healthy individuals. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ Tregs were determined using flow cytometry. Fibrosis was examined by transient elastography. Inflammation, fibrosis and Tregs were determined in liver biopsies from 12 patients. Increased frequency of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ Tregs was found...... in HIV/HCV co-infected patients [median: 6.4% (IQR: 5.7-6.9) and 1.0% (0.7-1.2), respectively] compared to HCV mono-infected patients [5.6% (4.2-6.3), P = 0.01 and 0.5% (0.3-0.7), P

  3. In vitro induction of functional allergen-specific CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, E; Akdis, C A; Wagner, B; Steinbach, F; Marti, E

    2013-08-01

    proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) cells in an antigen-specific manner. The in vitro induction of functional allergen-specific Treg cells in IBH-affected horses suggests a potential therapeutic use of these cells in allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. T cell suppression by naturally occurring HLA-G-expressing regulatory CD4+ T cells is IL-10-dependent and reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zozulya, Alla L; Weidenfeller, Christian; Schwab, Nicholas; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    CD4(+) T cells constitutively expressing the immune-tolerogenic HLA-G have been described recently as a new type of nT(reg) (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)) in humans. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) accumulate at sites of inflammation and are potent suppressors of T cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting their role in immune regulation. We here characterize the mechanism of how CD4(+) HLA-G(pos) T(reg) influence autologous HLA-G(neg) T(resp) function. Using a suppression system free of APC, we demonstrate a T-T cell interaction, resulting in suppression of HLA-G(neg) T(resp), which is facilitated by TCR engagement on HLA-G(pos) T(reg). Suppression is independent of cell-cell contact and is reversible, as the removal of HLA-G(pos) T(reg) from the established coculture restored the proliferative capability of responder cells. Further, HLA-G(pos) T(reg)-mediated suppression critically depends on the secretion of IL-10 but not TGF-beta.

  5. Expansion of CD25-Negative Forkhead Box P3-Positive T Cells during HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías T. Angerami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB and HIV alter the immune system, and coinfected (HIV-TB individuals usually present deregulations of T-lymphocytic immune response. We previously observed an increased frequency of “unconventional” CD4+CD25−FoxP3+ Treg (uTreg population during HIV-TB disease. Therefore, we aimed to explore the phenotype and function of uTreg and conventional CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg subsets (cTreg in this context. We evaluated the expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR, and the effector/memory distribution by flow cytometry in cTreg and uTreg. Also, IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ production, and the suppressor capacity of uTregs were analyzed in cocultures with effector lymphocytes and compared with the effect of regulatory T cells (Tregs. We found diminished expression of CD39 and higher levels of PD1 on uTreg compared to cTreg in both HIV-TB and healthy donors (HD. In addition, uTreg and cTreg showed differences in maturation status in both HIV-TB and HD groups, due to the expansion of effector memory uTregs. Interestingly, both HIV-TB and HD showed a pronounced production of IFN-γ in uTreg population, though no significant differences were observed for IL-10 and TGF-β production between uTreg and cTreg. Moreover, IFN-γ+ cells were restricted to the CD39− uTreg population. Finally, when the suppressor capacity was evaluated, both uTreg and cTreg inhibited polyclonal T cell-proliferation and IFN-γ production in a similar extent. These findings suggest that uTregs, which are expanded during HIV-TB coinfection, exert regulatory functions in a similar way to cTregs despite an altered surface expression of Treg characteristic markers and differences in cytokine production.

  6. The frequency of CD127low expressing CD4+CD25high T regulatory cells is inversely correlated with human T lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 proviral load in HTLV-1-infection and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieia Marco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+CD25high regulatory T (TReg cells modulate antigen-specific T cell responses, and can suppress anti-viral immunity. In HTLV-1 infection, a selective decrease in the function of TReg cell mediated HTLV-1-tax inhibition of FOXP3 expression has been described. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and phenotype of TReg cells in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and in HTLV-1-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP patients, and to correlate with measures of T cell activation. Results We were able to confirm that HTLV-I drives activation, spontaneous IFNγ production, and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. We also observed a significantly lower proportion of CTLA-4+ TReg cells (CD4+CD25high T cells in subjects with HAM/TSP patients compared to healthy controls. Ki-67 expression was negatively correlated to the frequency of CTLA-4+ TReg cells in HAM/TSP only, although Ki-67 expression was inversely correlated with the percentage of CD127low TReg cells in healthy control subjects. Finally, the proportion of CD127low TReg cells correlated inversely with HTLV-1 proviral load. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that TReg cells may be subverted in HAM/TSP patients, which could explain the marked cellular activation, spontaneous cytokine production, and proliferation of CD4+ T cells, in particular those expressing the CD25highCD127low phenotype. TReg cells represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention for patients with HTLV-1-related neurological diseases.

  7. Identification and monitoring of effector and regulatory T cells during experimental arthritis based on differential expression of CD25 and CD134

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte-'t Hoen, E.N.M.; Boot, E.P.J.; Wagenaar-Hilbers, J.P.A.; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Arkesteijn, G.J.A.; Storm, G.; Everse, L.A.; Eden, W. van; Wauben, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Major problems in the analysis of CD4+ effector cell and regulatory T cell (Treg) populations in an activated immune system are caused by the facts that both cell types can express CD25 and that the discriminatory marker forkhead box p3 can only be analyzed in nonviable (permeabilized) cells. Here,

  8. In vivo Expansion of Naïve CD4+CD25high FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma after IL-2 Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Marc; Schumak, Beatrix; Weihrauch, Martin R.; Andres, Bettina; Giese, Thomas; Endl, Elmar; Knolle, Percy A.; Classen, Sabine; Limmer, Andreas; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are increased in context of malignancies and their expansion can be correlated with higher disease burden and decreased survival. Initially, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been used as T-cell growth factor in clinical vaccination trials. In murine models, however, a role of IL-2 in development, differentiation, homeostasis, and function of Treg cells was established. In IL-2 treated cancer patients a further Treg-cell expansion was described, yet, the mechanism of expansion is still elusive. Here we report that functional Treg cells of a naïve phenotype - as determined by CCR7 and CD45RA expression - are significantly expanded in colorectal cancer patients. Treatment of 15 UICC stage IV colorectal cancer patients with IL-2 in a phase I/II peptide vaccination trial further enlarges the already increased naïve Treg-cell pool. Higher frequencies of T-cell receptor excision circles in naïve Treg cells indicate IL-2 dependent thymic generation of naïve Treg cells as a mechanism leading to increased frequencies of Treg cells post IL-2 treatment in cancer patients. This finding could be confirmed in naïve murine Treg cells after IL-2 administration. These results point to a more complex regulation of Treg cells in context of IL-2 administration. Future strategies therefore might aim at combining IL-2 therapy with novel strategies to circumvent expansion and differentiation of naïve Treg cells. PMID:22276195

  9. T-Bet Enhances Regulatory T Cell Fitness and Directs Control of Th1 Responses in Crescentic GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosko, Anna; Kluger, Malte A; Diefenhardt, Paul; Melderis, Simon; Wegscheid, Claudia; Tiegs, Gisa; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf; Steinmetz, Oliver M

    2017-01-01

    Th1 cells are central pathogenic mediators of crescentic GN (cGN). Mechanisms responsible for Th1 cell downregulation, however, remain widely unknown. Recently, it was proposed that activation of the Th1-characteristic transcription factor T-bet optimizes Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells to counteract Th1-type inflammation. Because very little is known about the role of T-bet + Treg1 cells in inflammatory diseases, we studied the function of these cells in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of cGN. The percentage of Treg1 cells progressively increased in kidneys of nephritic wild-type mice during the course of NTN, indicating their functional importance. Notably, naïve Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice, lacking Treg1 cells, showed spontaneous skewing toward Th1 immunity. Furthermore, absence of Treg1 cells resulted in aggravated NTN with selectively dysregulated renal and systemic Th1 responses. Detailed analyses of Treg cells from Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice revealed unaltered cytokine production and suppressive capacity. However, in competitive cotransfer experiments, wild-type Treg cells outcompeted T-bet-deficient Treg cells in terms of population expansion and expression levels of Foxp3, indicating that T-bet expression is crucial for general Treg fitness. Additionally, T-bet-deficient Treg cells lacked expression of the Th1-characteristic trafficking receptor CXCR3, which correlated with significant impairment of renal Treg infiltration. In summary, our data indicate a new subtype of Treg cells in cGN. These Treg1 cells are characterized by activation of the transcription factor T-bet, which enhances the overall fitness of these cells and optimizes their capacity to downregulate Th1 responses by inducing chemokine receptor CXCR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Regulatory T cells expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals maintain phenotype, TCR repertoire and suppressive capacity.

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    Mathieu Angin

    Full Text Available While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4(+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region, characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection.

  11. Interleukin-4 Supports the Suppressive Immune Responses Elicited by Regulatory T Cells

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    Wei-Cheng Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-4 (IL-4 has been considered as one of the tolerogenic cytokines in many autoimmune animal models and clinical settings. Despite its role in antagonizing pathogenic Th1 responses, little is known about whether IL-4 possesses functions that affect regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs are specialized cells responsible for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance through their immune modulatory capabilities. Interestingly, it has been suggested that IL-4 supplement at a high concentration protects responder T cells (Tresps from Treg-mediated immune suppression. In addition, such supplement also impedes TGF-β-induced Treg differentiation in vitro. However, these phenomena may contradict the tolerogenic role of IL-4, and the effects of IL-4 on Tregs are therefore needed to be further elucidated. In this study, we utilized IL-4 knockout (KO mice to validate the role of IL-4 on Treg-mediated immune suppression. Although IL-4 KO and control animals harbor similar frequencies of Tregs, Tregs from IL-4 KO mice weakly suppressed autologous Tresp activation. In addition, IL-4 deprivation impaired the ability of Tregs to modulate immune response, whereas IL-4 supplementation reinforced IL-4 KO Tregs in their function in suppressing Tresps. Finally, the presence of IL-4 was associated with increased cell survival and granzyme expression of Tregs. These results suggest the essential role of IL-4 in supporting Treg-mediated immune suppression, which may benefit the development of therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases.

  12. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Development of assay platforms for in vitro screening of Treg modulating potential of pharmacological compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Holmstrøm, Kim; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    that investigates Treg modulation by current drugs. For such research as well as for novel cell based therapies based on Treg infusions, rapid in vitro assays as well as functional assays based on inhibitory capacity of Tregs are required. Here, we report on such assays using highly pure fluorescence-activated cell...... and TNF-α. In conclusion, these assays have the potential for use in pharmacological screening and discovery in relation to drug development in immunology....

  14. The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

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    Min-Chao Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer are very complex and not yet entirely clarified. T lymphocytes and their immune-regulatory cytokines play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Following activation by unique cytokines, CD4+ T helper cells differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs. Traditionally, research in lung cancer immunity has focused almost exclusively on Th1/Th2 cell balance. Recently, Th17 cells and Tregs represent an intriguing issue to be addressed in lung cancer pathogenesis. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against tumor cells. Th17 cells directly or via other proinflammatory cytokines modulate antitumor immune responses. Notably, there is a close relation between Tregs and Th17 cells. However, the possible interaction between these subsets in lung cancer remains to be elucidated. In this setting, targeting Treg/Th17 balance for therapeutic purposes may represent a useful tool for lung cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings of the role of these novel populations in lung cancer immunity and to highlight the pleiotropic effects of these subsets on the development and regulation of lung cancer.

  15. High Level of Tregs Is a Positive Prognostic Marker in Patients with HPV-Positive Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, E.; Bouček, J.; Rotnáglová, E.; Salaková, M.; Koslabová, E.; Grega, M.; Eckschlager, T.; Říhová, Blanka; Procházka, B.; Klozar, J.; Tachezy, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 303929 (2014), 1-4 ISSN 2314-6141 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11542 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV 266513 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : HPV positivity * Tregs * Infection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Mast cell degranulation breaks peripheral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, V C; Wasiuk, A; Bennett, K A; Benson, M J; Elgueta, R; Waldschmidt, T J; Noelle, R J

    2009-10-01

    Mast cells (MC) have been shown to mediate regulatory T-cell (T(reg))-dependent, peripheral allograft tolerance in both skin and cardiac transplants. Furthermore, T(reg) have been implicated in mitigating IgE-mediated MC degranulation, establishing a dynamic, reciprocal relationship between MC and T(reg) in controlling inflammation. In an allograft tolerance model, it is now shown that intragraft or systemic MC degranulation results in the transient loss of T(reg) suppressor activities with the acute, T-cell dependent rejection of established, tolerant allografts. Upon degranulation, MC mediators can be found in the skin, T(reg) rapidly leave the graft, MC accumulate in the regional lymph node and the T(reg) are impaired in the expression of suppressor molecules. Such a dramatic reversal of T(reg) function and tissue distribution by MC degranulation underscores how allergy may causes the transient breakdown of peripheral tolerance and episodes of acute T-cell inflammation.

  17. The IL-33-ST2-MyD88 axis promotes regulatory T cell proliferation in the murine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Qi, Qianqian; Dong, Liyang; Wei, Chuan; Pu, Yanan; Li, Yalin; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Liu, Feng; Chen, Xiaojun; Su, Chuan

    2018-05-05

    Hepatic Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for maintaining local immune homeostasis in the liver. However, the environmental cues required for hepatic Treg cell homeostasis are unclear. In this study, we showed that the IL-33 receptor ST2 was preferentially expressed on Treg cells in the mouse liver, but it was more lowly expressed in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and blood. More importantly, we found that IL-33 promoted the proliferation of hepatic Treg cells through myeloid differentiation factor MyD88 signaling concomitant with increased CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression. These results suggested that IL-33 is a potential tissue-specific factor controlling Treg cell homeostasis via increased Treg proliferation in the liver. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulatory T-cells in autoimmune diseases: challenges, controversies and--yet--unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Charlotte R; Liberal, Rodrigo; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2015-02-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are central to the maintenance of self-tolerance and tissue homeostasis. Markers commonly used to define human Tregs in the research setting include high expression of CD25, FOXP3 positivity and low expression/negativity for CD127. Many other markers have been proposed, but none unequivocally identifies bona fide Tregs. Tregs are equipped with an array of mechanisms of suppression, including the modulation of antigen presenting cell maturation and function, the killing of target cells, the disruption of metabolic pathways and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Treg impairment has been reported in a number of human autoimmune conditions and includes Treg numerical and functional defects and conversion into effector cells in response to inflammation. In addition to intrinsic Treg impairment, resistance of effector T cells to Treg control has been described. Discrepancies in the literature are common, reflecting differences in the choice of study participants and the technical challenges associated with investigating this cell population. Studies differ in terms of the methodology used to define and isolate putative regulatory cells and to assess their suppressive function. In this review we outline studies describing Treg frequency and suppressive function in systemic and organ specific autoimmune diseases, with a specific focus on the challenges faced when investigating Tregs in these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. (99) Tc-methylene diphosphonate improves rheumatoid arthritis disease activity by increasing the frequency of peripheral γδ T cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dinglei; Shen, Minning; Gu, Bingjie; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Dandan; Li, Xia; Sun, Lingyun

    2016-06-01

    γδ T cells exhibit important functions in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In recent years, numerous studies harnessed the γδ T cell-activating capacity of aminobiphosphonates for the treatment of malignant tumors. As (99) Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99) Tc-MDP) has long been widely used for the treatment of RA in China with good efficacy, we are interested in whether this drug exerts its therapeutic effect on RA by modulating peripheral γδ T cells of RA patients. To investigate the effect of (99) Tc-MDP on the frequency of γδ T cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood of patients with active RA. Nineteen patients with active RA were treated with (99) Tc-MDP intravenously at a dose of 20 μg/day consecutively for 10-14 days. Before and after treatment, the main clinical and laboratory parameters for each patient were evaluated. The frequency of CD3(+) γδ(+) T cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs was detected by flow cytometry. Serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After intravenous (99) Tc-MDP therapy, the frequency of peripheral CD3(+) γδ(+) T cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs were significantly elevated, paralleled with decreased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased level of serum TGF-β. The elevation of peripheral CD3(+) γδ(+) T cells was positively correlated with increased serum TGF-β and decreased disease activity. (99) Tc-MDP may improve the activity of RA through upregulating the frequency of peripheral γδ T cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs as well as affecting the serum cytokine environment by increasing TGF-β and decreasing TNF-α and IL-6. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Induction of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T-cells by donor blood transfusion is required for tolerance to rat liver allografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Abe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Donor-specific blood transfusion (DST prior to solid organ transplantation has been shown to induce long-term allograft survival in the absence of immunosuppressive therapy. Although the mechanisms underlying DST-induced allograft tolerance are not well defined, there is evidence to suggest DST induces one or more populations of antigen-specific regulatory cells that suppress allograft rejection. However, neither the identity nor the regulatory properties of these tolerogenic lymphocytes have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to define the kinetics, phenotype and suppressive function of the regulatory cells induced by DST alone or in combination with liver allograft transplantation (LTx. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tolerance to Dark Agouti (DA; RT1(a rat liver allografts was induced by injection (iv of 1 ml of heparinized DA blood to naïve Lewis (LEW; RT1(l rats once per week for 4 weeks prior to LTx. We found that preoperative DST alone generates CD4(+ T-cells that when transferred into naïve LEW recipients are capable of suppressing DA liver allograft rejection and promoting long-term survival of the graft and recipient. However, these DST-generated T-cells did not express the regulatory T-cell (Treg transcription factor Foxp3 nor did they suppress alloantigen (DA-induced activation of LEW T-cells in vitro suggesting that these lymphocytes are not fully functional regulatory Tregs. We did observe that DST+LTx (but not DST alone induced the time-dependent formation of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs that potently suppressed alloantigen-induced activation of naïve LEW T-cells in vitro and liver allograft rejection in vivo. Finally, we present data demonstrating that virtually all of the Foxp3-expressing Tregs reside within the CD4(+CD45RC(- population whereas in which approximately 50% of these Tregs express CD25. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that preoperative DST, in the absence of liver allograft

  1. In Vitro Generation of IL-35-expressing Human Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Lentiviral Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Afshin; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mohammadi Amirabad, Leila; Tahoori, Mohammad Taher; Massumi, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    Human Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hWJ-MSCs) are easily available cells without transplant rejection problems or ethical concerns compared to bone-marrow-derived MSCs for prospective clinical applications. These cells display immunosuppressive properties and may be able to play an important role in autoimmune disorders. Regulatory T-cells (Treg) are important to prevent autoimmune disease development. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) induces the proliferation of Treg cell populations and reduces the activity of T helper 17 (Th17) and T helper 1 (Th1) cells, which play a central role in initiation of inflammation and autoimmune disease. Recent studies identified IL-35 as a new inhibitory cytokine required for the suppressive function of Treg cells. We created IL-35-producing hWJ-MSCs as a good vehicle for reduction of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. We isolated hWJ-MSCs based on explant culture. HWJ-MSCs were transduced at MOI=50 (Multiplicity of Infection) with lentiviral particles harboring murine Interleukin 35 (mIL-35). Expression of IL-35 in hWJ-MSCs was quantified by an IL-35 ELISA kit. IL-35 bioactivity was analyzed by inhibiting the proliferation of mouse splenocytes using CFSE cell proliferation kit. Frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127 low/neg Foxp3+ Treg cells was measured by flow cytometry. There was an up to 85% GFP positive transduction rate, and the cells successfully released a high level of mIL-35 protein (750 ng/ml). IL-35 managed to inhibit CD4+ T cell proliferation with PHA, and improved the frequency of Treg cells. Our data suggest that transduced hWJ-MSCs overexpressing IL-35 may provide a useful approach for basic research on gene therapy for autoimmune disorders.

  2. In vitro induced regulatory T cells are unique from endogenous regulatory T cells and effective at suppressing late stages of ongoing autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Long M Nguyen

    Full Text Available Strategies to boost the numbers and functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs are currently being tested as means to treat autoimmunity. While Tregs have been shown to be effective in this role, strategies to manipulate Tregs to effectively suppress later stages of ongoing diseases need to be established. In this study, we evaluated the ability of TGF-β-induced Tregs (iTregs specific for the major self-antigen in autoimmune gastritis to suppress established autoimmune gastritis in mice. When transferred into mice during later stages of disease, iTregs demethylated the Foxp3 promoter, maintained Foxp3 expression, and suppressed effector T cell proliferation. More importantly, these iTregs were effective at stopping disease progression. Untreated mice had high numbers of endogenous Tregs (enTregs but these were unable to stop disease progression. In contrast, iTregs, were found in relatively low numbers in treated mice, yet were effective at stopping disease progression, suggesting qualitative differences in suppressor functions. We identified several inhibitory receptors (LAG-3, PD-1, GARP, and TNFR2, cytokines (TGF-β1 and IL12p35, and transcription factors (IRF4 and Tbet expressed at higher levels by iTregs compared to enTregs isolated form mice with ongoing disease, which likely accounts for superior suppressor ability in this disease model. These data support efforts to use iTregs in therapies to treat establish autoimmunity, and show that iTregs are more effective than enTregs at suppressing inflammation in this disease model.

  3. Increased Th17/Treg Ratio in Poststroke Fatigue

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    Xinjing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a major debilitating symptom after stroke. The biological mechanisms underlying poststroke fatigue (PFS are unknown. We hypothesized that PSF is associated with an alteration in the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. To test this hypothesis we assessed fatigue in 30 stroke survivors using the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC. Peripheral blood was collected for assessment of Th17 and Treg cell populations and measurement of interleukin-10 (IL-10. Participants were dichotomized into severe fatigue n=14 and low-moderate fatigue n=16 groups by K-mean cluster analysis of FSMC scores. There were no group differences in age, gender, stroke type, stroke severity, or time since stroke. Stroke survivors in the severe fatigue group reported greater anxiety p=0.004 and depression p=0.001 than in the low-moderate fatigue group. The ratio of Th17 to Treg cells was significantly increased in the severe fatigue group relative to the mild-moderate fatigue group p=0.035. Serum levels of IL-10 negatively correlated withTh17/Treg ratio (r=-0.408,  p=0.025. Our preliminary findings suggest that an imbalance in the Th17/Treg ratio is associated with the severity of PSF.

  4. Comparative Approach to Define Increased Regulatory T Cells in Different Cancer Subtypes by Combined Assessment of CD127 and FOXP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years an increase of functional CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells has been established for patients with solid tumors, acute leukemias, and lymphomas. We have reported an expanded pool of CD4+CD25high Treg cells in patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL, multiple myeloma (MM as well as its premalignant precursor monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. In healthy individuals, low-level expression of CD127 on T cells in addition to the expression of FOXP3 has been associated with Treg cells. Here, we demonstrate that the expanded FOXP3+ T-cell population in patients with colorectal cancer, CLL, MGUS, MM, follicular lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease are exclusively CD127low Treg cells and were strongly suppressive. A significant portion of CD127lowFOXP3+ Treg cells expressed only low levels of CD25 suggesting that the previously reported expansion of CD25+ Treg cells underestimates the true expansion. The assessment of CCR7 and CD45RA expression on the expanded CD4+CD127lowFOXP3+ Treg cells revealed an increase of both naïve as well as central and effector memory Treg cells in peripheral blood. Our data strongly support superiority of combined CD127 and FOXP3 analysis in comparison to CD25 and FOXP3 assessment for further quantification of Treg cells in malignant diseases.

  5. Engineering Specificity and Function of Therapeutic Regulatory T Cells

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    Jenny L. McGovern

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy with polyclonal regulatory T cells (Tregs has shown efficacy in suppressing detrimental immune responses in experimental models of autoimmunity and transplantation. The lack of specificity is a potential limitation of Treg therapy, as studies in mice have demonstrated that specificity can enhance the therapeutic potency of Treg. We will discuss that vectors encoding T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors provide an efficient gene-transfer platform to reliably produce Tregs of defined antigen specificity, thus overcoming the considerable difficulties of isolating low-frequency, antigen-specific cells that may be present in the natural Treg repertoire. The recent observations that Tregs can polarize into distinct lineages similar to the Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets described for conventional T helper cells raise the possibility that Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-driven pathology may require matching Treg subsets for optimal therapeutic efficacy. In the future, genetic engineering may serve not only to enforce FoxP3 expression and a stable Treg phenotype but it may also enable the expression of particular transcription factors that drive differentiation into defined Treg subsets. Together, established and recently developed gene transfer and editing tools provide exciting opportunities to produce tailor-made antigen-specific Treg products with defined functional activities.

  6. Acyclovir inhibition of IDO to decrease Tregs as a glioblastoma treatment adjunct

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    Söderlund Johan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulatory T cells, Tregs, are a subset of lymphocytes that have immunosuppressive attributes. They are elevated in blood of glioblastoma patients and within this tumor's tissue itself. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, IDO, converts tryptophan to kynurenine. IDO activity enhances Treg formation by pathways that are unknown. Experimentally, inhibition of IDO decreases Treg function and number in rodents. The common anti-viral agent acyclovir inhibits IDO. Acyclovir may thereby decrease Treg function in glioblastoma. If it can be confirmed that Treg counts are elevated in glioblastoma patients' tumor tissue, and if we can document acyclovir's lowering of tissue Treg counts by a small trial of acyclovir in pre-operative glioblastoma patients, a trial of acyclovir effect on survival should be done given the current poor prognosis of glioblastoma and the well-established safety and low side effect burden of acyclovir.

  7. Peripherally Generated Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Mediate the Immunomodulatory Effects of IVIg in Allergic Airways Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Amir H; Kaufman, Gabriel N; Xue, Di; Béland, Marianne; Dembele, Marieme; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Mourad, Walid; Mazer, Bruce D

    2017-04-01

    IVIg is widely used as an immunomodulatory therapy. We have recently demonstrated that IVIg protects against airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in mouse models of allergic airways disease (AAD), associated with induction of Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg). Using mice carrying a DTR/EGFP transgene under the control of the Foxp3 promoter (DEREG mice), we demonstrate in this study that IVIg generates a de novo population of peripheral Treg (pTreg) in the absence of endogenous Treg. IVIg-generated pTreg were sufficient for inhibition of OVA-induced AHR in an Ag-driven murine model of AAD. In the absence of endogenous Treg, IVIg failed to confer protection against AHR and airway inflammation. Adoptive transfer of purified IVIg-generated pTreg prior to Ag challenge effectively prevented airway inflammation and AHR in an Ag-specific manner. Microarray gene expression profiling of IVIg-generated pTreg revealed upregulation of genes associated with cell cycle, chromatin, cytoskeleton/motility, immunity, and apoptosis. These data demonstrate the importance of Treg in regulating AAD and show that IVIg-generated pTreg are necessary and sufficient for inhibition of allergen-induced AAD. The ability of IVIg to generate pure populations of highly Ag-specific pTreg represents a new avenue to study pTreg, the cross-talk between humoral and cellular immunity, and regulation of the inflammatory response to Ags. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. BAFF promotes regulatory T-cell apoptosis and blocks cytokine production by activating B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis

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    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Mintao [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Peng [Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Hong [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yongzhen [The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Zheng; Su, Tingting [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-05-10

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology. A number of questions regarding its etiology are unclear. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in self-tolerance and, for unknown reasons, their relative number is reduced in PBC patients. B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a key survival factor during B-cell maturation and its concentration is increased in peripheral blood of PBC patients. It has been reported that activated B cells inhibit Treg cell proliferation and there are no BAFF receptors on Tregs. Therefore, we speculated that excessive BAFF may result in Treg reduction via B cells. To prove our hypothesis, we isolated Tregs and B cells from PBC and healthy donors. BAFF and IgM concentrations were then analyzed by ELISA and CD40, CD80, CD86, IL-10, and TGF-β expression in B cells and Tregs were measured by flow cytometry. BAFF up-regulated CD40, CD80, CD86, and IgM expression in B cells. However, BAFF had no direct effect on Treg cell apoptosis and cytokine secretion. Nonetheless, we observed that BAFF-activated B cells could induce Treg cell apoptosis and reduce IL-10 and TGF-β expression. We also showed that BAFF-activated CD4+ T cells had no effect on Treg apoptosis. Furthermore, we verified that bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic drug, can inhibit BAFF-induced Treg cell apoptosis. In conclusion, BAFF promotes Treg cell apoptosis and inhibits cytokine production by activating B cells in PBC patients. The results of this study suggest that inhibition of BAFF activation is a strategy for PBC treatment.

  9. FOXP3 Expression in GARP-Transduced Helper T Cells Is Not Associated with FOXP3 TSDR Demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrmann, Jan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Buer, Jan; Probst-Kepper, Michael

    2011-10-01

    AIM: Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) represents a human regulatory CD4+ CD25(hi) FOXP3+ T (T(reg)) cell-specific receptor that controls FOXP3. Ectopic expression of GARP in helper T (T(h)) cells has been shown to be sufficient for the induction of FOXP3 and generation of a stable regulatory phenotype. Since expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells is epigenetically controlled by a conserved motif, the so-called T(reg)-specific demethylated region (TSDR), we asked whether GARP-mediated upregulation of FOXP3 in Th cells is similarly accompanied by demethylation of the TSDR. METHODS: DNA methylation of the FOXP3 TSDR was analyzed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. RESULTS: Although GARP-transduced T(h) cells exhibit constitutive FOXP3 expression and a regulatory phenotype, the FOXP3 TSDR is completely methylated as in naive T(h) cells. GARP-mediated FOXP3 upregulation in T(h) cells is not associated with T(reg)-specific demethylation of the FOXP3 TSDR. CONCLUSION: Although GARP-engineered T(h) cells exhibit stable FOXP3 expression and a phenotypic reprogramming towards T(reg) cells in vitro, these cells do not completely mimic the epigenotype of natural T(reg) cells. Thus, concepts based on the genetic modification of T(h) cells as cellular therapies to treat autoimmune diseases or to control transplantation tolerance should be critically tested before any clinical application.

  10. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32)

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Derek V; Somani, Ally-Khan; Young, Andrew B; Massari, Jessica V; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Garaczi, Edina; Babineau, Denise; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of Tregs has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32), also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated Tregs....

  11. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-β on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat Q.; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-β is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFβ-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-β is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule of unknown function, is critical for tethering TGF-β to the cell surface. We demonstrate that platelets and activated Tregs co-express latent TGF-β and GARP on their membranes. The knockdown of GARP mRNA with siRNA prevented surface latent TGF-β expression on activated Tregs and recombinant latent TGF-β1 is able to bind directly with GARP. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation strongly support their interactions. The role of TGF-β on Tregs appears to have dual functions, both for Treg-mediated suppression and infectious tolerance mechanism. PMID:19651619

  12. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-beta on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat Q; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M

    2009-08-11

    TGF-beta family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-beta is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFbeta-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-beta is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule of unknown function, is critical for tethering TGF-beta to the cell surface. We demonstrate that platelets and activated Tregs co-express latent TGF-beta and GARP on their membranes. The knockdown of GARP mRNA with siRNA prevented surface latent TGF-beta expression on activated Tregs and recombinant latent TGF-beta1 is able to bind directly with GARP. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation strongly support their interactions. The role of TGF-beta on Tregs appears to have dual functions, both for Treg-mediated suppression and infectious tolerance mechanism.

  13. The effect of the colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila

    2017-11-01

    Beneficial effect of maternal milk is acknowledged, but there is still question whether maternal milk from allergic mother is as good as from healthy one. In our study, we have assayed the effect of cells from colostrum of healthy and allergic mothers on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers. Cytokines typical for Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma), Th2 (IL-4, IL-13), Tregs (IL-10, TGF-beta), and IL-8 were followed. We were not able to detect significant influence of colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood after 2-day coculture using Transwell system. There was no difference in gene expression of cytokines in nonstimulated cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers, but generally increased gene expression of cytokines except IL-10 and TGF-beta after polyclonal stimulation was detected in cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers. There was no difference in IL-10 expression in stimulated cord blood cells of children of healthy and allergic mothers. Gene expression of TGF-beta was even decreased in stimulated cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers in comparison to healthy ones. We have not observed difference in the capacity of colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers to influence gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells, but we have described difference in the reactivity of cord blood cells between children of allergic and healthy mothers.

  14. Reishi Protein LZ-8 Induces FOXP3+ Treg Expansion via a CD45-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Alleviates Acute Intestinal Inflammation in Mice

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    Hsien-Yeh Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available LZ-8, an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (also known as Ling-Zhi or Reishi, has been shown to promote cell proliferation and IL-2 production in T cells. In this study, we show that LZ-8 induces the expansion of both murine and human CD4+ T cells into FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg cells. LZ-8 treatment was found to stimulate a 4-fold and a 10-fold expansion in the Treg populations of murine and human primary CD4+ T cells, respectively. In addition, the expression of CTLA-4 and IL-10 was induced in LZ-8-treated CD4+ T cells. Using neutralizing antibodies and gene-deficient T-cell lines, we also found that LZ-8 promotes Treg expansion through a CD45-mediated signaling pathway and that the CD18-dependent induction of IL-2 was involved in Treg formation and IL-10 production. The suppressive activity of LZ-8 was confirmed using a murine model of DSS-induced colitis; the disease was alleviated by the adoptive transfer of LZ-8-treated CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, a new regulatory function for LZ-8 was identified, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this function were elucidated.

  15. Effect of adoptive transfer or depletion of regulatory T cells on triptolide-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhi eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of regulatory T cell (Treg in triptolide (TP-induced hepatotoxicity. MethodsFemale C57BL/6 mice received either adoptive transfer of Tregs or depletion of Tregs, then underwent TP administration and were sacrificed 24 hours after TP administration. Liver injury was determined according to ALT and AST levels in serum and histopathological change in liver tissue. Hepatic frequencies of Treg cells and the mRNA expression levles of transcription factor FoxP3 and RORγt, IL-10, SOCS and Notch/Notch ligand were investigated.ResultsDuring TP-induced liver injury, hepatic Treg and IL-10 decreased, while Th17 cell transcription factor RORγt, SOCS signaling and Notch signaling increased, accompanied with liver inflammation. Adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated the severity of TP-induced liver injury, accompanied with increased levels of hepatic Treg and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs remarkably inhibited the expression of RORγt, SOCS3, Notch1 and Notch3. On the contrary, depletion of Treg cells in TP-administered mice resulted in a notable increase of RORγt, SOCS1, SOCS3 and Notch3, while the Treg and IL-10 of liver decreased. Consistent with the exacerbation of liver injury, higher serum levels of ALT and AST were detected in Treg-depleted mice. ConclusionsThese results showed that adoptive transfer or depletion of Tregs attenuated or aggravated TP-induced liver injury, suggesting that Tregs could play important roles in the progression of liver injury. SOCS proteins and Notch signaling affected Tregs, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of TP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. Genomewide analyses of pathogenic and regulatory T cells of NOD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reestablishing a well-balanced population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and pathogenic T cells (Tpaths) is necessary for diabetic patients to regain glucose control. However, the molecular mechanisms modulating functional differentiation of Tpaths and Tregs remain unclear. In this study, we anal- ysed the gene expression ...

  17. Synthetic Nanoparticles That Promote Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expressing Regulatory T Cells in the Lung and Resistance to Allergic Airways Inflammation

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    Rohimah Mohamud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic glycine coated 50 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP (PS50G, unlike ambient NP, do not promote pulmonary inflammation, but instead, render lungs resistant to the development of allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that PS50G modulate the frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells (Treg in the lung, specifically increasing the proportion of tumor necrosis factor 2 (TNFR2 expressing Treg. Mice pre-exposed to PS50G, which were sensitized and then challenged with an allergen a month later, preferentially expanded TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg, which further expressed enhanced levels of latency associated peptide and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated molecule-4. Moreover, PS50G-induced CD103+ dendritic cell activation in the lung was associated with the proliferative expansion of TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg. These findings provide the first evidence that engineered NP can promote the selective expansion of maximally suppressing TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg and further suggest a novel mechanism by which NP may promote healthy lung homeostasis.

  18. Immunotherapy using regulatory T cells in cancer suggests more flavors of hypersensitivity type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Nafiseh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) profoundly affect tumor microenvironment and exert dominant suppression over antitumor immunity in response to self-antigen expressed by tumor. Immunotherapy targeting Tregs lead to a significant improvement in antitumor immunity. Intradermal injection of tumor antigen results in negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) type IV. However, anti-Tregs treatment/use of adjuvant along with tumor antigens turns DTH to positive. Considering Tregs as the earliest tumor sensor/responders, tumor can be regarded as Treg-mediated type IV hypersensitivity and negative DTH to tumor antigen is due to anti-inflammatory action of Tregs to tumor antigens at the injection site. Such a view would help us in basic and clinical situations to testify a candidate vaccine via dermal administration and evaluation of Treg proportion at injection site.

  19. Transcriptional Repressor HIC1 Contributes to Suppressive Function of Human Induced Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaid Ullah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T (Treg cells are critical in regulating the immune response. In vitro induced Treg (iTreg cells have significant potential in clinical medicine. However, applying iTreg cells as therapeutics is complicated by the poor stability of human iTreg cells and their variable suppressive activity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of human iTreg cell specification. We identified hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1 as a transcription factor upregulated early during the differentiation of human iTreg cells. Although FOXP3 expression was unaffected, HIC1 deficiency led to a considerable loss of suppression by iTreg cells with a concomitant increase in the expression of effector T cell associated genes. SNPs linked to several immune-mediated disorders were enriched around HIC1 binding sites, and in vitro binding assays indicated that these SNPs may alter the binding of HIC1. Our results suggest that HIC1 is an important contributor to iTreg cell development and function.

  20. Comparison of circulating and intratumoral regulatory T cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Gati; Amal, Gorrab; Raja, Marrakchi; Amine, Derouiche; Mohammed, Chebil; Amel, Ben Ammar Elgaaied

    2015-05-01

    The clear evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) exists in the tumor microenvironment raises the question why renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progresses. Numerous studies support the implication of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T (Treg) cells in RCC development. We aimed in this study to characterize the phenotype and function of circulating and intratumoral Treg cells of RCC patient in order to evaluate their implication in the inhibition of the local antitumor immune response. Our results demonstrate that the proportion of Treg in TIL was, in average, similar to that found in circulating CD4(+) T cells of patients or healthy donors. However, intratumoral Treg exhibit a marked different phenotype when compared with the autologous circulating Treg. A higher CD25 mean level, HLA-DR, Fas, and GITR, and a lower CD45RA expression were observed in intratumoral Treg, suggesting therefore that these cells are effector in the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, intratumoral Treg showed a higher inhibitory function on autologous CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells when compared with circulating Treg that may be explained by an overexpression of FoxP3 transcription factor. These findings suggest that intratumoral Treg could be major actors in the impairment of local antitumor immune response for RCC patients.

  1. Membrane-bound Dickkopf-1 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wook-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyun; Henegariu, Octavian; Yilmaz, Saliha; Hao, Liming; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2017-10-01

    Induction of tolerance is a key mechanism to maintain or to restore immunological homeostasis. Here we show that Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells use Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) to regulate T-cell-mediated tolerance in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis model. Treg cells from DKK-1 hypomorphic doubleridge mice failed to control CD4 + T-cell proliferation, resulting in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Thymus-derived Treg cells showed a robust expression of DKK-1 but not in naive or effector CD4 T cells. DKK-1 expression in Foxp3 + Treg cells was further increased upon T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Foxp3 + Treg cells expressed DKK-1 in the cell membrane and the functional inhibition of DKK-1 using DKK-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated the suppressor function of Foxp3 + Treg cells. DKK-1 expression was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not by the canonical Wnt pathway. Taken together, our results highlight membrane-bound DKK-1 as a novel Treg-derived mediator to maintain immunological tolerance in T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. © 2017 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 Inhibition Upregulates Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Frequency and Function during the Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxia Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC pathogenesis is related to imbalance of immune responses, and the equilibrium between inflammatory T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs plays an important role in the intestinal homeostasis. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of PRMTs affects colitis pathogenesis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease patients and further explored the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we found that protein arginine N-methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1 treatments increased Tregs frequency, function, and reduced colitis incidence. Adoptive transfer of AMI-1-treated Tregs could reduce the colitis incidence. Colitis was associated with increased local PRMT5 expression, which was inhibited by AMI-1 treatment. Additionally, PRMT5 knockdown T cells produced a better response to TGFβ and promoted Tregs differentiation through decreased DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 expression. PRMT5 also enhanced H3K27me3 and DNMT1 binding to Foxp3 promoter, which restricted Tregs differentiation. Furthermore, PRMT5 knockdown led to decreased Foxp3 promoter methylation during Tregs induction. PRMT5 expression had a negative relationship with Tregs in UC patients, knockdown of PRMT5 expression increased Tregs frequency and decreased TNFα, IL-6, and IL-13 levels. Our study outlines a novel regulation of PRMT5 on Tregs development and function. Strategies to decrease PRMT5 expression might have therapeutic potential to control UC.

  3. Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhua Wei

    Full Text Available The progranulin (PGRN is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases. Whether PGRN directly regulates the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg, and whether PGRN affects the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, however, remain unknown. In this study we provide evidences demonstrating that PGRN is able to stimulate the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into iTreg in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, PGRN showed synergistic effects with TGF-β1 on the induction of iTreg. PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff. In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development. Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2. Collectively, this study reveals that PGRN directly regulates the numbers and function of Tregs under inflammatory conditions, and provides new insight into the immune regulatory mechanism of PGRN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune-related diseases.

  4. Protective Effect of CXCR3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs suppress excessive immune responses and are potential therapeutic targets in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation rejection. However, their role in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI is unclear. Levels of Tregs and expression of CXCR3 in Tregs were analyzed to investigate their function in the early phase of renal IRI. Mice were randomly divided into Sham, IRI, and anti-CD25 (PC61 + IRI groups. The PC61 + IRI group was established by i.p. injection of PC61 monoclonal antibody (mAb to deplete Tregs before renal ischemia. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs and CXCR3 on Tregs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine (Scr levels, and tubular necrosis scores, all measures of kidney injury, were greater in the IRI group than in the Sham group. Numbers of Tregs were increased at 72 h after reperfusion in kidney. PC61 mAb preconditioning decreased the numbers of Tregs and aggravated kidney injury. There was no expression of CXCR3 on Tregs in normal kidney, while it expanded at 72 h after reperfusion and inversely correlated with BUN, Scr, and kidney histology score. This indicated that recruitment of Tregs into the kidney was related to the recovery of renal function after IRI and CXCR3 might be involved in the migration of Tregs.

  5. Association of peripheral NK cell counts with Helios+ IFN-γ- Tregs in patients with good long-term renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, K; Zhu, L; Aly, M; Weimer, R; Bulut, N; Morath, C; Opelz, G; Daniel, V

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about a possible interaction of natural killer (NK) cells with regulatory T cells (T reg ) in long-term stable kidney transplant recipients. Absolute counts of lymphocyte and T reg subsets were studied in whole blood samples of 136 long-term stable renal transplant recipients and 52 healthy controls using eight-colour fluorescence flow cytometry. Patients were 1946 ± 2201 days (153-10 268 days) post-transplant and showed a serum creatinine of 1·7 ± 0·7 mg/dl. Renal transplant recipients investigated > 1·5 years post-transplant showed higher total NK cell counts than recipients studied express the phenotype Helios + interferon (IFN)-γ - and appear to have stable FoxP3 expression and originate from the thymus. Furthermore, high total NK cells were associated with T reg that co-express the phenotypes interleukin (IL)-10 - transforming growth factor (TGF)-β + (P = 0·013), CD183 + CD62L - (P = 0·003), CD183 + CD62 + (P = 0·001), CD183 - CD62L + (P = 0·002), CD252 - CD152 + (P term good allograft function and the statistical association of these two lymphocyte subsets with each other suggest a direct or indirect (via DC) interaction of these cell subpopulations that contributes to good long-term allograft acceptance. Moreover, we speculate that regulatory NK cells are formed late post-transplant that are able to inhibit graft-reactive effector cells. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Blocking immunosuppression by human Tregs in vivo with antibodies targeting integrin αVβ8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockis, Julie; Liénart, Stéphanie; Colau, Didier; Collignon, Amandine; Nishimura, Stephen L; Sheppard, Dean; Coulie, Pierre G; Lucas, Sophie

    2017-11-21

    Human regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress other T cells by converting the latent, inactive form of TGF-β1 into active TGF-β1. In Tregs, TGF-β1 activation requires GARP, a transmembrane protein that binds and presents latent TGF-β1 on the surface of Tregs stimulated through their T cell receptor. However, GARP is not sufficient because transduction of GARP in non-Treg T cells does not induce active TGF-β1 production. RGD-binding integrins were shown to activate TGF-β1 in several non-T cell types. Here we show that αVβ8 dimers are present on stimulated human Tregs but not in other T cells, and that antibodies against αV or β8 subunits block TGF-β1 activation in vitro. We also show that αV and β8 interact with GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes in human Tregs. Finally, a blocking antibody against β8 inhibited immunosuppression by human Tregs in a model of xenogeneic graft-vs.-host disease induced by the transfer of human T cells in immunodeficient mice. These results show that TGF-β1 activation on the surface of human Tregs implies an interaction between the integrin αVβ8 and GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes. Immunosuppression by human Tregs can be inhibited by antibodies against GARP or against the integrin β8 subunit. Such antibodies may prove beneficial against cancer or chronic infections.

  7. Treg/IL-17 ratio and Treg differentiation in patients with COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jin

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic pulmonary and systematic inflammation. An abnormal adaptive immune response leads to an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. T-helper (Th, T-cytotoxic (Tc and T-regulatory (Treg cells may play important roles in immune and inflammatory responses. This study was conducted to clarify the changes and imbalance of cytokines and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with COPD, especially during acute exacerbations (AECOPD.Twenty-three patients with stable COPD (SCOPD and 21 patients with AECOPD were enrolled in the present study. In addition, 20 age-, sex- and weight-matched non-smoking healthy volunteers were included as controls. The serum levels of selected cytokines (TGF-β, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-9 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. Furthermore, the T lymphocyte subsets collected from peripheral blood samples were evaluated by flow cytometry after staining with anti-CD3-APC, anti-CD4-PerCP, anti-CD8- PerCP, anti-CD25-FITC and anti-FoxP3-PE monoclonal antibodies. Importantly, to remove the confounding effects of inflammatory factors, the authors introduced a concept of "inflammation adjustment" and corrected each measured value using representative inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α and IL-17.Unlike the other cytokines, serum TGF-β levels were considerably higher in patients with AECOPD relative to the control group regardless of adjustment. There were no significant differences in the percentages of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells among the three groups. Although Tregs were relatively upregulated during acute exacerbations, their capacities of generation and differentiation were far from sufficient. Finally, the authors noted that the ratios of Treg/IL-17 were similar among groups.These observations suggest that in patients with COPD, especially during acute exacerbations, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions

  8. The Dynamics of Treg/Th17 and the Imbalance of Treg/Th17 in Clonorchis sinensis-Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Li, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Qian; Li, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Ying; Pan, Wei; Liu, Xiang-Ye; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells (Th17) may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI) but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC) mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and RORγt for Th17) were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis. PMID:26599407

  9. The Dynamics of Treg/Th17 and the Imbalance of Treg/Th17 in Clonorchis sinensis-Infected Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yan

    Full Text Available Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg and interleukin (IL-17-secreting T cells (Th17 may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and RORγt for Th17 were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis.

  10. Blocking the recruitment of naive CD4+ T cells reverses immunosuppression in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shicheng Su; Ling Lin; Yunjie Zeng; Nengtai Ouyang; Xiuying Cui; Herui Yao; Fengxi Su; Jian-dong Huang; Judy Lieberman; Qiang Liu; Erwei Song; Jianyou Liao; Jiang Liu; Di Huang; Chonghua He; Fei Chen; LinBing Yang; Wei Wu; Jianing Chen

    2017-01-01

    The origin of tumor-infiltrating Tregs,critical mediators of tumor immunosuppression,is unclear.Here,we show that tumor-infiltrating naive CD4+ T cells and Tregs in human breast cancer have overlapping TCR repertoires,while hardly overlap with circulating Tregs,suggesting that intratumoral Tregs mainly develop from naive T cells in situ rather than from recruited Tregs.Furthermore,the abundance of naive CD4+ T cells and Tregs is closely correlated,both indicating poor prognosis for breast cancer patients.Naive CD4+ T cells adhere to tumor slices in proportion to the abundance of CCLl8-producing macrophages.Moreover,adoptively transferred human naive CD4+ T cells infiltrate human breast cancer orthotopic xenografts in a CCL18-dependent manner.In human breast cancer xenografts in humanized mice,blocking the recruitment of naive CD4+ T cells into tumor by knocking down the expression of PITPNM3,a CCL18 receptor,significantly reduces intratumoral Tregs and inhibits tumor progression.These findings suggest that breast tumor-infiltrating Tregs arise from chemotaxis of circulating naive CD4+ T cells that differentiate into Tregs in situ.Inhibiting naive CD4+ T cell recruitment into tumors by interfering with PITPNM3 recognition of CCL18 may be an attractive strategy for anticancer immunotherapy.

  11. Blocking the recruitment of naive CD4+ T cells reverses immunosuppression in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shicheng; Liao, Jianyou; Liu, Jiang; Huang, Di; He, Chonghua; Chen, Fei; Yang, LinBing; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianing; Lin, Ling; Zeng, Yunjie; Ouyang, Nengtai; Cui, Xiuying; Yao, Herui; Su, Fengxi; Huang, Jian-dong; Lieberman, Judy; Liu, Qiang; Song, Erwei

    2017-01-01

    The origin of tumor-infiltrating Tregs, critical mediators of tumor immunosuppression, is unclear. Here, we show that tumor-infiltrating naive CD4+ T cells and Tregs in human breast cancer have overlapping TCR repertoires, while hardly overlap with circulating Tregs, suggesting that intratumoral Tregs mainly develop from naive T cells in situ rather than from recruited Tregs. Furthermore, the abundance of naive CD4+ T cells and Tregs is closely correlated, both indicating poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. Naive CD4+ T cells adhere to tumor slices in proportion to the abundance of CCL18-producing macrophages. Moreover, adoptively transferred human naive CD4+ T cells infiltrate human breast cancer orthotopic xenografts in a CCL18-dependent manner. In human breast cancer xenografts in humanized mice, blocking the recruitment of naive CD4+ T cells into tumor by knocking down the expression of PITPNM3, a CCL18 receptor, significantly reduces intratumoral Tregs and inhibits tumor progression. These findings suggest that breast tumor-infiltrating Tregs arise from chemotaxis of circulating naive CD4+ T cells that differentiate into Tregs in situ. Inhibiting naive CD4+ T cell recruitment into tumors by interfering with PITPNM3 recognition of CCL18 may be an attractive strategy for anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:28290464

  12. Neuropilin-1highCD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Primary Negative Immunoregulation in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs appear to be involved in sepsis-induced immune dysfunction; neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1 was identified as a surface marker for CD4+CD25+Tregs. In the current study, we investigated the negative immunoregulation of Nrp-1highCD4+CD25+Tregs and the potential therapeutic value of Nrp-1 in sepsis. Splenic CD4+CD25+Tregs from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP mouse models were further segregated into Nrp-1highTregs and Nrp-1lowTregs; they were cocultured with CD4+CD25−  T cells. The expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor-3 (Foxp-3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, membrane associated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βm+, apoptotic rate, and secretive ability [including TGF-β and interleukin-10 (IL-10] for various types of Tregs, as well as the immunosuppressive ability of Tregs on CD4+CD25−  T cells, were determined. Meanwhile, the impact of recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody on the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region was measured in in vitro study. Sepsis per se markedly promoted the expression of Nrp-1 of CD4+CD25+Tregs. Foxp-3/CTLA-4/TGF-βm+ of Nrp-1highTregs were upregulated by septic challenge. Nrp-1highTregs showed strong resilience to apoptosis and secretive ability and the strongest immunosuppressive ability on CD4+CD25−  T cells. In the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody reduced the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR. Nrp-1highTregs might reveal primary negative immunoregulation in sepsis; Nrp-1 could represent a new potential therapeutic target for the study of immune regulation in sepsis.

  13. Granzyme A Is Required for Regulatory T-Cell Mediated Prevention of Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease.

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    Sarvari Velaga

    Full Text Available In our previous work we could identify defects in human regulatory T cells (Tregs likely favoring the development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT. Treg transcriptome analyses comparing GvHD and immune tolerant patients uncovered regulated gene transcripts highly relevant for Treg cell function. Moreover, granzyme A (GZMA also showed a significant lower expression at the protein level in Tregs of GvHD patients. GZMA induces cytolysis in a perforin-dependent, FAS-FASL independent manner and represents a cell-contact dependent mechanism for Tregs to control immune responses. We therefore analyzed the functional role of GZMA in a murine standard model for GvHD. For this purpose, adoptively transferred CD4+CD25+ Tregs from gzmA-/- mice were analyzed in comparison to their wild type counterparts for their capability to prevent murine GvHD. GzmA-/- Tregs home efficiently to secondary lymphoid organs and do not show phenotypic alterations with respect to activation and migration properties to inflammatory sites. Whereas gzmA-/- Tregs are highly suppressive in vitro, Tregs require GZMA to rescue hosts from murine GvHD, especially regarding gastrointestinal target organ damage. We herewith identify GZMA as critical effector molecule of human Treg function for gastrointestinal immune response in an experimental GvHD model.

  14. Increased degradation of ATP is driven by memory regulatory T cells in kidney transplantation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Maxim; Dubois, Florian; Dejou, Cécile; Durand, Eugénie; Danger, Richard; Chesneau, Mélanie; Brosseau, Carole; Guerif, Pierrick; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Degauque, Nicolas; Eliaou, Jean-François; Giral, Magali; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Brouard, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    Regulatory T cells were recently proposed as the central actor in operational tolerance after renal transplantation. Tolerant patients harbor increased FoxP3hi memory Treg frequency and increased demethylation in the Foxp3 Treg-specific demethylated region when compared to stable kidney recipients and exhibit greater memory Treg suppressive capacities and higher expression of the ectonucleotidase CD39. However, in this particular and unique situation the mechanisms of action of Tregs were not identified. Thus, we analyzed the ability of memory Tregs to degrade extracellular ATP in tolerant patients, healthy volunteers, and patients with stable graft function under immunosuppression and determined the role of immunosuppressive drugs on this process. The conserved proportion of memory Tregs leads to the establishment of a pro-tolerogenic balance in operationally tolerant patients. Memory Tregs in tolerant patients display normal capacity to degrade extracellular ATP/ADP. In contrast, memory Tregs from patients with stable graft function do not have this ability. Finally, in vitro, immunosuppressive drugs may favor the lower proportion of memory Tregs in stable patients, but they have no effect on CD39-dependent ATP degradation and do not explain memory Treg lack of extracellular ATP/ADP degradation ability. Thus, intrinsic active regulatory mechanisms may act long after immunosuppressive drug arrest in operationally tolerant patients and may contribute to kidney allograft tolerance via the maintenance of CD39 Treg function. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ocular allergy modulation to hi-dose antigen sensitization is a Treg-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Schlereth, Simona; Khandelwal, Payal; Saban, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    A reproducible method to inhibit allergic immune responses is accomplished with hi-dose Ag sensitization, via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. However, the role of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in this process is unknown, as is whether such modulation extends to ocular allergy. We therefore determined herein whether hi-dose sensitization modulates ocular allergy, and whether CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg are involved. C57BL/6 mice were IP sensitized via low-dose (100 µg) versus hi-dose (1000 µg) ovalbumin (OVA), in aluminum hydroxide (1 mg) and pertussis-toxin (300 ng). Other mice received anti-CD25 Ab (PC61) to ablate Treg during sensitization. In another experiment, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were adoptively transferred into low-dose sensitized mice. Once daily OVA challenges were administered. Clinical signs, IgE, T cell cytokines, and eosinophils were assessed. Data revealed that hi-dose, but not low-dose, sensitization led to allergy modulation, indicated by decreased clinical signs, serum IgE levels, Th2 recall responses, and eosinophil recruitment. T cells from hi-dose sensitized mice showed a robust increase in TGF-b production, and Treg from these mice were able to efficiently suppress effector T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, in vivo Treg ablation in hi-dose sensitized mice revoked allergy modulation. Lastly, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were able to adoptively transfer allergy modulation to their low-dose sensitized counterparts. Collectively, these findings indicate that modulation to hi-dose sensitization, which is extended to ocular allergy, occurs in a Treg-dependent manner. In addition, our data suggest that hi-dose sensitization may henceforth facilitate the further examination of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg in allergic disease.

  16. Fasciola hepatica reinfection potentiates a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg response and correlates with the clinical phenotypes of anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Quesada, Carla; Reguera-Gomez, Marta; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Fresno, Manuel; Gironès, Núria

    2017-01-01

    expression levels but no Treg expression, correlating with severe anemia; ii) another which includes increased splenic Ifng and Treg expression levels, correlating with a less severe anemia. Conclusions/Significance In animals with established F. hepatica infection a huge increase in the immune response occurs, being a mixed Th2/Treg associated gene expression together with an expression of Ifng. Interestingly, a Th17 associated gene expression is also observed. Reinfection in the chronic phase is able to activate a mixed immune response (Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg) against F. hepatica but T and B proliferation to mitogens is strongly suppressed in all infected rats vs control in the advanced chronic phase independently of reinfection The systemic immune response is different in each group, suggesting that suppression is mediated by different mechanisms in each case. Immune suppression could be due to the parasite in PI and R8 rats and the induction of suppressive cells such as Treg in R12. This is the first study to provide fundamental insight into the immune profile in fascioliasis reinfection and its relation with the clinical phenotypes of anemia. PMID:28362822

  17. Th17/Treg immunoregulation and implications in treatment of sulfur mustard gas-induced lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Maryam; Rezaei, Ramazan; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Shariati, Parvin; Kheradmand, Farrah; Salimian, Jafar

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4 + T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases inclusive of all literature prior to and including May 2017. Expert commentary: Here we review some of the recent findings that suggest a role for Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory changes associated with pulmonary complications in SM-lung and suggest new therapeutic approaches that could potentially alter disease progression with immune modulating biologics that can restore the lung Th17/Treg balance.

  18. The Treg/Th17 axis: A dynamic balance regulated by the gut microbiome

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    Sara eOmenetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available T-helper 17 (Th17 and T-regulatory (Treg cells are frequently found at barrier surfaces, particularly within the intestinal mucosa, where they function to protect the host from pathogenic microorganisms and to restrain excessive effector T-cell responses, respectively. Despite their differing functional properties, Th17 cells and Tregs share similar developmental requirements. In fact, the fate of antigen-naïve T-cells to either Th17 or Treg lineages is finely regulated by key mediators, including TGFβ, IL-6 and all-trans retinoic acid (RA. Importantly, the intestinal microbiome also provides immunostimulatory signals, which can activate innate, and downstream adaptive, immune responses. Specific components of the gut microbiome have been implicated in the production of proinflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells, such as IL-6, IL-23, IL-1β, and the subsequent generation and expansion of Th17 cells. Similarly, commensal bacteria and their metabolites can also promote the generation of intestinal Tregs that can actively induce mucosal tolerance. As such, dysbiosis of the gut microbiome may not solely represent a consequence of gut inflammation, but rather shape the Treg/Th17 commitment and influence susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. In this review, we discuss Treg and Th17 cell plasticity, its dynamic regulation by the microbiome, and highlight its impact on intestinal homeostasis and disease.

  19. Increased expression of the regulatory T cell-associated marker CTLA-4 in bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Saori; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Nishimori, Asami; Kohara, Junko; Mingala, Claro N; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-02-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the maintenance of the host's immune system. Tregs, particularly CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells, have been reported to be involved in the immune evasion mechanism of tumors and several pathogens that cause chronic infections. Recent studies showed that a Treg-associated marker, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), is closely associated with the progression of several diseases. We recently reported that the proportion of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells was positively correlated with the number of lymphocytes, virus titer, and virus load but inversely correlated with IFN-γ expression in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which causes chronic infection and lymphoma in its host. Here the kinetics of CTLA-4(+) cells were analyzed in BLV-infected cattle. CTLA-4 mRNA was predominantly expressed in CD4(+) T cells in BLV-infected cattle, and the expression was positively correlated with Foxp3 mRNA expression. To test for differences in the protein expression level of CTLA-4, we measured the proportion of CTLA-4-expressing cells by flow cytometry. In cattle with persistent lymphocytosis (PL), mean fluorescence intensities (MFIs) of CTLA-4 on CD4(+) and CD25(+) T cells were significantly increased compared with that in control and aleukemic (AL) cattle. The percentage of CTLA-4(+) cells in the CD4(+) T cell subpopulation was positively correlated with TGF-β mRNA expression, suggesting that CD4(+)CTLA-4(+) T cells have a potentially immunosuppressive function in BLV infection. In the limited number of cattle that were tested, the anti-CTLA-4 antibody enhanced the expression of CD69, IL-2, and IFN-γ mRNA in anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BLV-infected cattle. Together with previous findings, the present results indicate that Tregs may be involved in the inhibition of T cell function during BLV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: association with disease stage and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, L M; Woetmann, A; Odum, Niels

    2007-01-01

    FOXP3 is a unique marker for CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). In solid tumours, high numbers of Tregs are associated with a poor prognosis. Knowledge about the implications of Tregs for the behaviour of haematological malignancies is limited. In this study, skin biopsies from 86 patients...... with mycosis fungoides (MF) and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) unspecified were analysed for the expression of FOXP3 on tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating Tregs. Labelling of above 10% of the neoplastic cells was seen in one case classified as an aggressive epidermotropic CD8+ cytotoxic CTCL....... In the remaining 85 cases, the atypical neoplastic infiltrate was either FOXP3 negative (n=80) or contained only very occasional weakly positive cells (n=5). By contrast, all biopsies showed varying numbers of strongly FOXP3+ tumour-infiltrating Tregs. MF with early or infiltrated plaques had significantly higher...

  1. The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm induced by stachydrine hydrochloride reduces uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Bin; Li, Yuzhu; Wang, Li; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhou, Xianbin; Guo, Yuqi; Jiang, Guosheng; Yao, Chengfang

    2013-01-09

    /Treg cells were analyzed using flow cytometry. To evaluate the effect of stachydrine hydrochloride in reducing uterine bleeding via regulation of the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm, pregnant mice were treated with RU486 (1.5mg/kg) and/or stachydrine hydrochloride (2.5mg/kg, 5mg/kg, and 10mg/kg). The serum P(4) level, uterine bleeding volume, and proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells at the mice maternal-fetal interface were detected. Moreover, the protein levels of cytokines (IL-12 and IL-6) and the cytokine soluble receptors were analyzed by ELISA assay, and the mRNA expression of transcription factors (T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt, and Foxp3) were detected by RT-PCR assay. Th1- and Th17-biased immunity was observed in RU486-induced abortion mice. The volume of uterine bleeding during RU486-induced abortion was negatively related to the proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as the ratios of Th1:Th2 cells and Th17:Treg cells, and positively related to the proportions of Th2 and Treg cells. Stachydrine hydrochloride promoted the protein expression of IL-12 and IL-6, as well as the mRNA expression of T-bet and RORγt, while inhibiting the mRNA expression of GATA-3 and Foxp3. Therefore, the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in RU486-induced abortion mice shifted to Th1 and Th17 after stachydrine hydrochloride administration. The volume of uterine bleeding during RU486-induced abortion was reduced significantly after stachydrine hydrochloride administration. The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm is closely related to the volume of uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice. The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm induced by stachydrine hydrochloride contributed to the reduction in uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HTLV-1 bZIP factor induces T-cell lymphoma and systemic inflammation in vivo.

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    Yorifumi Satou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the causal agent of a neoplastic disease of CD4+ T cells, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, and inflammatory diseases including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, dermatitis, and inflammatory lung diseases. ATL cells, which constitutively express CD25, resemble CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (T(reg. Approximately 60% of ATL cases indeed harbor leukemic cells that express FoxP3, a key transcription factor for T(reg cells. HTLV-1 encodes an antisense transcript, HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ, which is expressed in all ATL cases. In this study, we show that transgenic expression of HBZ in CD4+ T cells induced T-cell lymphomas and systemic inflammation in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. In HBZ-transgenic mice, CD4+Foxp3+ T(reg cells and effector/memory CD4+ T cells increased in vivo. As a mechanism of increased T(reg cells, HBZ expression directly induced Foxp3 gene transcription in T cells. The increased CD4+Foxp3+ T(reg cells in HBZ transgenic mice were functionally impaired while their proliferation was enhanced. HBZ could physically interact with Foxp3 and NFAT, thereby impairing the suppressive function of T(reg cells. Thus, the expression of HBZ in CD4+ T cells is a key mechanism of HTLV-1-induced neoplastic and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Regulatory T cells: Friends or foe in human Mycobacterium leprae infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Ana T; Ribeiro-Junior, Atvaldo F; Lyon, Sandra; Medeiros, Nayara I; Cassirer-Costa, Fábio; Paula, Karina S; Alecrim, Edilamar S; Menezes, Cristiane A S; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Rocha, Manoel O C; Gomes, Juliana A S

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control immune responses by suppressing the antigen-presenting and effector T cells. Some mechanisms adopted by Tregs in combating Mycobacterium infections have been proposed. Nevertheless, in M. leprae infection, also known as leprosy or Hansen's disease, the role of Tregs has not been completely elucidated. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of different cell surface and intracellular molecules present in Tregs from peripheral blood samples of leprosy patients. Before initiating treatment, thirteen new cases of leprosy were grouped according to the Ridley-Jopling classification in to the paucibacilary (PB) or multibacilary (MB) group. Fifteen non-infected individuals (NI) were included as control subjects. Tregs were higher in the MB group than in the NI group. Tregs also co-expressed high amounts of PD1 and PDL-1, indicating that these cells could induce apoptosis of effector cells and simultaneously prevent their own apoptosis. Our data showed that compared to the NI group, Tregs from the PB group expressed higher levels of CD95L, which may be associated with other apoptotic pathways that may decrease Tregs in these patients. Correlation analysis reinforced that PD1 and CD95L are efficient apoptosis' pathway that decreased levels of Tregs in the NI and PB groups. We also observed significant differences in cytokine expression of Tregs from the PB and MB groups. Compared to the NI group, Tregs from the MB group showed higher IL-17 expression; however, compared to the PB group, the expression of IL-10 in Tregs from the MB group was lower, suggesting inefficient control of inflammation. Therefore, we concluded that different pathways were involved in Treg-induced suppression of leprosy. Moreover, Treg-mediated regulation of inflammation via IL-10 and IL-17 expression in leprosy patients was inefficient. Thus, we propose that during M. leprae infection, Tregs may impair the immune responses elicited

  4. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Mira; Ilavská, Silvia; Štefíková, Kornélia; Szabová, Michaela; Krivošíková, Zora; Jahnová, Eva; Tulinská, Jana; Spustová, Viera; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-07-11

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells ( p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  5. Distribution and clonality of the vα and vβ T-cell receptor repertoire of regulatory T cells in leukemia patients with and without graft versus host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenyi; Wu, Xiuli; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Liu, Qifa; Li, Yangqiu

    2014-03-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is the main complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Recent data indicated that regulatory T (Treg) cells might relate to GVHD, and such functions might be mediated by certain T-cell receptor (TCR) subfamily of Treg cells. Thus, we analyzed the distribution and clonality of the TCR Vα and Vβ repertoire of Treg cells from leukemia patients with and without GVHD after allo-HSCT. Numerous TCR Vα subfamilies, including Vα1, Vα9, Vα13, Vα16-19, and Vα24-29, were absent in Treg cells after allo-HSCT. The usage numbers for the TCR Vα and Vβ subfamilies in Treg cells from patients without GVHD appeared more widely. The expression frequencies of Vα10 or Vα20 between both groups were significantly different. Moreover, the expression frequency of TCR Vβ2 subfamily in patients without GVHD was significantly higher than that in patients with GVHD. Oligoclonally expanded TCR Vα and Vβ Treg cells were identified in a few samples in both groups. Restricted utilization of the Vα and Vβ subfamilies and the absence of some important TCR rearrangements in Treg cells may be related to GVHD due to a lower regulating function of Treg subfamilies.

  6. Ex vivo modulation of the Foxo1 phosphorylation state does not lead to dysfunction of T regulatory cells.

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    Kristen Kelley Penberthy

    Full Text Available Peripheral regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg cells prevent maladaptive inflammatory responses to innocuous foreign antigens. Treg cell dysfunction has been linked to many inflammatory diseases, including allergic airway inflammation. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat allergic airway inflammation and asthma are thought to work in part by promoting Treg cell differentiation; patients who are refractory to these drugs have defective induction of anti-inflammatory Treg cells. Previous observations suggest that Treg cells deficient in the transcription factor FoxO1 are pro-inflammatory, and that FoxO1 activity is regulated by its phosphorylation status and nuclear localization. Here, we asked whether altering the phosphorylation state of FoxO1 through modulation of a regulatory phosphatase might affect Treg cell function. In a mouse model of house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation, we observed robust recruitment of Treg cells to the lungs and lymph nodes of diseased mice, without an apparent increase in the Treg cytokine interleukin-10 in the airways. Intriguingly, expression of PP2A, a serine/threonine phosphatase linked to the regulation of FoxO1 phosphorylation, was decreased in the mediastinal lymph nodes of HDM-treated mice, mirroring the decreased PP2A expression seen in peripheral blood monocytes of glucocorticoid-resistant asthmatic patients. When we asked whether modulation of PP2A activity alters Treg cell function via treatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid, we observed increased phosphorylation of FoxO1 and decreased nuclear localization. However, dysregulation of FoxO1 did not impair Treg cell differentiation ex vivo or cause Treg cells to adopt a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A activity did not affect the suppressive function of Treg cells ex vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that modulation of the phosphorylation state of FoxO1 via PP2A inhibition does not modify Treg cell function ex

  7. Resting regulatory CD4 T cells: a site of HIV persistence in patients on long-term effective antiretroviral therapy.

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    Tu-Anh Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In HIV-infected patients on long-term HAART, virus persistence in resting long-lived CD4 T cells is a major barrier to curing the infection. Cell quiescence, by favouring HIV latency, reduces the risk of recognition and cell destruction by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Several cell-activation-based approaches have been proposed to disrupt cell quiescence and then virus latency, but these approaches have not eradicated the virus. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are a CD4+ T-cell subset with particular activation properties. We investigated the role of these cells in virus persistence in patients on long-term HAART. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found evidence of infection of resting Tregs (HLADR(-CD69(-CD25(hiFoxP3+CD4+ T cells purified from patients on prolonged HAART. HIV DNA harbouring cells appear more abundant in the Treg subset than in non-Tregs. The half-life of the Treg reservoir was estimated at 20 months. Since Tregs from patients on prolonged HAART showed hyporesponsiveness to cell activation and inhibition of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-related functions upon activation, therapeutics targeting cell quiescence to induce virus expression may not be appropriate for purging the Treg reservoir. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify Tregs as a particular compartment within the latent reservoir that may require a specific approach for its purging.

  8. All-trans retinoic acid promotes TGF-β-induced Tregs via histone modification but not DNA demethylation on Foxp3 gene locus.

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    Ling Lu

    Full Text Available It has been documented all-trans retinoic acid (atRA promotes the development of TGF-β-induced CD4(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (iTreg that play a vital role in the prevention of autoimmune responses, however, molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Our objective, therefore, was to determine how atRA promotes the differentiation of iTregs.Addition of atRA to naïve CD4(+CD25(- cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies in the presence of TGF-β not only increased Foxp3(+ iTreg differentiation, but maintained Foxp3 expression through apoptosis inhibition. atRA/TGF-β-treated CD4(+ cells developed complete anergy and displayed increased suppressive activity. Infusion of atRA/TGF-β-treated CD4(+ cells resulted in the greater effects on suppressing symptoms and protecting the survival of chronic GVHD mice with typical lupus-like syndromes than did CD4(+ cells treated with TGF-β alone. atRA did not significantly affect the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and still promoted iTreg differentiation in CD4(+ cells isolated from Smad3 KO and Smad2 conditional KO mice. Conversely, atRA markedly increased ERK1/2 activation, and blockade of ERK1/2 signaling completely abolished the enhanced effects of atRA on Foxp3 expression. Moreover, atRA significantly increased histone methylation and acetylation within the promoter and conserved non-coding DNA sequence (CNS elements at the Foxp3 gene locus and the recruitment of phosphor-RNA polymerase II, while DNA methylation in the CNS3 was not significantly altered.We have identified the cellular and molecular mechanism(s by which atRA promotes the development and maintenance of iTregs. These results will help to enhance the quantity and quality of development of iTregs and may provide novel insights into clinical cell therapy for patients with autoimmune diseases and those needing organ transplantation.

  9. Impact of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate for induction of human regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrmann, Jan; Tatura, Roman; Zeschnigk, Michael; Probst-Kepper, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Steinmann, Joerg; Buer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The epigenetic regulation of transcription factor genes is critical for T-cell lineage specification. A specific methylation pattern within a conserved region of the lineage specifying transcription factor gene FOXP3, the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), is restricted to regulatory T (Treg) cells and is required for stable expression of FOXP3 and suppressive function. We analysed the impact of hypomethylating agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on human CD4(+)  CD25(-) T cells for generating demethylation within FOXP3-TSDR and inducing functional Treg cells. Gene expression, including lineage-specifying transcription factors of the major T-cell lineages and their leading cytokines, functional properties and global transcriptome changes were analysed. The FOXP3-TSDR methylation pattern was determined by using deep amplicon bisulphite sequencing. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced FOXP3-TSDR hypomethylation and expression of the Treg-cell-specific genes FOXP3 and LRRC32. Proliferation of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated cells was reduced, but the cells did not show suppressive function. Hypomethylation was not restricted to FOXP3-TSDR and expression of master transcription factors and leading cytokines of T helper type 1 and type 17 cells were induced. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induced global DNA hypomethylation to a lesser extent than 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine, but no relevant hypomethylation within FOXP3-TSDR or expression of Treg-cell-specific genes. Neither of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors induced fully functional human Treg cells. 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine-treated cells resembled Treg cells, but they did not suppress proliferation of responder cells, which is an essential capability to be used for Treg cell transfer therapy. Using a recently developed targeted demethylation technology might be a more promising approach for the generation of functional Treg cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

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    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  11. Regulatory T cells participation in the infection immunopathogenesis by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1 Participação de células T regulatórias (Tregs na imunopatogênese da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana 1 (HIV-1

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    Isabele Kazahaya Borges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is related to the prevention and effective treatment of opportunistic infections. It is known that the main parameters to evaluate the progression of disease caused by HIV-1 is the counting of CD4 + T cells and viral load of HIV-1. Regulatory T cells has been considered the focus of intense research within the immune system as well as in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Natural regulatory T cells (Tregs CD4+CD25+ act in the modulation of immune activation, functioning as critical mediators of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Furthermore, recent studies has shown that the function of Tregs cells is not limited to the prevention of autoimmunity, but is also important to control all forms of immune responses in the context of inflammation, infection, allergy, transplantation and tumor immunity. Many authors have identified Tregs as beneficial effector cells in the context of AIDS, but other researchers disagree. Tregs can exert an important role in the immunopathology of HIV infection due to the suppressor activity on cellular activation and effector function. Thus, this review discusses the molecular and immunological aspects of Tregs in the HIV system. A sobrevivência de pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV-1 é relacionada à prevenção e ao tratamento eficaz de infecções oportunistas. É conhecido que os principais parâmetros para avaliar a progressão da doença causada pelo HIV-1 são contagem de células T CD4+ e carga viral do HIV-1. Células T regulatórias têm sido foco de intensas investigações dentro do sistema imunológico como também na patogênese de diversas doenças. Sabe-se que as células T reguladoras (Tregs CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ atuam na modulação da ativação imune, funcionando como mediadores críticos da homeostasia imune e da auto-tolerância. Além disso, recentes estudos têm demonstrado que as c

  12. Program death-1 signaling and regulatory T cells collaborate to resist the function of adoptively transferred cytotoxic T lymphocytes in advanced acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Munger, Meghan E; Highfill, Steven L; Tolar, Jakub; Weigel, Brenda J; Riddle, Megan; Sharpe, Arlene H; Vallera, Daniel A; Azuma, Miyuki; Levine, Bruce L; June, Carl H; Murphy, William J; Munn, David H; Blazar, Bruce R

    2010-10-07

    Tumor-induced immune defects can weaken host immune response and permit tumor cell growth. In a systemic model of murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML), tumor progression resulted in increased regulatory T cells (Treg) and elevation of program death-1 (PD-1) expression on CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) at the tumor site. PD-1 knockout mice were more resistant to AML despite the presence of similar percentage of Tregs compared with wild type. In vitro, intact Treg suppression of CD8(+) T-cell responses was dependent on PD-1 expression by T cells and Tregs and PD-L1 expression by antigen-presenting cells. In vivo, the function of adoptively transferred AML-reactive CTLs was reduced by AML-associated Tregs. Anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody treatment increased the proliferation and function of CTLs at tumor sites, reduced AML tumor burden, and resulted in long-term survivors. Treg depletion followed by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade showed superior efficacy for eradication of established AML. These data demonstrated that interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 can facilitate Treg-induced suppression of T-effector cells and dampen the antitumor immune response. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade coupled with Treg depletion represents an important new approach that can be readily translated into the clinic to improve the therapeutic efficacy of adoptive AML-reactive CTLs in advanced AML disease.

  13. Reducing TNF receptor 2+ regulatory T cells via the combined action of azacitidine and the HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat for clinical benefit in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Chindu; Tan, Peter; Walker, Patricia; Wei, Andrew; Spencer, Andrew; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) provides an environment that enables immune suppression, resulting in functionally defective effector T cells; regulatory T cells (Treg) are significant contributors to the impaired antitumor immune response. As TNF is present at high levels in AML and TNF receptor-2 (TNFR2)-expressing Tregs identify highly functional Tregs, we examine the hypothesis that TNFR2(+) Tregs are a relevant Treg subset in this cancer. We also determine the effect of the novel combinatorial therapy of the demethylating agent, azacitidine with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, panobinostat on Tregs, particularly TNFR2(+) Tregs. Thirty healthy donors and 14 patients with AML were enrolled in this study. Patients were treated with azacitidine and panobinostat for 28-day cycles. The frequency and functional relevance of TNFR2(+) Tregs were analyzed subsequently. We report that TNFR2(+) Tregs are increased in AML and have a high migration potential toward the bone marrow. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the level of TNFR2(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood and the bone marrow of patients are decreased in vivo after exposure to panobinostat and azacitidine. Reductions in TNFR2(+) Tregs were associated with increases in Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 production by effector T cells within the bone marrow and beneficial clinical responses. In vitro mechanistic studies indicated panobinostat as the primary driver for the reduction of Tregs. Our study provides for the first time, in vivo validation of the ability of panobinostat in combination with azacitidine to suppress prevalent TNFR2(+) Tregs, resulting in clinical benefits within patients with AML. ©2013 AACR.

  14. A dynamic dual role of IL-2 signaling in the two-step differentiation process of adaptive regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Khattar, Mithun; Schroder, Paul M; Miyahara, Yoshihiro; Wang, Guohua; He, Xiaoshung; Chen, Wenhao; Stepkowski, Stanislaw M

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of the extrathymic generation of adaptive, or inducible, CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (iTregs) remains incompletely defined. We show that exposure of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) cells to IL-2, but not other common γ-chain cytokines, resulted in Stat5 phosphorylation and induced Foxp3 expression in ∼10% of the cells. Thus, IL-2/Stat5 signaling may be critical for Foxp3 induction in peripheral CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) iTreg precursors. In this study, to further define the role of IL-2 in the formation of iTreg precursors as well as their subsequent Foxp3 expression, we designed a two-step iTreg differentiation model. During the initial "conditioning" step, CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) naive T cells were activated by TCR stimulation. Inhibition of IL-2 signaling via Jak3-Stat5 was required during this step to generate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) cells containing iTreg precursors. During the subsequent Foxp3-induction step driven by cytokines, IL-2 was the most potent cytokine to induce Foxp3 expression in these iTreg precursors. This two-step method generated a large number of iTregs with relatively stable expression of Foxp3, which were able to prevent CD4(+)CD45RB(high) cell-mediated colitis in Rag1(-/-) mice. In consideration of this information, whereas initial inhibition of IL-2 signaling upon T cell priming generates iTreg precursors, subsequent activation of IL-2 signaling in these precursors induces the expression of Foxp3. These findings advance the understanding of iTreg differentiation and may facilitate the therapeutic use of iTregs in immune disorders.

  15. Dietary Vitamin D Increases Percentages and Function of Regulatory T Cells in the Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes and Suppresses Dermal Inflammation

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    Shelley Gorman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin inflammatory responses in individuals with allergic dermatitis may be suppressed by dietary vitamin D through induction and upregulation of the suppressive activity of regulatory T (TReg cells. Vitamin D may also promote TReg cell tropism to dermal sites. In the current study, we examined the capacity of dietary vitamin D3 to modulate skin inflammation and the numbers and activity of TReg cells in skin and other sites including lungs, spleen, and blood. In female BALB/c mice, dietary vitamin D3 suppressed the effector phase of a biphasic ear swelling response induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in comparison vitamin D3-deficient female BALB/c mice. Vitamin D3 increased the percentage of TReg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLN. The suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and blood was upregulated by vitamin D3. However, there was no difference in the expression of the naturally occurring TReg cell marker, neuropilin, nor the expression of CCR4 or CCR10 (skin-tropic chemokine receptors on TReg cells in skin, SDLN, lungs, and airway-draining lymph nodes. These data suggest that dietary vitamin D3 increased the percentages and suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, which are poised to suppress dermal inflammation.

  16. T regulatory cells are markers of disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients.

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    Dacia Dalla Libera

    Full Text Available FoxP3⁺ Treg cells are believed to play a role in the occurrence of autoimmunity and in the determination of clinical recurrences. Contradictory reports are, however, available describing frequency and function of Treg cells during autoimmune diseases. We examined, by both polychromatic flow cytometry, and real-time RT-PCR, several Treg markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. We found that Tregs, as defined by CD25, CD39, FoxP3, CTLA4, and GITR expression, were significantly decreased in stable MS patients as compared to healthy donors, but, surprisingly, restored to normal levels during an acute clinical attack. We conclude that Treg cells are not involved in causing clinical relapses, but rather react to inflammation in the attempt to restore homeostasis.

  17. HTLV-1 bZIP factor induces inflammation through labile Foxp3 expression.

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    Nanae Yamamoto-Taguchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes both a neoplastic disease and inflammatory diseases, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ gene is encoded in the minus strand of the proviral DNA and is constitutively expressed in infected cells and ATL cells. HBZ increases the number of regulatory T (Treg cells by inducing the Foxp3 gene transcription. Recent studies have revealed that some CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ T cells are not terminally differentiated but have a plasticity to convert to other T-cell subsets. Induced Treg (iTreg cells tend to lose Foxp3 expression, and may acquire an effector phenotype accompanied by the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ. In this study, we analyzed a pathogenic mechanism of chronic inflammation related with HTLV-1 infection via focusing on HBZ and Foxp3. Infiltration of lymphocytes was observed in the skin, lung and intestine of HBZ-Tg mice. As mechanisms, adhesion and migration of HBZ-expressing CD4⁺ T cells were enhanced in these mice. Foxp3⁻CD4⁺ T cells produced higher amounts of IFN-γ compared to those from non-Tg mice. Expression of Helios was reduced in Treg cells from HBZ-Tg mice and HAM/TSP patients, indicating that iTreg cells are predominant. Consistent with this finding, the conserved non-coding sequence 2 region of the Foxp3 gene was hypermethylated in Treg cells of HBZ-Tg mice, which is a characteristic of iTreg cells. Furthermore, Treg cells in the spleen of HBZ-transgenic mice tended to lose Foxp3 expression and produced an excessive amount of IFN-γ, while Foxp3 expression was stable in natural Treg cells of the thymus. HBZ enhances the generation of iTreg cells, which likely convert to Foxp3⁻T cells producing IFN-γ. The HBZ-mediated proinflammatory phenotype of CD4⁺ T cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated inflammation.

  18. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell suppression by regulatory T cells attenuates airway hyperreactivity and requires inducible T-cell costimulator-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Diamanda; Lewis, Gavin; Aron, Jennifer L; Wang, Bowen; Banie, Homayon; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Maazi, Hadi; Lo, Richard; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Soroosh, Pejman; Akbari, Omid

    2017-05-01

    Atopic diseases, including asthma, exacerbate type 2 immune responses and involve a number of immune cell types, including regulatory T (Treg) cells and the emerging type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Although ILC2s are potent producers of type 2 cytokines, the regulation of ILC2 activation and function is not well understood. In the present study, for the first time, we evaluate how Treg cells interact with pulmonary ILC2s and control their function. ILC2s and Treg cells were evaluated by using in vitro suppression assays, cell-contact assays, and gene expression panels. Also, human ILC2s and Treg cells were adoptively transferred into NOD SCID γC-deficient mice, which were given isotype or anti-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand (ICOSL) antibodies and then challenged with IL-33 and assessed for airway hyperreactivity. We show that induced Treg cells, but not natural Treg cells, effectively suppress the production of the ILC2-driven proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal the necessity of inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand cell contact for Treg cell-mediated ILC2 suppression alongside the suppressive cytokines TGF-β and IL-10. Using a translational approach, we then demonstrate that human induced Treg cells suppress syngeneic human ILC2s through ICOSL to control airway inflammation in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. These findings suggest that peripheral expansion of induced Treg cells can serve as a promising therapeutic target against ILC2-dependent asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two FOXP3(+)CD4(+) T cell subpopulations distinctly control the prognosis of colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takuro; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Hisashi; Nagano, Yuji; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Atarashi, Koji; Maeda, Yuka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Ohkura, Naganari; Sato, Eiichi; Nagase, Hirotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Tanoue, Takeshi; Suda, Wataru; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Honda, Kenya; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Shimon

    2016-06-01

    CD4(+) T cells that express the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor function as regulatory T (Treg) cells and hinder effective immune responses against cancer cells. Abundant Treg cell infiltration into tumors is associated with poor clinical outcomes in various types of cancers. However, the role of Treg cells is controversial in colorectal cancers (CRCs), in which FOXP3(+) T cell infiltration indicated better prognosis in some studies. Here we show that CRCs, which are commonly infiltrated by suppression-competent FOXP3(hi) Treg cells, can be classified into two types by the degree of additional infiltration of FOXP3(lo) nonsuppressive T cells. The latter, which are distinguished from FOXP3(+) Treg cells by non-expression of the naive T cell marker CD45RA and instability of FOXP3, secreted inflammatory cytokines. Indeed, CRCs with abundant infiltration of FOXP3(lo) T cells showed significantly better prognosis than those with predominantly FOXP3(hi) Treg cell infiltration. Development of such inflammatory FOXP3(lo) non-Treg cells may depend on secretion of interleukin (IL)-12 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β by tissues and their presence was correlated with tumor invasion by intestinal bacteria, especially Fusobacterium nucleatum. Thus, functionally distinct subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) T cells contribute in opposing ways to determining CRC prognosis. Depletion of FOXP3(hi) Treg cells from tumor tissues, which would augment antitumor immunity, could thus be used as an effective treatment strategy for CRCs and other cancers, whereas strategies that locally increase the population of FOXP3(lo) non-Treg cells could be used to suppress or prevent tumor formation.

  20. HLA-G Expression on Blasts and Tolerogenic Cells in Patients Affected by Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Grazia Locafaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G contributes to cancer cell immune escape from host antitumor responses. The clinical relevance of HLA-G in several malignancies has been reported. However, the role of HLA-G expression and functions in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML is still controversial. Our group identified a subset of tolerogenic dendritic cells, DC-10 that express HLA-G and secrete IL-10. DC-10 are present in the peripheral blood and are essential in promoting and maintaining tolerance via the induction of adaptive T regulatory (Treg cells. We investigated HLA-G expression on blasts and the presence of HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of AML patients at diagnosis. Moreover, we explored the possible influence of the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR of HLA-G, which has been associated with HLA-G expression, on AML susceptibility. Results showed that HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells are highly represented in AML patients with HLA-G positive blasts. None of the HLA-G variation sites evaluated was associated with AML susceptibility. This is the first report describing HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in AML patients, suggesting that they may represent a strategy by which leukemic cells escape the host’s immune system. Further studies on larger populations are required to verify our findings.

  1. CD4+CD62L+ Central Memory T Cells Can Be Converted to Foxp3+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Chang Li, Xian; Xiao, Xiang; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2013-01-01

    The peripheral Foxp3+ Treg pool consists of naturally arising Treg (nTreg) and adaptive Treg cells (iTreg). It is well known that naive CD4+ T cells can be readily converted to Foxp3+ iTreg in vitro, and memory CD4+ T cells are resistant to conversion. In this study, we investigated the induction of Foxp3+ T cells from various CD4+ T-cell subsets in human peripheral blood. Though naive CD4+ T cells were readily converted to Foxp3+ T cells with TGF-β and IL-2 treatment in vitro, such Foxp3+ T cells did not express the memory marker CD45RO as do Foxp3+ T cells induced in the peripheral blood of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) patients. Interestingly, a subset of human memory CD4+ T cells, defined as CD62L+ central memory T cells, could be induced by TGF-β to differentiate into Foxp3+ T cells. It is well known that Foxp3+ T cells derived from human CD4+CD25- T cells in vitro are lack suppressive functions. Our data about the suppressive functions of CD4+CD62L+ central memory T cell-derived Foxp3+ T cells support this conception, and an epigenetic analysis of these cells showed a similar methylation pattern in the FOXP3 Treg-specific demethylated region as the naive CD4+ T cell-derived Foxp3+ T cells. But further research showed that mouse CD4+ central memory T cells also could be induced to differentiate into Foxp3+ T cells, such Foxp3+ T cells could suppress the proliferation of effector T cells. Thus, our study identified CD4+CD62L+ central memory T cells as a novel potential source of iTreg. PMID:24155942

  2. Frequency of regulatory T cells determines the outcome of the T-cell-engaging antibody blinatumomab in patients with B-precursor ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, J; Dittrich, M; Bedke, T; Mueller, T; Eisele, F; Rosenwald, A; Rasche, L; Hartmann, E; Dandekar, T; Einsele, H; Topp, M S

    2017-10-01

    Blinatumomab can induce a complete haematological remission in patients in 46.6% with relapsed/refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL) resulting in a survival benefit when compared with chemotherapy. Only bone marrow blast counts before therapy have shown a weak prediction of response. Here we investigated the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs), measured by CD4/CD25/FOXP3 expression, in predicting the outcome of immunotherapy with the CD19-directed bispecific T-cell engager construct blinatumomab. Blinatumomab responders (n=22) had an average of 4.82% Tregs (confidence interval (CI): 1.79-8.34%) in the peripheral blood, whereas non-responders (n=20) demonstrated 10.25% Tregs (CI: 3.36-65.9%). All other tested markers showed either no prediction value or an inferior prediction level including blast BM counts and the classical enzyme marker lactate dehydrogenase. With a cutoff of 8.525%, Treg enumeration can identify 100% of all blinatumomab responders and exclude 70% of the non-responders. The effect is facilitated by blinatumomab-activated Tregs, leading to interleukin-10 production, resulting in suppression of T-cell proliferation and reduced CD8-mediated lysis of ALL cells. Proliferation of patients' T cells can be restored by upfront removal of Tregs. Thus, enumeration of Treg identifies r/r ALL patients with a high response rate to blinatumomab. Therapeutic removal of Tregs may convert blinatumomab non-responders to responders.

  3. Common Features of Regulatory T Cell Specialization During Th1 Responses

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    Katharina Littringer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells are essential for maintaining self-tolerance and preventing excessive immune responses. In the context of Th1 immune responses, co-expression of the Th1 transcription factor T-bet with Foxp3 is essential for Treg cells to control Th1 responses. T-bet-dependent expression of CXCR3 directs Treg cells to the site of inflammation. However, the suppressive mediators enabling effective control of Th1 responses at this site are unknown. In this study, we determined the signature of CXCR3+ Treg cells arising in Th1 settings and defined universal features of Treg cells in this context using multiple Th1-dominated infection models. Our analysis defined a set of Th1-specific co-inhibitory receptors and cytotoxic molecules that are specifically expressed in Treg cells during Th1 immune responses in mice and humans. Among these, we identified the novel co-inhibitory receptor CD85k as a functional predictor for Treg-mediated suppression specifically of Th1 responses, which could be explored therapeutically for selective immune suppression in autoimmunity.

  4. In vivo SPECT reporter gene imaging of regulatory T cells.

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    Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs were identified several years ago and are key in controlling autoimmune diseases and limiting immune responses to foreign antigens, including alloantigens. In vivo imaging techniques including intravital microscopy as well as whole body imaging using bioluminescence probes have contributed to the understanding of in vivo Treg function, their mechanisms of action and target cells. Imaging of the human sodium/iodide symporter via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT has been used to image various cell types in vivo. It has several advantages over the aforementioned imaging techniques including high sensitivity, it allows non-invasive whole body studies of viable cell migration and localisation of cells over time and lastly it may offer the possibility to be translated to the clinic. This study addresses whether SPECT/CT imaging can be used to visualise the migratory pattern of Tregs in vivo. Treg lines derived from CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ cells were retrovirally transduced with a construct encoding for the human Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS and the fluorescent protein mCherry and stimulated with autologous DCs. NIS expressing self-specific Tregs were specifically radiolabelled in vitro with Technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99mTcO(4(- and exposure of these cells to radioactivity did not affect cell viability, phenotype or function. In addition adoptively transferred Treg-NIS cells were imaged in vivo in C57BL/6 (BL/6 mice by SPECT/CT using (99mTcO(4(-. After 24 hours NIS expressing Tregs were observed in the spleen and their localisation was further confirmed by organ biodistribution studies and flow cytometry analysis. The data presented here suggests that SPECT/CT imaging can be utilised in preclinical imaging studies of adoptively transferred Tregs without affecting Treg function and viability thereby allowing longitudinal studies within disease models.

  5. Gene Therapy With Regulatory T Cells: A Beneficial Alliance

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    Moanaro Biswas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy aims to replace a defective or a deficient protein at therapeutic or curative levels. Improved vector designs have enhanced safety, efficacy, and delivery, with potential for lasting treatment. However, innate and adaptive immune responses to the viral vector and transgene product remain obstacles to the establishment of therapeutic efficacy. It is widely accepted that endogenous regulatory T cells (Tregs are critical for tolerance induction to the transgene product and in some cases the viral vector. There are two basic strategies to harness the suppressive ability of Tregs: in vivo induction of adaptive Tregs specific to the introduced gene product and concurrent administration of autologous, ex vivo expanded Tregs. The latter may be polyclonal or engineered to direct specificity to the therapeutic antigen. Recent clinical trials have advanced adoptive immunotherapy with Tregs for the treatment of autoimmune disease and in patients receiving cell transplants. Here, we highlight the potential benefit of combining gene therapy with Treg adoptive transfer to achieve a sustained transgene expression. Furthermore, techniques to engineer antigen-specific Treg cell populations, either through reprogramming conventional CD4+ T cells or transferring T cell receptors with known specificity into polyclonal Tregs, are promising in preclinical studies. Thus, based upon these observations and the successful use of chimeric (IgG-based antigen receptors (CARs in antigen-specific effector T cells, different types of CAR-Tregs could be added to the repertoire of inhibitory modalities to suppress immune responses to therapeutic cargos of gene therapy vectors. The diverse approaches to harness the ability of Tregs to suppress unwanted immune responses to gene therapy and their perspectives are reviewed in this article.

  6. HY-Specific Induced Regulatory T Cells Display High Specificity and Efficacy in the Prevention of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Heinrichs, Jessica; Haarberg, Kelley; Semple, Kenrick; Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Liu, Chen; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2015-07-15

    Naturally derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) may prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) while preserving graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. However, clinical application of naturally derived regulatory T cells has been severely hampered by their scarce availability and nonselectivity. To overcome these limitations, we took alternative approaches to generate Ag-specific induced Tregs (iTregs) and tested their efficacy and selectivity in the prevention of GVHD in preclinical models of bone marrow transplantation. We selected HY as a target Ag because it is a naturally processed, ubiquitously expressed minor histocompatibility Ag (miHAg) with a proven role in GVHD and GVL effect. We generated HY-specific iTregs (HY-iTregs) from resting CD4 T cells derived from TCR transgenic mice, in which CD4 cells specifically recognize HY peptide. We found that HY-iTregs were highly effective in preventing GVHD in male (HY(+)) but not female (HY(-)) recipients using MHC II-mismatched, parent→F1, and miHAg-mismatched murine bone marrow transplantation models. Interestingly, the expression of target Ag (HY) on the hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic compartment alone was sufficient for iTregs to prevent GVHD. Furthermore, treatment with HY-iTregs still preserved the GVL effect even against pre-established leukemia. We found that HY-iTregs were more stable in male than in female recipients. Furthermore, HY-iTregs expanded extensively in male but not female recipients, which in turn significantly reduced donor effector T cell expansion, activation, and migration into GVHD target organs, resulting in effective prevention of GVHD. This study demonstrates that iTregs specific for HY miHAgs are highly effective in controlling GVHD in an Ag-dependent manner while sparing the GVL effect. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Regulatory T cells in induced sputum of asthmatic children: association with inflammatory cytokines

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    Hamzaoui Agnès

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells play an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether the induced sputum (IS pool and the function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells are altered in asthma pediatric patients. Methods Treg activity was studied in the IS of 40 asthmatic children. CD3+ cells were analyzed for the expression of FoxP3 mRNA by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. IS cells from asthmatics and controls were stained for Treg markers and analyzed by flow cytometry. We also studied the ability of Treg cells to differentiate monocytes toward alternatively activated macrophages (AAM, and to suppress proinflammatory cytokines. Results (i Mild and moderate asthmatics had significantly decreased expression of FoxP3/β-actin mRNA and decreased proportions of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ cells compared to healthy children; (ii patients with moderate asthma had even lower proportions of FoxP3 expression compared to mild asthmatic patients; (iii monocytes cultured with Treg cells displayed typical features of AAM, including up-regulated expression of CD206 (macrophage mannose receptor and CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor, and an increased production of chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18. In addition, Treg cells from asthmatics have a reduced capacity to suppress LPS-proinflammatory cytokine production from monocytes/macrophages (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusion Asthma pediatric patients display a decreased bronchial Treg population. The impaired bronchial Treg activity is associated with disease severity.

  8. Immune regulation in T1D and T2D: prospective role of Foxp3+ Treg cells in disease pathogenesis and treatment

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    Mara eKornete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulated immune responses play key roles in the pathogenesis and complications of type 1 but also type 2 diabetes. Indeed, chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, which are salient features of type 1 diabetes, are now believed to actively contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The accumulation of activated innate and adaptive immune cells in various metabolic tissues results in the release of inflammatory mediators, which promote insulin resistance and β-cell damage. Moreover, these dysregulated immune responses can also mutually influence the prevalence of both type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this review article, we discuss the central role of immune responses in the patho-physiology and complications of type 1 and 2 diabetes, and provide evidence that regulation of these responses, particularly through the action of regulatory T cells, may be a possible therapeutic avenue for the treatment of these disease and their respective complications.

  9. Expression of CD152 and CD137 on T regulatory cells in rhinitis and bronchial asthma patients

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    Enrique Rojas-Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Subjects with bronchial asthma and bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis disorders have a deficiency of CD4+, CD25hight and FoxP3+ Treg in peripheral blood; however, subjects with bronchial asthma had a higher frequency of CD152+ and CD137+ Treg cells.

  10. Anti-regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells—termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)—that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune...... reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells......Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host...

  11. Cutting Edge: c-Maf Is Required for Regulatory T Cells To Adopt RORγt+ and Follicular Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Joshua D; Yeh, Chen-Hao; Ciofani, Maria

    2017-12-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) adopt specialized phenotypes defined by coexpression of lineage-defining transcription factors, such as RORγt, Bcl-6, or PPARγ, alongside Foxp3. These Treg subsets have unique tissue distributions and diverse roles in maintaining organismal homeostasis. However, despite extensive functional characterization, the factors driving Treg specialization are largely unknown. In this article, we show that c-Maf is a critical transcription factor regulating this process in mice, essential for generation of both RORγt + Tregs and T follicular regulatory cells, but not for adipose-resident Tregs. c-Maf appears to function primarily in Treg specialization, because IL-10 production, expression of other effector molecules, and general immune homeostasis are not c-Maf dependent. As in other T cells, c-Maf is induced in Tregs by IL-6 and TGF-β, suggesting that a combination of inflammatory and tolerogenic signals promote c-Maf expression. Therefore, c-Maf is a novel regulator of Treg specialization, which may integrate disparate signals to facilitate environmental adaptation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Cloning and expression of canine CD25 for validation of an anti-human CD25 antibody to compare T regulatory lymphocytes in healthy dogs and dogs with osteosarcoma.

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    Rissetto, K C; Rindt, H; Selting, K A; Villamil, J A; Henry, C J; Reinero, C R

    2010-05-15

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) are a unique subset of T helper cells that serve to modify/inhibit effector cells of the immune system and thus are essential to prevent autoimmunity. Overzealous Treg activity may contribute to impaired immune responses to cancer. Tregs can be phenotypically identified by proteins expressed on the cell surface (CD4 and CD25) and inside the cell (forkhead box3 (FoxP3)), although in dogs, no anti-canine CD25 antibody exists. We hypothesized that a mouse anti-human CD25 antibody definitively recognizes the canine protein and can be used to identify Tregs in dogs. We describe cloning and transfection of the canine CD25 gene into human HeLa cells with subsequent expression of the canine protein on the cell surface detected using an anti-human CD25 antibody in a flow cytometric assay. Validation of this antibody was used to identify CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs in 39 healthy dogs and 16 dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA). Results were expressed in five different ways and showed significantly fewer %CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes expressing FoxP3 in blood of older dogs (>/=7 years) compared with the other two age groups (<2 and 2-6 years) (p<0.001) and fewer %CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs in the tumor draining lymph nodes of OSA patients compared to the unrelated lymph node (p=0.049). However, there was no significant difference in % Tregs in the peripheral blood or lymph nodes between the control dogs and those with OSA. While the CD25 antibody can be successfully used in a flow cytometric assay to identify Tregs, this study does not support clinical utility of phenotypic recognition of Tregs in dogs with OSA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Autologous regulatory T cells can suppress the proliferation of lymphoma cell line in vitro].

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    Ying, Zhi-Tao; Guo, Jun; Ren, Jun; Kong, Yan; Yuan, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Xi-Juan; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Yun-Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on the T cell lymphoma EL4 cell line and to explore its mechanism. C57BL/6 Mouse Treg cells were isolated by MACS (magnetic cell sorting). The purity and the expression of Foxp3 were detected by flow cytometry. The suppressive effect of sorted Treg cells on EL4 cells was detected by MTT assay. The secretion of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells could be successfully isolated by MACS with the purity reaching 91.6% and the expression level of Foxp3 was 78.9%. The ratio of viable cells was more than 95%. Regulatory T cells could suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells effectively in the presence of antigen presenting cells (APCs). And the suppressive effect was most significant at 1:1 ratio. In addition, the suppression still existed without APCs. TGF-beta1 and IL-10 could not be detected by ELISA. It is concluded that the Treg cells can suppress T lymphoma cell in vitro. The suppressive effect of Treg cells works in dose-dependent manner, but not in cytokine-dependent manner. The mechanism of this suppression may take effect through cell-cell contact.

  14. Association of Marek's Disease induced immunosuppression with activation of a novel regulatory T cells in chickens.

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    Angila Gurung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek's Disease Virus (MDV is an alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens, transforms CD4+ T cells and causes deadly lymphomas. In addition, MDV induces immunosuppression early during infection by inducing cell death of the infected lymphocytes, and potentially due to activation of regulatory T (Treg-cells. Furthermore, immunosuppression also occurs during the transformation phase of the disease; however, it is still unknown how the disease can suppress immune response prior or after lymphoma formation. Here, we demonstrated that chicken TGF-beta+ Treg cells are found in different lymphoid tissues, with the highest levels found in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (cecal tonsil: CT, fostering an immune-privileged microenvironment exerted by TGF-beta. Surprisingly, significantly higher frequencies of TGF-beta+ Treg cells are found in the spleens of MDV-susceptible chicken lines compared to the resistant line, suggesting an association between TGF-beta+ Treg cells and host susceptibility to lymphoma formation. Experimental infection with a virulent MDV elevated the levels of TGF-beta+ Treg cells in the lungs as early as 4 days post infection, and during the transformation phase of the disease in the spleens. In contrast to TGF-beta+ Treg cells, the levels of CD4+CD25+ T cells remained unchanged during the infection and transformation phase of the disease. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the induction of TGF-beta+ Treg cells is associated with pathogenesis of the disease, as the vaccine strain of MDV did not induce TGF-beta+ Treg cells. Similar to human haematopoietic malignant cells, MDV-induced lymphoma cells expressed high levels of TGF-beta but very low levels of TGF-beta receptor I and II genes. The results confirm that COX-2/ PGE2 pathway is involved in immunosuppression induced by MDV-lymphoma cells. Taken together, our results revealed a novel TGF-beta+ Treg subset in chickens that is activated during MDV infection and tumour

  15. The Correlation of Regulatory T (TReg and Vitamin D3 in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome

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    Yunika Nurtyas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome (NS is an autoimmune disease that correlates to the imbalance of regulatory T cells (TReg. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D as adjuvant therapy of TReg population in pediatric nephrotic syndrome. This study was designed randomized clinical trial, double blind, with pre- and post-test control groups involving 15 subjects newly diagnosed with NS. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, namely K1 for group treated with prednisone+vitamin D and K2 group for prednisone treatment only. The population of TReg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was analyzed using flowcytometry. Vitamin D serum level was measured through ELISA method. Results showed that there was a significant elevation of TReg (independent t-test, p = 0.010 in K1 group, which was higher than in K2 group. The Pearson test in the K1 group showed that vitamin D level was positively correlated with TReg (p = 0.039, r = 0.779.

  16. The clinical and pathogenetic value of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in rheumatoid arthritis

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    A. S. Avdeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T regulatory cells (Tregs play a key role in the immune system due to the suppression of a hyperimmune response to autoantigens and opportunistic enteric microorganisms. In recent years, there has been evidence that Tregs can suppress various immunoinflammatory responses to a wide range of physiological and pathological stimuli, including microorganisms, tumor cells, allogeneic grafts, and fetal cells.Tregs express a broad spectrum of membrane molecules that determine their functional activity and make it possible to identify these cells; however, none has discovered a universal surface marker that would distinguish this cell subpopulation from a pool of T lymphocytes. The most specific intracellular marker for Tregs is the nuclear transcription factor Foxp3 that is of fundamental importance in the development of Tregs and their inhibitory function.The results of the vast majority of studies indicate that there are increased numbers of Tregs in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; however, the data on the level of this cell population in their peripheral blood are very contradictory. The majority of investigators have observed a decrease in the percentage of circulating Tregs while other studies have revealed its increase or no differences from the corresponding value of healthy donors or patients with osteoarthritis. It is believed that a quantitative defect in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127 regulatory cells is especially characteristic of early RA and associated with the risk of the latter in asymptomatic patients positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. The use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic agents is accompanied by a certain change in the level and functional activity of Tregs, which is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the medicaments.Thus, an important part is assigned to Tregs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, RA in particular. The decrease in the level

  17. Analysis of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells that display apparent viral antigen specificity during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

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    Shuo Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We reported previously that a proportion of natural CD25(+ cells isolated from the PBMC of HCV patients can further upregulate CD25 expression in response to HCV peptide stimulation in vitro, and proposed that virus-specific regulatory T cells (Treg were primed and expanded during the disease. Here we describe epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 locus in HCV-responsive natural CD25(+ cells and show that these cells are not activated conventional T cells expressing FOXP3, but hard-wired Treg with a stable FOXP3 phenotype and function. Of approximately 46,000 genes analyzed in genome wide transcription profiling, about 1% were differentially expressed between HCV-responsive Treg, HCV-non-responsive natural CD25(+ cells and conventional T cells. Expression profiles, including cell death, activation, proliferation and transcriptional regulation, suggest a survival advantage of HCV-responsive Treg over the other cell populations. Since no Treg-specific activation marker is known, we tested 97 NS3-derived peptides for their ability to elicit CD25 response (assuming it is a surrogate marker, accompanied by high resolution HLA typing of the patients. Some reactive peptides overlapped with previously described effector T cell epitopes. Our data offers new insights into HCV immune evasion and tolerance, and highlights the non-self specific nature of Treg during infection.

  18. TGF-β of lung cancer microenvironment upregulates B7H1 and GITRL expression in dendritic cells and is associated with regulatory T cell generation.

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    Ni, Xiao Yan; Sui, Hua Xiu; Liu, Yao; Ke, Shi Zhong; Wang, Yi Nan; Gao, Feng Guang

    2012-08-01

    The effects of TGF-β on dendritic cells (DCs) on the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. We report, here, the establishment of an in vitro lung cancer microenvironment by co-incubation of seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF) labeled Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeled fibroblasts and 4-chloromethyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (CMHC) labeled DCs. Raw 264.7, EL4 and NCI-H446 cells were able to synthesize TGF-β which was determined by flow cyto-metry and western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, TGF-β efficiently increased regulatory T-cell (Treg) expansion and upregulated DC B7H1 and GITRL expression. TGF-β and the co-incubation of LLC cells, fibroblasts with DCs could augment the expression of B7H1 and GITRL molecules of DCs. The data presented here indicate that the B7H1 and GITRL molecules may play an important role in TGF-β-induced Treg expansion of lung cancer microenvironment.

  19. Frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in peripheral blood in relation to urinary bladder cancer malignancy indicators before and after surgical removal.

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    Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Brożyna, Anna A; Siekiera, Jerzy; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2016-03-08

    Tumor cells communicate with stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), to form microenvironment inhibiting immune responses. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) stimulate immune tolerance and facilitate tumor progression. We analyzed the changes in Treg frequencies assessed using flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of patients with urothelial bladder cancer before and after tumor-removal. Changes in Treg frequency were investigated in relation to clinicopathomorphological indicators of tumor malignancy and expression of RCAS1 on CAFs and TAMs. Higher Treg frequencies were observed in early phase of tumor growth (pTa-pT2), in larger tumors, with more aggressive type of invasion, and with expression of RCAS1. The later phase of tumor development, accompanied by a nonclassic differentiations and pT3-pT4 advancement, had lower number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and lower Treg frequency. Furthermore, in pT2-pT4 tumors, a decreased post-surgery Treg frequency was associated with poorer prognosis: patients with the lowest frequency of Tregs died first. These findings strongly suggest that the Treg frequencies at later phase of tumor growth, associated with a low anti-tumor response, represent a new and important prognostic indicator in urinary bladder cancer.

  20. Bee venom enhances the differentiation of human regulatory T cells.

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    Caramalho, I; Melo, A; Pedro, E; Barbosa, M M P; Victorino, R M M; Pereira Santos, M C; Sousa, A E

    2015-10-01

    Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is well recognized by its efficacy, and compelling evidence implicates regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the underlying tolerogenic mechanisms. Additionally, hymenoptera venom has for a long time been claimed to modulate immunity. Here, we investigated the putative role of bee venom (Bv) in human FOXP3-expressing Treg homeostasis and differentiation, irrespective of the donors' allergic status. We found that Bv significantly enhanced the differentiation of FOXP3-expressing cells both from conventional naïve CD4 T cells and mature CD4 thymocytes, a property that may contribute to the VIT's capacity to expand circulating Tregs in allergic individuals. We expect that our data enlightening the Treg-mediated immunomodulatory properties of Bv regardless of TCR specificity, to have application in other allergies, as well as in other clinical settings, such as autoimmunity and transplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. TNF-α blockade induces IL-10 expression in human CD4+ T cells

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    Evans, Hayley G.; Roostalu, Urmas; Walter, Gina J.; Gullick, Nicola J.; Frederiksen, Klaus S.; Roberts, Ceri A.; Sumner, Jonathan; Baeten, Dominique L.; Gerwien, Jens G.; Cope, Andrew P.; Geissmann, Frederic; Kirkham, Bruce W.; Taams, Leonie S.

    2014-02-01

    IL-17+ CD4+ T (Th17) cells contribute to the pathogenesis of several human inflammatory diseases. Here we demonstrate that TNF inhibitor (TNFi) drugs induce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in CD4+ T cells including IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. TNFi-mediated induction of IL-10 in IL-17+ CD4+ T cells is Treg-/Foxp3-independent, requires IL-10 and is overcome by IL-1β. TNFi-exposed IL-17+ CD4+ T cells are molecularly and functionally distinct, with a unique gene signature characterized by expression of IL10 and IKZF3 (encoding Aiolos). We show that Aiolos binds conserved regions in the IL10 locus in IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, IKZF3 and IL10 expression levels correlate in primary CD4+ T cells and Aiolos overexpression is sufficient to drive IL10 in these cells. Our data demonstrate that TNF-α blockade induces IL-10 in CD4+ T cells including Th17 cells and suggest a role for the transcription factor Aiolos in the regulation of IL-10 in CD4+ T cells.

  2. The mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in T regulatory cells in children with type 1 diabetes.

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    Maria Górska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is caused by the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. T regulatory cells (Tregs represent an active mechanism of suppressing autoreactive T cells that escape central tolerance. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that T regulatory cells express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, elements of cytotoxicity and OX40/4-1BB molecules. The examined group consisted of 50 children with T1DM. Fifty two healthy individuals (control group were enrolled into the study. A flow cytometric analysis of T-cell subpopulations was performed using the following markers: anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD25, anti-CD127, anti-CD134 and anti-CD137. Concurrently with the flow cytometric assessment of Tregs we separated CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- cells for further mRNA analysis. mRNA levels for transcription factor FoxP3, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, activatory molecules (OX40, 4-1BB and elements of cytotoxicity (granzyme B, perforin 1 were determined by real-time PCR technique. We found no alterations in the frequency of CD4+CD25highCD127low cells between diabetic and control children. Treg cells expressed mRNA for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Lower OX40 and higher 4-1BB mRNA but not protein levels in Treg cells in diabetic patients compared to the healthy children were noted. Our observations confirm the presence of mRNA for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- cells in the peripheral blood of children with T1DM. Further studies with the goal of developing new strategies to potentiate Treg function in autoimmune diseases are warranted.

  3. Perspectives on Regulatory T Cell Therapies.

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    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Kröger, Andrea; Garritsen, Henk S P; Buer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, T(reg) cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance T(reg) cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human T(reg) cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 at different levels, hampered such an approach. Recent identification of the orphan receptor glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) as T(reg) cell-specific key molecule that dominantly controls FOXP3 via a positive feedback loop opens up new perspectives for molecular and cellular therapies. This brief review focuses on the role of GARP as a safeguard of a complex regulatory network of human T(reg) cells and its implications for regulatory T cell therapies in autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease.

  4. Effects of natalizumab treatment on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.

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    Max-Philipp Stenner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natalizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the alpha-4 chain of very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4 exerts impressive therapeutic effects in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to study impacts of Natalizumab therapy on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHODOLOGY: A combined approach of in vitro and ex vivo experiments using T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and Natalizumab treated MS patients was chosen. We determined binding of Natalizumab and its effects on the frequency, transmigratory behaviour and suppressive function of Tregs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Binding of Natalizumab and expression of CD49d (alpha-4 chain of VLA-4 differed between non-regulatory and regulatory cells. Albeit Foxp3+ Tregs had lower levels of CD49d, Natalizumab blocked the transmigration of Foxp3+ Tregs similar to non-regulatory T cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tregs was unaffected by Natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab does not alter the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25(highCD127(lowFoxp3+ Tregs under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the impaired function of Tregs in MS patients is not restored by Natalizumab treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a first detailed analysis of Natalizumab effects on the regulatory T cell population. Our prospective study shows that Foxp3+ Tregs express lower levels of VLA-4 and bind less Natalizumab. We further the understanding of the mechanisms of action of Natalizumab by demonstrating that unlike other immunomodulatory drugs the beneficial therapeutic effects of the monoclonal antibody are largely independent of alterations in Treg frequency or function.

  5. Effects of natalizumab treatment on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.

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    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Waschbisch, Anne; Buck, Dorothea; Doerck, Sebastian; Einsele, Hermann; Toyka, Klaus V; Wiendl, Heinz

    2008-10-06

    Natalizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the alpha-4 chain of very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4) exerts impressive therapeutic effects in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to study impacts of Natalizumab therapy on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A combined approach of in vitro and ex vivo experiments using T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and Natalizumab treated MS patients was chosen. We determined binding of Natalizumab and its effects on the frequency, transmigratory behaviour and suppressive function of Tregs. Binding of Natalizumab and expression of CD49d (alpha-4 chain of VLA-4) differed between non-regulatory and regulatory cells. Albeit Foxp3+ Tregs had lower levels of CD49d, Natalizumab blocked the transmigration of Foxp3+ Tregs similar to non-regulatory T cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tregs was unaffected by Natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab does not alter the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25(high)CD127(low)Foxp3+ Tregs under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the impaired function of Tregs in MS patients is not restored by Natalizumab treatment. We provide a first detailed analysis of Natalizumab effects on the regulatory T cell population. Our prospective study shows that Foxp3+ Tregs express lower levels of VLA-4 and bind less Natalizumab. We further the understanding of the mechanisms of action of Natalizumab by demonstrating that unlike other immunomodulatory drugs the beneficial therapeutic effects of the monoclonal antibody are largely independent of alterations in Treg frequency or function.

  6. Secretory IgA in complex with Lactobacillus rhamnosus potentiates mucosal dendritic cell-mediated Treg cell differentiation via TLR regulatory proteins, RALDH2 and secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β.

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    Mikulic, Josip; Longet, Stéphanie; Favre, Laurent; Benyacoub, Jalil; Corthesy, Blaise

    2017-06-01

    The importance of secretory IgA in controlling the microbiota is well known, yet how the antibody affects the perception of the commensals by the local immune system is still poorly defined. We have previously shown that the transport of secretory IgA in complex with bacteria across intestinal microfold cells results in an association with dendritic cells in Peyer's patches. However, the consequences of such an interaction on dendritic cell conditioning have not been elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the impact of the commensal Lactobacillus rhamnosus, alone or associated with secretory IgA, on the responsiveness of dendritic cells freshly recovered from mouse Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Lactobacillus rhamnosus-conditioned mucosal dendritic cells are characterized by increased expression of Toll-like receptor regulatory proteins [including single immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related molecule, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, and Toll-interacting molecule] and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2, low surface expression of co-stimulatory markers, high anti- versus pro-inflammatory cytokine production ratios, and induction of T regulatory cells with suppressive function. Association with secretory IgA enhanced the anti-inflammatory/regulatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus-induced conditioning of mucosal dendritic cells, particularly in Peyer's patches. At the systemic level, activation of splenic dendritic cells exposed to Lactobacillus rhamnosus was partially dampened upon association with secretory IgA. These data suggest that secretory IgA, through coating of commensal bacteria, contributes to the conditioning of mucosal dendritic cells toward tolerogenic profiles essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  7. IL-5 promotes induction of antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells that suppress autoimmunity.

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    Tran, Giang T; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J; Carter, Nicole M; Verma, Nirupama D; Plain, Karren M; Boyd, Rochelle; Robinson, Catherine M; Nomura, Masaru; Killingsworth, Murray; Hall, Bruce M

    2012-05-10

    Immune responses to foreign and self-Ags can be controlled by regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing CD4 and IL-2Rα chain (CD25). Defects in Tregs lead to autoimmunity, whereas induction of Ag-specific CD4+CD25+ Tregs restores tolerance. Ag-specific CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+Tregs activated by the T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine, IL-4, and specific alloantigen promote allograft tolerance. These Tregs expressed the specific IL-5Rα and in the presence of IL-5 proliferate to specific but not third-party Ag. These findings suggest that recombinant IL-5 (rIL-5) therapy may promote Ag-specific Tregs to mediate tolerance. This study showed normal CD4+CD25+ Tregs cultured with IL-4 and an autoantigen expressed Il-5rα. Treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis with rIL-5 markedly reduced clinical paralysis, weight loss, demyelination, and infiltration of CD4+ (Th1 and Th17) CD8+ T cells and macrophages in nerves. Clinical improvement was associated with expansion of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs that expressed Il-5rα and proliferated only to specific autoantigen that was enhanced by rIL-5. Depletion of CD25+ Tregs or blocking of IL-4 abolished the benefits of rIL-5. Thus, rIL-5 promoted Ag-specific Tregs, activated by autoantigen and IL-4, to control autoimmunity. These findings may explain how Th2 responses, especially to parasitic infestation, induce immune tolerance. rIL-5 therapy may be able to induce Ag-specific tolerance in autoimmunity.

  8. Phenotypic analysis of prostate-infiltrating lymphocytes reveals TH17 and Treg skewing.

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    Sfanos, Karen Sandell; Bruno, Tullia C; Maris, Charles H; Xu, Lauren; Thoburn, Christopher J; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Meeker, Alan K; Isaacs, William B; Drake, Charles G

    2008-06-01

    Pathologic examination of prostate glands removed from patients with prostate cancer commonly reveals infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Little is known about the phenotype of these cells, despite accumulating evidence suggesting a potential role for chronic inflammation in the etiology of prostate cancer. We developed a technique that samples the majority of the peripheral prostate through serial needle aspirates. CD4+ prostate-infiltrating lymphocytes (PIL) were isolated using magnetic beads and analyzed for subset skewing using both flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The transcriptional profile of fluorescence-activated cell sorted prostate-infiltrating regulatory T cells (CD4+, CD25+, GITR+) was compared with naïve, peripheral blood T cells using microarray analysis. CD4+ PIL showed a paucity of TH2 (interleukin-4-secreting) cells, a surprising finding given the generally accepted association of these cells with chronic, smoldering inflammation. Instead, CD4+ PIL seemed to be skewed towards a regulatory Treg phenotype (FoxP3+) as well as towards the TH17 phenotype (interleukin-17+). We also found that a preponderance of TH17-mediated inflammation was associated with a lower pathologic Gleason score. These protein level data were reflected at the message level, as analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Microarray analysis of pooled prostate-infiltrating T(reg) revealed expected Treg-associated transcripts (FoxP3, CTLA-4, GITR, LAG-3) as well as a number of unique cell surface markers that may serve as additional Treg markers. Taken together, these data suggest that TH17 and/or Treg CD4+ T cells (rather than TH2 T cells) may be involved in the development or progression of prostate cancer.

  9. TNFR2 expression on CD25hiFOXP3+ T cells induced upon TCR stimulation of CD4 T cells identifies maximal cytokine-producing effectors.

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    Chindu eGovindaraj

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that CD25hiTNFR2+ cells can be rapidly generated in vitro from circulating CD4 lymphocytes by polyclonal stimuli anti-CD3 in the presence of anti-CD28. The in vitro induced CD25hiTNFR2+ T cells express a conventional Treg phenotype FOXP3+CTLA4+CD127lo/-, but produce effector and immunoregulatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-g. These induced CD25hiTNFR2+ T cells do not suppress target cell proliferation, but enhance it instead. Thus the CD25hiTNFR2+ phenotype induced rapidly following CD3/28 cross linking of CD4 T cells identifies cells with maximal proliferative and effector cytokine producing capability. The in vivo counterpart of this cell population may play an important role in immune response initiation.

  10. Altered AKT1 and MAPK1 Gene Expression on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Correlation with T-Helper-Transcription Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

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    Sonia Garcia-Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinases have been implicated in the immunopathological mechanisms of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. v-akt murine-thymoma viral-oncogene-homolog 1 (AKT1 and mitogen-activated-protein-kinase 1 (MAPK1 gene expressions in peripheral mononuclear cells from thirteen SLE patients with inactive or mild disease were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction and analyzed whether there was any correlation with T-helper (Th transcription factors (TF gene expression, cytokines, and S100A8/S100A9-(Calprotectin. Age- and gender-matched thirteen healthy controls were examined. AKT1 and MAPK1 expressions were upregulated in SLE patients and correlated with Th17-(Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR-C, T-regulatory-(Treg-(Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFB-2, and Th2-(interleukin (IL-5-related genes. MAPK1 expression correlated with Th1-(IL-12A, T-box TF-(T-bet, Th2-(GATA binding protein-(GATA-3, and IL-10 expressions. IL-10 expression was increased and correlated with plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α and Th0-(IL-2, Th1-(IL-12A, T-bet, GATA3, Treg-(Forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor- (FOXP-3, and IL-6 expressions. FOXP3 expression, FOXP3/RORC, and FOXP3/GATA3 expression ratios were increased. Plasma IL-1β, IL-12(p70, Interferon-(IFN-γ, and IL-6 cytokines were augmented. Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-13 correlated with C-reactive protein, respectively. Increased Calprotectin correlated with neutrophils. Conclusion, SLE patients presented a systemic immunoinflammatory activity, augmented AKT1 and MAPK1 expressions, proinflammatory cytokines, and Calprotectin, together with increased expression of Treg-related genes, suggesting a regulatory feedback opposing the inflammatory activity.

  11. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

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    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  12. Imbalance of placental regulatory T cell and Th17 cell population dynamics in the FIV-infected pregnant cat

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    Boudreaux Crystal E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An appropriate balance in placental regulatory T cells (Tregs, an immunosuppressive cell population, and Th17 cells, a pro-inflammatory cell population, is essential in allowing tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus. TGF-β and IL-6 are cytokines that promote differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells from a common progenitor; aberrant expression of the cytokines may perturb the balance in the two cell populations. We previously reported a pro-inflammatory placental environment with decreased levels of FoxP3, a Treg marker, and increased levels of IL-6 in the placentas of FIV-infected cats at early pregnancy. Thus, we hypothesized that FIV infection in the pregnant cat causes altered placental Treg and Th17 cell populations, possibly resulting in placental inflammation. Methods We examined the effect of FIV infection on Treg and Th17 populations in placentas at early pregnancy using quantitative confocal microscopy to measure FoxP3 or RORγ, a Th17 marker, and qPCR to quantify expression of the key cytokines TGF-β and IL-6. Results FoxP3 and RORγ were positively correlated in FIV-infected placentas at early pregnancy, but not placentas from normal cats, indicating virus-induced alteration in the balance of these cell populations. In control cats the expression of IL-6 and RORγ was positively correlated as predicted, but this relationship was disrupted in infected animals. TGF-β was reduced in infected queens, an occurrence that could dysregulate both Treg and Th17 cell populations. Co-expression analyses revealed a highly significant positive correlation between IL-6 and TGF-β expression in control animals that did not occur in infected animals. Conclusion Collectively, these data point toward potential disruption in the balance of Treg and Th17 cell populations that may contribute to FIV-induced inflammation in the feline placenta.

  13. In vivo expansion of naïve CD4+ CD25(high FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma after IL-2 administration.

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    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (T(reg cells are increased in context of malignancies and their expansion can be correlated with higher disease burden and decreased survival. Initially, interleukin 2 (IL-2 has been used as T-cell growth factor in clinical vaccination trials. In murine models, however, a role of IL-2 in development, differentiation, homeostasis, and function of T(reg cells was established. In IL-2 treated cancer patients a further T(reg-cell expansion was described, yet, the mechanism of expansion is still elusive. Here we report that functional T(reg cells of a naïve phenotype--as determined by CCR7 and CD45RA expression--are significantly expanded in colorectal cancer patients. Treatment of 15 UICC stage IV colorectal cancer patients with IL-2 in a phase I/II peptide vaccination trial further enlarges the already increased naïve T(reg-cell pool. Higher frequencies of T-cell receptor excision circles in naïve T(reg cells indicate IL-2 dependent thymic generation of naïve T(reg cells as a mechanism leading to increased frequencies of T(reg cells post IL-2 treatment in cancer patients. This finding could be confirmed in naïve murine T(reg cells after IL-2 administration. These results point to a more complex regulation of T(reg cells in context of IL-2 administration. Future strategies therefore might aim at combining IL-2 therapy with novel strategies to circumvent expansion and differentiation of naïve T(reg cells.

  14. Induced Foxp3+ T cells colonising tolerated allografts exhibit the hypomethylation pattern typical of mature regulatory T cells.

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    Robert eHilbrands

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 require acquisition of a specific hypomethylation pattern to ensure optimal functional commitment, limited lineage plasticity and long-term maintenance of tolerance. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of these epigenetic changes in vivo will contribute to the clinical exploitation of Foxp3+Treg. Here we show that both in vitro and in vivo generated antigen specific Foxp3+Treg can acquire Treg-specific epigenetic characteristics and prevent skin graft rejection in an animal model.

  15. IL-12 and IL-23 modulate plasticity of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in human Leprosy.

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    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Alpana; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA), rIL-12 and rIL-23 for 48h. Expression of FoxP3 in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, intracellular cytokines IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-17 in Tregs cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) after stimulation. rIL-12 treatment increases the levels of pStat4 in Tregs and IFN-γ production. In the presence of rIL-23, pStat3 + and IL-17A + cells increase. rIL-12 and r-IL-23 treatment downregulated the FoxP3 expression, IL-10 and TGF-β production by Tregs and enhances the expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86). In conclusion rIL-12 converts Tregs into IFN-γ producing cells through STAT-4 signaling while rIL-23 converts Tregs into IL-17 producing cells through STAT-3 signaling in leprosy patients. This study may helpful to provide a new avenue to overcome the immunosuprression in leprosy patients using in vitro cytokine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Broncho-Vaxom attenuates allergic airway inflammation by restoring GSK3β-related T regulatory cell insufficiency.

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    Ran Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral administration of bacterial extracts (eg, Broncho-Vaxom (BV has been proposed to attenuate asthma through modulating Treg cells. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully characterized. This study sought to assess the effects of oral administration of BV on GSK-3β expression and Treg cells in ovalbumin (OVA-induced asthmatic mice models. METHOD: Asthmatic mice models were established with OVA challenge and treated with oral administration of BV. Next, infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophil and neutrophils, mucous metaplasia, levels of Th1/Th2/Treg-typed cytokines and expression of GSK3β and Foxp3 were examined in asthmatic mice models by histological analysis, Bio-Plex and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of Treg cells were evaluated in cultured splenocytes by flow cytometry in the presence of BV or GSK3β siRNA interference. RESULTS: We found significant decrease of infiltrated inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in asthmatic mice models after oral administration of BV. Oral administration of BV was shown to significantly suppress mucus metaplasia, Th2-typed cytokine levels and GSK3β expression while increasing Foxp3 production in asthmatic mice models. Moreover, BV significantly enhanced GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells in cultured spleen cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence that oral administration of BV is capable of attenuating airway inflammation in asthmatic mice models, which may be associated with GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells.

  17. CRISPR and personalized Treg therapy: new insights into the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Safari, Fatemeh; Farajnia, Safar; Arya, Maryam; Zarredar, Habib; Nasrolahi, Ava

    2018-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as one of the most disabling autoimmune diseases, is a common health problem that progressively reduces the life quality of patients. Although various biologics have been introduced for RA, attempts to establish an efficient long-term therapies failed due to the heterogeneity of this disease. In the last decade, immunomodulatory approaches such as T cell adoptive therapy have been developed for controlling autoimmunity. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), the major self-tolerance mediator, are crucial for down-regulation of aberrant immune stimulations. Hence, recruiting ex vivo Tregs emerged as a promising therapy for a variety of autoimmune diseases. The major bottleneck of the Treg adoptive therapy is maintaining the in vivo stability and plasticity of these fascinating cells. Recent progress in genome editing technology clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system provided a new solution for this bottleneck. The present paper discusses RA pathogenesis and the potential application of new developments in CRISPR-mediated Treg genome editing in personalized therapy of RA.

  18. Ex Vivo Expanded Human Non-Cytotoxic CD8+CD45RClow/− Tregs Efficiently Delay Skin Graft Rejection and GVHD in Humanized Mice

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    Séverine Bézie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Both CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs play a critical role in the control of immune responses and immune tolerance; however, our understanding of CD8+ Tregs is limited while they are particularly promising for therapeutic application. We report here existence of highly suppressive human CD8+CD45RClow/− Tregs expressing Foxp3 and producing IFNγ, IL-10, IL-34, and TGFβ to mediate their suppressive activity. We demonstrate that total CD8+CD45RClow/− Tregs can be efficiently expanded in the presence of anti-CD3/28 mAbs, high-dose IL-2 and IL-15 and that such expanded Tregs efficiently delay GVHD and human skin transplantation rejection in immune humanized mice. Robustly expanded CD8+ Tregs displayed a specific gene signature, upregulated cytokines and expansion in the presence of rapamycin greatly improved proliferation and suppression. We show that CD8+CD45RClow/− Tregs are equivalent to canonical CD4+CD25highCD127low/− Tregs for suppression of allogeneic immune responses in vitro. Altogether, our results open new perspectives to tolerogenic strategies in human solid organ transplantation and GVHD.

  19. CCR9 Is Not Required for the Homing of Pro-inflammatory Effector T cells, but Is Crucial for Recruitment and Expansion of FoxP3+ CD8+ Tregs in the Small Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Casado, Cristina; Joeris, Thorsten; Holmkvist, Petra

    Chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) is required for the homeostatic recruitment of T cells to the mucosa of the small intestine. Accordingly, CCR9 has been suggested as a potential target to inhibit the recruitment of proinflammatory effector T cells (Teff) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Since...... the contribution of CCR9 to the recruitment of Teff in inflammation is not entirely clear, we aimed to address this question using IFABPtOva mice. These mice express Ovalbumin (Ova) specifically in small intestinal epithelial cells, which allows triggering of acute inflammation following transfer of Ova......-specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I cells) and adjuvant treatment. Strikingly, intestinal inflammation in IFABP-tOva mice could also be triggered following transfer of CCR9-deficient OT-I cells, demonstrating that CCR9 is not required for homing of Teff cells. Interestingly, OTI cells transferred to IFABP-tOva mice...

  20. MicroRNA 10a marks regulatory T cells

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    Jeker, Lukas T; Zhou, Xuyu; Gershberg, Kseniya

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for regulatory T cell (Treg) stability and function. We report that microRNA-10a (miR-10a) is expressed in Tregs but not in other T cells including individual thymocyte subsets. Expression profiling in inbred mouse strains demonstrated that non-obese diabetic (NOD......) mice with a genetic susceptibility for autoimmune diabetes have lower Treg-specific miR-10a expression than C57BL/6J autoimmune resistant mice. Inhibition of miR-10a expression in vitro leads to reduced FoxP3 expression levels and miR-10a expression is lower in unstable "exFoxP3" T cells. Unstable...... and phenotype of natural Treg nor the capacity of conventional T cells to induce FoxP3 in response to TGFβ, RA, or a combination of the two. Thus, miR-10a is selectively expressed in Treg but inhibition by antagomiRs or genetic ablation resulted in discordant effects on FoxP3....

  1. Specific central nervous system recruitment of HLA-G(+) regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis.

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    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zozulya, Alla L; Weidenfeller, Christian; Metz, Imke; Buck, Dorothea; Toyka, Klaus V; Brück, Wolfgang; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    We have recently described a novel population of natural regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that are characterized by the expression of HLA-G and may be found at sites of tissue inflammation (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)). Here we studied the role of these cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), a prototypic autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Sixty-four patients with different types of MS, 9 patients with other neurological diseases, and 20 healthy donors were included in this study. Inflamed brain lesions from 5 additional untreated MS patients were examined. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by flow cytometry and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens by immunohistochemistry. Functional capacity was accessed and transmigration was determined using an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were found enriched in the inflamed CSF of MS patients and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) showed a strong propensity to transmigrate across BBB, which was vigorously driven by inflammatory chemokines, and associated with a gain of suppressive capacity upon transmigration. CSF-derived HLA-G(pos) T(reg) of MS patients represented a population of activated central memory activated T cells with an upregulated expression of inflammatory chemokine receptors and exhibiting full suppressive capacity. Unlike natural FoxP3-expressing T(reg), HLA-G(pos) T(reg) derived from peripheral blood were functionally unimpaired in MS. In MS, HLA-G(pos) T(reg) may serve to control potentially destructive immune responses directly at the sites of CNS inflammation and to counterbalance inflammation once specifically recruited to the CNS.

  2. IRAK-M expression limits dendritic cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to Helicobacter pylori.

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    Jessica Shiu

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infects the gastric mucosa and persists for the life of the host. Bacterial persistence may be due to the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs whichmay have protective effects against other diseases such as asthma. It has been shown that H. pylori modulates the T cell response through dendritic cell reprogramming but the molecular pathways involved are relatively unknown. The goal of this study was to identify critical elements of dendritic cell (DC activation and evaluate potential influence on immune activation. Microarray analysis was used to demonstrate limited gene expression changes in H. pylori stimulated bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs compared to the BMDCs stimulated with E. coli. IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, was upregulated and we selectedit for investigation of its role in modulating the DC and T cell responses. IRAK-M(-/- and wild type BMDC were compared for their response to H. pylori. Cells lacking IRAK-M produced significantly greater amounts of proinflammatory MIP-2 and reduced amounts of immunomodulatory IL-10 than wild type BMDC. IRAK-M(-/- cells also demonstrated increased MHC II expression upon activation. However, IRAK-M(-/- BMDCs were comparable to wild type BMDCs in inducing T-helper 17 (TH17 and Treg responses as demonstrated in vitro using BMDC CD4+ T cells co-culture assays,and in vivo though the adoptive transfer of CD4(+ FoxP3-GFP T cells into H. pylori infected IRAK-M(-/- mice. These results suggest that H. pylori infection leads to the upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecules like IRAK-M and that IRAK-M has a direct impact on innate functions in DCs such as cytokine and costimulation molecule upregulation but may not affect T cell skewing.

  3. Aberrant Muscle Antigen Exposure in Mice Is Sufficient to Cause Myositis in a Treg Cell–Deficient Milieu

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    Young, Nicholas A; Sharma, Rahul; Friedman, Alexandra K; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Bolon, Brad; Jarjour, Wael N

    2013-01-01

    Objective Myositis is associated with muscle-targeted inflammation and is observed in some Treg cell–deficient mouse models. Because an autoimmune pathogenesis has been strongly implicated, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that abnormal exposure to muscle antigens, as observed in muscle injury, can induce autoimmune-mediated myositis in susceptible hosts. Methods FoxP3 mutant (scurfy) mice were mated to synaptotagmin VII (Syt VII) mutant mice, which resulted in a new mouse strain that combines impaired membrane resealing with Treg cell deficiency. Lymphocyte preparations from double-mutant mice were adoptively transferred intraperitoneally, with or without purified Treg cells, into recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG-1)–null recipients. Lymph node cells from mice with the FoxP3 mutation were transferred into RAG-1–null mice either 1) intraperitoneally in conjunction with muscle homogenate or purified myosin protein or 2) intramuscularly with or without cotransfer of purified Treg cells. Results FoxP3-deficient mouse lymph node cells transferred in conjunction with myosin protein or muscle homogenate induced robust skeletal muscle inflammation. The infiltrates consisted predominantly of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, a limited number of macrophages, and no B cells. Significant inflammation was also seen in similar experiments using lymph node cells from FoxP3/Syt VII double-mutant mice but was absent in experiments using adoptive transfer of FoxP3 mutant mouse cells alone. The cotransfer of Treg cells completely suppressed myositis. Conclusion These data, derived from a new, reproducible model, demonstrate the critical roles of Treg cell deficiency and aberrant muscle antigen exposure in the priming of autoreactive cells to induce myositis. This mouse system has multifaceted potential for examining the interplay in vivo between tissue injury and autoimmunity. PMID:24022275

  4. Interferon-γ induces expression of MHC class II on intestinal epithelial cells and protects mice from colitis.

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    Christoph Thelemann

    Full Text Available Immune responses against intestinal microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and involve CD4(+ T cells, which are activated by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs. However, it is largely unexplored how inflammation-induced MHCII expression by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC affects CD4(+ T cell-mediated immunity or tolerance induction in vivo. Here, we investigated how epithelial MHCII expression is induced and how a deficiency in inducible epithelial MHCII expression alters susceptibility to colitis and the outcome of colon-specific immune responses. Colitis was induced in mice that lacked inducible expression of MHCII molecules on all nonhematopoietic cells, or specifically on IECs, by continuous infection with Helicobacter hepaticus and administration of interleukin (IL-10 receptor-blocking antibodies (anti-IL10R mAb. To assess the role of interferon (IFN-γ in inducing epithelial MHCII expression, the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis was used. Abrogation of MHCII expression by nonhematopoietic cells or IECs induces colitis associated with increased colonic frequencies of innate immune cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CD4(+ T-helper type (Th1 cells - but not group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs or Th17 cells - are elevated, resulting in an unfavourably altered ratio between CD4(+ T cells and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+ regulatory T (Treg cells. IFN-γ produced mainly by CD4(+ T cells is required to upregulate MHCII expression by IECs. These results suggest that, in addition to its proinflammatory roles, IFN-γ exerts a critical anti-inflammatory function in the intestine which protects against colitis by inducing MHCII expression on IECs. This may explain the failure of anti-IFN-γ treatment to induce remission in IBD patients, despite the association of elevated IFN-γ and IBD.

  5. The possible role of CD4⁺CD25(high)Foxp3⁺/CD4⁺IL-17A⁺ cell imbalance in the autoimmunity of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

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    Xue, Haibo; Yu, Xiurong; Ma, Lei; Song, Shoujun; Li, Yuanbin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Liu, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a prototypic organ-specific autoimmune thyroid disease, for which the exact etiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic changes in regulatory T cell (Treg) and T helper 17 cell (Th17) populations in patients with HT at different stages of thyroid dysfunction, as well as to analyze the possible correlation between the Treg/Th17 cell axis and autoimmune status in HT. We assessed thyroid function and autoantibody serology both in HT patients and in healthy controls (HCs) and divided HT patients into three subgroups according to thyroid function. We then determined the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and analyzed mRNA expression of the Treg and Th17 cell-defining transcription factors Foxp3 and RORγt. In addition, serum levels of TGF-β and IL-17A were assessed. We found that the percentage of Treg cells, Foxp3 mRNA levels, and the ratio of Treg/Th17 cells were all significantly lower in HT patients, while Th17 cell percentages and RORγt mRNA levels were significantly higher. Interestingly, we also observed significant differences in these measurements between HT patient subgroups. Serum IL-17A levels were markedly increased in HT patients, while serum concentrations of TGF-β were lower, compared to HCs. The ratio of Treg/Th17 cells was negatively correlated with the levels of serum thyroperoxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody, and thyrotropin (TSH) in HT patients. Taken together, our data suggest that the balance between Treg and Th17 cells shifts in favor of Th17 cells during clinical progression of HT, which is negatively correlated with levels of thyroid-specific autoantibodies and TSH, implying that Treg/Th17 cell imbalance may contribute to thyroid damage in HT.

  6. ChIP-on-chip analysis identifies IL-22 as direct target gene of ectopically expressed FOXP3 transcription factor in human T cells

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    Jeron Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor (TF forkhead box P3 (FOXP3 is constitutively expressed at high levels in naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTregs. It is not only the most accepted marker for that cell population but is also considered lineage determinative. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP of TFs in combination with genomic tiling microarray analysis (ChIP-on-chip has been shown to be an appropriate tool for identifying FOXP3 transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs on a genome-wide scale. In combination with microarray expression analysis, the ChIP-on-chip technique allows identification of direct FOXP3 target genes. Results ChIP-on-chip analysis of the human FOXP3 expressed in resting and PMA/ionomycin–stimulated Jurkat T cells revealed several thousand putative FOXP3 binding sites and demonstrated the importance of intronic regions for FOXP3 binding. The analysis of expression data showed that the stimulation-dependent down-regulation of IL-22 was correlated with direct FOXP3 binding in the IL-22 promoter region. This association was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of ChIP-DNA. The corresponding ChIP-region also contained a matching FOXP3 consensus sequence. Conclusions Knowledge of the general distribution patterns of FOXP3 TFBSs in the human genome under resting and activated conditions will contribute to a better understanding of this TF and its influence on direct target genes, as well as its importance for the phenotype and function of Tregs. Moreover, FOXP3-dependent repression of Th17-related IL-22 may be relevant to an understanding of the phenomenon of Treg/Th17 cell plasticity.

  7. Regulatory T cells-derived IL-35 promotes the growth of adult acute myeloid leukemia blasts.

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    Tao, Qianshan; Pan, Ying; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huiping; Xiong, Shudao; Li, Qing; Wang, Jia; Tao, Lili; Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Rui; Zhai, Zhimin

    2015-11-15

    Tumor immune escape mechanism mediated by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IL-35, as a novel inhibitory cytokine, is produced by Tregs specially and regulates functions of Tregs in murine. However, IL-35 expression of Tregs in human is still disputed, and its role in AML is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that IL-35 was expressed highly in peripheral blood plasma of adult patients with AML and significantly correlated with the clinical stages of malignancy. Tregs-derived from adult AML patients produced IL-35 in a stimulation-dependent manner. IL-35 promoted AML blasts immune escape by expanding Tregs and inhibiting CD4+CD25-effector T cells (Teffs). Furthermore, IL-35 directly promoted the proliferation of AML blasts and reduced the apoptosis of AML blasts. Together, our study demonstrates that IL-35-derived from Tregs promotes the growth of adult AML blasts, suggesting that IL-35 has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML. © 2015 UICC.

  8. Effects of nilotinib on regulatory T cells: the dose matters

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    Chen Baoan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nilotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high target specificity. Here, we characterized the effects of nilotinib for the first time on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs which regulate anti-tumor/leukemia immune responses. Design and Methods Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE and 5-bromo-2-deoxy -uridine (BrdU were used to assess the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of Tregs. The expression of the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 and the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR were measured by flow cytometry. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the effects of nilotinib on the signal transduction cascade of T-cell receptor (TCR in Tregs. Results Nilotinib inhibited the proliferation and suppressive capacity of Tregs in a dose-dependent manner. However, the production of cytokines secreted by Tregs and CD4+CD25- T cells was only inhibited at high concentrations of nilotinib exceeding the mean therapeutic serum concentrations of the drug in patients. Only high doses of nilotinib arrested both Tregs and CD4+CD25- T cells in the G0/G1 phase and down-regulated the expression of FoxP3 and GITR. In western blotting analysis, nilotinib did not show significant inhibitory effects on TCR signaling events in Tregs and CD4+CD25- T cells. Conclusions These findings indicate that nilotinib does not hamper the function of Tregs at clinical relevant doses, while long-term administration of nilotinib still needs to be investigated.

  9. An increase in CD3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells after administration of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells during sepsis.

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    Yu-Hua Chao

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains an important cause of death worldwide, and vigorous immune responses during sepsis could be beneficial for bacterial clearance but at the price of collateral damage to self tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been found to modulate the immune system and attenuate sepsis. In the present study, MSCs derived from bone marrow and umbilical cord were used and compared. With a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP model, the mechanisms of MSC-mediated immunoregulation during sepsis were studied by determining the changes of circulating inflammation-associated cytokine profiles and peripheral blood mononuclear cells 18 hours after CLP-induced sepsis. In vitro, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs and umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs showed a similar morphology and surface marker expression. UCMSCs had stronger potential for osteogenesis but lower for adipogenesis than BMMSCs. Compared with rats receiving PBS only after CLP, the percentage of circulating CD3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells and the ratio of Treg cells/T cells were elevated significantly in rats receiving MSCs. Further experiment regarding Treg cell function demonstrated that the immunosuppressive capacity of Treg cells from rats with CLP-induced sepsis was decreased, but could be restored by administration of MSCs. Compared with rats receiving PBS only after CLP, serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly lower in rats receiving MSCs after CLP. There were no differences between BMMSCs and UCMSCs. In summary, this work provides the first in vivo evidence that administering BMMSCs or UCMSCs to rats with CLP-induced sepsis could increase circulating CD3+CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and Treg cells/T cells ratio, enhance Treg cell suppressive function, and decrease serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, suggesting the immunomodulatory association of Treg cells and MSCs during sepsis.

  10. Cell-intrinsic role for NF-kappa B-inducing kinase in peripheral maintenance but not thymic development of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in mice.

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    Susan E Murray

    Full Text Available NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK, MAP3K14 is a key signaling molecule in non-canonical NF-κB activation, and NIK deficient mice have been instrumental in deciphering the immunologic role of this pathway. Global ablation of NIK prevents lymph node development, impairs thymic stromal development, and drastically reduces B cells. Despite altered thymic selection, T cell numbers are near normal in NIK deficient mice. The exception is CD4(+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, which are reduced in the thymus and periphery. Defects in thymic stroma are known to contribute to impaired Treg generation, but whether NIK also plays a cell intrinsic role in Tregs is unknown. Here, we compared intact mice with single and mixed BM chimeric mice to assess the intrinsic role of NIK in Treg generation and maintenance. We found that while NIK expression in stromal cells suffices for normal thymic Treg development, NIK is required cell-intrinsically to maintain peripheral Tregs. In addition, we unexpectedly discovered a cell-intrinsic role for NIK in memory phenotype conventional T cells that is masked in intact mice, but revealed in BM chimeras. These results demonstrate a novel role for NIK in peripheral regulatory and memory phenotype T cell homeostasis.

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Th1/Th2 cytokines and the number of spleen CD4⁺ CD25⁺ Foxp3⁺ Treg in asthma Balb/c mouse.

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    Yun, Xiang; Shang, Yunxiao; Li, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease that involves T lymphocytes. In order to explore the effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Th1/Th2 cytokines and the number of spleen CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg in asthma Balb/c mouse, we constructed acute asthma model with ovalbumin to observe the mouse behavior change in Balb/c mice. The expression of GATA-3 mRNA and T-bet mRNA was measured by real-time PCR. The proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg/CD4(+) was determined by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that oral gavage with Lactobacillus salivarius before sensitization could alleviate the clinical symptoms, airway hyper-reactivity and airway inflammation in asthma mouse to some extent; Lactobacillus salivarius may improve the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in asthma mouse through increasing the expression of T-bet mRNA at the transcriptional level and inhibiting the expression of GATA-3 mRNA simultaneously. CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, and may be the upstream regulatory mechanism of the improvement of Th1/Th2 imbalance by Lactobacillus salivarius.

  12. Contribution of Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and GALT to the Intestinal Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cell CompartmentSummary

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    Duke Geem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs in the intestine promote immune tolerance to enteric antigens. Previous studies have shown that C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7-dependent migration of intestinal dendritic cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN is involved in peripheral Foxp3+ Treg accumulation in the intestine and the establishment of oral tolerance. However, the relative contribution of this CCR7+ dendritic cell–mLN–Treg axis to the total intestinal Foxp3+ Treg pool during the steady-state remains unclear. In this study, the contribution of CCR7, as well as the mLN and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, to the intestinal Foxp3+ Treg compartment in the small intestine (SI and large intestine (LI was assessed. Methods: Intestinal Foxp3+ Tregs were quantitated in Ccr7-/- mice and in mice devoid of secondary lymphoid organs—including mLN and GALT—owing to a deficiency in lymphotoxin (LT signaling. Specific analyses of Foxp3+Helios+ thymically derived (tTregs and Foxp3+Helios- peripherally derived (pTregs in the SI and LI, as well as the role for the mLN in supporting Foxp3+ pTreg development using the B6.Cg-Tg(TcraTcrb425Cbn/J/ovalbumin (OVA feeding system, were performed. Results: Foxp3+ Tregs were enriched in the intestine relative to the mLN, independent of CCR7. In the absence of the mLN and GALT, normal frequency and numbers of Foxp3+ Tregs were observed in LTα-deficient (Lta-/- mice. However, Foxp3+Helios- pTregs were decreased in the SI of Lta-/- mice, corresponding with defective Foxp3+ pTreg expansion to OVA. In the LI, however, the proportion of Foxp3+Helios- pTregs and Foxp3+ pTreg induction to OVA was comparable between Lta-/- and Lta+/+ mice, which coincided with preferential expression of Treg-inducing/immunoregulatory cytokines. Conclusions: The overall size of the intestinal Foxp3+Treg pool is not impacted significantly by CCR7, mLN, or GALT during the steady-state. However, m

  13. [The percentage of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and the correlations with clinical prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Pang, Nannan; Guo, Xinhong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Xiaona; Qu, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    To explore the percentage of CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and the correlations with clinical prognosis. The study enrolled 30 healthy individuals and 28 CLL patients. The CD4(+);CD25(+); Treg and CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg were detected by the flow cytometry in their peripheral blood. Of the 28 CLL patients, 19 received treatment and follow-up. The number of CD4(+);CD25(+); Treg in the pre-treated cases (n = 28) was higher than that in the healthy controls (n = 30) with significant statistical difference (P < 0.05). The number of CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg was higher in the pre-treated cases (n = 28) than that in the treated cases (n = 19) and in the healthy controls (n = 30) (P < 0.05). Compared with the healthy controls, the treated cases (n = 19) had the higher level of CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg (P < 0.05). The CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg was positively correlated with the expressions of CD38, β2-microglobulin (β(2);-MG), zeta-associated protein 70(ZAP-70) and the clinical Binet and Rai stages. The CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg might be a valuable indicator for assessing the therapeutic efficacy, disease progression and prognosis of the CLL patients.

  14. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Horváthová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells (p < 0.05. The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD, waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  15. Nox2 in regulatory T cells promotes angiotensin II-induced cardiovascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Amber; Trevelin, Silvia Cellone; Mongue-Din, Heloise; Becker, Pablo D; Ortiz, Carla; Smyth, Lesley A; Peng, Qi; Elgueta, Raul; Sawyer, Greta; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Lechler, Robert I; Lombardi, Giovanna; Shah, Ajay M

    2018-04-24

    The superoxide-generating enzyme Nox2 contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling triggered by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Multiple Nox2-expressing cells are implicated in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced pathophysiology, but the importance of Nox2 in leukocyte subsets is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Nox2 in T cells, particularly Tregs. Mice globally deficient in Nox2 displayed increased numbers of Tregs in the heart at baseline whereas AngII-induced T-effector cell (Teffs) infiltration was inhibited. To investigate the role of Treg Nox2, we generated a mouse line with CD4-targeted Nox2 deficiency (Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+). These animals showed inhibition of AngII-induced hypertension and cardiac remodeling related to increased tissue-resident Tregs and reduction in infiltrating Teffs, including Th17 cells. The protection in Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+ mice was reversed by anti-CD25 Ab-depletion of Tregs. Mechanistically, Nox2-/y Tregs showed higher in vitro suppression of Teffs proliferation than WT Tregs, increased nuclear levels of FoxP3 and NF-κB, and enhanced transcription of CD25, CD39, and CD73. Adoptive transfer of Tregs confirmed that Nox2-deficient cells had greater inhibitory effects on AngII-induced heart remodeling than WT cells. These results identify a previously unrecognized role of Nox2 in modulating suppression of Tregs, which acts to enhance hypertension and cardiac remodeling.

  16. An alphavirus vector overcomes the presence of neutralizing antibodies and elevated numbers of Tregs to induce immune responses in humans with advanced cancer.

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    Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy C; Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Hubby, Bolyn; Negri, Sarah; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Devi, Gayathri R; Burnett, Bruce K; Clay, Timothy M; Smith, Jonathan; Lyerly, H Kim

    2010-09-01

    Therapeutic anticancer vaccines are designed to boost patients' immune responses to tumors. One approach is to use a viral vector to deliver antigen to in situ DCs, which then activate tumor-specific T cell and antibody responses. However, vector-specific neutralizing antibodies and suppressive cell populations such as Tregs remain great challenges to the efficacy of this approach. We report here that an alphavirus vector, packaged in virus-like replicon particles (VRP) and capable of efficiently infecting DCs, could be repeatedly administered to patients with metastatic cancer expressing the tumor antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and that it overcame high titers of neutralizing antibodies and elevated Treg levels to induce clinically relevant CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses. The CEA-specific antibodies mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against tumor cells from human colorectal cancer metastases. In addition, patients with CEA-specific T cell responses exhibited longer overall survival. These data suggest that VRP-based vectors can overcome the presence of neutralizing antibodies to break tolerance to self antigen and may be clinically useful for immunotherapy in the setting of tumor-induced immunosuppression.

  17. Resistin enhances the expansion of regulatory T cells through modulation of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, a member of adipokine family, is known to be involved in the modulation of immune responses including inflammatory activity. Interestingly, resistin is secreted by adipocytes in mice and rats whereas it is secreted by leukocytes in humans. However, the mechanism behind the effect of resistin on the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined regulatory effect of resistin on the induction and cellular modification of Tregs. Results Both protein and mRNA expression of FoxP3, a representative marker of Tregs, increased in a dose-dependent manner when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with resistin. At the same time, resistin had no direct effect on the induction of FoxP3 in CD4+ T cells, suggesting an indirect role through other cells type(s. Since DCs are an important player in the differentiation of T cells, we focused on the role of DCs in the modulation of Tregs by resistin. Resistin suppressed the expression of interferon regulatory factor (IRF-1 and its target cytokines, IL-6, IL-23p19 and IL-12p40, in DCs. Furthermore, FoxP3 expression is increased in CD4+ T cells when co-cultured with DCs and concomitantly treated with resistin. Conclusion Our results suggest that resistin induces expansion of functional Tregs only when co-cultured with DCs.

  18. Regulatory T cells protect mice against coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis through the transforming growth factor beta-coxsackie-adenovirus receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Li, Guohua; Liu, Youan; Chen, Manyin; Konviser, Michael; Chen, Xin; Opavsky, Mary Anne; Liu, Peter P

    2010-06-22

    Coxsackievirus B3 infection is an excellent model of human myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac injury is caused either by a direct cytopathic effect of the virus or through immune-mediated mechanisms. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the negative modulation of host immune responses and set the threshold of autoimmune activation. This study was designed to test the protective effects of Tregs and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled Tregs or naïve CD4(+) T cells were injected intravenously once every 2 weeks 3 times into mice. The mice were then challenged with intraperitoneal coxsackievirus B3 immediately after the last cell transfer. Transfer of Tregs showed higher survival rates than transfer of CD4(+) T cells (P=0.0136) but not compared with the PBS injection group (P=0.0589). Interestingly, Tregs also significantly decreased virus titers and inflammatory scores in the heart. Transforming growth factor-beta and phosphorylated AKT were upregulated in Tregs-transferred mice and coxsackie-adenovirus receptor expression was decreased in the heart compared with control groups. Transforming growth factor-beta decreased coxsackie-adenovirus receptor expression and inhibited coxsackievirus B3 infection in HL-1 cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes. Splenocytes collected from Treg-, CD4(+) T-cell-, and PBS-treated mice proliferated equally when stimulated with heat-inactivated virus, whereas in the Treg group, the proliferation rate was reduced significantly when stimulated with noninfected heart tissue homogenate. Adoptive transfer of Tregs protected mice from coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis through the transforming growth factor beta-coxsackie-adenovirus receptor pathway and thus suppresses the immune response to cardiac tissue, maintaining the antiviral immune response.

  19. EFFECT OF LIPOSOMAL CLODRONATE-DEPENDENT DEPLETION OF PROFESSIONAL ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS ON NUMBERS AND PHENOTYPE OF CANINE CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ REGULATORY T CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kriston F.; Stokes, John V.; Gunnoe, Sagen A.; Follows, Joyce S.; Shafer, Lydia; Ammari, Mais G.; Archer, Todd M.; Thomason, John M.; Mackin, Andrew J.; Pinchuk, Lesya M.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control autoreactivity during and subsequent to the development of the peripheral immune system. Professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, have an important role in inducing Tregs. For the first time, this study evaluated proportions and phenotypes of Tregs in canine peripheral blood depleted of professional APCs, utilizing liposomal clodronate (LC) and multicolor flow cytometry analysis. Our results demonstrate that LC exposure promoted short term decreases followed by significant increases in the proportions or absolute numbers of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs in dogs. In general, the LC-dependent Treg fluctuations were similar to the changes in the levels of CD14+ monocytes in Walker hounds. However, the proportions of monocytes showed more dramatic changes compared to the proportions of Tregs that were visually unchanged after LC treatment over the study period. At the same time, absolute Treg numbers showed, similarly to the levels of CD14+ monocytes, significant compensatory gains as well as the recovery during the normalization period. We confirm the previous data that CD4+ T cells with the highest CD25 expression were highly enriched for FOXP3. Furthermore, for the first time, we report that CD4+CD25lowFOXP3+ is the major regulatory T cell subset affected by LC exposure. The increases within the lowest CD25 expressers of CD4+FOXP3+ cells together with compensatory gains in the proportion of CD14+ monocytes during compensatory and normalization periods suggest the possible direct or indirect roles of monocytes in active recruitment and generation of Tregs from naïve CD4+ T cells. PMID:25950023

  20. MicroRNAs regulate T-cell production of interleukin-9 and identify hypoxia-inducible factor-2α as an important regulator of T helper 9 and regulatory T-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Garden, Oliver A; Lang, Florian; Cobb, Bradley S

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many aspects of helper T cell (Th) development and function. Here we found that they are required for the suppression of interleukin-9 (IL-9) expression in Th9 cells and other Th subsets. Two highly related miRNAs (miR-15b and miR-16) that we previously found to play an important role in regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation were capable of suppressing IL-9 expression when they were over-expressed in Th9 cells. We used these miRNAs as tools to identify novel regulators of IL-9 expression and found that they could regulate the expression of Epas1, which encodes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α. HIF proteins regulate metabolic pathway usage that is important in determining appropriate Th differentiation. The related protein, HIF-1α enhances Th17 differentiation and inhibits Treg cell differentiation. Here we found that HIF-2α was required for IL-9 expression in Th9 cells, but its expression was not sufficient in other Th subsets. Furthermore, HIF-2α suppressed Treg cell differentiation like HIF-1α, demonstrating both similar and distinct roles of the HIF proteins in Th differentiation and adding a further dimension to their function. Ironically, even though miR-15b and miR-16 suppressed HIF-2α expression in Treg cells, inhibiting their function in Treg cells did not lead to an increase in IL-9 expression. Therefore, the physiologically relevant miRNAs that regulate IL-9 expression in Treg cells and other subsets remain unknown. Nevertheless, the analysis of miR-15b and miR-16 function led to the discovery of the importance of HIF-2α so this work demonstrated the utility of studying miRNA function to identify novel regulatory pathways in helper T-cell development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Acquisition of T regulatory function in cathepsin L-inhibited T cells by eye-derived CTLA-2alpha during inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Sunao; Horie, Shintaro; Nakamura, Orie; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Takase, Hiroshi; Usui, Yoshihiko; Takeuchi, Masaru; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Peters, Christoph; Yamamoto, Yoshimi; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2009-10-15

    Pigment epithelium isolated from the eye possesses immunosuppressive properties such as regulatory T (Treg) cell induction; e.g., cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) converts CD4(+) T cells into Treg cells in vitro. RPE constitutively expresses a novel immunosuppressive factor, CTLA-2alpha, which is a cathepsin L (CathL) inhibitor, and this molecule acts via RPE to induce Treg cells. To clarify CTLA-2alpha's role in the T cell response to RPE in ocular inflammation, we used the experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) animal model to examine this new immunosuppressive property of RPE. In EAU models, TGF-beta, but not IFN-gamma inflammatory cytokines, promotes the up-regulation of the expression of CTLA-2alpha in RPE. Similarly, CTLA-2alpha via RPE was able to promote TGF-beta production by the CD4(+) T cells. The RPE-exposed T cells (RPE-induced Treg cells) greatly produced TGF-beta and suppressed bystander effector T cells. There was less expression of CathL by the RPE-exposed T cells, and CathL-inhibited T cells were able to acquire the Treg phenotype. Moreover, CathL-deficient mice spontaneously produced Treg cells, with the increase in T cells potentially providing protection against ocular inflammation. More importantly, CD4(+) T cells from EAU in CathL knockout mice or rCTLA-2alpha from EAU animals were found to contain a high population of forkhead box p3(+) T cells. In both EAU models, there was significant suppression of the ocular inflammation. These results indicate that RPE secretes CTLA-2alpha, thereby enabling the bystander T cells to be converted into Treg cells via TGF-beta promotion.

  2. Squamous cell carcinomas escape immune surveillance via inducing chronic activation and exhaustion of CD8+ T Cells co-expressing PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ameet K; Kadoishi, Tanya; Wang, Xiaoguang; Driver, Emily; Chen, Zhangguo; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing H

    2016-12-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second commonest type of skin cancer. Moreover, about 90% of head and neck cancers are SCCs. SCCs develop at a significantly higher rate under chronic immunosuppressive conditions, implicating a role of immune surveillance in controlling SCCs. It remains largely unknown how SCCs evade immune recognition. Here, we established a mouse model by injecting tumor cells derived from primary SCCs harboring KrasG12D mutation and Smad4 deletion into wild-type (wt) or CD8-/- recipients. We found comparable tumor growth between wt and CD8-/- recipients, indicating a complete escape of CD8+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses by these SCCs. Mechanistically, CD8+ T cells apparently were not defective in infiltrating tumors given their relatively increased percentage among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). CD8+ TILs exhibited phenotypes of chronic activation and exhaustion, including overexpression of activation markers, co-expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), as well as TCRβ downregulation. Among CD4+ TILs, T regulatory cells (Tregs) were preferentially expanded. Contradictory to prior findings in melanoma, Treg expansion was independent of CD8+ T cells in our SCC model. Unexpectedly, CD8+ T cells were required for promoting NK cell infiltration within SCCs. Furthermore, we uncovered AKT-dependent lymphocyte-induced PD-L1 upregulation on SCCs, which was contributed greatly by combinatorial effects of CD8+ T and NK cells. Lastly, dual blockade of PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibited the tumor growth of SCCs. Thus, our findings identify novel immune evasion mechanisms of SCCs and suggest that immunosuppressive mechanisms operate in a cancer-type specific and context-dependent manner.

  3. Lysosomal-associated Transmembrane Protein 4B (LAPTM4B) Decreases Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) Production in Human Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, Caroline; Liénart, Stéphanie; Dedobbeleer, Olivier; Stockis, Julie; Gauthy, Emilie; Coulie, Pierre G; Lucas, Sophie

    2015-08-14

    Production of active TGF-β1 is one mechanism by which human regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress immune responses. This production is regulated by glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), a transmembrane protein present on stimulated Tregs but not on other T lymphocytes (Th and CTLs). GARP forms disulfide bonds with proTGF-β1, favors its cleavage into latent inactive TGF-β1, induces the secretion and surface presentation of GARP·latent TGF-β1 complexes, and is required for activation of the cytokine in Tregs. We explored whether additional Treg-specific protein(s) associated with GARP·TGF-β1 complexes regulate TGF-β1 production in Tregs. We searched for such proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay, using GARP as a bait to screen a human Treg cDNA library. We identified lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein 4B (LAPTM4B), which interacts with GARP in mammalian cells and is expressed at higher levels in Tregs than in Th cells. LAPTM4B decreases cleavage of proTGF-β1, secretion of soluble latent TGF-β1, and surface presentation of GARP·TGF-β1 complexes by Tregs but does not contribute to TGF-β1 activation. Therefore, LAPTM4B binds to GARP and is a negative regulator of TGF-β1 production in human Tregs. It may play a role in the control of immune responses by decreasing Treg immunosuppression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Regulatory T cells suppress muscle inflammation and injury in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, S. Armando; Rosenthal, Wendy; Martinez, Leonel; Kaur, Amanjot; Sparwasser, Tim; Tidball, James G.; Margeta, Marta; Spencer, Melissa J.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that regulatory T cells (Tregs) modulate muscle injury and inflammation in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although Tregs were largely absent in the muscle of wildtype mice and normal human muscle, they were present in necrotic lesions, displayed an activated phenotype and showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in dystrophic muscle from mdx mice. Depletion of Tregs exacerbated muscle injury and the severity of muscle inflammation, which was characterized by an enhanced interferon-gamma (IFNγ) response and activation of M1 macrophages. To test the therapeutic value of targeting Tregs in muscular dystrophy, we treated mdx mice with IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes (IL-2c), and found that Tregs and IL-10 concentrations were increased in muscle, resulting in reduced expression of cyclooygenase-2 and decreased myofiber injury. These findings suggest that Tregs modulate the progression of muscular dystrophy by suppressing type 1 inflammation in muscle associated with muscle fiber injury, and highlight the potential of Treg-modulating agents as therapeutics for DMD. PMID:25320234

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and regulatory T cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Iman; Zayed, Rania A; Said, Fadwa; Latif, Lamyaa Abdel

    2016-09-01

    The microenvironment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is suppressive for immune cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been recognized to play a role in helping leukemic cells to evade immunesurveillance. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are essential contributors in immunomodulation of the microenvironment as they can promote differentiation of Tregs via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the expression of IDO in bone marrow derived MSCs and to study its correlation to percentage of Tregs. Thirty-seven adult bone marrow samples were cultured in appropriate culture medium to isolate MSCs. Successful harvest of MSCs was determined by plastic adherence, morphology, and positive expression of CD271 and CD105; negative expression of CD34 and CD45 using flowcytometry. MSCs were examined for IDO expression by immunocytochemistry using anti-IDO monoclonal antibody. CD4+ CD25+ cells (Tregs) were measured in bone marrow samples by flowcytometry. MSCs were successfully isolated from 20 of the 37 bone marrow samples cultured. MSCs showed higher expression of IDO and Tregs percentage was higher in AML patients compared to control subjects (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). A positive correlation was found between IDO expression and Tregs percentage (P value = 0.012, r = 0.5). In this study, we revealed an association between high IDO expression in MSCs and elevated levels of Tregs which could have an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, providing immunosuppressive microenvironment.

  6. Interleukin-6 promotes systemic lupus erythematosus progression with Treg suppression approach in a murine systemic lupus erythematosus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Wu, Yunyun; Diao, Huitian; Hao, Jianlei; Tian, Gaofei; Jia, Zhenghu; Li, Zheng; Xiong, Sidong; Wu, Zhenzhou; Wang, Puyue; Zhao, Liqing; Yin, Zhinan

    2014-11-01

    Our aim is to reveal the role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a murine model of SLE. Normal female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with syngeneic-activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA) to induce SLE. Non-immunized mice were used as control. SLE-associated markers, including anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) Abs, urine protein, and kidney histopathology, were assayed to ensure the induction of the disease. Compared with control mice, ALD-DNA immunized mice exhibited high levels of anti-dsDNA Abs, IL-6 expression in vivo and in vitro. We also found that IL-6 knockout (IL-6KO) mice were resistant to ALD-DNA-induced SLE. The activation of CD4(+) T cells in immunized IL-6KO mice was lower than in immunized wild-type (Wt) mice. Intracellular cytokine staining showed that Foxp3 expression in immunized IL-6KO mice was higher than in immunized Wt mice, which might be associated with the disease severity. We further discovered that ALD-DNA-stimulated dendritic cells supernatants could result in higher IL-6 and TNF-α expression and could suppress Foxp3 expression. In addition, blocking IL-6 could up-regulate Foxp3 expression. Therefore, our findings show that IL-6 promotes the progression of SLE via suppressing Treg differentiation.

  7. Cytokine expression and cytokine-based T-cell profiling in occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueqin, Yang; Wenxue, Li; Peimao, Li; Wen, Zhang; Xianqing, Huang; Zhixiong, Zhuang

    2018-05-15

    Early diagnosis and treatment of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMLDT) are absence of specific and reliable diagnostic/therapeutic biomarkers. This study was conducted on 30 cases of OMLDT, 58 workers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and 40 unexposed controls in order to identify any cytokine signatures that give an index to CD4 + T cell differential and serve as biomarkers of OMLDT. Expression profiles of Th 1 , Th 2 , Th 17 and Treg cell type-specifying transcription factors and cytokines were analyzed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. To explore whether such expression profiles reflected their steady state plasma levels, a Luminex liquid fluorescence analysis was conducted. We found that the expression of transcription factors FoxP3 transcription factors (P = 0.006 and P < 0.0001) and IL-10 cytokine (P = 0.0008 and P < 0.0001) of the Treg subset were significantly higher in patients than TCE exposure workers and unexposed controls, suggesting that Treg cells were active after the occurrence of OMLDT. The transcript levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in the TCE exposure groups including patients and exposure workers as compared to the unexposed controls (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0008). Circulating levels of assessed cytokines of IL-6 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.011) and TFN-α (P = 0.005 and P < 0.0001) were lower in the exposure groups than in the unexposed controls. Compared to the controls, the levels of IL-10 in patients were higher (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0008). There was a significantly positive correlation between the plasma levels IL-6 and IL-10 in TCE exposed workers. These alterations in the expression of transcription factors and cytokines highlight the underlying dysregulation of T cell subsets in OMLDT that reflect an immune tolerance or immune inhibition. Therefore, the elevation of IL-10 level may be a kind of pathogenesis indicator, and the decline in IL

  8. Regulatory T cells predict the time to initial treatment in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lukas; Melchardt, Thomas; Egle, Alexander; Grabmer, Christoph; Greil, Richard; Tinhofer, Inge

    2011-05-15

    Early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by a highly variable course of disease. Because it is believed that regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are potent suppressors of antitumor immunity, the authors hypothesized that increased T(regs) may favor disease progression. T(reg) levels (cluster of differentiation 3 [CD3]-positive, [CD4]-positive, CD25-positive, and CD127-negative) in peripheral blood from 102 patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate correlations with clinical data. The relative T(reg) numbers in CD4-positive T cells were significantly greater in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with the numbers in a control group of 170 healthy individuals (P = .001). Patients were divided into 2 groups using a median T(reg) value of 9.7% (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells). Patients with higher T(reg) levels had a significantly shorter time to initial treatment (median, 5.9 years) compared with patients who had lower T(reg) levels (median, 11.7 years; log-rank P = .019). Furthermore, T(reg) levels (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells) had significant prognostic power to predict the time to initial treatment in univariate analysis (P = .023) and in multivariate Cox regression analysis that included the variables Rai stage, immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene mutational status, chromosomal aberrations, and CD38 expression (P = .028). Higher T(reg) levels had significant and independent prognostic power for predicting the time to initial treatment in patients with low to intermediate stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 2010 American Cancer Society.

  9. Regulatory T-cell and T-helper 17 balance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia progression and autoimmune cytopenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Deepesh P; Varma, Subhash; Varma, Neelam; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Bose, Parveen; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    The reasons for progression and autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are not entirely clear, with previous studies suggesting a role for regulatory T-cells (Treg). In this study we prospectively studied Treg (CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low), interleukin-10 (IL-10) producing Treg and T-helper 17 (Th17) (CD3+CD4+IL-17+) cells in 40 treatment-naive patients with CLL. The percentage of Th17 and not Treg cells was significantly higher in the AIC cohort than in those without AIC (pcells are responsible for AIC of CLL. Analysis of lymph-node aspirates showed that the percentage of Treg and IL-10 expression in Treg and not Th17 was significantly higher than in peripheral blood (pcells play a major role in the microenvironment where disease progression occurs. This shows the importance of maintaining the Treg:Th17 equilibrium, for imbalance leads to CLL progression or AIC.

  10. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina; Sangaletti, Sabina; Trabanelli, Sara; De Marchi, Elena; Orioli, Elisa; Pegoraro, Anna; Portararo, Paola; Jandus, Camilla; Bontadini, Andrea; Redavid, Annarita; Salvestrini, Valentina; Romero, Pedro; Colombo, Mario P; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Cavo, Michele; Adinolfi, Elena; Curti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC) cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs) with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1 + CD39 + DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  11. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Lecciso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1, which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1+CD39+ DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  12. CD4+CD25+ T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Eman; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane

    2012-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis caused by bites of midges from the genus Culicoides. We have shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBH-affected horses produce higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 than those from healthy horses, suggesting that IBH is associated with a reduced regulatory immune response. FoxP3 is a crucial marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we have determined the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells by flow cytometry in PBMC directly after isolation or after stimulation with Culicoides extract or a control antigen (Tetanus Toxoid). There were no differences between healthy and IBH horses either in the proportion of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in freshly isolated PBMC or in the following stimulation with Tetanus Toxoid. However, upon stimulation of PBMC with the allergen, expression of FoxP3 by CD4(+)CD25(+high) and CD4(+)CD25(+dim) cells was significantly higher in healthy than in IBH horses. Addition of recombinant IL-4 to PBMC from healthy horses stimulated with the allergen significantly decreased the proportion of FoxP3 expressing cells within CD4(+)CD25(+high). These results suggest that IBH is associated with a decreased number of allergen-induced Tregs. This could be a consequence of the increased IL-4 production by PBMC of IBH-affected horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lenalidomide-based maintenance therapy reduces TNF receptor 2 on CD4 T cells and enhances immune effector function in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Chindu; Madondo, Mutsa; Kong, Ying Ying; Tan, Peter; Wei, Andrew; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2014-08-01

    A major limitation to improved outcomes in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is relapse resulting from leukemic cells that persist at clinical remission. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are increased in AML patients, can contribute to immune evasion by residual leukemic cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine present at high levels within patients, can induce TNF receptor-2 (TNFR2) expression on Tregs. We hypothesized that since TNFR2 is required for Treg stabilization and TNFR2+ Tregs are potent suppressors, targeting TNFR2+ Tregs may restore the effectiveness of immune-surveillance mechanisms. In this pilot study, we report AML patients in clinical remission have substantially increased levels of TNFR2+ T cells, including TNFR2+ Tregs and impaired effector CD4 T cell function with reduced IL-2 and IFNγ production. The immunomodulatory drug, lenalidomide, and the demethylating agent, azacitidine have been moderately successful in treating AML patients, but their combined effects on TNFR2+ T cells, including Tregs are currently unknown. Our data indicates that although treatment with lenalidomide and azacitidine increased cytokine production by effector T cells in all patients, durable clinical remissions may be observed in patients with a concomitant reduction in TNFR2+ T cells and TNFR2+ Tregs. In vitro studies further demonstrated that lenalidomide can reduce TNFR2 expression and can augment effector cytokine production by T cells, which can be further enhanced by azacitidine. These results indicate that reduction of TNFR2+ T cells in AML postremission phase may result from combined azacitidine/lenalidomide therapy and may contribute to an improved clinical outcome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Rho GTPase expression in human myeloid cells.

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    Suzanne F G van Helden

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are critical for innate immunity and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Strict regulation of the adhesive and migratory behavior is essential for proper functioning of these cells. Rho GTPases are important regulators of adhesion and migration; however, it is unknown which Rho GTPases are expressed in different myeloid cells. Here, we use a qPCR-based approach to investigate Rho GTPase expression in myeloid cells.We found that the mRNAs encoding Cdc42, RhoQ, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA and RhoC are the most abundant. In addition, RhoG, RhoB, RhoF and RhoV are expressed at low levels or only in specific cell types. More differentiated cells along the monocyte-lineage display lower levels of Cdc42 and RhoV, while RhoC mRNA is more abundant. In addition, the Rho GTPase expression profile changes during dendritic cell maturation with Rac1 being upregulated and Rac2 downregulated. Finally, GM-CSF stimulation, during macrophage and osteoclast differentiation, leads to high expression of Rac2, while M-CSF induces high levels of RhoA, showing that these cytokines induce a distinct pattern. Our data uncover cell type specific modulation of the Rho GTPase expression profile in hematopoietic stem cells and in more differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage.

  15. Midkine inhibits inducible regulatory T cell differentiation by suppressing the development of tolerogenic dendritic cells.

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    Sonobe, Yoshifumi; Li, Hua; Jin, Shijie; Kishida, Satoshi; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Suzumura, Akio

    2012-03-15

    Midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor, reportedly contributes to inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. We previously showed that MK aggravates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by decreasing regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (Tregs), a population that regulates the development of autoimmune responses, although the precise mechanism remains uncertain. In this article, we show that MK produced in inflammatory conditions suppresses the development of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCregs), which drive the development of inducible Treg. MK suppressed DCreg-mediated expansion of the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg population. DCregs expressed significantly higher levels of CD45RB and produced significantly less IL-12 compared with conventional dendritic cells. However, MK downregulated CD45RB expression and induced IL-12 production by reducing phosphorylated STAT3 levels via src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 in DCreg. Inhibiting MK activity with anti-MK RNA aptamers, which bind to the targeted protein to suppress the function of the protein, increased the numbers of CD11c(low)CD45RB(+) dendritic cells and Tregs in the draining lymph nodes and suppressed the severity of EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Our results also demonstrated that MK was produced by inflammatory cells, in particular, CD4(+) T cells under inflammatory conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that MK aggravates EAE by suppressing DCreg development, thereby impairing the Treg population. Thus, MK is a promising therapeutic target for various autoimmune diseases.

  16. Genome-wide expression profiling during protection from colitis by regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Olsen, Jørgen; Gad, Monika

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the adoptive transfer model of colitis it has been shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) can hinder disease development and cure already existing mild colitis. The mechanisms underlying this regulatory effect of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs are not well understood. METHODS: To identify......Chip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array), which enabled an analysis of a complete set of RNA transcript levels in each sample. Array results were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Data were analyzed using combined projections to latent structures and functional...... annotation analysis. The colitic samples were clearly distinguishable from samples from normal mice by a vast number of inflammation- and growth factor-related transcripts. In contrast, the Treg-protected animals could not be distinguished from either the normal BALB/c mice or the normal SCID mice. mRNA...

  17. Naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ T-regulatory cells are increased in chronic myeloid leukemia patients not in complete cytogenetic remission and can be immunosuppressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose M; Wang, Lihui; Owen, Sally; Knight, Katy; Watmough, Sarah J; Clark, Richard E

    2010-12-01

    Clinical presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) requires not only the deregulated tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL, but also the failure of an immune response against BCR-ABL-expressing cells. T-cell responses against BCR-ABL and other antigens are well-described, but their relevance to the in vivo control of CML is unclear. The suppressive role of naturally occurring T regulatory (T-reg) cells in antitumor immunity is well-established, although little is known about their role in modulating the T-cell response to BCR-ABL. Naturally occurring T-reg cells were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry in 39 CML patients and 10 healthy donors. Their function was studied by observing their effect on responses to purified protein derivative, a recall antigen, and on the response of an autologous T-cell line recognizing BCR-ABL. T-reg cells were CD4(+), CD25(+), FOXP3(+), CD127(low), and CD62L(high). T-reg numbers in patients in complete cytogenetic remission were significantly lower than in patients not in complete cytogenetic remission (p T-reg cell depletion using anti-CD25 selection enhanced proliferative responses to purified protein derivative. Furthermore, the interferon-γ and/or granzyme-B production of effector cells specific for viral peptides or a BCR-ABL HLA-A3-restricted peptide was inhibited when autologous T-reg cells were present. Taken together, these data suggest a role for T-reg cells in limiting immune responses in CML patients and this may include immune responses to BCR-ABL. The increased frequency of T-reg cells in patients with high levels of BCR-ABL transcripts indicates that an immune mechanism may be important in the control of CML. Copyright © 2010 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Appropriate Development of the Liver Treg Compartment Is Modulated by the Microbiota and Requires TGF-β and MyD88

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    Ann Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neither the early postnatal development of the liver Treg compartment nor the factors that regulate its development has been characterized. We compared the early developmental patterns of Treg cell accumulation in murine liver, thymus, and spleen. A FoxP3EGFP reporter mouse was employed to identify Treg cells. Mononuclear cells were isolated from organs postnatally, stained for CD4, and examined by flow cytometry to enumerate FoxP3+CD4hi cells. To assess roles for TGF-β1, MyD88, and TLR2, gene-specific knockout pups were generated from heterozygous breeders. To test the role of commensal bacteria, pregnant dams were administered antibiotics during gestation and after parturition. The pattern of appearance of Treg cells differed in liver, spleen, and thymus. Notably, at 1-2 weeks, the frequency of CD4hi FoxP3+ T cells in liver exceeded that in spleen by 1.5- to 2-fold. The relative increase in liver Treg frequency was transient and was dependent upon TGF-β1 and MyD88, but not TLR2, and was abrogated by antibiotic treatment. A relative increase in liver Treg frequency occurs approximately 1-2 weeks after parturition that appears to be driven by colonization of the intestine with commensal bacteria and is mediated by a pathway that requires TGF-β1 and MyD88, but not TLR2.

  19. Regulatory T cells with reduced repressor capacities are extensively amplified in pulmonary sarcoid lesions and sustain granuloma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappl, Gunter; Pabst, Stefan; Riemann, Dagmar; Schmidt, Annette; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Schütte, Wolfgang; Hombach, Andreas A; Seliger, Barbara; Grohé, Christian; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-07-01

    Sarcoidosis can evolve into a chronic disease with persistent granulomas accompanied by progressive fibrosis. While an unlimited inflammatory response suggests an impaired immune control in sarcoid lesions, it stands in contrast to the massive infiltration with CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. We here revealed that those Treg cells in affected lung lesions were mainly derived from activated natural Treg cells with GARP (LRRC32)-positive phenotype but exhibited reduced repressor capacities despite high IL-10 and TGF-beta 1 levels. The repressive capacity of blood Treg cells, in contrast, was not impaired compared to age-matched healthy donors. Treg derived cells in granuloma lesions have undergone extensive rounds of amplifications indicated by shortened telomeres compared to blood Treg cells of the same patient. Lesional Treg derived cells moreover secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4 which sustains granuloma formation through fibroblast amplification and the activation of mast cells, the latter indicated by the expression of membrane-bound oncostatin M. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiota-specific CD4CD8αα Tregs: role in intestinal immune homeostasis and implications for IBD

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    Guillaume eSARRABAYROUSE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies in murine models, active suppression by IL-10-secreting Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs has emerged as an essential mechanism in colon homeostasis. However, the role of the equivalent subset in humans remains unclear, leading to suggestions that other subsets and/or mechanisms may substitute for Foxp3 Tregs in the maintenance of colon homeostasis. We recently described a new subset of CD4CD8αα T cells reactive to the gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and endowed with regulatory/suppressive functions. This subset is abundant in the healthy colonic mucosa, but less common in that of patients with irritable bowel disease (IBD. We discuss here the physiological significance and potential role of these Tregs in preventing inflammation of the gut mucosa and the potential applications of these discoveries for IBD management.

  1. Immune response to Bifidobacterium bifidum strains support Treg/Th17 plasticity.

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    Patricia López

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the immune activation properties of different Bifidobacterium strains in order to establish their ability as inductors of specific effector (Th or regulatory (Treg responses. First, we determined the cytokine pattern induced by 21 Bifidobacterium strains in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Results showed that four Bifidobacterium bifidum strains showed the highest production of IL-17 as well as a poor secretion of IFNγ and TNFα, suggesting a Th17 profile whereas other Bifidobacterium strains exhibited a Th1-suggestive profile. Given the key role of Th17 subsets in mucosal defence, strains suggestive of Th17 responses and the putative Th1 Bifidobacterium breve BM12/11 were selected to stimulate dendritic cells (DC to further determine their capability to induce the differentiation of naïve CD4(+ lymphocytes toward different Th or Treg cells. All selected strains were able to induce phenotypic DC maturation, but showed differences in cytokine stimulation, DC treated with the putative Th17 strains displaying high IL-1β/IL-12 and low IL-12/IL-10 index, whereas BM12/11-DC exhibited the highest IL-12/IL-10 ratio. Differentiation of naïve lymphocytes confirmed Th1 polarization by BM12/11. Unexpectedly, any B. bifidum strain showed significant capability for Th17 generation, and they were able to generate functional Treg, thus suggesting differences between in vivo and vitro responses. In fact, activation of memory lymphocytes present in PBMCS with these bacteria, point out the presence in vivo of specific Th17 cells, supporting the plasticity of Treg/Th17 populations and the key role of commensal bacteria in mucosal tolerance and T cell reprogramming when needed.

  2. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Visceral adipose inflammation in obesity is associated with critical alterations in tregulatory cell numbers.

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    Jeffrey Deiuliis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of insulin resistance (IR in mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by progressive accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and subpopulations of T cells in the visceral adipose. Regulatory T cells (Tregs may play a critical role in modulating tissue inflammation via their interactions with both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. We hypothesized that an imbalance in Tregs is a critical determinant of adipose inflammation and investigated the role of Tregs in IR/obesity through coordinated studies in mice and humans.Foxp3-green fluorescent protein (GFP "knock-in" mice were randomized to a high-fat diet intervention for a duration of 12 weeks to induce DIO/IR. Morbidly obese humans without overt type 2 DM (n = 13 and lean controls (n = 7 were recruited prospectively for assessment of visceral adipose inflammation. DIO resulted in increased CD3(+CD4(+, and CD3(+CD8(+ cells in visceral adipose with a striking decrease in visceral adipose Tregs. Treg numbers in visceral adipose inversely correlated with CD11b(+CD11c(+ adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs. Splenic Treg numbers were increased with up-regulation of homing receptors CXCR3 and CCR7 and marker of activation CD44. In-vitro differentiation assays showed an inhibition of Treg differentiation in response to conditioned media from inflammatory macrophages. Human visceral adipose in morbid obesity was characterized by an increase in CD11c(+ ATMs and a decrease in foxp3 expression.Our experiments indicate that obesity in mice and humans results in adipose Treg depletion. These changes appear to occur via reduced local differentiation rather than impaired homing. Our findings implicate a role for Tregs as determinants of adipose inflammation.

  4. Regulatory T-Cell-Associated Cytokines in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Akiko Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and immune complex deposition, resulting in tissue and organ damage. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic control of inflammation, which involve both innate and adoptive immune responses, will enable the development of novel therapies for SLE. Regulatory T cells (Treg play critical roles in the induction of peripheral tolerance to self- and foreign antigens. Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg, which characteristically express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3, have been intensively studied because their deficiency abrogates self-tolerance and causes autoimmune disease. Moreover, regulatory cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10 also play a central role in controlling inflammatory processes. This paper focuses on Tregs and Treg-associated cytokines which might regulate the pathogenesis of SLE and, hence, have clinical applications.

  5. Regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(bright)FoxP3(+)) expansion in systemic sclerosis correlates with disease activity and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodin, Gleb; Ahmad, Mohammad Sheikh; Rosner, Itzhak; Peri, Regina; Rozenbaum, Michael; Kessel, Aharon; Toubi, Elias; Odeh, Majed

    2010-01-01

    The role and function of T regulatory (Treg) cells have not been fully investigated in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Ten patients with SSc donated 20ml of peripheral blood. Activity (Valentini) and severity (Medsger) scores for SSc were calculated for all patients. Healthy volunteers (controls) were matched to each patient by gender and age. CD4(+) cells were separated using the MACS system. The numbers of Treg cells were estimated by flow cytometry after staining for CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 and calculated as patient-to-control ratio separately for each experiment. Correlations with activity and severity indices of the disease were performed. Twenty-four-hour production of TGF-beta and IL-10 by activated CD4(+) cells was measured by ELISA in culture supernatants. The numbers of Treg cells, expressed as patient-to-control ratio, correlated significantly with both activity and severity indices (r=0.71, p=0.034 and r=0.67, p=0.044, respectively). ELISA-measured production of TGF-beta and IL-10 by CD4(+) cells was similar in patients and controls. Increased numbers of Treg cells are present in patients with SSc, correlating with activity and severity of the disease. This expansion of Treg cells was not accompanied, however, by heightened TGF-beta or IL-10 production. Further studies to elaborate the causes and functional significance of Treg cell expansion in SSc are needed. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood and tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells in dogs with oral malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Makiko; Horiuchi, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Mika; Yamashita, Masao; Okano, Kumiko; Jikumaru, Yuri; Nariai, Yoko; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from patients with advanced-stage cancer have a poor immune response. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), characterized by the expression of a cluster of differentiation 4 and intracellular FoxP3 markers, can inhibit antitumor immunoresponse. In the present study, the prevalence of Tregs in peripheral blood and tumor tissue from dogs with oral malignant melanoma was evaluated by triple-color flow cytometry. The percentage of Tregs in the peripheral blood of the dogs with malignancy was significantly increased compared with healthy control dogs, and the percentage of Tregs within tumors was significantly increased compared with Tregs in peripheral blood of dogs with oral malignant melanoma. This finding suggests that the presence of tumor cells induced either local proliferation or selective migration of Tregs to tumor-infiltrated sites. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Treg regulation in patients with cancer may lead to an effective anticancer immunotherapy against canine malignant melanoma and possibly other tumors.

  7. Regulating the Balance of Th17/Treg via Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion: An Ulcerative Colitis Mice Model Based Study

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    Jungang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the relationship between the effects of electroacupuncture/moxibustion and the balance of Th17/Treg in treating ulcerative colitis (UC and to preliminary compare the effects of the above two methods. Methods. DSS-induced UC mice were treated by electroacupuncture and moxibustion. Disease activity index (DAI was scored; intestinal pathological structure and ultrastructure were observed. The levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, and TGF-β in plasma were measured by ELISA. The percentages of Treg and Th17 in spleen lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, the expressions of TLR2, TLR4, RORγt, and FOXP3 in the distal colon were detected by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results. Both electroacupuncture and moxibustion can relieve UC. These effects are further supported by ELISA results. In addition, the ratio of Treg and Th17 in spleen lymphocytes and the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 are significantly improved. Also, the expression of RORγt and FOXP3 in distal colon were improved. Besides, the effect of moxibustion is better than that of electroacupuncture on TLR2, TLR4, and FOXP3 expression (P<0.05. Conclusion. Both electroacupuncture and moxibustion may ameliorate UC by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg. Whether moxibustion has better efficacy than electroacupuncture needs further study.

  8. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Recruit CCR6+ Regulatory T Cells and Promote the Development of Colorectal Cancer via Enhancing CCL20 Production in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Zhang, Weiwei; Ke, Fang; Leng, Qibin; Wang, Hong; Chen, Jinfei; Wang, Honglin

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) remodel the colorectal cancer (CRC) microenvironment. Yet, findings on the role of TAMs in CRC seem to be contradictory compared with other cancers. FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg)-cells dominantly infiltrate CRC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism in which TAMs may contribute to the trafficking of Treg-cells to the tumor mass remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings CRC was either induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and H. pylori or established by subcutaneous injection of mouse colorectal tumor cell line (CMT93) in mice. CMT93 cells were co-cultured with primary macrophages in a transwell apparatus. Recruitment of FoxP3 green fluorescence protein positive (FoxP3GFP+) Treg-cells was assessed using the IVIS Imaging System or immunofluorescence staining. A role for macrophages in trafficking of Treg-cells and in the development of CRC was investigated in CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11b-DTR) transgenic C57BL/6J mice in which macrophages can be selectively depleted. Treg-cells remarkably infiltrated solid tumor, and predominantly expressed the homing chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in the induced CRC model. Both CMT93 cancer cells and macrophages produced a large amount of CCL20, the sole ligand of CCR6 in vitro and in vivo. Injection of recombinant mouse CCL20 into tumor sites promoted its development with a marked recruitment of Treg-cells in the graft CRC model. Conditional macrophage ablation decreased CCL20 levels, blocked Treg-cell recruitment and inhibited tumor growth in CD11b-DTR mice grafted with CMT93. Conclusions/Significance TAMs recruit CCR6+ Treg-cells to tumor mass and promote its development via enhancing the production of CCL20 in a CRC mouse model. PMID:21559338

  9. Levels and function of regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption: relation to photohardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweintzger, N; Gruber-Wackernagel, A; Reginato, E; Bambach, I; Quehenberger, F; Byrne, S N; Wolf, P

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the immunological abnormalities seen in patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE). To investigate the number and suppressive function of peripheral Tregs in patients with PLE compared with healthy controls. Blood sampling was done in 30 patients with PLE [seeking or not seeking 311-nm ultraviolet (UV)B photohardening] as well as 19 healthy controls at two time points: TP1, March to June (before phototherapy); and TP2, May to August (after phototherapy). We compared the number of CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(-) FoxP3(+) Tregs by flow cytometry and their function by assessing FoxP3 mRNA levels and effector T cell/Treg suppression assays. Tregs isolated from healthy controls significantly suppressed the proliferation of effector T cells at TP1 by 68% (P = 0·0156). In contrast, Tregs from patients with PLE entirely lacked the capacity to suppress effector T-cell proliferation at that time point. The medical photohardening seen in 23 patients with PLE resulted in a significant increase in the median percentage of circulating Tregs [both as a proportion of all lymphocytes; 65 6% increase (P = 0·0049), and as a proportion of CD4(+) T cells; 32.5% increase (P = 0·0049)]. This was accompanied by an increase in the expression of FoxP3 mRNA (P = 0·0083) and relative immunosuppressive function of Tregs (P = 0·083) comparing the two time points in representative subsets of patients with healthy controls tested. Seven patients with PLE not receiving 311-nm UVB also exhibited an increase in the number of Tregs but this was not statistically significant. No significant differences in Treg numbers were observed in healthy subjects between the two time points. An impaired Treg function is likely to play a role in PLE pathogenesis. A UV-induced increase in the number of Tregs (either naturally or therapeutically) may be a compensatory mechanism by which the immune system counteracts the susceptibility to

  10. Decorin expression in quiescent myogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takanori; Nozu, Kenjiro; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito

    2008-01-01

    Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. When satellite cells are activated by myotrauma, they proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and ultimately fuse to existing myofibers. The remainder of these cells do not differentiate, but instead return to quiescence and remain in a quiescent state until activation begins the process again. This ability to maintain their own population is important for skeletal muscle to maintain the capability to repair during postnatal life. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells return to quiescence and maintain the quiescent state are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that decorin mRNA expression was high in cell cultures containing a higher ratio of quiescent satellite cells when satellite cells were stimulated with various concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor. This result suggests that quiescent satellite cells express decorin at a high level compared to activated satellite cells. Furthermore, we examined the expression of decorin in reserve cells, which were undifferentiated myoblasts remaining after induction of differentiation by serum-deprivation. Decorin mRNA levels in reserve cells were higher than those in differentiated myotubes and growing myoblasts. These results suggest that decorin participates in the quiescence of myogenic cells

  11. Circulating Tfh1 (cTfh1 cell numbers and PD1 expression are elevated in low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cTfh gene expression is perturbed in marginal zone lymphoma.

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    Elliot T Byford

    Full Text Available CD4+ T-cell subsets are found in the tumour microenvironment (TME of low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas such as marginal zone lymphoma (MZL or follicular lymphoma (FL. Both numbers and architecture of activating follicular helper T-cells (Tfh and suppressive Treg in the TME of FL are associated with clinical outcomes. There has been almost no previous work on CD4+ T-cells in MZL. It is now recognised that circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T-cells are the memory compartment of Tfh cells. We determined differences in number of circulating Tfh (cTfh cells and cTfh subsets between normal subjects and patients with FL or MZL. Lymphoma patients showed increased numbers of cTfh1 and reduced cTfh17 cells due to decreased expression of the subset-defining marker CCR6 in patients. PD1, a surface marker associated with Tfh cells, showed increased expression on cTfh subsets in patients. Focusing on MZL we determined expression of 96 T-cell associated genes by microfluidic qRT-PCR. Analysis of differentially expressed genes showed significant differences between normal subjects and patients both for bulk cTfh (CCL4 and the cTfh1 subset (JAK3. While our findings require confirmation in larger studies we suggest that analysis of number and gene expression of circulating T-cells might be a source of clinically useful information as is the case for T-cells within lymphoma lymph nodes.

  12. Reduction of regulatory T cells in skin lesions but not in peripheral blood of patients with systemic scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Kretz, C C; Ruland, V; Stumpf, C; Haust, M; Hartschuh, W; Hartmann, M; Enk, A; Suri-Payer, E; Oberle, N; Krammer, P H; Kuhn, A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the frequency and suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and their association with clinical parameters in patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc). Peripheral blood from 25 patients with SSc, 15 patients with localised scleroderma (LS) and 29 healthy controls (HC) was studied. Analysis of CD4(+) forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) subpopulations was carried out by flow cytometry and cell proliferation was quantified by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Quantitative analysis of T(reg) was further performed in skin biopsies from 17 patients with SSc and 21 patients with LS using anti-CD4 and anti-Foxp3 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemistry. The frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in peripheral blood from patients with SSc was not significantly different from that of patients with LS or HC. The suppressive capacity of CD4(+)CD25(++) T(reg) in SSc was also found to be similar to that of HC. Phenotypic and functional data revealed no significant difference between the limited or diffuse form of SSc. Moreover, therapy with bosentan showed no significant effect on the frequency of T(reg) during the course of the disease. However, the frequency of T(reg) in skin lesions from patients with SSc or LS, determined as the percentage of CD4(+) cells expressing Foxp3 in the inflammatory infiltrate, was significantly reduced compared with other inflammatory skin diseases. These results indicate that although the authors found no defect in the frequency or function of peripheral T(reg) subpopulations, the reduction of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in the skin of patients with SSc may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Depletion of regulatory T cells leads to an exacerbation of delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis in C57BL/6 mice that can be counteracted by IL-17 blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Hoffmann, Ute; Hamann, Alf; Bach, Emil; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Kristiansen, Karsten; Serikawa, Kyle; Fox, Brian; Kruse, Kim; Haase, Claus; Skov, Søren; Nansen, Anneline

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rodent models of arthritis have been extensively used in the elucidation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis and are instrumental in the development of therapeutic strategies. Here we utilise delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA), a model in C57BL/6 mice affecting one paw with synchronised onset, 100% penetrance and low variation. We investigate the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in DTHA through selective depletion of Tregs and the role of IL-17 in connection with Treg depletion. Given the relevance of Tregs in RA, and the possibility of developing Treg-directed therapies, this approach could be relevant for advancing the understanding of Tregs in inflammatory arthritis. Selective depletion of Tregs was achieved using a Foxp3-DTR-eGFP mouse, which expresses the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under control of the Foxp3 gene. Anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used for IL-17 blockade. Numbers and activation of Tregs increased in the paw and its draining lymph node in DTHA, and depletion of Tregs resulted in exacerbation of disease as shown by increased paw swelling, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, increased bone remodelling and increased production of inflammatory mediators, as well as increased production of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Anti-IL-17 mAb treatment demonstrated that IL-17 is important for disease severity in both the presence and absence of Tregs, and that IL-17 blockade is able to rescue mice from the exacerbated disease caused by Treg depletion and caused a reduction in RANKL, IL-6 and the number of neutrophils. We show that Tregs are important for the containment of inflammation and bone remodelling in DTHA. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the Foxp3-DTR-eGFP mouse on a C57BL/6 background for Treg depletion in an arthritis model, and we here demonstrate the usefulness of the approach to study the role of Tregs and IL-17 in arthritis

  14. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of regulatory T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: comparative assessment of various markers and use of novel antibody panel with CD127 as alternative to transcription factor FoxP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2013-04-01

    This study analyzed the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by multiparameter flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Patients showed significantly increased frequencies of Tregs as compared to controls, a significantly higher percentage than that identified by previous studies, possibly indicating a different prognosis of CLL in different parts of the world and, more precisely, a worse prognosis of CLL in the Indian population. A higher frequency of Tregs was also seen in advanced stage of disease with significantly reduced frequencies of Tregs in patients with CLL after chemotherapy. A significant proportion of CD127low/-FoxP3+ Tregs expressed only low levels of CD25. Thus, CD127 appears to be a better marker than CD25 for the identification of CD4+FoxP3+ T cells as potential Tregs. Our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of CD4+CD127low/- cells are comparable to those of CD4+FoxP3+, which is the gold standard, and can be used as an alternative. This novel flow cytometric antibody panel with fewer number of antibodies is cost-effective and can be used to enumerate Tregs in resource-limited settings.

  15. Flt3/Flt3L Participates in the Process of Regulating Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells in DSS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wei Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunoregulation between dendritic cells (DCs and regulatory T cells (T-regs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC. Recent research showed that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3 and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L were involved in the process of DCs regulating T-regs. The DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human UC. In this study, we observe the disease activity index (DAI and histological scoring, detect the amounts of DCs and T-regs and expression of Flt3/Flt3L, and investigate Flt3/Flt3L participating in the process of DCs regulating T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that the reduction of Flt3 and Flt3L expression may possibly induce colonic immunoregulatory imbalance between CD103+MHCII+DCs and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Flt3/Flt3L participates in the process of regulating DCS and T-regs in the pathogenesis of UC, at least, in the acute stage of this disease.

  16. [Regulatory T cells inhibit proliferation of mouse lymphoma cell line EL4 in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Kong, Yan; Guo, Jun; Ying, Zhi-Tao; Yuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Yun-Tao; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Li, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Jun

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on the T cell lymphoma EL4 cells and its mechanism in vitro. C57BL/6 mouse Treg cells were isolated by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). The purity of Treg cells and their expression of Foxp3 were identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and PT-PCR respectively. The suppression of Treg cells on EL4 cells was detected by 3H-TdR method. At the same time, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion of cytokine TGF-β1 and IL-10. The results showed that CD4+CD25+ T cells could be successfully isolated by MACS with the purity reaching 94.52% and the expression of Foxp3 reaching 84.72%. After sorting, the expression of Foxp3 mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR. 3H-TdR assay confirmed that regulatory T cells could suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells with or without antigen presenting cells (APC) or dendritic cells (DC), APC or DC might effectively enhance the suppression. In addition, DC alone also suppressed the proliferation. TGF-β1 and IL-10 could be detected in the supernatant by ELISA. It is concluded that the Treg cells can obviously suppress the proliferation of T cell lymphoma cells in vitro, APC or DC can enhance this suppressive effect, while the DC alone also can suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells, the TGF-β1 and IL-10 cytokine pathway may be one of the mechanisms of suppression.

  17. Effect of statins as modulators of CD39+ tregs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were unsuccessfully treated with methotrexate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H Abu-Zaid

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Combination therapy with AV and ETA provides an added immunomodulatory benefit through enhancement of the immune suppression mediated by CD39+ Treg cells. Therefore, statins can be used safely with antitumor necrosis factor drugs to control disease activity and atherosclerotic changes in patients with RA, who are treated unsuccessfully with MTX.

  18. Freeze-thaw lysates of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells induce differentiation of functionally competent regulatory T cells from memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Olivia C; Lawrence, Emma; Gray, Alice P; Njie, Madi; Riley, Eleanor M; Walther, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In addition to naturally occurring regulatory T (nTreg) cells derived from the thymus, functionally competent Treg cells can be induced in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to TCR stimulation with cytokine costimulation. Using these artificial stimulation conditions, both naïve as well as memory CD4(+) T cells can be converted into induced Treg (iTreg) cells, but the cellular origin of such iTreg cells in vivo or in response to more physiologic stimulation with pathogen-derived antigens is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that a freeze/thaw lysate of Plasmodium falciparum schizont extract (PfSE) can induce functionally competent Treg cells from peripheral lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner without the addition of exogenous costimulatory factors. The PfSE-mediated induction of Treg cells required the presence of nTreg cells in the starting culture. Further experiments mixing either memory or naïve T cells with antigen presenting cells and CFSE-labeled Treg cells identified CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CD25(-) memory T cells rather than Treg cells as the primary source of PfSE-induced Treg cells. Taken together, these data suggest that in the presence of nTreg cells, PfSE induces memory T cells to convert into iTreg cells that subsequently expand alongside PfSE-induced effector T cells. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of cell density and HLA-DR incompatibility on T-cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 expression in human mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, E Y; Han, S; Yang, B; Morris, G P; Bui, J D

    2015-04-01

    The proliferation rates of human T cells in vitro are affected by some factors such as initial T-cell number, dose of stimulating cells, and duration of culture. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) has been used to identify regulatory T cells in humans and is thought to correlate with tolerance to allogeneic organ transplant. Thus, it is important to optimize conditions to expand FoxP3 cell proliferation to improve engraftment of allogeneic organ transplants. We studied proliferative responses and FoxP3 expression in divided T cells with the use of flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 in culture of different concentrations of responding cells (6 × 10(6), 4 × 10(6), 2 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6), and 0.5 × 10(6)cells/mL), different types of stimulating cells (lymphocytes and low density cells), and different numbers of HLA mismatches. The proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells among mononuclear cells were highest at initial cell concentration of 2 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with lymphocytes as stimulators at day-5 mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). They were highest at a concentration of 4 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with low density cells as stimulators. The recovery (%), proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells with 2 HLA-DR incompatibility were significantly higher than those of 1 HLA-DR incompatibility at day-5 MLR. Initial cell concentration and HLA-DR incompatibility can affect the generation of FoxP3+ T cells in human MLR. These factors could be considered for efficient generation of Tregs for clinical trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family related protein ligand [GITR-L] is requisite for optimal functioning of regulatory CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongxian eLiao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor necrosis factor Receptor family-related protein (GITR, TNFRSF18, CD357 is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs and is inducible on effector T cells (Teffs. In this report, we examine the role of GITR-Ligand (GITR-L, which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, on the development and expansion of Tregs. We found that GITR-L is dispensable for the development of naturally occurring FoxP3+ Treg cells in the thymus. However, the expansion of Treg in GITR-L-/- mice is impaired after injection of the dendritic cells (DCs inducing factor Flt3 ligand. Furthermore, DCs from the liver of GITR-L-/- mice were less efficient in inducing proliferation of antigen-specific Treg cells in vitro than the same cells from WT littermates. Upon gene transfer of ovalbumin into hepatocytes of GITR-L-/- FoxP3(GFP reporter mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV8-OVA the number of antigen-specific Treg in liver and spleen is reduced. The reduced number of Tregs resulted in an increase in the number of ovalbumin specific CD8+ T effector cells. This is highly significant because proliferation of antigen specific CD8+ cells itself is dependent on the presence of GITR-L, as shown by in vitro experiments and by adoptive transfers into GITR-L-/-Rag-/- and Rag-/- mice that had received AAV8-OVA. Surprisingly, administering αCD3 significantly reduced the numbers of FoxP3+ Treg cells in the liver and spleen of GITR-L-/- but not WT mice. Because soluble Fc-GITR-L partially rescues αCD3 induced in vitro depletion of the CD103+ subset of FoxP3+CD4+ Treg cells, we conclude that expression of GITR-L by antigen presenting cells is requisite for optimal Treg-mediated regulation of immune responses including those in response during gene transfer.

  1. Mesenchymal stromal cells express GARP/LRRC32 on their surface: effects on their biology and immunomodulatory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Galvez, Ana Belén; Cobo, Marién; Cuevas-Ocaña, Sara; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, Alejandra; Sánchez-Gilabert, Almudena; Bongarzone, Pierpaolo; García-Pérez, Angélica; Muñoz, Pilar; Benabdellah, Karim; Toscano, Miguel G; Martín, Francisco; Anderson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising tool for therapy in regenerative medicine, transplantation, and autoimmune disease due to their trophic and immunomodulatory activities. However, we are still far from understanding the mechanisms of action of MSCs in these processes. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in MSC migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation. Recently, glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) was shown to bind latency-associated peptide (LAP)/TGF-β1 to the cell surface of activated Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and megakaryocytes/platelets. In this manuscript, we show that human and mouse MSCs express GARP which presents LAP/TGF-β1 on their cell surface. Silencing GARP expression in MSCs increased their secretion and activation of TGF-β1 and reduced their proliferative capacity in a TGF-β1-independent manner. Importantly, we showed that GARP expression on MSCs contributed to their ability to inhibit T-cell responses in vitro. In summary, we have found that GARP is an essential molecule for MSC biology, regulating their immunomodulatory and proliferative activities. We envision GARP as a new target for improving the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs and also as a novel MSC marker. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  2. IL-15 improves the cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells against leukemia cells by upregulating CD3+CD56+ cells and downregulating regulatory T cells as well as IL-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qianshan; Chen, Tianping; Tao, Lili; Wang, Huiping; Pan, Ying; Xiong, Shudao; Zhai, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are usually generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the stimulation of IL-2 in vitro. Unlike the conventional IL-2-stimulated CIK cells (IL-2-CIK cells), we investigated the characteristics and potential mechanism of IL-15-stimulated CIK cells (IL-15-CIK cells) in this study. Compared with IL-2-CIK cells, the percentage of CD3CD56 cells was significantly increased in IL-15-CIK cells, but the expression of regulatory T (Treg) cells and IL-35 was significantly decreased in IL-15-CIK cells. Meanwhile, the in vitro cytotoxicity against human myeloid leukemia cells K562 of IL-15-CIK cells was significantly augmented compared with IL-2-CIK cells. These data suggest that IL-15 may improve the cytotoxicity of CIK cells against leukemia cells by upregulating CD3CD56 cells and downregulating Treg cells and IL-35.

  3. Regulatory T Cells Protect Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-cai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the role of CD4+CD25+ T cells (Tregs in protecting fine particulate matter (PM- induced inflammatory responses, and its potential mechanisms. Methods. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with graded concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 µg/cm2 of suspension of fine particles for 24h. For coculture experiment, HUVECs were incubated alone, with CD4+CD25− T cells (Teff, or with Tregs in the presence of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies for 48 hours, and then were stimulated with or without suspension of fine particles for 24 hours. The expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines was examined. Results. Adhesion molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL- 6 and IL-8, were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1 to endothelial cells was increased and NF-κB activity was upregulated in HUVECs after treatment with fine particles. However, after Tregs treatment, fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation were significantly alleviated. Transwell experiments showed that Treg-mediated suppression of HUVECs inflammatory responses impaired by fine particles required cell contact and soluble factors. Conclusions. Tregs could attenuate fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation in HUVECs.

  4. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  5. Therapeutic targeting of regulatory T cells enhances tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses in Epstein–Barr virus associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, Mark; Murphy, John R.; Lorch, Jochen; Posner, Marshall; Wang, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In nasopharynx cancer, CD8+ T cells specific for EBV Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and Latent Membrane Protein 2 (LMP2) are important components of anti-tumor immunity since both are consistently expressed in NPC. We have previously shown that EBNA-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses were suppressed in NPC patients compared to healthy controls. We now find that CD8+ T cell responses specific for LMP2 are also abnormal in NPC patients, and both EBNA-1- and LMP2-specific responses are suppressed by regulatory T cells (Treg). EBNA-1 and LMP2-specific CD8+ T cell responses, as well as immune control of EBV-infected cells in vitro, could be restored by the depletion of Tregs and by use of a clinically approved drug targeting Tregs. Thus, in vivo modulation of Tregs may be an effective means of enhancing these anti-tumor immune responses in NPC patients. - Highlights: • Viral proteins are tumor antigens in Epstein–Barr virus associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. • CD8+ T cell responses against EBV proteins EBNA-1 and LMP2 are suppressed in NPC patients. • T regulatory cells are responsible for suppressing EBV immunity in NPC patients. • Depletion of Tregs with Ontak can rescue EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in NPC patients. • This clinically approved drug may be effective for enhancing anti-tumor immunity in NPC patients

  6. Therapeutic targeting of regulatory T cells enhances tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses in Epstein–Barr virus associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, Mark [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital (United States); Murphy, John R. [Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Lorch, Jochen; Posner, Marshall [Department of Adult Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang, Fred, E-mail: fwang@research.bwh.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In nasopharynx cancer, CD8+ T cells specific for EBV Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and Latent Membrane Protein 2 (LMP2) are important components of anti-tumor immunity since both are consistently expressed in NPC. We have previously shown that EBNA-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses were suppressed in NPC patients compared to healthy controls. We now find that CD8+ T cell responses specific for LMP2 are also abnormal in NPC patients, and both EBNA-1- and LMP2-specific responses are suppressed by regulatory T cells (Treg). EBNA-1 and LMP2-specific CD8+ T cell responses, as well as immune control of EBV-infected cells in vitro, could be restored by the depletion of Tregs and by use of a clinically approved drug targeting Tregs. Thus, in vivo modulation of Tregs may be an effective means of enhancing these anti-tumor immune responses in NPC patients. - Highlights: • Viral proteins are tumor antigens in Epstein–Barr virus associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. • CD8+ T cell responses against EBV proteins EBNA-1 and LMP2 are suppressed in NPC patients. • T regulatory cells are responsible for suppressing EBV immunity in NPC patients. • Depletion of Tregs with Ontak can rescue EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in NPC patients. • This clinically approved drug may be effective for enhancing anti-tumor immunity in NPC patients.

  7. Regulatory T Cells Show Dynamic Behavior During Late Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jorge; Martins, Catarina; Nunes, Glória; Sousa, Maria-José; Branco, Jorge C; Borrego, Luís-Miguel

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical immunomodulators during early pregnancy by preventing maternal T-cell activation against fetal cells. However, how populations of maternal Tregs vary during and after pregnancy in humans is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated Treg subsets in the peripheral blood of pregnant women from late pregnancy through the postpartum period. To accomplish this, the following circulating Treg subsets were analyzed in 43 healthy pregnant women and 35 nonpregnant women by flow cytometry during the third trimester, on the day of delivery, and postpartum: CD4 Dim CD25 Hi , CD4 + CD25 Hi Foxp3 + , and CD4 + CD25 Hi CD127 -/dim . Additionally, the expression levels of the transcription factor Foxp3 in CD4 Dim CD25 Hi Treg were analyzed. We have found that CD4 Dim CD25 Hi Treg subset significantly decreased in the pregnant women on the day of delivery relative to the third trimester ( P postpartum compared to the third trimester and the day of delivery ( P postpartum compared to the third trimester and the day of delivery ( P postpartum period. Our results offer an explanation for the possible effects of pregnancy on the clinical outcomes of some autoimmune diseases during the postpartum period.

  8. Virus-induced dysfunction of CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated neuroimmunological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Yoshihisa; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Li, Hong-Chuan; Tomaru, Utano; Yao, Karen; Grant, Christian W; Maric, Dragan A; Jacobson, Steven

    2005-05-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs are important in the maintenance of immunological self tolerance and in the prevention of autoimmune diseases. As the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated (HTLV-I-associated) myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) has been shown to be a major reservoir for this virus, it was of interest to determine whether the frequency and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs in HAM/TSP patients might be affected. In these cells, both mRNA and protein expression of the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3, a specific marker of Tregs, were lower than those in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from healthy individuals. The virus-encoded transactivating HTLV-I tax gene was demonstrated to have a direct inhibitory effect on Foxp3 expression and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. This is the first report to our knowledge demonstrating the role of a specific viral gene product (HTLV-I Tax) on the expression of genes associated with Tregs (in particular, foxp3) resulting in inhibition of Treg function. These results suggest that direct human retroviral infection of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells may be associated with the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease.

  9. CD28-CD80 interactions control regulatory T cell motility and immunological synapse formation1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauland, Timothy J.; Koguchi, Yoshinobu; Dustin, Michael L.; Parker, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for tolerance to self and environmental antigens, acting in part by downmodulating costimulatory molecules on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and altering naïve CD4 T cell-DC interactions. Here, we show that Tregs form stable conjugates with DCs before, but not after, they decrease surface expression of the costimulatory molecule CD80 on the DCs. We use supported planar bilayers to show that Tregs dramatically slow down, but maintain a highly polarized and motile phenotype after recognizing antigen in the absence of costimulation. These motile cells are characterized by distinct accumulations of LFA-1-ICAM-1 in the lamella and TCR-MHC in the uropod, consistent with a motile immunological synapse or ‘kinapse’. However, in the presence of high, but not low, concentrations of CD80, Tregs form stationary, symmetrical synapses. Using blocking antibodies, we show that, while CTLA-4 is required for CD80 downmodulation, CD28-CD80 interactions are critical for modulating Treg motility in the presence of antigen. Together, these results support the hypothesis that Tregs are tuned to alter their motility depending on costimulatory signals. PMID:25355918

  10. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito

    2005-01-01

    that compare cells grown in suspension to similar cells grown attached to one another as aggregates have suggested that it is adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the basal membrane that confers resistance to apoptosis and, hence, resistance to cytotoxins. The genes whose expression correlates with poor...... in cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton. If the proteins involved in tethering cells to the extracellular matrix are important in conferring drug resistance, it may be possible to improve chemotherapy by designing drugs that target these proteins....

  11. Thorax irradiation triggers a local and systemic accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirsdörfer, Florian; Cappuccini, Federica; Niazman, Muska; Leve, Simone de; Westendorf, Astrid M; Lüdemann, Lutz; Stuschke, Martin; Jendrossek, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocyte infiltration is a common feature of radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis, but their contribution to the pathogenic processes is still unclear. Here, we addressed the impact of thorax irradiation on the T cell compartment with a focus on immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg). C57BL/6 wild type mice (WT) received anesthesia only (sham controls, 0 Gy) or were exposed to a single dose of whole thorax irradiation (15 Gy). Immune cells from lung tissue, spleen, and cervical lymph nodes were collected 10 to 84 days post-irradiation and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. Whole thorax irradiation provoked an increased influx of CD3+ T cells at 42 and 84 days post-irradiation. In contrast, local irradiation caused a sustained reduction in CD3+ T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, we observed a significant local and systemic increase in the fraction of CD4+ T cells expressing the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), the phenotypic marker for murine Treg, at day 21 post-irradiation. The accumulation of Treg was associated with increased levels of T cells expressing surface proteins characteristic for recruitment and immunosuppressive activity, e.g. CD103, CTLA-4 and CD73. Importantly, Treg isolated at this time point were able to suppress CD4+ effector T cells to a similar extent as Treg isolated from control mice. The response of the adaptive immune system to whole thorax irradiation is characterized by local immunoactivation and systemic immunosuppression. The transient accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ Treg may be required to protect the lung against excessive inflammation-induced tissue damage. Further investigations shall define the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of Treg and their role for the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung disease

  12. Genomewide analyses of pathogenic and regulatory T cells of NOD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DANG SUN

    Two regulatory T cell clones (Tregs) were used in this study. Treg1 cells were clone-derived from the previously described. Keywords. methylation; cDNA microarray; type 1 diabetes; pathogenic T cells; .... Gender-specific differences in.

  13. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  14. The role of cytokine signaling in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    abraham, Robert; Zhang, Qiang; Ødum, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) displays immunosuppressive properties and phenotypic plasticity. The malignant T cells in CTCL can possess features of immunomodulating regulatory T cells (Treg) and IL-17-producing helper T cells (Th17) depending on the stimuli they receive from antigen presenting...... therapeutic agents may potentially exploit the phenotypic plasticity of CTCL such that the malignant T cells become vulnerable to antitumor immunity....... cells and other sources. IL-2-type cytokines activate STAT5 to promote expression of Treg-related FoxP3, while various cytokines can activate STAT3 to induce synthesis of IL-10 and IL-17. When the Treg phenotype is activated in the early stages of CTCL, “immune evasion” can occur, allowing the clonal T...

  15. FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be cultured from colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, J; Agnholt, J; Hoffmann, H J; Rømer, J L; Hvas, C L; Dahlerup, J F

    2005-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and ensure a balanced immune response competent of fighting pathogens and at the same time recognizing commensals as harmless. This feature is lost in Crohn's disease (CD). The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor FoxP3 is a master gene for Treg function and defects in the FoxP3 gene lead to a clinical picture similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Murine colitis can be cured by adoptive transfer of Tregs and ex vivo-generated gut-specific Tregs represent an attractive option for therapy in CD. Thus, defective Tregs could contribute to the development of CD. We cultured biopsies of colonic mucosa in the presence of high concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 to overcome the anergic nature of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the mucosa. We investigated the expression of FoxP3 and regulatory potential of gut-derived CD4+CD25+ T cells cultured from patients with CD and healthy individuals. The FoxP3 expression was analysed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the suppressive effect of FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells on proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Cultured gut-derived T cells with CD4+CD25+ phenotype expressed FoxP3 and were able as the freshly isolated Tregs from peripheral blood to suppress proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be propagated in vitro from inflamed mucosa of CD patients, which may be of interest in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:16045746

  16. [Effect of Electroacupuncture Stimulation of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on Spleen Lymphocytes Treg/Th 17 Immune Balance in Ulcerative Colitis Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-yu-lin; Zeng, Lin-lan; Geng, Yu; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, He-jiao; Yang, Hui; Wu, Qiao- feng; Yu, Shu-guang

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention on spleen T-helper 17 (Th 17) and regulatory T (Treg) cell levels in mice with ulcerative colitis (UC), so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of UC. METHODS Kunming mice were randomized into control, UC model and EA groups, with 8 mice in each group. The UC model was established by giving the mice with 3% Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) for 5 days. EA (15 Hz/25 Hz, 0.1-0.2 mA) was applied at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36, used alternatively) for 10 min, once a day for 5 days. The animals' disease activity index [DAl, = (body weight index score + stool score + bleeding score)/3; 0-4 points] were calculated. The pathological changes of colon tissues were observed by light microscopy after H. E. stain, and spleen Treg (CD⁴⁺ CD²⁵⁺ Foxp³⁺ Treg) and Th 17 (CD³⁺ CD⁸⁺ IL-17⁺ Th 17) lymphocyte levels were determined by flow cytometry. Compared to the control group, the DAl score and the ratio of Th 17/CD⁸⁺ T cells were significantly increased, while the ratio of Treg/CD⁴⁺ T cells obviously decreased in the model group (P Th 17/CD⁸⁺ T cells and the decreased Treg/CD⁴⁺ T cells were reversed (P Th 17 lymphocytes.

  17. Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase A Expression on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehkamp, Ulrike; Stern, Sophie; Krüger, Sandra; Hauschild, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Egberts, Friederike

    2017-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Immune checkpoint therapy showed remarkable results, although not all patients are responsive to this therapy. Anti-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-targeted treatment has shown promising results in several tumor entities. To determine TrkA expression in MCC as a rationale for potential targeted therapy. This case series study investigated the MCC specimens of 55 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. Thirty-nine of the 55 samples were suitable for further histopathologic examination. Expression of TrkA was explored by immunohistochemical analysis. Diagnosis of MCC was confirmed by staining positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and synaptophysin. Expression of TrkA on the tumor cells. Specimens of 39 patients (21 women and 18 men; mean [SD] age, 75.0 [7.8] years) underwent immunohistochemical investigation. Thirty-eight of 38 specimens expressed CK20 and synaptophysin on the MCC tumor cells (100% expression). Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 32 of 38 specimens (84%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was found in all 36 evaluable specimens on the tumor cells; 34 (94%) showed a weak and 2 (6%) showed a strong cytoplasmic expression. In addition, strongly positive perinuclear dots were observed in 30 of 36 specimens (83%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was expressed on MCC tumor cells in 100% of evaluable specimens. This result may lead to the exploration of new targeted treatment options in MCC, especially for patients who do not respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 treatment.

  18. β-Catenin promotes colitis and colon cancer through imprinting of proinflammatory properties in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthivasan, Shilpa; Aghajani, Katayoun; Dose, Marei; Molinero, Luciana; Khan, Mohammad W; Venkateswaran, Vysak; Weber, Christopher; Emmanuel, Akinola Olumide; Sun, Tianjao; Bentrem, David J; Mulcahy, Mary; Keshavarzian, Ali; Ramos, Elena M; Blatner, Nichole; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Gounari, Fotini

    2014-02-26

    The density and type of lymphocytes that infiltrate colon tumors are predictive of the clinical outcome of colon cancer. High densities of T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells and inflammation predict poor outcome, whereas infiltration by T regulatory cells (Tregs) that naturally suppress inflammation is associated with longer patient survival. However, the role of Tregs in cancer remains controversial. We recently reported that Tregs in colon cancer patients can become proinflammatory and tumor-promoting. These properties were directly linked with their expression of RORγt (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt), the signature transcription factor of T(H)17 cells. We report that Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T cells promotes expression of RORγt. Expression of β-catenin was elevated in T cells, including Tregs, of patients with colon cancer. Genetically engineered activation of β-catenin in mouse T cells resulted in enhanced chromatin accessibility in the proximity of T cell factor-1 (Tcf-1) binding sites genome-wide, induced expression of T(H)17 signature genes including RORγt, and promoted T(H)17-mediated inflammation. Strikingly, the mice had inflammation of small intestine and colon and developed lesions indistinguishable from colitis-induced cancer. Activation of β-catenin only in Tregs was sufficient to produce inflammation and initiate cancer. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in effector T cells and/or Tregs is causatively linked with the imprinting of proinflammatory properties and the promotion of colon cancer.

  19. Evidence for a role of regulatory T cells in mediating the atheroprotective effect of apolipoprotein B peptide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigren, M; Kolbus, D; Dunér, P; Ljungcrantz, I; Söderberg, I; Björkbacka, H; Fredrikson, G N; Nilsson, J

    2011-05-01

    Autoimmune responses against oxidized low-density lipoprotein are considered to play an important pro-inflammatory role in atherosclerosis and to promote disease progression. T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunosuppressive cells that have an important part in maintaining self-tolerance and protection against autoimmunity. We investigated whether aBp210, a prototype atherosclerosis vaccine based on a peptide sequence derived from apolipoprotein B, inhibits atherosclerosis through the activation of Tregs. Six-week-old Apoe(-/-) mice were immunized with aBp210 and received booster immunizations 3 and 5 weeks later, as well as 1 week before being killed at 25 weeks of age. At 12 weeks, immunized mice had increased expression of the Treg marker CD25 on circulating CD4 cells, and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 release from splenocytes was markedly depressed. At 25 weeks, there was a fivefold expansion of splenic CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3 Tregs, a 65% decrease in Con A-induced splenic T-cell proliferation and a 37% reduction in the development of atherosclerosis in immunized mice. Administration of blocking antibodies against CD25 neutralized aBp210-induced Treg activation as well as the reduction of atherosclerosis. The present findings demonstrate that immunization of Apoe(-/-) mice with the apolipoprotein B peptide vaccine aBp210 is associated with activation of Tregs. Administration of antibodies against CD25 results in depletion of Tregs and blocking of the atheroprotective effect of the vaccine. Modulation in atherosclerosis-related autoimmunity by antigen-specific activation of Tregs represents a novel approach for treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  20. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg ) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4(+) T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3(+) Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3(+) Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Distinct Blood and Visceral Adipose Tissue Regulatory T Cell and Innate Lymphocyte Profiles Characterize Obesity and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Donninelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue (VAT is a main site where metabolic and immunologic processes interplay to regulate, at local and systemic level, the inflammatory status and immune response. Obesity-associated inflammation and immune dysfunctions are inextricably linked to tumor but, in spite of intense efforts, the mechanisms underpinning this association remain elusive. In this report, we characterized the profile of VAT-associated and circulating innate lymphocyte and regulatory T (Treg cell subsets underlying inflammatory conditions, such as obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC. Analysis of NK, NKT-like, γδ T, and Treg cell populations in VAT and blood of healthy lean subjects revealed that CD56hi NK and OX40+ Treg cells are more abundant in VAT with respect to blood. Conversely, CD56dim NK and total Treg cells are most present in the circulation, while γδ T lymphocytes are uniformly distributed in the two compartments. Interestingly, a reduced frequency of circulating activated Treg cells, and a concomitant preferential enrichment of OX40-expressing Treg cells in VAT, were selectively observed in obese (Ob subjects, and directly correlated with body mass index. Likewise, CRC patients were characterized by a specific enrichment of VAT-associated NKT-like cells. In addition, Ob and CRC-affected individuals shared a significant reduction of the Vγ9Vδ2/γδ T cell ratio at systemic level. The alterations in the relative proportions of Treg and NKT-like cells in VAT were found to correlate with the content of pro- and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, respectively. Overall, these results provide evidence for distinct alterations of the immune cell repertoire in the periphery with respect to the VAT microenvironment that uniquely characterize or are shared by different inflammatory conditions, such as obesity and CRC, and suggest that VAT PUFA composition may represent one of the factors that contribute to shape the immune

  2. The Expression of T Cell FOXP3 and T-Bet Is Upregulated in Severe but Not Euthyroid Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

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    Stana Tokić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive thyroid failure. Th1 and Treg subset of CD4+ cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis; however, less is known about their respective roles across the spectrum of HT clinical presentations. To shed more light on CD4+ subsets role in HT, we investigated the mRNA expression levels of several Th1/Treg-associated transcription factors (T-bet/ETS1, HIF1α/BLIMP1/FOXP3 in peripheral blood T cells of 10 hypothyroid, untreated HT patients, 10 hypothyroid patients undergoing hormone replacement therapy, 12 euthyroid HT subjects, and 11 healthy controls by the qRT-PCR. Compared to euthyroid HT patients and controls, both hypothyroid (2.34-fold difference versus controls, P<0.01 and thyroxine-supplemented patients (2.5-fold, P<0.001 showed an increased FOXP3 mRNA expression in T cells. Similarly, mRNA expression levels of T-bet were upregulated in severely affected but not in euthyroid HT subjects (2.37-fold and 3.2-fold, hypothyroid and thyroxine-supplemented HT patients versus controls, resp., P<0.01. By contrast, no differences in mRNA expression levels of ETS1, BLIMP1, and HIF1α were observed across the study groups. In summary, severe but not euthyroid HT was associated with robust upregulation of T-bet and FOXP3 mRNA in peripheral T cells, independent of the thyroid hormone status but proportional to disease activity.

  3. Oncomirs Expression Profiling in Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Cells

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    Bruna Cristine de Almeida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play a key role in several biological processes. Their abnormal expression may lead to malignant cell transformation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of 84 miRNAs involved in tumorigenesis in immortalized cells of myometrium (MM, uterine leiomyoma (ULM, and uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS. Specific cell lines were cultured and qRT-PCR was performed. Thirteen miRNAs presented different expression profiles in ULM and the same thirteen in ULMS compared to MM. Eight miRNAs were overexpressed, and five were underexpressed in ULM. In ULMS cells, five miRNAs exhibited an overexpression and eight were down-regulated. Six miRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-140-5p, miR-202-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-7-5p presented a similar expression pattern in cell lines compared to patient samples. Of these, only three miRNAs showed significant expression in ULM (miR-1-3p, miR-140-5p, and miR-7-5p and ULMS (miR-1-3p, miR-202-3p, and miR-7-5p. Our preliminary approach identified 24 oncomirs with an altered expression profile in ULM and ULMS cells. We identified four differentially expressed miRNAs with the same profile when compared with patients’ samples, which strongly interacted with relevant genes, including apoptosis regulator (BCL2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R,serine/threonine kinase (RAF1, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET, and bHLH transcription factor (MYCN. This led to alterations in their mRNA-target.

  4. Human mesenchymal stromal cells enhance the immunomodulatory function of CD8+CD28− regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuli; Zheng, Haiqing; Chen, Xiaoyong; Peng, Yanwen; Huang, Weijun; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Gang; Xia, Wenjie; Sun, Qiquan; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2015-01-01

    One important aspect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-mediated immunomodulation is the recruitment and induction of regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, we do not yet know whether MSCs have similar effects on the other subsets of Treg cells. Herein, we studied the effects of MSCs on CD8+CD28− Treg cells and found that the MSCs could not only increase the proportion of CD8+CD28− T cells, but also enhance CD8+CD28−T cells' ability of hampering naive CD4+ T-cell proliferation and activation, decreasing the production of IFN-γ by activated CD4+ T cells and inducing the apoptosis of activated CD4+ T cells. Mechanistically, the MSCs affected the functions of the CD8+CD28− T cells partially through moderate upregulating the expression of IL-10 and FasL. The MSCs had no distinct effect on the shift from CD8+CD28+ T cells to CD8+CD28− T cells, but did increase the proportion of CD8+CD28− T cells by reducing their rate of apoptosis. In summary, this study shows that MSCs can enhance the regulatory function of CD8+CD28− Treg cells, shedding new light on MSCs-mediated immune regulation. PMID:25482073

  5. Downregulation of IL-17-producing T cells is associated with regulatory T cell expansion and disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Memarian, Ali; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sarrafnejad, Abdolfattah; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the immunobiology of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, the frequencies of Th17, Tc17, and CD39(+) Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral T cells isolated from 40 CLL patients and 15 normal subjects by flow cytometry. Our results showed a lower frequency of Th17 and Tc17 cells in progressive (0.99 ± 0.12 % of total CD3(+)CD4(+) cells; 0.44 ± 0.09 % of total CD8(+) cells) compared to indolent patients (1.57 ± 0.24 %, p = 0.042; 0.82 ± 0.2 %, p = 0.09) and normal subjects (1.78 ± 0.2 %, p = 0.003; 0.71 ± 0.09 %, p = 0.04). Decrease in IL-17-producing T cells was associated with CD39(+) Treg cells expansion. Variation of IL-17-producing cells and Treg cells in indolent and progressive patients was neither associated to the expression levels of Th1- and Th2-specific transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 nor to the frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in a selected number of samples. Additionally, suppressive potential of CD4(+) Treg was similar in CLL patients and normal subjects. Our data indicate that progression of CLL is associated with downregulation of IL-17-producing T cells and expansion of Treg cells, implying contribution of these subsets of T cells in the progression of CLL.

  6. Global Regulatory T-Cell Research from 2000 to 2015: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the global scientific output of regulatory T-cell (Treg research and built a model to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate publications from 2000 to 2015. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC of Thomson Reuters on January 1, 2016. The bibliometric method and Citespace III were used to analyze authors, journals, publication outputs, institutions, countries, research areas, research hotspots, and trends. In total, we identified 35,741 publications on Treg research from 2000 to 2015, and observed that the annual publication rate increased with time. The Journal of Immunology published the highest number of articles, the leading country was the USA, and the leading institute was Harvard University. Sakaguchi, Hori, Fontenot, and Wang were the top authors in Treg research. Immunology accounted for the highest number of publications, followed by oncology, experimental medicine, cell biology, and hematology. Keyword analysis indicated that autoimmunity, inflammation, cytokine, gene expression, foxp3, and immunotherapy were the research hotspots, whereas autoimmune inflammation, gene therapy, granzyme B, RORγt, and th17 were the frontiers of Treg research. This bibliometric analysis revealed that Treg-related studies are still research hotspots, and that Treg-related clinical therapies are the research frontiers; however, further study and collaborations are needed worldwide. Overall, our findings provide valuable information for the editors of immunology journals to identify new perspectives and shape future research directions.

  7. Dissecting stem cell differentiation using single cell expression profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Moignard, Victoria Rachel; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Many assumptions about the way cells behave are based on analyses of populations. However, it is now widely recognized that even apparently pure populations can display a remarkable level of heterogeneity. This is particularly true in stem cell biology where it hinders our understanding of normal development and the development of strategies for regenerative medicine. Over the past decade technologies facilitating gene expression analysis at the single cell level have become widespread, provi...

  8. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  9. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  10. Aspergillus fumigatus Cell Wall α-(1,3)-Glucan Stimulates Regulatory T-Cell Polarization by Inducing PD-L1 Expression on Human Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Karnam, Anupama; Fontaine, Thierry; Beauvais, Anne; Das, Mrinmoy; Hegde, Pushpa; Prakhar, Praveen; Holla, Sahana; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Kaveri, Srini V; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-12-05

    Human dendritic cell (DC) response to α-(1,3)-glucan polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus and ensuing CD4+ T-cell polarization are poorly characterized. α-(1,3)-Glucan was isolated from A. fumigatus conidia and mycelia cell wall. For the analysis of polarization, DCs and autologous naive CD4+ T cells were cocultured. Phenotype of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blocking antibodies were used to dissect the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in regulating α-(1,3)-glucan-mediated DC activation and T-cell responses. DCs from TLR2-deficient mice were additionally used to consolidate the findings. α-(1,3)-Glucan induced the maturation of DCs and was dependent in part on TLR2. "α-(1,3)-Glucan-educated" DCs stimulated the activation of naive T cells and polarized a subset of these cells into CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Mechanistically, Treg stimulation by α-(1,3)-glucan was dependent on the PD-L1 pathway that negatively regulated interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion. Short α-(1,3)-oligosaccharides lacked the capacity to induce maturation of DCs but significantly blocked α-(1,3)-glucan-induced Treg polarization. PD-L1 dictates the balance between Treg and IFN-γ responses induced by α-(1,3)-glucan. Our data provide a rationale for the exploitation of immunotherapeutic approaches that target PD-1-PD-L1 to enhance protective immune responses to A. fumigatus infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Foxp3 Expression is Required for the Induction of Therapeutic Tissue Tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regateiro, Frederico S.; Chen, Ye; Kendal, Adrian R.; Hilbrands, Robert; Adams, Elizabeth; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Ma, Jianbo; Andersen, Kristian G.; Betz, Alexander G.; Zhang, Mindy; Madhiwalla, Shruti; Roberts, Bruce; Waldmann, Herman; Nolan, Kathleen F.; Howie, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    CD4+Foxp3+ Treg are essential for immune homeostasis and maintenance of self-tolerance. They are produced in the thymus and also generated de novo in the periphery in a TGFβ dependent manner. Foxp3+ Treg are also required to achieve tolerance to transplanted tissues when induced by co receptor or co stimulation blockade. Using TCR transgenic mice to avoid issues of autoimmune pathology, we show that Foxp3 expression is both necessary and sufficient for tissue tolerance by coreceptor blockade. Moreover, the known need in tolerance induction for TGFβ signalling to T cells can wholly be explained by its role in induction of Foxp3, as such signalling proved dispensable for the suppressive process. We analysed the relative contribution of TGFβ and Foxp3 to the transcriptome of TGFβ-induced Treg and showed that TGFβ elicited a large set of down-regulated signature genes. The number of genes uniquely modulated due to the influence of Foxp3 alone was surprisingly limited. Thus, despite the large genetic influence of TGFβ exposure on iTreg, the crucial Foxp3-influenced signature independent of TGFβ is small. Retroviral mediated conditional nuclear expression of Foxp3 proved sufficient to confer transplant-suppressive potency on CD4+ T cells, and was lost once nuclear Foxp3 expression was extinguished. These data support a dual role for TGFβ and Foxp3 in induced tolerance, where TGFβ stimulates Foxp3 expression, whose sustained expression is then associated with acquisition of tolerance. PMID:22988034

  12. Increased Tregs associated with elevated Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activity and an imbalanced Kynurenine pathway in IFNpositive primary Sjögren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.I. Maria (Naomi); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; Z. Brkić (Zana); S.M.J. Paulissen (Sandra); E.C. Steenwijk (Eline); V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); P.L.A. van Daele (Paul); M.P. van Hagen (Martin); F.G.M. Kroese (Frans G.); J.A.G. van Roon (J. A G); A. Harkin (Andrew); A.W. Dik (Willem); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); E.W. Lubberts (Erik); M.A. Versnel (Marjan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme converting tryptophan (TRP) to kynurenine (KYN), is driven in part by type I/II IFNs. Naïve T cells are polarized into FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) upon exposure to either IDO+ cells or KYN. Recent studies

  13. Regulatory T cell suppressive potency dictates the balance between bacterial proliferation and clearance during persistent Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner M Johanns

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of persistent infection is dictated by the balance between opposing immune activation and suppression signals. Herein, virulent Salmonella was used to explore the role and potential importance of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells in dictating the natural progression of persistent bacterial infection. Two distinct phases of persistent Salmonella infection are identified. In the first 3-4 weeks after infection, progressively increasing bacterial burden was associated with delayed effector T cell activation. Reciprocally, at later time points after infection, reductions in bacterial burden were associated with robust effector T cell activation. Using Foxp3(GFP reporter mice for ex vivo isolation of regulatory T cells, we demonstrate that the dichotomy in infection tempo between early and late time points is directly paralleled by drastic changes in Foxp3(+ Treg suppressive potency. In complementary experiments using Foxp3(DTR mice, the significance of these shifts in Treg suppressive potency on infection outcome was verified by enumerating the relative impacts of regulatory T cell ablation on bacterial burden and effector T cell activation at early and late time points during persistent Salmonella infection. Moreover, Treg expression of CTLA-4 directly paralleled changes in suppressive potency, and the relative effects of Treg ablation could be largely recapitulated by CTLA-4 in vivo blockade. Together, these results demonstrate that dynamic regulation of Treg suppressive potency dictates the course of persistent bacterial infection.

  14. Inflammation-Induced Changes in Circulating T-Cell Subsets and Cytokine Production During Human Endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Plovsing, Ronni R; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2017-01-01

    administration. The frequency of anti-inflammatory Tregs increased (P = .033), whereas the frequency of proinflammatory CD4(+)CD161(+) cells decreased (P = .034). Endotoxemia was associated with impaired whole-blood production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, IL-6, IL-17, IL-2, and interferon......Observational clinical studies suggest the initial phase of sepsis may involve impaired cellular immunity. In the present study, we investigated temporal changes in T-cell subsets and T-cell cytokine production during human endotoxemia. Endotoxin (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 4 ng......, HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) T cells were determined. Ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression on Tregs were measured. Absolute number of CD3(+)CD4(+) (P = .026), CD3(+)CD8(+) (P = .046), Tregs (P = .023), and CD4(+)CD161(+) cells (P = .042) decreased after endotoxin...

  15. MEMBRANE LEc EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Udalova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Affine chromatography was used to isolate Lec antibodies from the sera of a healthy female donor with the high titers of these anti- bodies, which were labeled with biotin. The study enrolled 51 patients with primary breast cancer (BC. Antigen expression was found by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. With these two techniques being used, the detection rate of Lec expression in BC cells was 65% (33/51; the antigen was most frequently found by flow cytometry as compared with immunohistochemistry: 72 and 58% of cases, respectively.

  16. Metallothionein gene expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metallothioneins (MTs are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins. In general, MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: (1 the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide, (2 apoptosis and (3 the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the expression of MT with invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis in various cancers. Most of the previous studies primarily used immunohistochemistry to analyze localization of MT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC. No information is available on the gene expression of MT2A isoform in different types and grades of RCC. Materials and Methods: In the present study, total RNA was isolated from 38 histopathologically confirmed cases of RCC of different types and grades. Corresponding adjacent normal renal parenchyma was taken as control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR analysis was done for the MT2A gene expression using b-actin as an internal control. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS software. Results: The MT2A gene expression was found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01 in clear cell RCC in comparison with the adjacent normal renal parenchyma. The expression of MT2A was two to three-fold higher in sarcomatoid RCC, whereas there was no change in papillary and collecting duct RCC. MT2A gene expression was significantly higher in lower grade (grades I and II, P < 0.05, while no change was observed in high-grade tumor (grade III and IV in comparison to adjacent normal renal tissue. Conclusion: The first report of the expression of MT2A in different types and grades of RCC and also these data further support the role of MT2A in tumorigenesis.

  17. Rapid and selective expansion of nonclonotypic T cells in regulatory T cell-deficient, foreign antigen-specific TCR-transgenic scurfy mice: antigen-dependent expansion and TCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Ju, Angela Chiao-Ying; Kung, John T; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2008-11-15

    Foreign Ag-specific TCR-transgenic (Tg) mice contain a small fraction of T cells bearing the endogenous Vbeta and Valpha chains as well as a population expressing an intermediate level of Tg TCR. Importantly, these minor nonclonotypic populations contain > or = 99% of the CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and, despite low overall Treg expression, peripheral tolerance is maintained. In the OT-II TCR (OVA-specific, Vbeta5(high)Valpha2(high)) Tg scurfy (Sf) mice (OT-II Sf) that lack Treg, nonclonotypic T cells markedly expanded in the periphery but not in the thymus. Expanded T cells expressed memory/effector phenotype and were enriched in blood and inflamed lungs. In contrast, Vbeta5(high)Valpha2(high) clonotypic T cells were not expanded, displayed the naive phenotype, and found mainly in the lymph nodes. Importantly, Vbeta5(neg) T cells were able to transfer multiorgan inflammation in Rag1(-/-) recipients. T cells bearing dual TCR (dual Vbeta or dual Valpha) were demonstrated frequently in the Vbeta5(int) and Valpha2(int) populations. Our study demonstrated that in the absence of Treg, the lack of peripheral expansion of clonotypic T cells is due to the absence of its high-affinity Ag OVA. Thus, the rapid expansion of nonclonotypic T cells in OT-II Sf mice must require Ag (self and foreign) with sufficient affinity. Our study has implications with respect to the roles of Ag and dual TCR in the selection and regulation of Treg and Treg-controlled Ag-dependent T cell expansion in TCR Tg and TCR Tg Sf mice, respectively.

  18. CD4~+Foxp3~+ regulatory T cells converted by rapamycin from peripheral CD4~+ CD25~-naive T cells display more potent regulatory ability in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-fei; GAO Jie; ZHANG Dong; WANG Zi-han; ZHU Ji-ye

    2010-01-01

    Background Rapamycin (RAPA) is a relatively new immunosuppressant drug that functions as a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. RAPA blocks activation of T-effector (Teff) cells by inhibiting the response to interleukin-2. Recently, RAPA was also shown to selectively expand the T-regulator (Treg) cell population. To date, no studies have examined the mechanism by which RAPA converts Teff cells to Treg cells. Methods Peripheral CD4~+CD25~- naive T cells were cultivated with RAPA and B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in vitro. CD4~+CD25~- T cells were harvested after 6 days and analyzed for expression of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) using flow cytometry. CD4~+CD25~+CD127~- subsets as the converted Tregs were isolated from the mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) with CD127 negative selection, followed by CD4 and CD25 positive selection using microbeads and magnetic separation column (MSC). Moreover, mRNA was extracted from converted Tregs and C57BL/6 naive CD4~+CD25~+ T cells and Foxp3 levels were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). A total of 1×10~5 carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled naive CD4~+CD25~- T cells/well from C57BL/6 mice were cocultured with DBA/2 or C3H maturation of dendritic cells (mDCs) (0.25×10~5/well) in 96-well round-bottom plates for 6 days. Then 1×10~5 or 0.25×10~5 converted Treg cells were added to every well as regulatory cells. Cells were harvested after 6 days of culture and analyzed for proliferation of CFSE-labeled naive CD4~+CD25~- T cells using flow cytometry. Data were analyzed using CellQuest software.Results We found that RAPA can convert peripheral CD4~+CD25~- naive T Cells to CD4~+Foxp3~+ Treg cells using B cells as APCs, and this subtype of Treg can potently suppress Teff proliferation and maintain antigenic specificity. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that RAPA induces Treg cell conversion from Teff cells and

  19. Regulatory T cells and B cells: implication on autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although most studies are focusing on the role of Treg cells in T cells and T cells-mediated diseases, these cells also directly affect B cells and other non-T cells. This manuscript updates the role of Treg cells on the B cells and B cell-mediated diseases. In addition, the mechanisms whereby Treg cells suppress B cell responses have been discussed.

  20. Microenvironmental cues enhance mesenchymal stem cell-mediated immunomodulation and regulatory T-cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadle, Rohini L; Abdou, Salma A; Villarreal-Ponce, Alvaro P; Soares, Marc A; Sultan, Darren L; David, Joshua A; Massie, Jonathan; Rifkin, William J; Rabbani, Piul; Ceradini, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to both have powerful immunosuppressive properties and promote allograft tolerance. Determining the environmental oxygen tension and inflammatory conditions under which MSCs are optimally primed for this immunosuppressive function is essential to their utilization in promoting graft tolerance. Of particular interest is the mechanisms governing the interaction between MSCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is relatively unknown. We performed our experiments utilizing rat bone marrow derived MSCs. We observed that priming MSCs in hypoxia promotes maintenance of stem-like characteristics, with greater expression of typical MSC cell-surface markers, increased proliferation, and maintenance of differentiation potential. Addition of autologous MSCs to CD4+/allogeneic endothelial cell (EC) co-culture increases regulatory T cell (Treg) proliferation, which is further enhanced when MSCs are primed in hypoxia. Furthermore, MSC-mediated Treg expansion does not require direct cell-cell contact. The expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a mediator of MSC immunomodulation, increases when MSCs are primed in hypoxia, and inhibition of IDO significantly decreases the expansion of Tregs. Priming with inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα increases also expression of markers associated with MSC immunomodulatory function, but decreases MSC proliferation. The expression of IDO also increases when MSCs are primed with inflammatory cytokines. However, there is no increase in Treg expansion when MSCs are primed with IFNγ, suggesting an alternate mechanism for inflammatory-stimulated MSC immunomodulation. Overall, these results suggest that MSCs primed in hypoxia or inflammatory conditions are optimally primed for immunosuppressive function. These results provide a clearer picture of how to enhance MSC immunomodulation for clinical use.

  1. Clinical-Grade-Expanded Regulatory T Cells Prevent Graft-versus-Host Disease While Allowing a Powerful T Cell-Dependent Graft-versus-Leukemia Effect in Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Papa, Beatrice; Ruggeri, Loredana; Urbani, Elena; Baldoni, Stefano; Cecchini, Debora; Zei, Tiziana; Iacucci Ostini, Roberta; Crescenzi, Barbara; Carotti, Alessandra; Pierini, Antonio; Sportoletti, Paolo; Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Falzetti, Franca; Mecucci, Cristina; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo F; Di Ianni, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    We developed a good manufacturing practices-compatible expansion protocol to improve number and purity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) available for clinical trials. Six clinical-grade separation procedures were performed, followed by expansion with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2, anti-CD3/anti-CD28 TCR stimulation, and rapamycin for 19 days achieving a median of 8.5-fold (range, 6.25 to 13.7) expansion. FOXP3 expression was stably maintained over the culture period, while the percentage of CD127 was significantly reduced. The in vitro suppression assay showed a strong Mixed Lymphocytes Reaction inhibition. In vitro amplification did not induce any karyotypic modification. To evaluate the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)/graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) bifunctional axis, expanded Tregs and conventional T cells (Tcons) were tested in NOD/SCID/IL2Rgnull mice injected with primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, AML cell line, acute lymphoid leukemia Philadelphia cell line, or Burkitt-like lymphoma cell line. All mice that received leukemia cells together with expanded Tregs and Tcons were rescued from leukemia and survived without GVHD, showing that Treg expansion procedure did not compromise GVHD control and the strong Tcon-mediated GVL activity. This report might represent the basis for treating high-risk leukemia and/or relapsed/refractory leukemia patients with high-dose Treg/Tcons. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Depletion of Regulatory T Cells in Visceral Adipose Tissues Contributes to Insulin Resistance in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

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    Min Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT is a common organ-specific autoimmune disorder associated with a high incidence, and insulin resistance is highly related to autoimmune. Here, we examined the insulin sensitivity in HT patients and found decreased insulin sensitivity occurred in HT patients. To explore the relationship between impaired insulin sensitivity and immune status, we established HT model mice which showed similar pathological features and immune features to HT patients. In HT model mice, reinfusion of regulatory T cells (Tregs from peripheral blood of normal mice could improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the inflammation. Anti-CD25 antibodies blocked beneficial effects from reinfusion of Tregs, but delayed administration of anti-CD25 antibodies could not abolished the effect from Tregs. Delayed administration of anti-CD25 antibodies abolished exogenous Tregs in peripheral blood, but there were increased exogenous Tregs located to visceral adipose tissues (VATs which modulated the expression of cytokines in VATs. These findings suggest that insulin resistance exists in HT patients and it associates with the decreased Tregs and increased inflammation in the VATs.

  3. Phase II trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus expressing 5T4 and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitcham Josephine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2 induces durable objective responses in a small cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC but the antigen(s responsible for tumor rejection are not known. 5T4 is a non-secreted membrane glycoprotein expressed on clear cell and papillary RCCs. A modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA encoding 5T4 was tested in combination with high-dose IL-2 to determine the safety, objective response rate and effect on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Methods 25 patients with metastatic RCC who qualified for IL-2 were eligible and received three immunizations every three weeks followed by IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg after the second and third vaccinations. Blood was collected for analysis of humoral, effector and regulatory T cell responses. Results There were no serious vaccine-related adverse events. While no objective responses were observed, three patients (12% were rendered disease-free after nephrectomy or resection of residual metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48% had stable disease which was associated with improved median overall survival compared to patients with progressive disease (not reached vs. 28 months, p = 0.0261. All patients developed 5T4-specific antibody responses and 13 patients had an increase in 5T4-specific T cell responses. Although the baseline frequency of Tregs was elevated in all patients, those with stable disease showed a trend toward increased effector CD8+ T cells and a decrease in Tregs. Conclusion Vaccination with MVA-5T4 did not improve objective response rates of IL-2 therapy but did result in stable disease associated with an increase in the ratio of 5T4-specific effector to regulatory T cells in selected patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN83977250

  4. Decreased Regulatory T Cells in Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Lesions: Imbalance between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cells in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka Rohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall in which presentation of autoantigens by dendritic cells (DCs leads to the activation of T cells. Anti-inflammatory cells like Tregs counterbalance inflammation in atherogenesis. In our study, human carotid plaque specimens were classified as stable (14 and unstable (15 according to established morphological criteria. Vessel specimens (n=12 without any signs of atherosclerosis were used as controls. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect different types of DCs (S100, fascin, CD83, CD209, CD304, and CD123, proinflammatory T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161, and anti-inflammatory Tregs (FoxP3. The following results were observed: in unstable lesions, significantly higher numbers of proinflammatory cells like DCs, T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells were detected compared to stable plaques. Additionally, there was a significantly higher expression of HLA-DR and more T cell activation (CD25, CD69 in unstable lesions. On the contrary, unstable lesions contained significantly lower numbers of Tregs. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between myeloid DCs and Tregs was shown. These data suggest an increased inflammatory state in vulnerable plaques resulting from an imbalance of the frequency of local pro- and anti-inflammatory immune cells.

  5. The role of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in liver transplant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Carper, K; Zheng, X X; Kuhr, C S; Reyes, J D; Liang, Y; Perkins, D L; Thomson, A W; Perkins, J D

    2006-12-01

    The liver has long been considered a tolerogenic organ that favors the induction of peripheral tolerance. The mechanisms underlying liver tolerogenicity remain largely undefined. In this study, we characterized Foxp3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in liver allograft recipients and examined the role of Treg in inherent liver tolerogenicity by employing the mouse spontaneous liver transplant tolerance model. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from C57BL/10 (H2b) to C3H/HeJ (H2k) mice. The percentage of CD4+ CD25+ Treg was expanded in the liver grafts and recipient spleens from day 5 up to day 100 posttransplantation, associated with high intracellular Foxp3 and CTLA4 expression. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated significant numbers of Foxp3+ cells in the liver grafts and recipient spleens and increased transforming growth factor beta expression in the recipient spleens throughout the time courses. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from the long-term liver allograft survivors significantly prolonged donor heart graft survival. Depletion of recipient CD4+ CD25+ Treg using anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (250 microg/d) induced acute liver allograft rejection, associated with elevated anti-donor T-cell proliferative responses, CTL and natural killer activities, enhanced interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma, IL-10, and decreased IL-4 production, and decreased T-cell apoptotic activity in anti-CD25-treated recipients. Moreover, CTLA4 blockade by anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody administration exacerbated liver graft rejection when combined with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody. Thus, Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25+ Treg appear to underpin spontaneous acceptance of major histocompatability complex- mismatched liver allografts in mice. CTLA4, IL-4, and apoptosis of alloreactive T cells appear to contribute to the function of Treg and regulation of graft outcome.

  6. Regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danikowski, K M; Jayaraman, S; Prabhakar, B S

    2017-06-09

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating disease of the central nervous system primarily mediated by T lymphocytes with specificity to neuronal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, myasthenia gravis (MG) primarily involves destruction of the neuromuscular junction by antibodies specific to the acetylcholine receptor. Both autoimmune diseases are thought to result from loss of self-tolerance, which allows for the development and function of autoreactive lymphocytes. Although the mechanisms underlying compromised self-tolerance in these and other autoimmune diseases have not been fully elucidated, one possibility is numerical, functional, and/or migratory deficits in T regulatory cells (Tregs). Tregs are thought to play a critical role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. It is believed that Tregs function by suppressing the effector CD4+ T cell subsets that mediate autoimmune responses. Dysregulation of suppressive and migratory markers on Tregs have been linked to the pathogenesis of both MS and MG. For example, genetic abnormalities have been found in Treg suppressive markers CTLA-4 and CD25, while others have shown a decreased expression of FoxP3 and IL-10. Furthermore, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ secreted by T effectors have been noted in MS and MG patients. This review provides several strategies of treatment which have been shown to be effective or are proposed as potential therapies to restore the function of various Treg subsets including Tr1, iTr35, nTregs, and iTregs. Strategies focusing on enhancing the Treg function find importance in cytokines TGF-β, IDO, interleukins 10, 27, and 35, and ligands Jagged-1 and OX40L. Likewise, strategies which affect Treg migration involve chemokines CCL17 and CXCL11. In pre-clinical animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), several strategies

  7. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  8. High proportion of PD-1-expressing CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue constitutes an immunomodulatory microenvironment that may support HIV persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Pourcher, Guillaume; Pourcher, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Busson, Elodie; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Le Van, Mélanie; Lazure, Thierry; Adam, Julien; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2017-12-01

    We and others have demonstrated that adipose tissue is a reservoir for HIV. Evaluation of the mechanisms responsible for viral persistence may lead to ways of reducing these reservoirs. Here, we evaluated the immune characteristics of adipose tissue in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and in non-HIV-infected patients. We notably sought to determine whether adipose tissue's intrinsic properties and/or HIV induced alteration of the tissue environment may favour viral persistence. ART-controlled HIV infection was associated with a difference in the CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio and an elevated proportion of Treg cells in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes in Th1, Th2 and Th17 cell proportions or activation markers expression on T cell (Ki-67, HLA-DR) could be detected, and the percentage of CD69-expressing resident memory CD4 + T cells was not affected. Overall, our results indicate that adipose-tissue-resident CD4 + T cells are not extensively activated during HIV infection. PD-1 was expressed by a high proportion of tissue-resident memory CD4 + T cells in both HIV-infected patients and non-HIV-infected patients. Our findings suggest that adipose tissue's intrinsic immunomodulatory properties may limit immune activation and thus may strongly contribute to viral persistence. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Adoptive regulatory T cell therapy: challenges in clinical transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safinia, Niloufar; Sagoo, Pervinder; Lechler, Robert; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2010-08-01

    The identification and characterisation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has recently opened up exciting opportunities for Treg cell therapy in transplantation. In this review, we outline the basic biology of Tregs and discuss recent advances and challenges for the identification, isolation and expansion of these cells for cell therapy. Tregs of thymic origin have been shown to be key regulators of immune responses in mice and humans, preventing autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease and organ graft rejection in the transplantation setting. To date, a variety of different methods to isolate and expand Tregs ex vivo have been advocated. Although promising, relatively few clinical trials of human Treg cell infusion have been initiated. Many key questions about Treg cell therapy still remain and here we provide an in-depth analysis and highlight the challenges and opportunities for immune intervention with Treg-based therapeutics in clinical transplantation.

  10. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; G?ttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete ...

  11. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation by modulating IL-2 homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Alice; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Sparwasser, Tim; Thomas, Ranjeny; Steptoe, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses. Although many mechanisms of Treg suppression in vitro have been described, the mechanisms by which Treg modulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and effector function in vivo are more poorly defined. It has been proposed, in many instances, that modulation of cytokine homeostasis could be an important mechanism by which Treg regulate adaptive immunity; however, direct experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate that CD4+CD25+ Treg, by critically regulating IL-2 homeostasis, modulate CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation. Expansion and effector differentiation of CD8+ T cells is promoted by autocrine IL-2 but, by competing for IL-2, Treg limit CD8+ effector differentiation. Furthermore, a regulatory loop exists between Treg and CD8+ effector T cells, where IL-2 produced during CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation promotes Treg expansion. PMID:21502514

  12. Expansion of peripheral and intratumoral regulatory T-cells in hepatocellular carcinoma: A case-control study

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    Sapna Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is notorious for poor prognosis with limited therapeutic options. A better understanding of the role of regulatory T-cells (Tregs in HCC is important for design of immunotherapy based clinical protocol. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of Tregs in tumor microenvironment in patients with HCC compared to chronic hepatitis (CH. Materials and Methods: The frequency of CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells was evaluated from peripheral blood (PB of 28 patients of HCC and 30 controls including CH cases and healthy donors using flowcytometry. Intratumoral Treg were also analyzed in tissue samples from 17 HCC cases and 15 CH cases. In addition the expression of FOXP3 and CTLA-4 was also studied by RT-PCR. Results: Frequency of CD4 + CD25 + cells in the PBMCs of HCC cases was significantly higher than in HC (10.8 ± 7.64 vs 3.05 ± 1.30, P < 0.005 and CH patients (2.88 ± 1.92, P < 0.005. Also Treg population was significantly higher in HCC tumor microenvironment compared to CH biopsies (15.8 ± 5.32 vs 5.51 ± 3.40, P < 0.05. Expression of FOXP3 and CTLA-4 was also significantly higher in HCC patients ( P < 0.05 compared to CH group. Conclusions: We provide evidence of an increased population of Treg not only in the PB but also in tumor microenvironment of HCC patients, suggesting association of enhanced Treg activity with poor immune responses to tumor antigens. These findings may in future play a significant role in designing immunotherapeutic approaches in HCC.

  13. Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Hiroto, E-mail: h-izumi@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kuma, Akihiro; Kitamura, Noriaki; Kohno, Kimitoshi [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-19

    We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143) regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), aurora kinase B (AURKB) and some minichromosome maintenance complex components (MCM). However, the doubling time of cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was approximately twice as long as its control counterpart cell line. Analysis following serum starvation and re-seeding showed that PC3 cells were synchronized at G1 in the cell cycle. Also, ZNF143 expression fluctuated, and was at its lowest level in G2/M. However, PC3 cells with forced expression of ZNF143 synchronized at G2/M, and showed lack of cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of nuclear expression of MCM proteins. Furthermore, G2/M population of both cisplatin-resistant PCDP6 cells over-expressing ZNF143 (derived from PC3 cells) and cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was significantly higher than that of each counterpart, and the doubling time of PCDP6 cells is about 2.5 times longer than that of PC3 cells. These data suggested that fluctuations in ZNF143 expression are required both for gene expression associated with cell cycle and for cell division.

  14. Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Hiroto; Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kuma, Akihiro; Kitamura, Noriaki; Kohno, Kimitoshi

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143) regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), aurora kinase B (AURKB) and some minichromosome maintenance complex components (MCM). However, the doubling time of cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was approximately twice as long as its control counterpart cell line. Analysis following serum starvation and re-seeding showed that PC3 cells were synchronized at G1 in the cell cycle. Also, ZNF143 expression fluctuated, and was at its lowest level in G2/M. However, PC3 cells with forced expression of ZNF143 synchronized at G2/M, and showed lack of cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of nuclear expression of MCM proteins. Furthermore, G2/M population of both cisplatin-resistant PCDP6 cells over-expressing ZNF143 (derived from PC3 cells) and cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was significantly higher than that of each counterpart, and the doubling time of PCDP6 cells is about 2.5 times longer than that of PC3 cells. These data suggested that fluctuations in ZNF143 expression are required both for gene expression associated with cell cycle and for cell division

  15. Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitoshi Kohno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143 regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1, aurora kinase B (AURKB and some minichromosome maintenance complex components (MCM. However, the doubling time of cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was approximately twice as long as its control counterpart cell line. Analysis following serum starvation and re-seeding showed that PC3 cells were synchronized at G1 in the cell cycle. Also, ZNF143 expression fluctuated, and was at its lowest level in G2/M. However, PC3 cells with forced expression of ZNF143 synchronized at G2/M, and showed lack of cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of nuclear expression of MCM proteins. Furthermore, G2/M population of both cisplatin-resistant PCDP6 cells over-expressing ZNF143 (derived from PC3 cells and cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was significantly higher than that of each counterpart, and the doubling time of PCDP6 cells is about 2.5 times longer than that of PC3 cells. These data suggested that fluctuations in ZNF143 expression are required both for gene expression associated with cell cycle and for cell division.

  16. TLR2/TLR4 activation induces Tregs and suppresses intestinal inflammation caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ping Jia

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs 2 and 4 play critical roles in intestinal inflammation caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum infection, but the role of TLR2/TLR4 in regulation of proinflammatory cytokines remains unknown. In this study, through microarray analysis and qRT-PCR, we showed that TLR2/TLR4 are involved in the F. nucleatum-induced inflammatory signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells, C57BL/6 mice and human clinical specimens. In TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- mice, F. nucleatum infection resulted in increased colonization of the bacteria and production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, the ratio of Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells in the total CD4+ T cells in TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- mice was less than that in wild-type mice, and the ratio in hybrid mice was more than that in knockout mice, which suggested that TLR2/TLR4 mediated the number of Tregs. Furthermore, it was observed that inflammatory cytokine levels were reduced in TLR2-/- mice after Treg transfer. Thus, these data indicate that TLR2/TLR4 regulate F. nucleatum-induced inflammatory cytokines through Tregs in vivo.

  17. Change of Peripheral Blood Treg/Thl7 in Cognitive Impairment with Chronic Renal Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the changes in peripheral blood Treg/Th17 cell balance and its significance in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF and cognitive impairment. Methods: A total of 71 patients with CRF were enrolled as a study group. The patients were divided into a cognitive impairment group and a normal cognitive function group according to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Peripheral blood Treg and Th17 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and their relevant cytokines (IL-17, IL-10 and TGF-β and other biochemical indicators, including C-reactive protein (CRP and IL-6, were determined by ELISA. Results: Thepatients with both CRF and cognitive impairment were older than the cognitive normal groups. Peripheral blood Treg cells by Flow cytometry (the CRF cognitive impairment group 5.57±1.3%, CRF group with normal cognitive function 7.5 ± 0.9% and normal control group 9.7 ± 1.7%,P<0.05 and its related cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β by ELISA detection were lower in the group with cognitive impairment than in the group without cognitive impairment ( IL-10, 7.4±4.2 pg/mL, 13.8±3.9 pg/mL, 18.3±3.2 pg/mL; TGF-β 335.6±175.3 pg/mL, 512.7 ± 114.6 pg/mL, 953.8±373.4 pg/mL P < 0.05, respectively.However, Th17 cell numbers (the CRF cognitive impairment group 3.3 ± 0.7%, CRF group with normal cognitive function2.2 ± 0.5% and normal control group 1.5 ± 0.3%,and cytokine levels (IL-17, IL-6 and CRP were higher in the group with cognitive impairment IL-6 (21.3 ± 5.1 pg/mL, IL-17 (18.5 ± 4.2 pg/mL and CRP (20.3 ± 5.9 mg/L in the CRF group with cognitive impairment when compared with the CRF group and normal cognitive function (12.2 ± 4.5 pg/mL, 12.1 ± 3.7 pg/mL and 13.5 ± 4.6 mg/L, respectively or the normal control group (9.2 ± 5.8 pg/mL, 7.4 ± 2.6 pg/mL and 3.2 ± 1.3 mg/L, respectively, P<0.05. The frequencies of Treg in patients with CRF were positively correlated with the MMSE scores ((r = 0.518, P < 0.05, but the

  18. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  19. Regulatory T cell frequencies and phenotypes following anti-viral vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, A Charlotte M T; van Aalst, Susan; Ludwig, Irene S; Bodinham, Caroline L; Lewis, David J; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) function in the prevention of excessive inflammation and maintenance of immunological homeostasis. However, these cells may also interfere with resolution of infections or with immune reactions following vaccination. Effects of Treg on vaccine responses are nowadays

  20. CD25+ B-1a Cells Express Aicda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kaku

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available B-1a cells are innate-like B-lymphocytes producing natural antibodies. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, a product of the Aicda gene, plays a central role in class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in B cells. Although a role for Aicda in B-1a cells has been suggested on the basis of experiments with knock out (KO mice, whether B-1a cells express Aicda, and if so, which B-1a cell subpopulation expresses Aicda, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that B-1 cells express Aicda, but at a level below that expressed by germinal center (GC B cells. We previously reported that B-1a cells can be subdivided based on CD25 expression. We show here that B-1a cell Aicda expression is concentrated in the CD25+ B-1a cell subpopulation. These results suggest the possibility that previous studies of memory B cells identified on the basis of Aicda expression may have inadvertently included an unknown number of CD25+ B-1a cells. Although B-1a cells develop normally in the absence of Aicda, a competitive reconstitution assay reveals enhanced vigor for AID KO B-1a cell bone marrow (BM progenitors, as compared with wild-type BM B-1 cell progenitors. These results suggest that AID inhibits the development of B-1a cells from BM B-1 cell progenitors in a competitive environment.

  1. Kaempferol Promotes Transplant Tolerance by Sustaining CD4+FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells in the Presence of Calcineurin Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y Q; Liu, X S; Wu, S; Zou, C; Xie, Q; Xu, S M; Jin, X W; Li, W; Zhou, A; Dai, Z

    2015-07-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine is widely used as an immunosuppressant in clinic. However, mounting evidence has shown that cyclosporine hinders tolerance induction by dampening Tregs. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to overcome this pitfall. Kaempferol was reported to inhibit DC function. Here, we found that kaempferol delayed islet allograft rejection. Combination of kaempferol and low-dose, but not high-dose, of cyclosporine induced allograft tolerance in majority of recipient mice. Although kaempferol plus either dose of cyclosporine largely abrogated proliferation of graft-infiltrating T cells and their CTL activity, both proliferation and CTL activity in mice treated with kaempferol plus low-dose, but not high-dose, cyclosporine reemerged rapidly upon treatment withdrawal. Kaempferol increased CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs both in transplanted mice and in vitro, likely by suppressing DC maturation and their IL-6 expression. Reduction in Tregs by low dose of cyclosporine was reversed by kaempferol. Kaempferol-induced Tregs exhibited both allospecific and non-allospecific suppression. Administering IL-6 abrogated allograft tolerance induced by kaempferol and cyclosporine via diminishing CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs. Thus, for the first time, we demonstrated that kaempferol promotes transplant tolerance in the presence of low dose of cyclosporine, which allows for sufficient Treg generation while minimizing side effects, resulting in much-needed synergy between kaempferol and cyclosporine. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Effects of exogenous IL-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Guo-Cai; Liao, De-Quan; Li, Jing; Liang, Si-Si; Wu, Xian-Jin; Xu, Jun-Fa; Chen, Yong-Hua; Di, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Qiong-Yan

    2018-02-14

    This study aims to investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T (Treg) cells. After isolating the CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells from the peripheral blood, flow cytometry was used to detect the purity of the Treg cells. A549 cells were divided into blank (no transfection), empty plasmid (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP empty plasmid) or IL-37 gr