WorldWideScience

Sample records for trap type colour

  1. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

  2. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies : colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in

  3. Relative attractiveness of colour traps to pear psylla in relation to seasonal changes in pear phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents temporal color trap preference of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) over a 24 month duration. Black, blue, brown, clear, green, orange, red, white, and yellow traps were assayed against wild psylla populations. While pear psylla had a strong prefe...

  4. A Coloured Spin Trap which works as a pH Sensor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The new compound 6 contains an acidic proton with a pKa value of 7.8, and removal of this by a base induces a colour change, from ... filtered off, washed with a small amount of acetic acid and then water, and dried. The yield was .... values were determined by means of a potentiometric titration method in a mixture of ...

  5. Study of diffusion type cold traps in liquid sodium circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, F.G.B. de.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to attain conclusions related with the work of the diffusion type cold traps. Primarily a mathematic formulation is established for a purification process, including the determination of the cold trap thermic field. With parameters obtained from the temperature field, purification characteristics were calculated allowing conclusions concerning the system's performance. (author)

  6. Observed Type II supernova colours from the Carnegie Supernova Project-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; Anderson, J. P.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Dessart, L.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of observed Type II supernova (SN II) colours using optical/near-infrared photometric data from the Carnegie Supernovae Project-I. We analyse four colours (B - V, u - g, g - r, and g - Y) and find that SN II colour curves can be described by two linear regimes during the photospheric phase. The first (s1, colour) is steeper and has a median duration of ˜40 days. The second, shallower slope (s2, colour) lasts until the end of the "plateau" (˜80 days). The two slopes correlate in the sense that steeper initial colour curves also imply steeper colour curves at later phases. As suggested by recent studies, SNe II form a continuous population of objects from the colour point of view as well. We investigate correlations between the observed colours and a range of photometric and spectroscopic parameters including the absolute magnitude, the V-band light-curve slopes, and metal-line strengths. We find that less luminous SNe II appear redder, a trend that we argue is not driven by uncorrected host-galaxy reddening. While there is significant dispersion, we find evidence that redder SNe II (mainly at early epochs) display stronger metal-line equivalent widths. Host-galaxy reddening does not appear to be a dominant parameter, neither driving observed trends nor dominating the dispersion in observed colours. Intrinsic SN II colours are most probably dominated by photospheric temperature differences, with progenitor metallicity possibly playing a minor role. Such temperature differences could be related to differences in progenitor radius, together with the presence or absence of circumstellar material close to the progenitor stars.

  7. Evaluation of the attractive effect of coloured sticky traps for Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance and its monitoring method in tea garden in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance, namely tea spiny whitefly (TSW, belongs to the family Aleyrodidae in the order Homoptera, widespread in tea trees and fruit trees in many countries or regions. In this study, the preference of TSW for different colours was evaluated in tea gardens. Yellow was the colour most preferred by TSW, followed by pink, red, white and other colours. The controlling technologies about the number of sticky traps in a certain area of tea garden and the height of sticky traps above tea canopy were also evaluated, the results indicated that the attractive effect of 20 traps/667 m2 of trials area and the height of 10 cm above tea canopy were significantly higher than others treatments. In addition, more TSW was caught at 11:00-15:00, followed by 7:00-11:00, and 15:00-19:00 in a daytime; higher activity level of male adults was at 7:00-11:00 and 11:00-15:00 in day time (95.13% and 94.97% of caught TSW, indicating a higher activity level for male adult.

  8. Tornado type closed magnetic trap for an ECR source

    CERN Document Server

    Abramova, K B; Voronin, A V; Zorin, V G

    1999-01-01

    We propose to use a Tornado type closed magnetic trap for creation of a source of mul-ticharged ions with plasma heating by microwave radiation. Plasma loss in closed traps is deter-mined by diffusion across the magnetic field, which increases substantially plasma confinement time as compared to the classical mirror trap [1]. We propose to extract ions with the aid of additional coils which partially destroy the closed structure of the magnetic lines in the trap, but don not influence the total confinement time. This allows for producing a controlled plasma flux that depends on the magnetic field of the additional coil. The Tornado trap also possesses merits such as an opportunity to produce high magnetic fields up to 3 T, which makes possible heating and confinement of plasma with a high density of electrons; plasma stability to magneto-hydrodynamic perturbations because the magnetic field structure corresponds to the "min B" configuration; and relatively low costs. All estimates and calculations were carrie...

  9. Colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Lu; Sun, Wen-Tian; Liao, Wen; Lu, Wen-Xin; Li, Qi-Wen; Jeong, Yunho; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Zhi-He

    2016-12-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. The colour changes (ΔE*) were calculated on the basis of the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage L*a*b* colour system (CIE L*a*b*), and the results were then converted into National Bureau of Standards (NBS) units. Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to observe the molecular and morphologic alterations to the aligner surfaces, respectively. The three types of aligners exhibited slight colour changes after 12 h of staining, with the exception of the Invisalign aligners stained with coffee. The Invisalign aligners exhibited significantly higher ΔE* values (ranging from 0.30 to 27.81) than those of the Angelalign and Smartee aligners (ΔE* values ranging from 0.33 to 1.89 and 0.32 to 1.61, respectively, Paligners did not exhibit significant chemical differences before and after the immersions. The SEM results revealed different surface alterations to the three types of aligner materials after the 7-day staining. The three types of aesthetic orthodontic appliances exhibited colour stability after the 12-h immersion, with the exception of the Invisalign aligners stained by coffee. The Invisalign aligners were more prone than the Angelalign and Smartee aligners to pigmentation. Aligner materials may be improved by considering aesthetic colour stability properties.

  10. Research Notes Patterns of thorn length, density, type and colour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Notes Patterns of thorn length, density, type and colour in African Acacias. JJ Midgley, MA Botha, D Balfour. Abstract. In Acacia no trade-off occurs between thorn length and thorn density and no correlation exists between thorn length and leaf length. By relating thorn length and density to leaf length it is clear that ...

  11. Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink | Liu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink. Z Liu, F Ning, Z Du, C Yang, J Fu, X Wang, X Bai. Abstract. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the growth curve parameters for live weight of standard black, brown, mahogany, Hedlund white and sapphire minks. The data were collected from five ...

  12. The ATLAS3D project - XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Lisa M.; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the cold gas contents of the ATLAS3D early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-ultraviolet colours and Hβ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas poor as previously thought, and at least 40 per cent of

  13. Colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Lu; Sun, Wen-Tian; Liao, Wen; Lu, Wen-Xin; Li, Qi-Wen; Jeong, Yunho; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Zhi-He

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. Th...

  14. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years.

  15. Influence of colour type and previous cultivation on secondary metabolites in hypocotyls and leaves of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Céline; Diaz Grados, Diego A; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ihklas A; Mayer, Andrea C; Ponce Aguirre, Dante D; Manrique, Ivan; Kreuzer, Michael

    2010-04-15

    Maca is an Andean crop of the Brassicaceae family which is mainly known for its fertility-enhancing properties following consumption. The hypocotyls display various colours ranging from white to black. Each colour has different biological effects. The aim of this study was to analyse the concentrations of major secondary metabolites in hypocotyls and leaves of maca in a controlled planting experiment in the Peruvian Andes at 4130 m above sea level. The effects of colour type and of previous cultivation of the field were examined. In the hypocotyls, the colour type effect was significant for most secondary metabolites; exceptions were beta-sitosterol and campesterol. The lead-coloured, yellow and violet maca hypocotyls were rich in glucosinolates, macaene and macamides, respectively. Previous cultivation affected macaene, campesterol and indole glucosinolate concentrations. Effects on metabolite concentrations in the leaves were minor. Hypocotyls were richer in macaene, macamides and glucosinolates than were leaves, and were poorer in beta-sitosterol and total phenols. Colour type has to be considered in maca production, as colour associates with variations in concentrations of distinct bioactive metabolites. Leaves may be interesting for animal nutrition purposes as they contain essentially the same secondary metabolites as the hypocotyls but in clearly lower concentrations. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Colour spectrum and resin-type determine the concentration and composition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisner, Mara; Majer, Alessandra; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia; Turra, Alexander; Gorman, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    This study assessed the concentration and composition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets, collected from sandy beaches and considered different resin and colour tones. Results showed that polyethylene pellets, while displaying a greater range of total PAH concentrations did not differ significantly from polypropylene pellets. More importantly, both resin types demonstrated predictable increases in total PAH across a spectrum of darkening colour tones. Multivariate comparisons of 36 PAH groups, further showed considerable variability across resin type and colour, with lighter coloured pellets comprising lower molecular weight, while darker pellets contained higher weight PAHs. Overall, we show predictable variation in PAH concentrations and compositions of plastic pellets of different ages and resin types that will directly influence the potential for toxicological effects. Our findings suggest that monitoring programs should take these attributes into account when assessing the environmental risks of microplastic contamination of marine and coastal habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Colour discrimination thresholds in type 1 Bipolar Disorder: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Thiago Monteiro Paiva; Andrade, Suellen Marinho; de Andrade, Michael Jackson Oliveira; Nogueira, Renata Maria Toscano Barreto Lyra; Santos, Natanael Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Although some studies have reported perceptual changes in psychosis, no definitive conclusions have been drawn about visual disturbances that are related to bipolar disorder (BPD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate colour vision in BPD patients. Data were recorded from 24 participants: healthy control group (n = 12) and type 1 BPD group (n = 12). The participants were 20–45 years old and they were free from neurological disorders and identifiable ocular disease and had normal o...

  18. Classification of different types of beer according to their colour characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Kr T.; Gabrova, R.; Boyadzhiev, D.; Pisanova, E. S.; Ruseva, J.; Yanakiev, D.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-two samples from different beers have been investigated in two colour systems - XYZ and SIELab - and have been characterised according to their colour parameters. The goals of the current study were to conduct correlation and discriminant analysis and to find the inner relation between the studied indices. K-means cluster has been used to compare and group the tested types of beer based on their similarity. To apply the K-Cluster analysis it is required that the number of clusters be determined in advance. The variant K = 4 was worked out. The first cluster unified all bright beers, the second one contained samples with fruits, the third one contained samples with addition of lemon, the fourth unified the samples of dark beers. By applying the discriminant analysis it is possible to help selections in the establishment of the type of beer. The proposed model correctly describes the types of beer on the Bulgarian market and it can be used for determining the affiliation of the beer which is not used in obtained model. One sample has been chosen from each cluster and the digital image has been obtained. It confirms the color parameters in the color system XYZ and SIELab. These facts can be used for elaboration for express estimation of beer by color.

  19. Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F

    2013-03-01

    Using a ternary sex pheromone blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate], we tested the effect of dispenser type and trap design for capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in apple orchards in West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. Wing-style sticky traps baited with polyethylene vial pheromone dispensers captured more male DWB over the first 2 months than traps baited with rubber septum pheromone dispensers. However, catches in vial-baited traps decreased considerably after the first 2 months, possibly due to the antagonistic effect of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy acetophenone that diffused from the polyethylene vials. By contrast, traps baited with rubber septum dispensers captured DWB males for at least 6 months; over the last four months of the flight season, catches in traps baited with a rubber septum were greater than those in traps baited with a vial dispenser. Therefore, the rubber septum dispenser is recommended for season-long monitoring of DWB. A release-rate study, using laboratory and field-aged dispensers, demonstrated that desorption of DWB sex pheromone from polyethylene vial or rubber septum dispensers followed first order kinetics, with half-lives of 1.6 and 10.7 months, respectively. Several trap designs, including wing-and delta-style sticky traps, and white and green "bucket-style" traps, baited with rubber septum dispensers were compared in commercial apple orchards for catch of DWB. Bucket traps caught more moths when moth populations were high, because the sticky surfaces of the 1C and delta traps likely became saturated. However, among the commercially available traps tested, no particular design gave consistently higher catches. Further work is needed to explore capture mechanisms and maintenance needs of different trap types.

  20. Squid traps are a small type of fishing gear, but they represent one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Cephalopod Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution. Payne, A. I. L., Lipinski, M. R., Clarke, M. R. and M. A. C. Roeleveld (Eds). S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 20: 285–291. 1998. 285. TRAP FISHERIES FOR SQUID AND THEIR IMPACT ON SPAWNING. C. CHOTIYAPUTTA* and A. YAMRUNGREUNG*. The squid trap is an artisanal type of ...

  1. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities.

  2. Effect of Pre-Drying and Hydrocolloid Type on Colour and Textural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pre-drying and coating on colour and texture of yam chips were investigated. The colour parameters studied were lightness index (L*), hue angle (h) and browning index (BI). Peak force (PF) of penetration was observed for texture. Coating pick-up (amount of coating adhering to the samples) prior to frying was ...

  3. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : VI. Colour gradients in giant and dwarf early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, Marc; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    Using deep, high-spatial-resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we determine colour profiles of early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. From 176 galaxies brighter than M-F814W(AB) = -15 mag that are either

  4. DFT+U study of self-trapping, trapping, and mobility of oxygen-type hole polarons in barium stannate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneste, Grégory; Amadon, Bernard; Torrent, Marc; Dezanneau, Guilhem

    2017-10-01

    The charge-transfer insulating perovskite oxides currently used as fuel cell electrolytes undergo, at high temperature, an oxidation reaction 1/2 O2(g ) +VO••→OOX+2 h• , that produces oxygen-type holes. Understanding the nature and mobility of these oxygen-type holes is an important step to improve the performance of devices, but presents a theoretical challenge since, in their localized form, they cannot be captured by standard density functional theory. Here, we employ the DFT+U formalism with a Hubbard correction on the p orbitals of oxygen to investigate several properties of these holes, in the particular case of BaSnO3. We describe the small oxygen-type hole polarons, the self-trapping at their origin, and their trapping by trivalent dopants (Ga, Sc, In, Lu, Y, Gd, La). Strong similarities with protonic defects are observed concerning the evolution of the trapping energy with ionic radius of the dopant. Moreover, we show that long-range diffusion of holes is a complex phenomenon, that proceeds by a succession of several mechanisms. However, the standard implementation of DFT+U within the projector augmented-wave (PAW) formalism leads to use very large, unphysical values of U for the O-p orbital. We propose here a slightly modified DFT+U scheme, that takes into account the fact that the O-p is truncated in usual DFT+U implementation in PAW. This scheme yields more physical values of U than the ones traditionally used in the literature, and describes well the properties of the hole polaron.

  5. The influence of slope and peatland vegetation type on riverine dissolved organic carbon and water colour at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, L E; Chapman, P J; Palmer, S M; Wallage, Z E; Wynne, H; Holden, J

    2015-09-15

    Peatlands are important sources of fluvial carbon. Previous research has shown that riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are largely controlled by soil type. However, there has been little work to establish the controls of riverine DOC within blanket peatlands that have not undergone major disturbance from drainage or burning. A total of 119 peatland catchments were sampled for riverine DOC and water colour across three drainage basins during six repeated sampling campaigns. The topographic characteristics of each catchment were determined from digital elevation models. The dominant vegetation cover was mapped using 0.5m resolution colour infrared aerial images, with ground-truthed validation revealing 82% accuracy. Forward and backward stepwise regression modelling showed that mean slope was a strong (and negative) determinant of DOC and water colour in blanket peatland river waters. There was a weak role for plant functional type in determining DOC and water colour. At the basin scale, there were major differences between the models depending on the basin. The dominance of topographic predictors of DOC found in our study, combined with a weaker role of vegetation type, paves the way for developing improved planning tools for water companies operating in peatland catchments. Using topographic data and aerial imagery it will be possible to predict which tributaries will typically yield lower DOC concentrations and which are therefore more suitable and cost-effective as raw water intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Colour Stability of Various Types of Acrylic Teeth Exposed to Coffee, Tea and Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Mousavi; S, Narimani; S, Hekmatfar; K, Jafari

    2016-12-01

    Acrylic teeth of dentures are prone to discoloration due to frequent exposure to different colouring solutions in the oral environment. Thus, in order to maintain their aesthetic appearance, they must possess high colour stability while exposed to colorant solutions. To compare the colour stability of three different brands of acrylic teeth following immersion in coffee, tea and cola. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 90 acrylic teeth in three groups (n = 30) of Ivoclar (Italy), PolyDent (Slovenia) and Apple (Iran). The teeth were immersed in coffee, cola and tea for one, three and six weeks (the teeth were not in contact with each other). Colour parameters were assessed before and after immersion using a spectrophotometer, and overall change in colour parameters was calculated. The overall colour change (ΔE) of the three groups at different time points was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Tukey's test. Coffee caused the greatest colour change in Apple acrylic teeth after six weeks (mean ΔE of 4.6 for coffee and 3.4 for tea and cola). Tea caused an almost equal colour change in the three groups. The greatest colour change in the Ivoclar teeth occurred in cola after six weeks (mean ΔE of 3.3, 3.4 and 2.8 for cola, tea and coffee, respectively). The greatest ΔE occurred at six weeks and was the highest in Apple, followed by PolyDent and then Ivoclar teeth in coffee (mean ΔE of 4.6, 3.4 and 3.3, respectively p acrylic teeth clinically.

  7. Colour Stability of Various Types of Acrylic Teeth Exposed to Coffee, Tea and Cola

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Mousavi; S, Narimani; S, Hekmatfar; K, Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Acrylic teeth of dentures are prone to discoloration due to frequent exposure to different colouring solutions in the oral environment. Thus, in order to maintain their aesthetic appearance, they must possess high colour stability while exposed to colorant solutions. Objectives: To compare the colour stability of three different brands of acrylic teeth following immersion in coffee, tea and cola. Materials and Methods: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 90 acrylic teeth in three groups (n = 30) of Ivoclar (Italy), PolyDent (Slovenia) and Apple (Iran). The teeth were immersed in coffee, cola and tea for one, three and six weeks (the teeth were not in contact with each other). Colour parameters were assessed before and after immersion using a spectrophotometer, and overall change in colour parameters was calculated. The overall colour change (ΔE) of the three groups at different time points was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Tukey’s test. Results: Coffee caused the greatest colour change in Apple acrylic teeth after six weeks (mean ΔE of 4.6 for coffee and 3.4 for tea and cola). Tea caused an almost equal colour change in the three groups. The greatest colour change in the Ivoclar teeth occurred in cola after six weeks (mean ΔE of 3.3, 3.4 and 2.8 for cola, tea and coffee, respectively). The greatest ΔE occurred at six weeks and was the highest in Apple, followed by PolyDent and then Ivoclar teeth in coffee (mean ΔE of 4.6, 3.4 and 3.3, respectively p acrylic teeth clinically. PMID:28959762

  8. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...

  9. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... carcinoma and 174 matched controls, and 168 cases with cutaneous malignant melanoma and 176 matched controls. Controls were matched on age, gender and place of residence. Subjects indicated their hair colour before 7 years of age, and at 25 years of age and their skin phototype. Interviewers assessed...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...

  10. Use of conjoint analysis to determine the impact of logotype colour, and the type, duration and price of a street performance on consumer purchase decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Piko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to determine how colour impacts the effectiveness of a logotype for a particular activity and which colour used is strong, stable, associative and “playful”, and thus the most appropriate for presenting a selected activity. For the purpose of this research, a logotype for a circus artist was designed using four colour variations, while conjoint analysis was used to identify the colour preference of a specific logotype. Besides colour, three additional attributes were chosen: the type, duration and price of a performance. Three or four levels were specified for every attribute. The results of the survey showed that colour is the not the most important of the four attributes, but that it does have a certain effect on a customer’s decision. In the analysis, most respondents choose the red logotype, an outdoor performance, and the longest duration and the lowest price of a performance. The most important of the four attributes for respondents was the price of a performance, followed by the duration of a performance, the content/type of a performance and finally the colour of the associated logotype. The preference of respondents was improved by testing combinations of the four attributes and levels, where the colour blue was replaced with red. The research opens possibilities for further research regarding the impact of colours on subconscious decisions.

  11. Almond seed wasp (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) sex pheromone: effect of trap type, trap position, blend ratio and time of the day on male attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, C G; Kavallieratos, N G; Mazomenos, B E

    2008-12-01

    Field trials were carried out in order to evaluate some of the factors affecting male response of the almond seed wasp, Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein, to traps baited with the alkadienes (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene and (Z,Z)-6,9-pentacosadiene, the male attractant of this species. The trials were conducted in Latomia, Microthivae, Kanalia and Sykourion (Thessaly, Central Greece) during the 2004 growing season. In all regions, captures in traps baited with a 7:3 ratio of the above blend significantly and positively correlated with male emergence from infested almonds that had been placed in cages in the experimental fields. Traps baited with the 7:3 pheromone ratio were significantly more effective in capturing males than traps baited with the 1:1 ratio, supporting the hypothesis that (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene is the main component of this attractant. Of four trap types tested, Rebel and Lasiotraps attracted significantly more males than Delta and Funnel traps. Height had no effect on trap efficiency; however, males were captured earlier in the day in traps placed 2.3 m above grown than in traps placed 1.3 m above grown. Most male activity was recorded between 10 and 12 h, but captures were continuously recorded during the entire monitoring interval from 6 to 17 h.

  12. Is colour cognitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  13. Children’s preferences for gender-typed objects and colours: a commentary from gender research in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navarro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to examine international research on children’s preferences regarding gender-typed objects and colours. Firstly, we provide the theoretical background on gender development to elucidate the ways in which individuals can learn gender stereotypes and develop gender-related preferences. Secondly, we review international research on gender-related preferences. Thirdly, we analyse empirical studies on gender stereotypes in children conducted in Spain and Latin American countries, and show that although gender is a priority research area in these countries, studies on gender development in childhood are lacking. Thus, our aim was to identify a set of issues that provide insights into the development of gender-typed preferences, and that also suggest new directions for researchers in Spanish-speaking countries who are interested in clarifying the relationship between gender and children’s preferences for objects and colours.

  14. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Marlen Degener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L. abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT and BG-Sentinel (BGS traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship. For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship. The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus.

  15. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira de; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship). For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship). The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus.

  16. [Evaluation of colour vision according to type of implanted artificial foldable intraocular lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of research was comparing the colour vision of patients with blue light filtering artificial lens to the patients with implant without blue light filter. 99 patients (120 eyes) divided on three groups were examined. 40 patients (40 eyes) after cataract surgery with implantation of blue light filtering lens were the first group. 39 patients (40 eyes) who had implanted lens without filter were the second group. 20 patients (40 eyes) with own transparent lens were the third group. Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test was used in research. Each patient made test on thirtieth day after cataract surgery. Following average total error score (TES) values in groups were observed: the first group--60.66, the second group--83.71, the third group--61.55. Average axis of disorder in blue-yellow range was following: patients after cataract surgery with implantation of blue light filtering lens--5.48, patients with implant without blue light filter--7.28, control group--5.74. 1. Kind of artificial intraocular lens has meaning in colour vision at pseudophakic patients. 2. Blue light filter of artificial intraocular foldable lens advantageously effects perception of colours. 3. Lack of blue light filter in artificial intraocular lens gets worse colour vision especially in blue-yellow range.

  17. Efficiency of small mammal trapping in an Atlantic Forest fragmented landscape: the effects of trap type and position, seasonality and habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALM Vieira

    Full Text Available Trapping methods can strongly influence the sampling of mammal communities. This study compared the efficiency of the capture of small mammals in Sherman traps in two positions (at ground level and in trees and pitfall traps in a fragmented landscape. Trapping sessions were carried out between October 2008 and October 2009 at two fragments (8 and 17 ha, an agroforest corridor between them, and the adjacent pasture. A total effort of 4622 trap-nights resulted in 155 captures of 137 individuals from six species. Pitfalls had greater success (4.03%, followed by Shermans on the ground (2.98% and on trees (2.37%; χ2= 6.50, p = 0.04. Five species were caught in Sherman ground traps, four in pitfalls and just two on trees. There was no difference among trap types for marsupials (χ2 = 4.75; p = 0.09, while for rodents, pitfalls were more efficient than Shermans on the ground (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.02. As a result, the efficiency of each trap type differed among habitats, due to differences in their species composition. Pitfalls were more efficient in the rainy season (Fisher's exact test, p <0.0001 while Shermans on trees were more efficient in the dry season (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.009. There was no difference between seasons for Shermans on the ground (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.76. Considering the results found, we recommend that future studies of forest mammal communities, particularly those designed to test the effects of forest fragmentation, include combinations of different trap types.

  18. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  19. A study of ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold traps are studied. It is known that the temperature profile along axial direction (x) of the trap must follow the condition (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 , in order to avoid crystals deposition on the wall and the consequent premature plugging. In the present work it is showed that (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 condition is necessary but not sufficient. A temperature profile which satisfies both conditions is found and its practical obtention is presented. (L.C.J.A.)

  20. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  1. The Effect of the Type and Colour of Placebo Stimuli on Placebo Effects Induced by Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świder, Karolina; Bąbel, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia can be induced through observational learning. Our aim was to replicate and extend these results by studying the influence of the type and colour of stimuli used as placebos on the placebo effects induced by observational learning. Three experimental and two control groups were tested. All participants received pain stimuli of the same intensity preceded by colour lights (green and red) or geometric shapes (circles and squares). Before receiving pain stimuli, participants in the experimental groups, but not in the control groups, observed a model who rated pain stimuli that were preceded by either green lights (green placebo group), red lights (red placebo group), or circles (circle placebo group) as being less painful than those preceded by either red lights (green placebo group), green lights (red placebo group), or squares (circle placebo group). As a result participants in the experimental groups rated pain stimuli preceded by either green lights (green placebo group), red lights (red placebo group), or circles (circle placebo group) as being less painful than the participants in the control groups did, indicating that placebo effect was induced. No statistically significant differences were found in the magnitudes of the placebo effects between the three experimental groups (green placebo, red placebo, and circle placebo groups), indicating that neither the type nor the colour of placebo stimuli affected the placebo effects induced by observational learning. The placebo effects induced by observational learning were found to be unrelated to the individual differences in pain anxiety, fear of pain, and empathy. PMID:27362552

  2. Effects of habitat type and trap placement on captures of bark (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and longhorned (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) beetles in semiochemical-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of habitat selection and trap placement on catches of Scolytidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern U.S. forests. In a nonreplicated case study, four habitat types--closed canopy hardwood stand, closed canopy conifer stand, a low-intensity thinned Pinus strobus L. stand, and a high-intensity thinned P. strobus stand--were surveyed using alpha-pinene, ethanol, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and lanierone. Average trap catches, species richness, and the number of unique species captured were all highest in at least one of the thinned habitats. A second experiment that was replicated evaluated the placement of traps in relation to habitat patches. Semiochemical-baited traps (alpha-pinene and ethanol) were placed under a closed canopy forest, along an edge, and in a clearing and tested for effects on Scolytidae and Cerambycidae trap catches. Abundance and species richness were generally higher in the closed canopy and edge placements compared with traps in the open area. The highest number of unique species were captured in the edge and clearing.

  3. Forces of vortice trapping and critical current in type II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormio, C.

    1985-12-01

    The vortice-centers interactions of trapping in type II superconductor materials were studied by two theories: thermodynamic (Hampshire-Taylor) and microscopic (Larkin - Ovchinnikov). The study was applied to NbTi with composition of 50% weight of Ti. They are commercial cables containing 361 filaments with final diameter of 0.35 mm for the wire and 9.2 μm foi filaments. The material presents high deformation rate in area and high density of dislocations. These defects actuate as centers of trapping. Variations in themomechanical treatments of superconductor cables modify the interaction mechanisms. The specific mechanism for each treatment type was identified. Measurements of critical current density in function of magnetic field in the range from 1 to 7 Tesla were done, which the usual superconductor parameters as upper critical field and Ginzburg - Landau (Kappa-k) parameter are estimated from literature data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Emission spectrum of a harmonically trapped Λ-type three-level atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hong; Tang Pei

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the emission spectrum for a Λ-type three-level atom trapped in the node of a standing wave. We show that the atomic center-of-mass motion not only directly affects the peak number, peak position, and peak height in the atomic emission spectrum, but also influences the effects of the cavity field and the atomic initial state on atomic emission spectrum. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    carcinoma and 174 matched controls, and 168 cases with cutaneous malignant melanoma and 176 matched controls. Controls were matched on age, gender and place of residence. Subjects indicated their hair colour before 7 years of age, and at 25 years of age and their skin phototype. Interviewers assessed...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  6. Critical experiment on a flux-trap-type hafnium control blade for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Tanzawa, T.; Yoshioka, R.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbide has been utilized as a neutron absorber in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and other types of reactors. It has a number of advantages, yet is not well suited for very high neutron exposure. An alternative long-lived control blade has therefore been sought. It is well known that hafnium may be best suited for this purpose, yet it has the disadvantage of heavy weight and low reactivity worth. This has been overcome by introducing a flux-trap-type all-hafnium control blade for BWRs. The blades are now involved in licensing procedures in some Japanese BWR plants

  7. Do type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy or subjects with impaired fasting glucose have impaired colour vision? The Okubo Color Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, T; Sakurai, Y; Sato, H; Chihara, E; Takeuchi, M

    2011-07-01

    To investigate associations between fasting plasma glucose level and the prevalence of acquired colour vision impairment in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy. Participants in this cross-sectional study of male officials aged 20-60 yr in the Japanese Self Defence Force, underwent colour vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel and Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates Part 2 were used to examine colour vision. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define acquired colour vision impairment. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined from serum blood samples, physical records and an interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, diagnosed hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cataract, glaucoma, being overweight, smoking status and alcohol intake. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for three glucose levels, which included normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. Out of a total of 1042 men enrolled, 872 were eligible for the study, and 31 were diagnosed with acquired colour vision impairment. As compared with the subjects with normal fasting glucose (colour vision impairment was 0.93 (95% CI 0.32-2.74) for the subjects with impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol/l) and 8.07 (95% CI 2.48-26.22) for the patients with type 2 diabetes. The multiple-adjusted odds ratios were 0.77 (95% CI 0.25-2.34) for the subjects with impaired fasting glucose and 5.89 (95% CI 1.55-22.40) for the patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest that there is a dramatically increased prevalence of acquired colour vision impairment in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy which might be attributable to another pathogenesis associated with diabetic retinopathy. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  8. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  9. Applying colour science in colour design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2006-06-01

    Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

  10. Colour Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... Technology picked up color study on a serious level and because of that we now have the glowing .... on necessary concepts and theories of colour gleaned from the fields of physics, physiology, and ..... The way our body reacts to colour and light is another important subject the artist and designer should ...

  11. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term ‘insect biometrics’ in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency. PMID:26544845

  12. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    Full Text Available Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann, Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  13. Effect of trap design, bait type, and age on captures of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Lindsy E; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2014-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (with and without a yellow visual stimulus or odorless dish detergent) and the fifth treatment was a Pherocon AM yellow sticky card trap. Cup traps were baited with 150 ml of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and the Pherocon AM trap had a 7.4-ml glass vial containing ACV. In 2013, the Pherocon AM yellow sticky card was omitted because of low spotted wing drosophila captures in 2012. The four treatments evaluated were four 1-liter cup traps with and without a yellow visual stimulus. One cup trap (with a yellow stimulus) was baited with yeast + sugar in place of ACV and the other cup traps were baited with ACV. In both years, there were no differences in spotted wing drosophila captures among cup traps baited with ACV with and without yellow visual stimulus. However, the cup trap baited with yeast + sugar and yellow visual stimulus captured more spotted wing drosophila than the ACV-baited cup traps irrespective of visual stimulus or detergent. In another study, four baits including 1) ACV, 2) yeast + sugar mixture, 3) yeast + flour mixture (yeast, sugar, water, whole wheat flour, and ACV), and 4) wine + vinegar mixture (rice vinegar and merlot wine) were evaluated in a commercial blueberry planting using 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (as described above). The experiment was repeated in wild blackberries but the yeast + flour bait was replaced with ACV + merlot wine + sugar. Results indicated that the two yeast baits captured significantly more spotted wing drosophila and more nontarget organisms than the vinegar baits. In the final study, although we found that the attraction of ACV and

  14. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  15. Experimental study on the efficiency of different types of traps and baits for harvesting Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Bentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is a freshwater prawn endemic to South America with wide distribution in Brazilian Amazon rivers. In estuary and freshwater streams of the Pará State, they are captured with different types of traps locally know matapi. This study evaluated the efficiency of traps of different sizes (large, medium and small and baits (babassu coconut and fish for sampling this shrimp. Samplings were conducted with 24 traps with different treatments (trap size and bait. We captured 909 specimens. Higher mean catches were observed in traps baited with babassu coconut. Interactions between babassu coconut bait and medium matapi (BM-M, and fish bait and large matapi (FISH-L were significant. Carapace length (CL varied significantly between sites (F = 12.74, p < 0.01. The total maximum length was13.65 cm. Medium traps baited with babassu coconut were the most successful in the tested combinations, however, there was a clear correlation between size trap and size of shrimp, for both body weight and carapace length.

  16. luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present paper reports the correlation between deformation bleaching of coloration and mechanoluminescence (ML) in coloured alkali halide crystals. When the F-centre electrons captured by moving dislocations are picked up by holes, deep traps and other compatible traps, then deformation bleaching occurs.

  17. A novel technique to determine the cell type specific response within an in vitro co-culture model via multi-colour flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Martin J D; Fytianos, Kleanthis; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Hočevar, Sandra; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2017-03-27

    Determination of the cell type specific response is essential towards understanding the cellular mechanisms associated with disease states as well as assessing cell-based targeting of effective therapeutic agents. Recently, there have been increased calls for advanced in vitro multi-cellular models that provide reliable and valuable tools correlative to in vivo. In this pursuit the ability to assess the cell type specific response is imperative. Herein, we report a novel approach towards resolving each specific cell type of a multi-cellular model representing the human lung epithelial tissue barrier via multi-colour flow cytometry (FACS). We proved via ≤ five-colour FACS that the manipulation of this in vitro model allowed each cell type to be resolved with no impact upon cell viability. Subsequently, four-colour FACS verified the ability to determine the biochemical effect (e.g. oxidative stress) of each specific cell type. This technique will be vital in gaining information upon cellular mechanics when using next-level, multi-cellular in vitro strategies.

  18. MOHOS-type memory performance using HfO2 nanoparticles as charge trapping layer and low temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Joel; Ortega, Rafael; Calleja, Wilfrido; Rosales, Pedro; Zuniga, Carlos; Torres, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HfO 2 nanoparticles used as charge trapping layer in MOHOS memory devices. ► Increasing HfO 2 nanoparticles concentration enhances charge injection and trapping. ► Enhancement of memory performance with low temperature annealing. ► Charge injection is done without using any hot-carrier injection mechanism. ► Using injected charge density is better for comparison of scaled memory devices. - Abstract: In this work, HfO 2 nanoparticles (np-HfO 2 ) are embedded within a spin-on glass (SOG)-based oxide matrix and used as a charge trapping layer in metal–oxide–high-k–oxide–silicon (MOHOS)-type memory applications. This charge trapping layer is obtained by a simple sol–gel spin coating method after using different concentrations of np-HfO 2 and low temperature annealing (down to 425 °C) in order to obtain charge–retention characteristics with a lower thermal budget. The memory's charge trapping characteristics are quantized by measuring both the flat-band voltage shift of MOHOS capacitors (writing/erasing operations) and their programming retention times after charge injection while correlating all these data to np-HfO 2 concentration and annealing temperature. Since a large memory window has been obtained for our MOHOS memory, the relatively easy injection/annihilation (writing/erasing) of charge injected through the substrate opens the possibility to use this material as an effective charge trapping layer. It is shown that by using lower annealing temperatures for the charge trapping layer, higher densities of injected charge are obtained along with enhanced retention times. In conclusion, by using np-HfO 2 as charge trapping layer in memory devices, moderate programming and retention characteristics have been obtained by this simple and yet low-cost spin-coating method.

  19. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  20. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; Therese M. Poland; Steven J. Pierce; Su Zie. Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of...

  1. Colour perception in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, T.; Ruppert, S; Tannock, R.; Albrecht, B.; Becker, A.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Rothenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour

  2. The effects of age, viewing distance, display type, font type, colour contrast and number of syllables on the legibility of Korean characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Lee, Inseok; Jung, Myung-Chul; Song, Young-Woong

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of age (20s and 60s), viewing distance (50 cm, 200 cm), display type (paper, monitor), font type (Gothic, Ming), colour contrast (black letters on white background, white letters on black background) and number of syllables (one, two) on the legibility of Korean characters by using the four legibility measures (minimum letter size for 100% correctness, maximum letter size for 0% correctness, minimum letter size for the least discomfort and maximum letter size for the most discomfort). Ten subjects in each age group read the four letters presented on a slide (letter size varied from 80 pt to 2 pt). Subjects also subjectively rated the reading discomfort of the letters on a 4-point scale (1 = no discomfort, 4 = most discomfort). According to the ANOVA procedure, age, viewing distance and font type significantly affected the four dependent variables (p Gothic fonts were smaller than the Ming fonts. Monitors were smaller than paper for correctness and maximum letter size for the most discomfort. From a comparison of the results for correctness and discomfort, people generally preferred larger letter sizes to those that they could read. The findings of this study may provide basic information for setting a global standard of letter size or font type to improve the legibility of characters written in Korean. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Results obtained in this study will provide basic information and guidelines for setting standards of letter size and font type to improve the legibility of characters written in Korean. Also, the results might offer useful information for people who are working on design of visual displays.

  3. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.

  4. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  5. Testing the consistency of wildlife data types before combining them: the case of camera traps and telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Viorel D; Valpine, Perry; Sweitzer, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    Wildlife data gathered by different monitoring techniques are often combined to estimate animal density. However, methods to check whether different types of data provide consistent information (i.e., can information from one data type be used to predict responses in the other?) before combining them are lacking. We used generalized linear models and generalized linear mixed-effects models to relate camera trap probabilities for marked animals to independent space use from telemetry relocations using 2 years of data for fishers (Pekania pennanti) as a case study. We evaluated (1) camera trap efficacy by estimating how camera detection probabilities are related to nearby telemetry relocations and (2) whether home range utilization density estimated from telemetry data adequately predicts camera detection probabilities, which would indicate consistency of the two data types. The number of telemetry relocations within 250 and 500 m from camera traps predicted detection probability well. For the same number of relocations, females were more likely to be detected during the first year. During the second year, all fishers were more likely to be detected during the fall/winter season. Models predicting camera detection probability and photo counts solely from telemetry utilization density had the best or nearly best Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), suggesting that telemetry and camera traps provide consistent information on space use. Given the same utilization density, males were more likely to be photo-captured due to larger home ranges and higher movement rates. Although methods that combine data types (spatially explicit capture-recapture) make simple assumptions about home range shapes, it is reasonable to conclude that in our case, camera trap data do reflect space use in a manner consistent with telemetry data. However, differences between the 2 years of data suggest that camera efficacy is not fully consistent across ecological conditions and make the case

  6. Weierstrass Type Representation for Marginally Trapped Surfaces in Minkowski 4-Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huili

    2013-01-01

    Directly using the complex function theory and differential equation theory, we give a kind of Weierstrass representation formula for spacelike surfaces, especially, marginally trapped surfaces in 4-dimensional Minkowski space E 4 1 .

  7. Use of conjoint analysis to determine the impact of logotype colour, and the type, duration and price of a street performance on consumer purchase decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Piko; Jani Toros; Urška Stankovič Elesini

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our research was to determine how colour impacts the effectiveness of a logotype for a particular activity and which colour used is strong, stable, associative and “playful”, and thus the most appropriate for presenting a selected activity. For the purpose of this research, a logotype for a circus artist was designed using four colour variations, while conjoint analysis was used to identify the colour preference of a specific logotype. Besides colour, three additional attributes we...

  8. Colour Your Managerial Type, Colour Your Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessem, Ronnie; Baruch, Yehuda

    1999-01-01

    Spectral Management Theory describes eight management styles in terms of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics: innovator, developer, analyzer, enterprising, manager of change, people manager, action manager, and adoptive manager. It incorporates multiple intelligences theory and can be applied to managing across cultures. (SK)

  9. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) prefer similar colours of higher spectral purity over trained colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Papiorek, Sarah; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Differences in the concentration of pigments as well as their composition and spatial arrangement cause intraspecific variation in the spectral signature of flowers. Known colour preferences and requirements for flower-constant foraging bees predict different responses to colour variability. In experimental settings, we simulated small variations of unicoloured petals and variations in the spatial arrangement of colours within tricoloured petals using artificial flowers and studied their impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Workers were trained to artificial flowers of a given colour and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours: either the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher spectral purity, or the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher dominant wavelength; in all cases the perceptual contrast between the training colour and the additional test colours was similarly small. Bees preferred artificial test flowers which resembled the training colour with the exception that they preferred test colours with higher spectral purity over trained colours. Testing the behaviour of bees at artificial flowers displaying a centripetal or centrifugal arrangement of three equally sized colours with small differences in spectral purity, bees did not prefer any type of artificial flowers, but preferentially choose the most spectrally pure area for the first antenna contact at both types of artificial flowers. Our results indicate that innate preferences for flower colours of high spectral purity in pollinators might exert selective pressure on the evolution of flower colours.

  10. Colour discrimination ellipses in choroideremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Immanuel P; Jolly, Jasleen K; Dominik Fischer, M; Simunovic, Matthew P

    2018-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to characterise alterations in colour discrimination in a cohort of patients with choroideremia prior to gene therapy, using a test previously validated for use in patients with retinal dystrophies. We tested 20 eyes of 10 patients with a diagnosis of choroideremia and an age-matched cohort of 10 eyes of 10 normal controls using the "Cambridge Colour Test" (CCT), in which subjects are required to distinguish the gap in a C presented in one of 4 orientations in a Stilling-type array. Colour discrimination was probed along eight axes in the CIE L*u*v* colour space, and the resulting data were plotted in the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram and fitted with least-squares ellipses. Subsequently, we estimated the achromatic area for each subject by calculating the area of the resultant discrimination ellipse and calculated sensitivity thresholds along relevant colour confusion axes. Colour discrimination-as quantified by log 10 of the ellipse area expressed in square 1/1000th 2 units in CIE 1976-was 2.26 (range 1.82 to 2.67) for normal subjects and 3.85 (range 2.35 to 5.41) for choroideremia patients. There was a statistically significant correlation between both achromatic area and red-green colour discrimination at the CCT and BCVA, and to a lesser degree between blue colour discrimination at the CCT and BCVA. The majority of ellipses in choroideremia were aligned close to the tritan axis, and loss of sensitivity was significantly larger in the tritan direction than in the red-green. The majority of our patients demonstrated greater loss in tritan discrimination than in red-green colour discrimination using the CCT. There was a significant correlation between achromatic area and BCVA. In keeping with our current understanding of the machinery of colour vision, there was a significant correlation between BCVA and colour discrimination thresholds, which was stronger for red-green colour discrimination, than for tritan colour discrimination. We

  11. Primary volcanic structures from a type section of Deccan Trap flows ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Field investigations of the Deccan Trap lava sequence along a 70km traverse in the Narsingpur–. Harrai–Amarwara area of central India indicate twenty lava flows comprising a total thickness of around 480 m. Primary volcanic structures like vesicles and cooling joints are conspicuous in this volcanic succession and are ...

  12. Plasmonic colour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic ...

  13. Trapped magnetic field in a (NdFeB)–(MgB{sub 2}) pair-type bulk magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldica, Gheorghe [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Burdusel, Mihail [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, ‘‘Politehnica’’ University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 316, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Badica, Petre, E-mail: badica2003@yahoo.com [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dense MgB{sub 2} discs were obtained by ex-situ Spark Plasma Sintering. • A NdFeB–MgB{sub 2} pair-type bulk magnet was tested for different working conditions. • The polarity of the NdFeB permanent magnet influences macro flux jumps of MgB{sub 2}. • Trapped field of the pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K). - Abstract: Superconducting bulk discs, S, of 20 mm in diameter and 3.5 or 3.3 mm thickness of MgB{sub 2} (pristine or added with cubic BN, respectively) with density above 97% were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering. Discs were combined in a pair-type sandwich-like arrangement with a permanent NdFeB axially magnetised magnet, PM (∼0.5 T). Measurement of the trapped field, B{sub tr}, with temperature, time, and the reduction rate of the applied magnetic field was performed using a Hall sensor positioned at the centre between the superconductor and the permanent magnet. It is shown that the permanent magnet with certain polarity favors higher trapped field of the superconductor owing to suppression of flux jumps specific for high density MgB{sub 2} samples. The B{sub tr} of the PM–S pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K)

  14. Trapped magnetic field in a (NdFeB)–(MgB2) pair-type bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldica, Gheorghe; Burdusel, Mihail; Badica, Petre

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dense MgB 2 discs were obtained by ex-situ Spark Plasma Sintering. • A NdFeB–MgB 2 pair-type bulk magnet was tested for different working conditions. • The polarity of the NdFeB permanent magnet influences macro flux jumps of MgB 2 . • Trapped field of the pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K). - Abstract: Superconducting bulk discs, S, of 20 mm in diameter and 3.5 or 3.3 mm thickness of MgB 2 (pristine or added with cubic BN, respectively) with density above 97% were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering. Discs were combined in a pair-type sandwich-like arrangement with a permanent NdFeB axially magnetised magnet, PM (∼0.5 T). Measurement of the trapped field, B tr , with temperature, time, and the reduction rate of the applied magnetic field was performed using a Hall sensor positioned at the centre between the superconductor and the permanent magnet. It is shown that the permanent magnet with certain polarity favors higher trapped field of the superconductor owing to suppression of flux jumps specific for high density MgB 2 samples. The B tr of the PM–S pair was 2.45 T (20 K) and 3.3 T (12 K)

  15. Distribution and photobiology of Symbiodinium types in different light environments for three colour morphs of the coral Madracis pharensis: is there more to it than total irradiance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, P. R.; Englebert, N.; Faria, J.; Visser, P. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

    2008-12-01

    The role of symbiont variation in the photobiology of reef corals was addressed by investigating the links among symbiont genetic diversity, function and ecological distribution in a single host species, Madracis pharensis. Symbiont distribution was studied for two depths (10 and 25 m), two different light habitats (exposed and shaded) and three host colour morphs (brown, purple and green). Two Symbiodinium genotypes were present, as defined by nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) variation. Symbiont distribution was depth- and colour morph-dependent. Type B15 occurred predominantly on the deeper reef and in green and purple colonies, while type B7 was present in shallow environments and brown colonies. Different light microhabitats at fixed depths had no effect on symbiont presence. This ecological distribution suggests that symbiont presence is potentially driven by light spectral niches. A reciprocal depth transplantation experiment indicated steady symbiont populations under environment change. Functional parameters such as pigment composition, chlorophyll a fluorescence and cell densities were measured for 25 m and included in multivariate analyses. Most functional variation was explained by two photobiological assemblages that relate to either symbiont identity or light microhabitat, suggesting adaptation and acclimation, respectively. Type B15 occurs with lower cell densities and larger sizes, higher cellular pigment concentrations and higher peridinin to chlorophyll a ratio than type B7. Type B7 relates to a larger xanthophyll-pool size. These unambiguous differences between symbionts can explain their distributional patterns, with type B15 being potentially more adapted to darker or deeper environments than B7. Symbiont cell size may play a central role in the adaptation of coral holobionts to the deeper reef. The existence of functional differences between B-types shows that the clade classification does not necessarily

  16. Effect of three types of light-curing units on 5-year colour changes of light-cured composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Onjen; Altintas, Subutay Han; Ozturk, Nilgun; Usumez, Aslihan

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine colour changes in a composite cured with tungsten-halogen, light-emitting diode (LED) or a plasma arc after 5 years. Five specimens 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were prepared using Hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite for each test group. The corresponding specimens were cured with a tungsten-halogen curing light, a LED unit or with a plasma arc. Specimens were stored in light-proof boxes for 5 years after the curing procedure to avoid further exposure to light and stored in 37 degrees C in 100% humidity. Colorimetric values of the specimens immediately after curing and after 5 years were measured using colorimeter. The DeltaE*( ab ) values varied significantly depending on the curing unit used (p Curing time did not affect the colour changes of the specimens (p = 0.4). The results of this study suggest that composite materials undergo measurable changes due to the curing unit exposure.

  17. Colour Blocking: Disregarding Traditional Artistic Colour Harmonies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trending phenomenon popularly referred to as 'colour blocking' involves the use of bright 'expressive' colours for finishing in the decorative and utilitarian arts. In this practice, complimentary and contrasting colours are liberally used in the visual field to engage the attention of the viewer. This paper seeks, in the first ...

  18. Quantifying Plant Colour and Colour Difference as Perceived by Humans Using Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E.; Garrard, Georgia E.; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M.; Moore, Joslin L.

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management. PMID:23977275

  19. Two-colour mid-infrared absorption in an InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X F; Xu, W; Zeng, Z

    2007-01-01

    We examine contributions from different transition channels to optical absorption in an InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap quantum well (QW). In such a structure, because both electron and hole subbands are occupied by the conducting carriers, new channels open up for electronic transition via intra- and inter-layer scattering mechanisms. We find that two absorption peaks can be observed through inter-subband transitions within the same material layer. The absorption induced by the inter-layer transition is rather weak due to a small overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions. The results suggest that InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap QWs can be employed as two-colour photodetectors working at mid-infrared bandwidth at relatively high temperatures up to room-temperature

  20. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  1. Colour Perception in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  2. Colour application on mammography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).

  3. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  4. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......-nights for the pitfall, Sherman, Victor and Museum Special traps, respectively. In total, we captured 366 shrews. The use of pitfall traps yielded the highest trapping success (4.1) with at least 18 shrew species identified. Trapping success and the number of species collected was lower for the Sherman (0.6, at least 11...... species), Victor (0.6, at least 8 species) and Museum Special (0.5, at least 6 species) traps. Although Crocidura olivieri and C. denti were caught using all four trap types, captures with different trap types did not produce a sample with the same taxonomic composition. In agreement with previous studies...

  5. Recolouring-resistant colourings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Rautenbach, D.

    2011-01-01

    We study colourings of graphs with the property that the number of used colours cannot be reduced by applying some recolouring operation. A well-studied example of such colourings are b-colourings, which were introduced by Irving and Manlove [R.W. Irving, D.F. Manlove, The la-chromatic number...... of a graph, Discrete Appl. Math. 91 (1999) 127-141]. Given a graph and a colouring, a recolouring operation specifies a set of vertices of the graph on which the colouring can be changed. We consider two such operations: One which allows the recolouring of all vertices within some given distance of some...... colour class, and another which allows the recolouring of all vertices that belong to one of a given number of colour classes. Our results extend known results concerning b-colourings and the associated b-chromatic number. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Evaluation of Hirst-type spore traps in outdoor Aspergillaceae monitoring during large demolition work in hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Tiphaine Loeffert

    Full Text Available Demolition can generate fungal spore suspensions in association with various adverse health effects, such as high risk of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. One block of Edouard Herriot Hospital was entirely demolished. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hirst-type spore traps utility in monitoring outdoor Aspergillaceae (Aspergillus spp. + Penicillium spp. spores in part of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France undergoing major demolition. Three periods were scheduled in 2015: (A Gutting of building and asbestos removal, (B Demolition of floors, (C Excavation and earthwork. Outdoor Aspergillaceae fungal load was monitored by cultivable (Air Ideal®, bioMérieux and non-cultivable methods (Lanzoni VPPS-2000, Analyzair®, Bologna, Italy. Differences of Aspergillaceae recorded with Hirst-type spore traps were observed between Gerland and Edouard Herriot Hospital. Differences between Aspergillaceae were recorded between day time and night time at Gerland and Edouard Herriot Hospital. Daily paired differences between Aspergillaceae recorded with non-cultivable methodology at Edouard Herriot Hospital and in an area without demolition work were significant in Period A vs Period B (p = 10-4 and Period A vs Period C (p = 10-4. Weak correlation of daily Aspergillaceae recorded by both methods at Edouard Herriot Hospital was significant only for Period C (r = 0.26, p = 0.048, n = 58. Meteorological parameters and type of demolition works were found to heavily influenced Aspergillaceae dispersion. Non-cultivable methodology is a promising tool for outdoor Aspergillaceae scrutiny during major demolition work in hospital, helping infection control staff to rapidly implement control measures.

  7. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    OpenAIRE

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in...

  8. Trapped in the heat: A post-communist type of fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado Herrero, Sergio; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a still insufficiently researched social and energy challenge with significant climate change implications. Based on evidence from Hungarian panel apartment blocks connected to district heating, this paper introduces a new variant of fuel poverty that may not be properly captured by existing fuel poverty indicators. This newly defined variant can be largely attributed to post-communist legacies – though it might also exist in other contexts – and assumes that consumers living in poor-efficiency, district-heated buildings are trapped in dwellings with adequate indoor temperatures but disproportionately high heating costs because (a) changing supplier or fuel is difficult because of the existing technical and institutional constraints, and (b) they do not realistically have the option to reduce individually their heating costs through individual efficiency improvements. This situation often translates into payment arrears, indebtedness, risk of disconnection, or reduced consumption of other basic goods and services. State-supported policy responses to date have favoured symptomatic solutions (direct consumer support) combined with superficial retrofits, though it is argued that only state-of-the-art retrofits such as the passive house-based SOLANOVA pilot project in Dunaújváros can fully eradicate fuel poverty in this consumer group. - Highlights: ► We identify a new variant of fuel poverty. ► We explore this variant in panel apartment blocks connected to DH in Hungary, where dwellings are warm enough in winter but have disproportionately high energy costs. ► Affected households react in ways that harm their welfare and put them at risk. ► Deep retrofits in dwellings such as these can eradicate fuel poverty while also contributing to other goals.

  9. Young, metal-enriched cores in early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on colour gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urich, Linda; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; van de Ven, Glenn; Leaman, Ryan; Boselli, Alessandro; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Peletier, Reynier F.; den Brok, Mark; Hensler, Gerhard; Toloba, Elisa; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Niemi, Sami-Matias

    2017-01-01

    Early-type dwarf galaxies are not simply featureless, old objects, but were found to be much more diverse, hosting substructures and a variety of stellar population properties. To explore the stellar content of faint early-type galaxies, and to investigate in particular those with recent central

  10. Colour and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Olive, D.

    1976-01-01

    If the exact gauge symmetry of nature consists of the U(1)sub(EM) generated by the electric charge operator Q and the colour group K, with Q a colour singlet, then, if g is a possible magnetic charge, exp(4πigQ) must equal an element of the colour group. For colour singlet particles this reduces to Dirac's condition eg = n/2. In general, possible monopoles correspond to points of intersection of the colour and electromagnetic groups. If the colour group is semi-simple and compact, there can at most be a finite number p of such points (p = N if K = SU(N)). The existence of non-trivial (not equal to unity) solutions to our condition means that there must be fractionally charged (with p the fraction) coloured particles and magnetic monopoles emanating colour magnetic flux as well as electromagnetic flux. (Auth.)

  11. Reduced translucency and the addition of black patterns increase the catch of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on yellow sticky traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Sampson

    Full Text Available The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a pest of a wide range of vegetable and ornamental crops in greenhouses around the world. Yellow sticky traps are highly attractive to flying adults and so are frequently used to monitor the pest. Our aim was to test whether changes in trap translucency or the addition of printed black patterns could increase the catch on yellow sticky traps in greenhouses. Field trials were carried out in commercial crops of strawberry and tomato under glass over three years. Reduced trap translucency increased trap catches by a factor of 1.5 to 7.0 and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. Spectrometer measurements showed that the increased catch was consistent with an increased landing stimulus from a colour opponency mechanism i.e. the ratio of energy from 500-640 nm to the energy from 300-500 nm. Printed black patterns increased trap catches on specific types of trap, by a factor of 1.4 to 2.3, and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. The patterns increased trap catch on moderately translucent traps, but decreased trap catch on less translucent traps. The evidence points to a contrast/edge effect of pattern, but laboratory experiments are needed to clarify this. Exploitation of these translucency and pattern effects could improve the efficacy of yellow traps for monitoring and mass trapping in crops.

  12. Reduced translucency and the addition of black patterns increase the catch of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on yellow sticky traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Covaci, Anca D; Hamilton, James G C; Hassan, Nayem; Al-Zaidi, Shakir; Kirk, William D J

    2018-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of a wide range of vegetable and ornamental crops in greenhouses around the world. Yellow sticky traps are highly attractive to flying adults and so are frequently used to monitor the pest. Our aim was to test whether changes in trap translucency or the addition of printed black patterns could increase the catch on yellow sticky traps in greenhouses. Field trials were carried out in commercial crops of strawberry and tomato under glass over three years. Reduced trap translucency increased trap catches by a factor of 1.5 to 7.0 and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. Spectrometer measurements showed that the increased catch was consistent with an increased landing stimulus from a colour opponency mechanism i.e. the ratio of energy from 500-640 nm to the energy from 300-500 nm. Printed black patterns increased trap catches on specific types of trap, by a factor of 1.4 to 2.3, and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. The patterns increased trap catch on moderately translucent traps, but decreased trap catch on less translucent traps. The evidence points to a contrast/edge effect of pattern, but laboratory experiments are needed to clarify this. Exploitation of these translucency and pattern effects could improve the efficacy of yellow traps for monitoring and mass trapping in crops.

  13. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Lesina, Antonino Calà; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and alumin...

  14. Colour image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Batlle i Grabulosa, Joan; Pacheco Valls, Lluís

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the round table the following topics related to image colour processing will be discussed: historical point of view. Studies of Aguilonius, Gerritsen, Newton and Maxwell. CIE standard (Commission International de lpsilaEclaraige). Colour models. RGB, HIS, etc. Colour segmentation based on HSI model. Industrial applications. Summary and discussion. At the end, video images showing the robustness of colour in front of B/W images will be presented

  15. Preferences by Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) and non-target flies for rectangles of various yellow colours and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven sticky rectangle traps of various yellow colours and fluorescence made of cardboard were field tested against western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in paired trap preference experiments in Washington state, USA. Alpha Scents (proprietary paint), Fluorescent Yellow (aerosol ...

  16. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  17. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  18. The Three Colour Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    problem. This merely states a fact that any six-year old armed with crayons has long suspected - it is possible to colour any map in the family atlas with only four colours so that no two neighbouring regions have the same colour. Mathematicians have this habit of being precise, and they define a map to be a partition of some ...

  19. Chromomagnetic catalysis of colour superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovskij, V C; Klimenko, K G; Ehbert, D

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the chromomagnetic field on the phase structure of the Namby - Jona-Lasinio expanded model with two quarks aromas is studied. It is shown that certain types of the chromomagnetic fields induce spontaneous violation of the colour, chiral or both symmetries simultaneously, depending on the ratio between the quarks interaction constants in the q-barq- and qq-channels

  20. Multi-type particle layer improved light trapping for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Christin

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses regular particle arrays as nanostructured front layers for possible application in photovoltaic devices yielding strongly increased forward scattering. I used a rigorous plane-wave method to investigate multi-type particle layers combining different radii and configurations...

  1. Colour printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Parraman, C.

    2017-01-01

    Invited chapter in the book Colour Design: Theories and Applications. In PART 3 COLOUR, DESIGN AND COLORATION this chapter covers:\\ud - Hardcopy colour: analogue versus digital\\ud - Colour theory in relation to printing\\ud - Overview of halftoning and digital print technologies\\ud - Overview and development of inks\\ud - Inkjet papers and inks\\ud - Recent and future trends in colour, printing inks and hardware.\\ud \\ud This book differs from other existing books in the field, with the aim of an...

  2. Neutral atom traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  3. Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter; Pointer, Michael R.; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Simulated and real tri- and tetrachromatic light-emitting-diode (LED) clusters were optimized for luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) and the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The simulated clusters showed no significant differences in achievable colour quality and LER between the different cluster types investigated. The real clusters (composed of commercially available LEDs) showed substantial differences in achievable colour quality and LER between the different clus...

  4. Colour vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  5. Radiation-reversible material carriers of different colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made instead of using coloured material carriers - the cones and cylindrical tubes in spinning mills and weaving mills are given as example - to use such ones which change colour with irradiation and keep this colour until a new radiation impulse causes a new colour which differs well from the first one. (No data on material or type of radiation are given.) (UWI) [de

  6. Comparison of Trap Types, Placement, and Colors for Monitoring Anthonomus musculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adults in Highbush Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego; Salamanca, Jordano; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera; Alborn, Hans T; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key (univoltine) pest of highbush blueberries in the northeast United States. To date, however, no trapping system has been developed to successfully monitor this pest. In 2012–2014, studies were conducted in commercial highbush blueberry farms in New Jersey to 1) evaluate the efficacy of various commercially available traps, designed for other weevil species (e.g., pepper weevil, plum curculio, boll weevil, red palm weevil, and black vine weevil), in capturing A. musculus adults; 2) test whether the relative location of traps within the blueberry canopy affects adult captures and 3) determine the effects of different colored (yellow, white, green, red, blue, brown, and black) sticky traps on weevil captures. For a comparison with existing techniques, we also monitored the number of overwintered adult weevils on blueberry bushes using beat sheet sampling. Of all traps and colors tested, the most A. musculus adults were caught on yellow sticky traps and more adults were captured when these traps were placed at the bottom half of the blueberry canopy, i.e., 0.5–1.0 m above ground. Most weevils were caught on colored traps late in the season (i.e., during bloom), which corresponds mostly to the second (summer) adult generation. Thus, number of overwintered adults caught on traps did not correlate with those on bushes. Although our study identified traps that can be used to capture A. musculus adults, these traps alone (i.e., without semiochemicals) have so far limited applicability for monitoring overwintered adult weevils in highbush blueberries.

  7. Coloured oil droplets enhance colour discrimination.

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobyev, Misha

    2003-01-01

    The eyes of most diurnal reptiles and birds contain coloured retinal filters-oil droplets. Although these filters are widespread, their adaptive advantage remains uncertain. To understand why coloured oil droplets appeared and were retained during evolution, I consider both the benefits and the costs of light filtering in the retina. Oil droplets decrease cone quantum catch and reduce the overlap in sensitivity between spectrally adjacent cones. The reduction of spectral overlap increases the...

  8. Validation of a colour rendering index based on memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Jost-Boissard, Sophie; Ryckaert, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a colour rendering index based on memory colours is investigated in comparison with the current CIE Colour Rendering Index, the NIST Colour Quality Scale and visual appreciation results obtained at CNRS at Lyon University for a set of 3000K and 4000K LED light sources. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between each colour rendering metric and the two sets of visual results were calculated. It was found that the memory colour based colour render...

  9. Explorative study of tropical pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) types and insects that trapped inside in Sebangau National Park Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestariningsih, Nanik; Setyaningsih, Denik

    2017-01-01

    Pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) is a plant with unique shape either of shades of colors, pouch shape and its capability in catching insects. Pitcher plant (Nepenthes sp.) is one of the plants that protected under Law Number. 5 of 1990 about Conservation of Biological Resources and Ecosystem and Government Regulation Number 7/1999 about Preservation of Plants and Animals. Sebangau National Park is one of representative of peat swamp ecosystem and one of some types of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) habitat. This study aimed to determine the types and diversity levels of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) and the trapped insects inside in Sebangau National and to determine the differences of diversity levels of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) and the trapped insects inside in the opened and closed forest in Sebangau National Park. The research type was conducted descriptive qualitative research. The method used survey method with purpossive sampling technique.The result of the study the number of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in opened forest were three types consist of Nepenthes mirabilis, Nepenthes rafflesiana and Nepenthes gracilis with two types insects trapped inside those were Diptera ordo and Hymenoptera ordo. While the number of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in closed forest as many as two types consist of Nepenthes ampullaria and Nepenthes rafflesiana with two type insects trapped inside those were Diptera ordo and Hymenoptera ordo. The results of the analysis calculation pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) species diversity index in opened and closed forest showed lower category. The diversity in row were 1 and 0,45 with H’ criteria ≤ 1 low diversity. The results of the study of insects trapped inside of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in opened and closed forest showed low category. The diversity in a row were 0,63 and 0,52 with the criteria of H’ ≤ 1 low diversity.

  10. First multi-colour photometric study of the short period K-type contact binary NSVS 2701634

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.; Barani, C.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first CCD sets of complete light curves for the W Ursae Majoris W-type system NSVS 2701634. The observations were performed in the B, V and Ic bands using the 0.25 m telescope of the "Stazione Astronomica Betelgeuse" Italy, during 8 nights in April 2015. From our observations we were able to confirm and revise the short-period (0.24 days) variation found by Shaw and collaborators in their online list Using our 12 times of minimum light, the orbital period variations of NSVS 2701634 are studied for the first time. The general trend of the (O-C) curve reveals that its period is varying by a downward parabola that means that period is decreasing, this fact could be explained by a mass transfer between the components of the system. The light curves were modelled using the Wilson-Devinney code and the elements obtained from this analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the system in order to study its evolutionary status. A reasonable fit of the synthetic light curves of the data indicated that NSVS 2701634 is an late-type (K3 -K4+K6) contact binary system of W-Subtype of the W Ursae Majoris systems, with a mass ratio of q = 2.60, a degree of contact factor f = 15.3% and inclination i = 72°. The light curves show asymmetries at the maxima that are fitted adding an hot spot on the surface of the more massive star, known as inverse O'Connell effect. From an estimation of the absolute dimensions of the system and from the logM-logL diagram, it is seen that both components of NSVS 2701634 follow the general pattern of the W subtype W Ursae Majoris systems.

  11. The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

  12. Conspicuous plumage colours are highly variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Szecsenyi, Beatrice; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Peters, Anne

    2017-01-25

    Elaborate ornamental traits are often under directional selection for greater elaboration, which in theory should deplete underlying genetic variation. Despite this, many ornamental traits appear to remain highly variable and how this essential variation is maintained is a key question in evolutionary biology. One way to address this question is to compare differences in intraspecific variability across different types of traits to determine whether high levels of variation are associated with specific trait characteristics. Here we assess intraspecific variation in more than 100 plumage colours across 55 bird species to test whether colour variability is linked to their level of elaboration (indicated by degree of sexual dichromatism and conspicuousness) or their condition dependence (indicated by mechanism of colour production). Conspicuous colours had the highest levels of variation and conspicuousness was the strongest predictor of variability, with high explanatory power. After accounting for this, there were no significant effects of sexual dichromatism or mechanisms of colour production. Conspicuous colours may entail higher production costs or may be more sensitive to disruptions during production. Alternatively, high variability could also be related to increased perceptual difficulties inherent to discriminating highly elaborate colours. Such psychophysical effects may constrain the exaggeration of animal colours. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e......-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  14. Four issues concerning colour constancy and relational colour constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, DH; Nascimento, SMC; Craven, BJ; Linnell, KJ; Cornelissen, FW; Brenner, E

    Four issues concerning colour constance and relational colour constancy are briefly considered: (I) the equivalence of colour constancy and relational colour constancy; (2) the dependence of relational colour constancy on ratios of cone excitations due to light from different reflecting surfaces,

  15. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  16. Segmenting memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  17. Storage ion trap of an 'In-Flight Capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclear reaction products and fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system of FLNR comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass-spectrometric ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a possible complex for producing of the short-lived nuclei in fragmentation reactions by heavy ions and for precise mass measurement of these nuclei. The plan of scientific and technical FLNR research includes a project DRIBs for producing beams of accelerated radioactive nuclear reaction products and photofission fragments. This project proposes also precise mass measurements of the fission fragment with the help of the ion trap. The in-flight entrance of the ions and their capture in the mass-spectrometric ion trap using the monochromatizing degrader, the static electric and magnetic fields and a new invention, a magnetic unidirectional transporting ventil, is considered

  18. Colour and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon

    2017-01-01

    Colour is inescapable. It fills and forms the world, shaping what can be felt and known, desired and expressed. It thus becomes social technology and organizational tool. At the same time, however, colour betrays, undermines and subverts the attempts to manage it. Based on an understanding...... of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...

  19. Seasonal changes in colour: a comparison of structural, melanin- and carotenoid-based plumage colours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Delhey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural. Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour. Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling.

  20. Funnel traps capture a higher proportion of juvenile Great Tits Parus major than automatic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.; Conroy, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We compared capture rates of Great Tits at funnel traps, where several birds can be captured at once so that some decoy effect may appear, to those obtained at automatic traps, where only one bird can be trapped at a time, at trapping stations in northeastern Spain. Juvenile birds were mainly captured at funnel traps (79% of juvenile captures), whereas adult plumaged birds were captured at both types of traps (51% of captures were at the funnel traps) (test between ages, Pfunnel traps, which may be acting as decoy traps, and thus are vulnerable to the same kinds of biases (eg age or body condition) that have been previously documented for decoy traps.

  1. Red-Green Colour Deficiencies and the Study of Science, Computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colour blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colours that other people can distinguish. It is most often of genetic nature but may also occur because of eye, nerve or brain damage or due to exposure to some chemicals. The most common type of colour vision deficiency is red-green colour ...

  2. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

  3. Colour: code, mode, modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a social semiotic approach to discuss the influence of film, video and digital technologies on the way colour is used in audiovisual media......This article uses a social semiotic approach to discuss the influence of film, video and digital technologies on the way colour is used in audiovisual media...

  4. The colours of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Would you move into an office painted in a colour you hate? As we all know, taste in colour is individual. Thanks to the establishment of a new Painting Charter, conflicting opinions will be unified.   The four new paint colours established in the Painting Charter. There were many reasons behind the creation of the Painting Charter by the GS SEM Department. Unlike many companies, CERN has not until now regulated which colours can be used inside buildings. With many nationalities passing through CERN, tastes tend to differ: northern countries usually prefer colder colours, while southern countries seem to prefer warm colours. It’s not hard to imagine how quickly we could make a rainbow! In addition, whenever an office needs to be repainted, it can be difficult to find exactly the same colour. This results in entire walls being repainted, which increases the cost. If – by chance – the original colour is found, it could be out of stock. While ...

  5. Colouring outside the lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commissariat, Tushna

    2017-10-01

    Walk into a bookshop today, or even a gift shop, and you will most likely come across an entire section of colouring books for adults. Visions of Numberland: a Colouring Journey Through the Mysteries of Maths by Alex Bellos and Edmund Harriss is one such book.

  6. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  7. Computational colour science using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Westland, Stephen; Cheung, Vien

    2012-01-01

    Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition offers a practical, problem-based approach to colour physics. The book focuses on the key issues encountered in modern colour engineering, including efficient representation of colour information, Fourier analysis of reflectance spectra and advanced colorimetric computation. Emphasis is placed on the practical applications rather than the techniques themselves, with material structured around key topics. These topics include colour calibration of visual displays, computer recipe prediction and models for colour-appearance prediction. Each t

  8. A Study of Image Colourfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Amati, C.; Mitra, N.; Weyrich, T.

    2014-01-01

    Colourfulness is often thought of as a mere measure of quantity of colour, but user studies suggest that there are more factors influencing the perception of colourfulness. Boosting and enhancing colours are operations often performed for improving image aesthetics, but the relationship between colourfulness and aesthetics has not been thoroughly explored. By gathering perceptual data from a large-scale user study we have shown how existing colourfulness metrics relate to it and that there is...

  9. Specific deficit of colour-colour short-term memory binding in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Sala, Sergio Della; Abrahams, Sharon; Logie, Robert H; Méndez, Luis Guillermo; Lopera, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Short-term memory binding of visual features which are processed across different dimensions (shape-colour) is impaired in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, familial Alzheimer's disease, and in asymptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated whether Alzheimer's disease also impacts on within-dimension binding processes. The study specifically explored whether visual short-term memory binding of features of the same type (colour-colour) is sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. We used a neuropsychological battery and a short-term memory binding task to assess patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 1), familial Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 2) due to the mutation E280A of the Presenilin-1 gene and asymptomatic carriers of the mutation. The binding task assessed change detection within arrays of unicoloured objects (Colour Only) or bicoloured objects the colours of which had to be remembered separately (Unbound Colours) or together (Bound Colours). Performance on the Bound Colours condition (1) explained the largest proportion of variance between patients (sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease), (2) combined more sensitivity and specificity for the disease than other more traditional neuropsychological tasks, (3) identified asymptomatic carriers of the mutation even when traditional neuropsychological measures and other measures of short-term memory did not and, (4) contrary to shape-colour binding, correlated with measures of hippocampal functions. Colour-colour binding and shape-colour binding both appear to be sensitive to AD even though they seem to rely on different brain mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative analysis of temperature dependent acoustic trapping characteristics by using concentric annular type dual element ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In-Young; Lee, Jungwoo

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the temperature dependence of lateral acoustic trapping capability by probing the speed of sound in individual lipid droplets at a given temperature of water and measuring its corresponding displacement, a value for quantitatively evaluating a spring-like behavior of the acoustic trap with certain strength. A 20/40 MHz dual element LiNbO3 ultrasonic transducer is fabricated to simultaneously perform both transverse trapping and sound speed measurement for each droplet over a discrete temperature range from 20°C to 30°C. Time of flight method is employed for pulse tracking that determines the arrival time of an echo reflected back from either a trapped droplet or a mylar film. The estimated speeds of sound in water and droplets are 1484.8 m/s and 1431.6 m/s at 20°C, while 1506.0 m/s and 1400.6 m/s at 30°C, respectively. As the temperature rises, the sound speed in droplets decreases at an average rate of 3.1 m/s/°C, and the speed in water increases at 2.1 m/s/°C. The average displacement varies from 150.0 μm to 179.0 μm with an increasing rate of 2.9 μm/°C, and its standard deviation is obtained between 1.0 μm and 2.0 μm over the same temperature range. Reduced sound speed as a function of rising temperature results in increased displacement, indicating that the trapping strength is adjustable by regulating ambient temperature in water as well as by changing transducer excitation parameters. Therefore, the results suggest that the temperature dependence of this trapping technique can be exploited for developing a remote manipulation tool of micron-sized particles in a thermally fluctuating environment. It is also shown that any deviated trapping strength caused by thermal disturbance near the trap can be restored to its desired level by compensating either temperature difference or trapping system condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination-colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes-one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  12. Effects of Memory Colour on Colour Constancy for Unknown Coloured Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J M Granzier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug. All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  13. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects. PMID:23145282

  14. Block colourings of 6-cycle systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonacini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(\\Sigma=(X,\\mathcal{B}\\ be a \\(6\\-cycle system of order \\(v\\, so \\(v\\equiv 1,9\\mod 12\\. A \\(c\\-colouring of type \\(s\\ is a map \\(\\phi\\colon\\mathcal {B}\\rightarrow \\mathcal{C}\\, with \\(C\\ set of colours, such that exactly \\(c\\ colours are used and for every vertex \\(x\\ all the blocks containing \\(x\\ are coloured exactly with \\(s\\ colours. Let \\(\\frac{v-1}{2}=qs+r\\, with \\(q, r\\geq 0\\. \\(\\phi\\ is equitable if for every vertex \\(x\\ the set of the \\(\\frac{v-1}{2}\\ blocks containing \\(x\\ is partitioned in \\(r\\ colour classes of cardinality \\(q+1\\ and \\(s-r\\ colour classes of cardinality \\(q\\. In this paper we study bicolourings and tricolourings, for which, respectively, \\(s=2\\ and \\(s=3\\, distinguishing the cases \\(v=12k+1\\ and \\(v=12k+9\\. In particular, we settle completely the case of \\(s=2\\, while for \\(s=3\\ we determine upper and lower bounds for \\(c\\.

  15. COLD TRAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  16. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Validation of the Hirst-Type Spore Trap for Simultaneous Monitoring of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Biodiversities in Urban Air Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Ferencova, Zuzana; Rastrojo, Alberto; Guantes, Raúl; García, Ana M.; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A. Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A.

    2017-01-01

    Pollen, fungi, and bacteria are the main microscopic biological entities present in outdoor air, causing allergy symptoms and disease transmission and having a significant role in atmosphere dynamics. Despite their relevance, a method for monitoring simultaneously these biological particles in metropolitan environments has not yet been developed. Here, we assessed the use of the Hirst-type spore trap to characterize the global airborne biota by high-throughput DNA sequencing, selecting region...

  19. The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3) - Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be thought of as the Gell-Mann colour scheme with excitation of the colour degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to the four problems of colour models for PSI phenomenology - the radiative decays, the G parity conservation, the lack of deep inelastic threshold phenomena and the apparent discovery of dileptons at SPEAR. (author)

  20. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  1. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  2. Skin colour typology and suntanning pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, A; Cretois, I; Hourseau, C

    1991-08-01

    Synopsis The evaluation of sun-product efficacy, with laboratory solar simulators or in actual sun, implicates clinical and subjective assessment of the various skin responses in terms of wavelengths constitutive of solar light. These photobiological responses vary according to skin types and particularly to basic skin melanic content, i.e. with skin colour. Now, the instrumental measurement of live skin colour has become easier to perform, fast and reliable. Based on the standard CIE-L*a*b* colour system and correlated with the human eye, this technique was used to define the skin colour domain of the caucasian population, to propose a skin colour classification, and then to objectively follow, over a three week period, the dynamics and kinetics of tanning induced by UVB, UVA and UVB +/- A multi-exposures on the three skin categories. The specific directions in the three-dimensional L*a*b* colour space of the tanning components, i.e. erythema, immediate pigmentation and constitutional melanization, as well as the resulting tanning pathways, were analysed and defined in the three-dimensional colour space, using a vectorial method. The UVB, UVA and UVB +/- A tannings were differentiated by their intensity, their hue and especially their lasting capacity: UVA tanning clearly appeared more lasting than UVB. In addition, the UVA*UVB interaction on tanning intensity was not found to be significant. With the skin colour classification and the tanning models, this comprehensive study supplies a basic tool for the colorimetric interpretation of the skin phenomena involved, provided that this interpretation is always considered in the three dimensions of the colour space. It also suggests some useful practical applications for sun product formulation and evaluation.

  3. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had......In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE...

  4. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  5. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  6. Cattle and their colours: A synchronic investigation of cattle colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Northern Sotho, a separate colour lexicon is distinguished, containing terms which are believed to be used exclusively as colour terms to describe not only the colours, but also the colour patterning found among domestic animals, particularly cattle. According to current literature, the use of these terms is restricted to the ...

  7. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    stored ions,” Adv. Atom Mol. Phys., vol. Volume 3, pp. 53–72 1968. [48] P. H. Dawson, Quadrupole Mass Spectometry and Its Applications, Melville, NY... DATE December 2011 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ion trap Quantum Computing 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...researcher [30] that introduced the concept of ion traps in the 1950s. His experiments focused on separating atoms with different masses in order to

  8. Colour reconnections in Herwig++

    OpenAIRE

    Gieseke, Stefan; Röhr, Christian; Siódmok, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    We describe the implementation details of the colour reconnection model in the event generator Herwig++. We study the impact on final-state observables in detail and confirm the model idea from colour preconfinement on the basis of studies within the cluster hadronization model. Moreover, we show that the description of minimum bias and underlying event data at the LHC is improved with this model and present results of a tune to available data.

  9. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  10. Constraints on colour category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Y.; Wakui, E.; Decock, L.B.; Douven, I.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  11. Constraints on Colour Category Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Yasmina; Wakui, Elley; Decock, Lieven; Douven, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  12. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  13. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  14. COLOURFUL DIET FOR GOOD HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Gupta

    2017-01-01

    We are surrounded by colour and they can affect us profoundly and in ways that we may not have thought of. It is a known fact, that colours can influence your moods, feelings and emotions. Colours influence your actions and how you respond to people, situations and ideas. Apart from the colour of interiors, exteriors, our clothing and other things, the colour of food and beverage products are also extremely important. Green fruits and vegetables support eye health and may help protect against...

  15. Can Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia be Induced by Hypnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Patricia Anderson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific colour, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type. Here, we address the question of whether synaesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic colour suggestion to examine the possibility of ‘hypnotic synaesthesia’, i.e. subjectively experienced colour hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synaesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an embedded figures test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-colour synaesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as coloured. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of coloured trials perceived. However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of colour in those participants who reported a large proportion of coloured trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognised (relative to trials in which it was not were associated with reports of more intense colours occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic colour was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via colour-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colours are not directly comparable to synaesthetic ones.

  16. Legal and Illegal Colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2008-01-01

    opinions on food additives, including colours, and on the bioavailability and safety of nutrient sources. The WG ADD consists of several members from the AFC Panel together with selected external experts. The draft opinions go forward to the AFC Panel for discussion and final adoption. The adopted opinions......://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1178620761956.htm. Accessed 12.05.08.] this paper only deals with some of the major issues that the Panel has faced in relation to the use of food colours. The three topics to be dealt with are (1) evaluation of illegal colours in food in the EU (EFSA, 2005), (2) re-evaluation of the authorised...... food colours in the EU (ongoing, but one opinion on Red 2G has been published; EFSA, 2007), and (3) evaluation of 'the Southampton study' on hyperactivity in children after intake of food colours (and sodium benzoate) (ongoing at the time of this presentation, but an opinion has now been published...

  17. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elleuch, Omar, E-mail: mr.omar.elleuch@gmail.com; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-01-28

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C–T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C–T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C–V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C–T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Bandgap-Engineered Pillar Type Flash Memory with HfO2 and S3N4 as Trapping Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Youl; Yang, Seung-Dong; Oh, Jae-Sub; Yun, Ho-Jin; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    In this paper, we fabricated a gate-all-around bandgap- engineered (BE) silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) and silicon-oxide-high-k-oxide-silicon (SOHOS) flash memory device with a vertical silicon pillar type structure for a potential solution to scaling down. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) and hafnium oxide (HfO2) were used as trapping layers in the SONOS and SOHOS devices, respectively. The BE-SOHOS device has better electrical characteristics such as a lower threshold voltage (VTH) of 0.16V, a higher gm.max of 0.593µA/V and on/off current ratio of 5.76×108, than the BE-SONOS device. The memory characteristics of the BE-SONOS device, such as program/erase speed (P/E speed), endurance, and data retention, were compared with those of the BE-SOHOS device. The measured data show that the BE-SONOS device has good memory characteristics, such as program speed and data retention. Compared with the BE-SONOS device, the erase speed is enhanced about five times in BE-SOHOS, while the program speed and data retention characteristic are slightly worse, which can be explained via the many interface traps between the trapping layer and the tunneling oxide.

  19. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleuch, Omar; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C–T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C–T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C–V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C–T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor

  20. Colour discrimination of dental professionals and colour deficient laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Celebic, Asja; Powers, John M; Paravina, Rade D

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare results of non-dental (conventional) and dental colour discrimination tests (customized, shade guide test), to evaluate influence of profession, gender and age of colour normal dentists and laboratory technicians on colour discrimination results and to evaluate results of colour deficient laypersons. A total of 36 colour normal dental professionals, all volunteers were divided into two groups consisting of 18 participants each: dentists (DDS) and laboratory technicians (CDT). In addition, a group 15 colour deficient males also volunteered (CDP). Colour discrimination was examined using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and total error scores (TES) were calculated. Participants performed a dentistry related colour discrimination test by matching 26 pairs of shade tabs. Shade guide scores (3DS) were calculated. These tests were performed under the controlled conditions of a viewing booth. Mean values and standard deviations were determined. ANOVA, Mann-Whitney test, t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) were used for result analysis. TES and 3DS were correlated for colour normal observers, r = 0.47 (p gender and age were recorded. TES of 159 (83) and 3DS of 6.7 (2.7) were recorded for colour deficient laypersons. Based on TES, 33% of colour deficient laypersons had average discrimination, whilst 67% had low discrimination. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that results of non-dental and dental colour discrimination tests were correlated, and that profession (DDS/CDT), gender and age gender did not influence colour discrimination of colour normal participants. Although colour and appearance of dental restorations are of paramount importance for the aesthetic outcome, colour vision of dental professionals is not routinely tested. This paper validates and recommends the usage of dental shade guides for a simple, affordable and understandable testing of colour vision, either as a sole test or

  1. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  2. Specifying colours for colour vision testing using computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufeeq, A

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a novel test of colour vision using a standard personal computer, which is simple and reliable to perform. Twenty healthy individuals with normal colour vision and 10 healthy individuals with a red/green colour defect were tested binocularly at 13 selected points in the CIE (Commission International d'Eclairage, 1931) chromaticity triangle, representing the gamut of a computer monitor, where the x, y coordinates of the primary colour phosphors were known. The mean results from individuals with normal colour vision were compared to those with defective colour vision. Of the 13 points tested, five demonstrated consistently high sensitivity in detecting colour defects. The test may provide a convenient method for classifying colour vision abnormalities.

  3. Research on the practical parameters of sex pheromone traps for the oriental fruit moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-guo; Rong, Er-hua; Li, Sheng-Cai; Zhang, Li-jun; Kong, Wei-na; Hu, Rong-shan; Zhang, Jin-tong; Ma, Rui-yan

    2013-10-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a worldwide fruit-boring insect pest. In China, OFM monitoring traps use a sex pheromone lure, but their overall design is varied. As such, there is a critical need to develop a standardised OFM trap design. In this field study, ten different trap shapes in varying combinations of colours and sizes (such as trap length and surface area) were examined. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the trapping efficiency between eight colours. The ship-shaped trap could kill more OFM in a short period, whereas the automatic watering basin trap could be more effective in the long run. The optimal trapping diameter of the basin trap was 25 cm. The trapping efficiency of triangle traps with diameters of less than 10 cm was better than that of triangle traps with diameters of over 30 cm. The trapping number of pasteboard traps obviously declined when the surface area increased, and the pasteboard trap with a single board possessed excellent trapping efficiency. The results provide useful information for the design of standardised sex pheromone traps for monitoring as well as trapping of OFM in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Why birds eat colourful grit: colour preferences revealed by the colour of gizzard stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J

    2010-03-01

    Colour preferences from sexual or social contexts are assumed to have arisen owing to preferences for specific kinds of food, representing a sensory bias, but once colour preferences have evolved in a sexual context, they may also be expressed during foraging. We tested whether preferences for specific body colours (i.e. plumage and soft parts) were related to colour preferences for grit ingested by birds. Birds eat grit to facilitate break down of food by the gizzard, and this function is independent of the colour of grit, but depends on the physical properties of stones. Bird species were significantly consistent in colour of grit, and grit of different colours varied in prevalence among species, even when analyses were restricted to a sample from a single locality. There were positive correlations between presence of lilac and red grit in the gizzard and presence of sexually dichromatic lilac and red colour on the body. There was a positive correlation between red grit colour and red sexually monochromatic body colour. Bird species with many different sexual colours, but not sexually monochromatic colours on their body had many different colours of grit. Males had more lilac and red grit than females, with this effect differing among species, whereas that was not the case for grit of other colours. These findings are consistent with the sensory bias hypothesis that birds express preferences for grit of specific colours and a high diversity of colours related to sexual colouration of the body, even when the colour of such grit is only visible to the individual at the moment of ingestion.

  5. Colour changes by laser irradiation of reddish building limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, C.M., E-mail: c.grossi-sampedro@uea.ac.uk [School of Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Benavente, D. [Department of Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Alicante. 03690 Alicante (Spain)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • This is the first time that XPS is used to determine the cause of colour change in coloured stones when cleaned with laser at 1064 nm. • We demonstrate that the colour change in red limestones is due to a reduction in the state of oxidation of iron, in this case present as hematite. • XPS could be routinely used to analyse causes of colour changes during laser cleaning in other types of coloured building stones. - Abstract: We have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a novel method to investigate the causes of colour changes in a reddish limestone under irradiation by a Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser. We irradiated clean dry and wet surfaces of Pidramuelle Roja, a building stone frequently used in the Asturian heritage, at fluences ranging from 0.12 to 1.47 J cm{sup −2}. We measured the colour coordinates and undertook XPS analysis of the state of oxidation of iron both before and after irradiation. Visible colour changes and potential aesthetic damage occurred on dry surfaces from a fluence of 0.31 J cm{sup −2}, with the stone showing a greening effect and very intense darkening. The colour change on dry surfaces was considerably higher than on wet surfaces, which at the highest fluence (1.47 J cm{sup −2}) was also above the human visual detection threshold. The use of XPS demonstrated that the change in colour (chroma and hue) is associated with a reduction in the iron oxidation state on dry surfaces during laser irradiation. This points out to a potential routinary use of XPS to analyse causes of colour changes during laser cleaning in other types of coloured building stones.

  6. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status.

  7. Facial Identification in Observers with Colour-Grapheme Synaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2013-01-01

    Synaesthesia between colours and graphemes is often reported as one of the most common forms cross modal perception [Colizolo et al, 2012, PLoS ONE, 7(6), e39799]. In this particular synesthetic sub-type the perception of a letterform is followed by an additional experience of a colour quality. B...

  8. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  10. ATLAS Colouring Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  11. Fun with Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  14. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  17. Colour: History and Advancements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coloured pigments were then ground to a fine powder and blown onto the painting surface using a hollow ... paintings found in parts of Spain and France were made in this way. Examples of such earth pigments ... The oil crisis in the early 1970s, which resulted in a steep increase in the prices of raw materials for dyes, ...

  18. Colour chemistry in water

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Famous for causing global warming, CO2 is also resulting in the acidification of seas and oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/colour-chemistry-in-water/

  19. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  20. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  1. Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David

    2008-02-01

    Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

  2. COLOUR THEREPY-BOON TO MANKIND

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sajan Kurien Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Colour Therapy is a complementary therapy for which there is evidence dating back thousands of years to the ancient cultures of Egypt, China and India. Colour is simply light of varying wavelengths, thus each colour has its own particular wavelength and energy. "Colour affects our life. Colour is physical..........we see it. Colour communicates............we recieve information from the language of colour. Colour is emotional..........it evokes our feeling."1 The energy relating to each of th...

  3. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  4. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  5. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used....... In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation...

  6. Black Border Increases Stomoxys calcitrans Catch on White Sticky Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archie K. Murchie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is a biting fly that can cause severe irritation to livestock resulting in reduced productivity. The most common method of monitoring S. calcitrans is through the use of sticky traps and many designs have been developed using different colours and materials such as alsynite fibreglass and polypropylene sheeting. Laboratory experiments and some field experimentation have demonstrated that colour contrast can attract S. calcitrans. However, this response has not been fully utilised in trap design. To test that simple colour contrast could increase trap efficacy, white sticky traps were mounted on three differently coloured backgrounds (white, yellow, and black and positioned at five sites on a mixed livestock farm. White sticky traps on a black background caught significantly more S. calcitrans than the yellow or white backgrounds. An incidental result was that Pollenia sp. were caught in greater numbers on the yellow framed traps. The reasons for S. calcitrans attraction to black–white contrast are most likely due to conspicuousness in the environment although the extent to which flies are using this feature as a host-location cue or a perching site are unknown.

  7. Black Border Increases Stomoxys calcitrans Catch on White Sticky Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Archie K; Hall, Carol E; Gordon, Alan W; Clawson, Sam

    2018-02-02

    Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans , is a biting fly that can cause severe irritation to livestock resulting in reduced productivity. The most common method of monitoring S. calcitrans is through the use of sticky traps and many designs have been developed using different colours and materials such as alsynite fibreglass and polypropylene sheeting. Laboratory experiments and some field experimentation have demonstrated that colour contrast can attract S. calcitrans . However, this response has not been fully utilised in trap design. To test that simple colour contrast could increase trap efficacy, white sticky traps were mounted on three differently coloured backgrounds (white, yellow, and black) and positioned at five sites on a mixed livestock farm. White sticky traps on a black background caught significantly more S. calcitrans than the yellow or white backgrounds. An incidental result was that Pollenia sp. were caught in greater numbers on the yellow framed traps. The reasons for S. calcitrans attraction to black-white contrast are most likely due to conspicuousness in the environment although the extent to which flies are using this feature as a host-location cue or a perching site are unknown.

  8. Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Ivar

    2014-05-19

    It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems.

  9. Validation of the Hirst-Type Spore Trap for Simultaneous Monitoring of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Biodiversities in Urban Air Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Ferencova, Zuzana; Rastrojo, Alberto; Guantes, Raúl; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2017-07-01

    Pollen, fungi, and bacteria are the main microscopic biological entities present in outdoor air, causing allergy symptoms and disease transmission and having a significant role in atmosphere dynamics. Despite their relevance, a method for monitoring simultaneously these biological particles in metropolitan environments has not yet been developed. Here, we assessed the use of the Hirst-type spore trap to characterize the global airborne biota by high-throughput DNA sequencing, selecting regions of the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer for the taxonomic assignment. We showed that aerobiological communities are well represented by this approach. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of two traps working synchronically compiled >87% of the total relative abundance for bacterial diversity collected in each sampler, >89% for fungi, and >97% for pollen. We found a good correspondence between traditional characterization by microscopy and genetic identification, obtaining more-accurate taxonomic assignments and detecting a greater diversity using the latter. We also demonstrated that DNA sequencing accurately detects differences in biodiversity between samples. We concluded that high-throughput DNA sequencing applied to aerobiological samples obtained with Hirst spore traps provides reliable results and can be easily implemented for monitoring prokaryotic and eukaryotic entities present in the air of urban areas. IMPORTANCE Detection, monitoring, and characterization of the wide diversity of biological entities present in the air are difficult tasks that require time and expertise in different disciplines. We have evaluated the use of the Hirst spore trap (an instrument broadly employed in aerobiological studies) to detect and identify these organisms by DNA-based analyses. Our results showed a consistent collection of DNA and a good concordance with traditional methods for identification, suggesting that these devices can be used as a tool for continuous

  10. Chemistry of Colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anthocyanins are not attached to cell membranes, but are dis- solved in the cell sap. The colour produced by these pigments is sensitive to the pH of the cell sap. (The sugar rings bristle with. -OR groups, which can hydrogen-bond to water. Their chief effect is to in- crease the pigment's solubility in wa- ter). If the sap is quite ...

  11. Trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, E; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kemp, S L; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ∼1 T (∼0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been ...

  12. Daylight Influence on Colour Design : Empirical Study on Perceived Colour and Colour Experience Indoors

    OpenAIRE

    Hårleman, Maud

    2007-01-01

    It is known that one and the same interior colouring will appear different in rooms with windows facing north or facing south, but it is not known how natural daylight from these two compass points affects perceived colour and the ways in which colour is experienced. The objective is to describe the perceived colours to be expected in rooms with sunlight and diffused light, and thus develop a tool for colour design. Two empirical investigations provide the basis for six attached papers. The m...

  13. Studies on synthesis of a kind of new colour reagents bromophosphonobisazo derivatives of chromotropic acid and the effect of their constitution on colour behaviours with rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bincai, W.; Yuxin, Q.; Hengchuan, L.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the previous systematic studies, this paper reports to the original constitution of chlorophosphonazo type of colour reagents, has been reformed, and a kind of 14 new asymmetrical bromophosphonobisazo colour reagents of chromotropic acid have been designed and synthesized. In the meanwhile, the relationship between constitution of colour reagents and its behaviour in colour reaction with rare earth elements has been investigated. In addition, the general colour behaviours of these reagents and the influence of organic solvents and surfactants have been preliminarily studied

  14. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  15. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  16. Giant piezoresistance of p-type nano-thick silicon induced by interface electron trapping instead of 2D quantum confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongliang; Li Xinxin

    2011-01-01

    The p-type silicon giant piezoresistive coefficient is measured in top-down fabricated nano-thickness single-crystalline-silicon strain-gauge resistors with a macro-cantilever bending experiment. For relatively thicker samples, the variation of piezoresistive coefficient in terms of silicon thickness obeys the reported 2D quantum confinement effect. For ultra-thin samples, however, the variation deviates from the quantum-effect prediction but increases the value by at least one order of magnitude (compared to the conventional piezoresistance of bulk silicon) and the value can change its sign (e.g. from positive to negative). A stress-enhanced Si/SiO 2 interface electron-trapping effect model is proposed to explain the 'abnormal' giant piezoresistance that should be originated from the carrier-concentration change effect instead of the conventional equivalent mobility change effect for bulk silicon piezoresistors. An interface state modification experiment gives preliminary proof of our analysis.

  17. Human eye colour and HERC2, OCA2 and MATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of human eye colour by forensic genetic methods is of great value in certain crime investigations. Strong associations between blue/brown eye colour and the SNP loci rs1129038 and rs12913832 in the HERC2 gene were recently described. Weaker associations between eye colour and other...... genetic markers also exist. In 395 randomly selected Danes, we investigated the predictive values of various combinations of SNP alleles in the HERC2, OCA2 and MATP (SLC45A2) genes and compared the results to the eye colours as they were described by the individuals themselves. The highest predictive...... value of typing either the HERC2 SNPs rs1129038 and/or rs12913832 that are in strong linkage disequilibrium was observed when eye colour was divided into two groups, (1) blue, grey and green (light) and (2) brown and hazel (dark). Sequence variations in rs11636232 and rs7170852 in HERC2, rs1800407...

  18. Colour learning when foraging for nectar and pollen: bees learn two colours at once.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Felicity; Papaj, Daniel R; Leonard, Anne S

    2015-09-01

    Bees are model organisms for the study of learning and memory, yet nearly all such research to date has used a single reward, nectar. Many bees collect both nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein) on a single foraging bout, sometimes from different plant species. We tested whether individual bumblebees could learn colour associations with nectar and pollen rewards simultaneously in a foraging scenario where one floral type offered only nectar and the other only pollen. We found that bees readily learned multiple reward-colour associations, and when presented with novel floral targets generalized to colours similar to those trained for each reward type. These results expand the ecological significance of work on bee learning and raise new questions regarding the cognitive ecology of pollination. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. VACUUM TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  20. Effects of coloured lighting on the perception of interior spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşioğlu, Seden; Olguntürk, Nіlgün

    2015-02-01

    Use of coloured lighting in interior spaces has become prevalent in recent years. Considerable importance is ascribed to coloured lighting in interior and lighting design. The effects of colour on the perception of interior spaces have been studied as surface colour; but here, the effects of three different types of chromatic light were investigated. The lighting differed in colour (red, green and white) and perceptions of interior space were assessed. 97 participants (59 women, 38 men; M age = 21.4 yr.) evaluated the experiment room on a questionnaire assessing eight evaluative factors: Pleasantness, Arousal, Aesthetics, Usefulness, Comfort, Spaciousness, Colour, and Lighting quality. Perceptions of the room differed by colour of lighting for some of the evaluative factors, but there was no sex difference in perceptions. Interior spaces may be perceived as equally pleasant under white, green and red lighting. Under white lighting a space is perceived as more useful, spacious, clear, and luminous. Green lighting would make the same effect. Green and white lighting were perceived equally comfortable in an interior space. Chromatic coloured lighting was perceived to be more aesthetic than white lighting. The results support previous findings for some evaluative factors, but differed for others.

  1. The effects of colour and valence on news evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Grümmer, Melanie; Kießler, Antje; Neuß, Celina; Schröter, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Research across different fields of psychology has reported effects of colour cues on a variety of cognitive processes. Especially, the colour red has been shown to have striking influences. In the context of media reception, however, colour effects have been widely neglected so far. This study made a first step in this direction by investigating the effects of the colour red (compared with blue and grey) on the way news articles are evaluated. Two types of news were framed by a coloured border while the valence of the news content additionally varied. Based on 369 participants who read and evaluated the news articles online, we observed effects for colour cues and news valence in the absence of an interaction effect, indicating that the colour red induced approach motivation. However, only the contrast between red and grey reached statistical significance, indicating that chromatic and achromatic colours may differ in their perceived visual saliency. Overall, these results provide an important complement to previous studies and have practical implications for media researchers and producers. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Dependence between the colour of galaxies in pairs (Holmberg effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.V.; Zasov, A.V.; Dibaj, Eh.A.; Tomov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Proceeding from the data of photoelectric photometpy by Tomov, the colours of galaxies in double systems are studied For the most of the paips formed by elliptical (EE) or by spiral (SS) galaxies, the difference between the corrected colour indices (B-V)sub(T)sup(0) of components does not exceed 0.10 and does not depend on the difference ΔT of their morphological types The correlation between the colours of galaxies in EE-pairs can be explained by the similaritins of element abundances but not of the luminosities of galaxies. The elliptical and SO-galaxies in pairs with the spiral galaxies ape noticeably bluep on the avepage. The relation between the colours of galaxies in ES-pairs is possible. The colours of early-type spiral galaxies (T < 4) in most of the SS-systems are more blue as compared to the mean colours of galaxies of the same type T. A similarity of the colours of the galaxies in many of the SS-pairs can be a result of the periodically repeated bursts of star formation which take place in both galaxies simultaneously

  3. Colours in a Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Kirsi; Smirnova, Eugenia; Ilen, Elina; Sixta, Herbert; Hummel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    | openaire: EC/H2020/646226/EU//Trash-2-Cash This paper reports on preliminary results on the recycling of coloured cellulose-based textiles using a novel dry-jet wet spinning denoted as the Ioncell-F process. The practical possibility of colour circulation is useful knowledge for colour designers in the industry. The findings can help define further parameters for circular economy products

  4. Theory of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2006-01-01

    The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

  5. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...... website that offers additional material such as slides, exercises and project proposals....

  6. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...... a certain use of the CP-net. We define the semantics of annotations by describing a translation from a CP-net and the corresponding annotation layers to another CP-net where the annotations are an integrated part of the CP-net....

  7. Niemann-Pick disease, type B with TRAP-positive storage cells and secondary sea blue histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saxena

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present 2 cases of Niemann Pick disease, type B with secondary sea-blue histiocytosis. Strikingly, in both cases the Pick cells were positive for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, a finding hitherto described only in Gaucher cells. This report highlights the importance of this finding as a potential cytochemical diagnostic pitfall in the diagnosis of Niemann Pick disease.

  8. Complementary colours for a physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing colours and their physically exact complements using cellophane is presented. The origin of the colours lies in the transmission of polarized light through the birefringent cellophane, and therefore the optics of birefringent materials is briefly presented. A set-up which will be described in the following can be used in a laboratory experiment at an undergraduate level

  9. The Metric of Colour Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...... and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent...

  10. Electromagnetic trapping of cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V.I.; Minogin, V.G.; Letokhov, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes the methods of trapping cold atoms in electromagnetic fields and in the combined electromagnetic and gravity fields. We discuss first the basic types of the dipole radiation forces used for cooling and trapping atoms in the laser fields. We outline next the fundamentals of the laser cooling of atoms and classify the temperature limits for basic laser cooling processes. The main body of the review is devoted to discussion of atom traps based on the dipole radiation forces, dipole magnetic forces, combined dipole radiation-magnetic forces, and the forces combined of the dipole radiation-magnetic and gravity forces. Physical fundamentals of atom traps operating as waveguides and cavities for cold atoms are also considered. The review ends with the applications of cold and trapped atoms in atomic, molecular and optical physics. (author)

  11. Fluorescent prey traps in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, R; Johnson, A J; Sankar, S; Hussain, A A; Sathish Kumar, C; Sabulal, B

    2013-05-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire most of their nutrients by capturing ants, insects and other arthropods through their leaf-evolved biological traps. So far, the best-known attractants in carnivorous prey traps are nectar, colour and olfactory cues. Here, fresh prey traps of 14 Nepenthes, five Sarracenia, five Drosera, two Pinguicula species/hybrids, Dionaea muscipula and Utricularia stellaris were scanned at UV 366 nm. Fluorescence emissions of major isolates of fresh Nepenthes khasiana pitcher peristomes were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. N. khasiana field pitcher peristomes were masked by its slippery zone extract, and prey capture rates were compared with control pitchers. We found the existence of distinct blue fluorescence emissions at the capture spots of Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea prey traps at UV 366 nm. These alluring blue emissions gradually developed with the growth of the prey traps and diminished towards their death. On excitation at 366 nm, N. khasiana peristome 3:1 CHCl3–MeOH extract and its two major blue bands showed strong fluorescence emissions at 430–480 nm. Masking of blue emissions on peristomes drastically reduced prey capture in N. khasiana pitchers. We propose these molecular emissions as a critical factor attracting arthropods and other visitors to these carnivorous traps. Drosera, Pinguicula and Utricularia prey traps showed only red chlorophyll emissions at 366 nm.

  12. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  13. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  14. Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's…

  15. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Cooperatively enhanced dipole forces from artificial atoms in trapped nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Mathieu L.; Bradac, Carlo; Besga, Benjamin; Johnsson, Mattias; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Volz, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Optical trapping is a powerful tool to manipulate small particles, from micrometre-size beads in liquid environments to single atoms in vacuum. The trapping mechanism relies on the interaction between a dipole and the electric field of laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution to the associated force typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the polarizability of the bulk material. Here, we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing a large number of artificial atoms, nitrogen-vacancy colour centres, the contributions from both the nanodiamond and the colour centres to the optical trapping strength can be simultaneously observed in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths around the zero-phonon line transition of the colour centres, we observe a 10% increase of overall trapping strength. The magnitude of this effect suggests that due to the large density of centres, cooperative effects between the artificial atoms contribute to the observed modification of the trapping strength. Our approach may enable the study of cooperativity in nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation.

  17. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  18. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...

  19. A substrate-fusion protein is trapped inside the Type III Secretion System channel in Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dohlich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Type III Secretion System (T3SS is a macromolecular complex used by Gram-negative bacteria to secrete effector proteins from the cytoplasm across the bacterial envelope in a single step. For many pathogens, the T3SS is an essential virulence factor that enables the bacteria to interact with and manipulate their respective host. A characteristic structural feature of the T3SS is the needle complex (NC. The NC resembles a syringe with a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and a long needle-like structure that protrudes from the bacterium. Based on the paradigm of a syringe-like mechanism, it is generally assumed that effectors and translocators are unfolded and secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm through the basal body and needle channel. Despite extensive research on T3SS, this hypothesis lacks experimental evidence and the mechanism of secretion is not fully understood. In order to elucidate details of the T3SS secretion mechanism, we generated fusion proteins consisting of a T3SS substrate and a bulky protein containing a knotted motif. Because the knot cannot be unfolded, these fusions are accepted as T3SS substrates but remain inside the NC channel and obstruct the T3SS. To our knowledge, this is the first time substrate fusions have been visualized together with isolated NCs and we demonstrate that substrate proteins are secreted directly through the channel with their N-terminus first. The channel physically encloses the fusion protein and shields it from a protease and chemical modifications. Our results corroborate an elementary understanding of how the T3SS works and provide a powerful tool for in situ-structural investigations in the future. This approach might also be applicable to other protein secretion systems that require unfolding of their substrates prior to secretion.

  20. The SAURON project - XIII. SAURON-GALEX study of early-type galaxies : the ultraviolet colour-magnitude relations and Fundamental Planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; Peletier, Reynier F.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We present Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) imaging of 34 nearby early-type galaxies from the SAURON representative sample of 48 E/S0 galaxies, all of which have ground-based optical imaging from the MDM Observatory. The surface brightness profiles of nine

  1. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  2. Globalisation Trapped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caraça

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The promise of making society progress through the direct applications of science was finally fulfilled in the mid-20th century. Science progressed immensely, propelled by the effects of the two world wars. The first science-based technologies saw the daylight during the 1940s and their transformative power was such that neither the military, nor subsequently the markets, allowed science to return intact to its curiosity-driven nest. Technoscience was born then and (being progressively pulled away from curiosity-driven science was able to grow enormously, erecting a formidable structure of networks of institutions that impacted decisively on the economy. It is a paradox, or maybe a trap, that the fulfillment of science’s solemn promise of ‘transforming nature’ means seeing ourselves and our Western societies entangled in crises after crises with no clear outcome in view. A redistribution of geopolitical power is under way, along with the deployment of information and communication technologies, forcing dominant structures to oscillate, as knowledge about organization and methods, marketing, design, and software begins to challenge the role of technoscience as the main vector of economic growth and wealth accumulation. What ought to be done?

  3. Neural correlates of imagined and synaesthetic colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Puce, Aina; Syngeniotis, Ari; Howard, Matthew A; McGlone, Francis; Mattingley, Jason B

    2006-01-01

    The experience of colour is a core element of human vision. Colours provide important symbolic and contextual information not conveyed by form alone. Moreover, the experience of colour can arise without external stimulation. For many people, visual memories are rich with colour imagery. In the unusual phenomenon of grapheme-colour synaesthesia, achromatic forms such as letters, words and numbers elicit vivid experiences of colour. Few studies, however, have examined the neural correlates of such internally generated colour experiences. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare patterns of cortical activity for the perception of external coloured stimuli and internally generated colours in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes and matched non-synaesthetic controls. In a voluntary colour imagery task, both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes made colour judgements on objects presented as grey scale photographs. In a synaesthetic colour task, we presented letters that elicited synaesthetic colours, and asked participants to perform a localisation task. We assessed the neural activity underpinning these two different forms of colour experience that occur in the absence of chromatic sensory input. In both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, voluntary colour imagery activated the colour-selective area, V4, in the right hemisphere. In contrast, the synaesthetic colour task resulted in unique activity for synaesthetes in the left medial lingual gyrus, an area previously implicated in tasks involving colour knowledge. Our data suggest that internally generated colour experiences recruit brain regions specialised for colour perception, with striking differences between voluntary colour imagery and synaesthetically induced colours.

  4. Linguistic relativism and colour cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Davies, Ian R L

    2004-11-01

    Native speakers of two languages (English and Ndonga) were compared on three colour cognition tasks (sorting, triads and visual search) in a test of the linguistic relativity hypothesis (Whorf, 1956). The colour lexicons of these two languages differ because Ndonga has no basic terms for ORANGE, PINK and PURPLE, and stimuli were chosen to exploit this difference. On the sorting task (sorting into similarity-groups) for each language, nominally similar colours were grouped together more often than nominally dissimilar colours. On the triads task (choosing the most different of three colours), when the most nominally isolated colour differed for the two language-groups, each group tended to choose their nominal isolate. On the search task (scanning for target colours among distractors), targets were either in a different English category than distractors (cross-category), or some distractors were in the same English category as distractors (within-category). The 'cost' in speed of having within-category distractors was much greater for the English than for the Ndonga. Overall, these data suggest that a core universal component is modulated by a small relativist influence. The differences in the visual search task are consistent with language affecting pre-attentive processes (an indirect language effect) as well as exerting on-line influences (a direct effect).

  5. The composite insect trap: an innovative combination trap for biologically diverse sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo

    Full Text Available Documentation of insect diversity is an important component of the study of biodiversity, community dynamics, and global change. Accurate identification of insects usually requires catching individuals for close inspection. However, because insects are so diverse, most trapping methods are specifically tailored to a particular taxonomic group. For scientists interested in the broadest possible spectrum of insect taxa, whether for long term monitoring of an ecosystem or for a species inventory, the use of several different trapping methods is usually necessary. We describe a novel composite method for capturing a diverse spectrum of insect taxa. The Composite Insect Trap incorporates elements from four different existing trapping methods: the cone trap, malaise trap, pan trap, and flight intercept trap. It is affordable, resistant, easy to assemble and disassemble, and collects a wide variety of insect taxa. Here we describe the design, construction, and effectiveness of the Composite Insect Trap tested during a study of insect diversity. The trap catches a broad array of insects and can eliminate the need to use multiple trap types in biodiversity studies. We propose that the Composite Insect Trap is a useful addition to the trapping methods currently available to ecologists and will be extremely effective for monitoring community level dynamics, biodiversity assessment, and conservation and restoration work. In addition, the Composite Insect Trap will be of use to other insect specialists, such as taxonomists, that are interested in describing the insect taxa in a given area.

  6. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  7. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  8. Visual and digital comparative tooth colour assessment methods and atomic force microscopy surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Shrivastava, S; Witcomb, M J

    2013-10-01

    This study compared digital and visual colour tooth colour assessment methods in a sample of 99 teeth consisting of incisors, canines and pre-molars. The teeth were equally divided between Control, Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleach and Opalescence Quick bleach and subjected to three treatments. Colour readings were recorded at nine intervals by two assessment methods, VITA Easyshade and VITAPAN 3D MASTER TOOTH GUIDE, giving a total of 1782 colour readings. Descriptive and statistical analysis was undertaken using a GLM test for Analysis of Variance for a Fractional Design set at a significance of P colour assessment showed significance for the independent variables of treatment, number of treatments, tooth type and the combination tooth type and treatment. Digital colour assessment indicated treatment and tooth type to be of significance in tooth colour change. Poor agreement was found between visual and digital colour assessment methods for Control and Ozicure Oxygen Activator treatments. Surface roughness values increased two-fold for Opalescence Quick specimens over the two other treatments, implying that increased light scattering improved digital colour reading. Both digital and visual colour matching methods should be used in tooth bleaching studies to complement each other and to compensate for deficiencies.

  9. Optical patterning of trapped charge in nitrogen-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Harishankar; Henshaw, Jacob; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Manson, Neil B.; Albu, Remus; Doherty, Marcus W.; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-08-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond is emerging as a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing and nanoscale metrology. Of interest in these applications is the manipulation of the NV charge, which can be attained by optical excitation. Here, we use two-colour optical microscopy to investigate the dynamics of NV photo-ionization, charge diffusion and trapping in type-1b diamond. We combine fixed-point laser excitation and scanning fluorescence imaging to locally alter the concentration of negatively charged NVs, and to subsequently probe the corresponding redistribution of charge. We uncover the formation of spatial patterns of trapped charge, which we qualitatively reproduce via a model of the interplay between photo-excited carriers and atomic defects. Further, by using the NV as a probe, we map the relative fraction of positively charged nitrogen on localized optical excitation. These observations may prove important to transporting quantum information between NVs or to developing three-dimensional, charge-based memories.

  10. Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-03-28

    The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant.

  11. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  12. Genetics and evolution of colour patterns in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Ballen, Cissy

    2013-01-01

    The study of coloration in the polyphyletic reptilians has flourished in the last two decades, in particular with respect to the underlying genetics of colour traits, the function of colours in social interactions, and ongoing selection on these traits in the wild. The taxonomic bias, however, is profound: at this level of resolution almost all available information is for diurnal lizards. Therefore, we focus on case studies, for which there are as complete causal sequences of colour evolution as possible, from phenotypic expression of variation in colour, to ongoing selection in the wild. For work prior to 1992 and for a broader coverage of reptilian coloration we refer the readers to Cooper and Greenburg's (Biology of the Reptilia, 1992) review. There are seven major conclusions we would like to emphasise: (a) visual systems in diurnal lizards are broadly conserved but among the wider range of reptiles in general, there is functionally important variation in the number and type of photoreceptors, spectral tuning of photopigments and optical properties of the eye; (b) coloration in reptiles is a function of complex interactions between structural and pigmentary components, with implications for both proximate control and condition dependence of colour expression; (c) studies of colour-variable species have enabled estimates of heritability of colour and colour patterns, which often show a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance; (d) colour-polymorphic lizard species sometimes, but not always, show striking differences in genetically encoded reproductive tactics and provide useful models for studying the evolution and maintenance of polymorphism; (e) both male and female colours are sometimes, but not always, a significant component of socio-sexual signalling, often based on multiple traits; (f) evidence for effects of hormones and condition on colour expression, and trade-offs with immunocompetence and parasite load, is variable; (g) lizards show fading of colours

  13. Parallel inputs to memory in bee colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    In the 19(th) century, it was found that attraction of bees to light was controlled by light intensity irrespective of colour, and a few critical entomologists inferred that vision of bees foraging on flowers was unlike human colour vision. Therefore, quite justly, Professor Carl von Hess concluded in his book on the Comparative Physiology of Vision (1912) that bees do not distinguish colours in the way that humans enjoy. Immediately, Karl von Frisch, an assistant in the Zoology Department of the same University of Münich, set to work to show that indeed bees have colour vision like humans, thereby initiating a new research tradition, and setting off a decade of controversy that ended only at the death of Hess in 1923. Until 1939, several researchers continued the tradition of trying to untangle the mechanism of bee vision by repeatedly testing trained bees, but made little progress, partly because von Frisch and his legacy dominated the scene. The theory of trichromatic colour vision further developed after three types of receptors sensitive to green, blue, and ultraviolet (UV), were demonstrated in 1964 in the bee. Then, until the end of the century, all data was interpreted in terms of trichromatic colour space. Anomalies were nothing new, but eventually after 1996 they led to the discovery that bees have a previously unknown type of colour vision based on a monochromatic measure and distribution of blue and measures of modulation in green and blue receptor pathways. Meanwhile, in the 20(th) century, search for a suitable rationalization, and explorations of sterile culs-de-sac had filled the literature of bee colour vision, but were based on the wrong theory.

  14. Amber Gemstones Sorting By Colour

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkevicius, Saulius; Lipnickas, Arunas; Rimkus, Kestas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to create computer vision algorithms for autonomous multiclass identification of amber nuggets by their colour. By applying the proposed methods an automated production sorting system has been developed. This system can be used, for example in combination with conveyor systems, and in any other case that requires distinguishing objects of many classes in a high-rate flow of objects. In order to achieve this, the proposed system operates with colour features sele...

  15. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image

  16. Colour Day: an innovative project

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    This year, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School works on the theme of colours. Every class has their own project revolving around this common theme. The class of Claire, Sandrine and Nadia, introduced a monthly “Colour Day”. The objective of this day is to offer children different activities (arts and crafts, baking, etc.) designed around a specific colour. The children get a chance to decorate their classroom and learn in many different ways inspired by the colours blue, red, and many others. The parents are also called to contribute and invited to dress their children in the colour of the day. In September, we discovered the colour blue, in October it was time for red, and in mid-November yellow will brighten up our structure. Everyone plays along, making this a very festive day for us all. On Tuesday, 20 September, we saw the whole School turn blue! We were all dressed in blue and we made blue paintings, too! We made beautiful artwork inspired by artists like Ma...

  17. Brown colour in natural diamond and interaction between the brown related and other colour-inducing defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D; Sibley, S J; Kelly, C J

    2009-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy results on a range of type II diamonds are presented which enable the electronic states associated with them to be mapped out. High pressure, high temperature treatment of brown type IIa diamonds has enabled an activation energy for the removal of the brown colour of 8.0 ± 0.3 eV to be determined and this is consistent with expectations associated with the currently accepted vacancy cluster model for the defect. Theoretical calculations suggest that this defect will generate partially filled gap states about 1 eV above the valence band. Data on the photochromic behaviour of bands producing pink colour and their relation to brown colour are presented; these suggest that the pink bands are produced from two independent transitions with ground states close to each other just below the middle of the band gap. Compensation of neutral boron by charge transfer from states associated with brown colour is demonstrated via the correlated increase in neutral boron and decrease in brown colour on high pressure, high temperature treatment to remove the defects causing the brown colour.

  18. Intrinsic electron trapping in amorphous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Jack; Kaviani, Moloud; Afanas’ev, Valeri V.; Lisoni, Judit G.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate that electron trapping at intrinsic precursor sites is endemic in non-glass-forming amorphous oxide films. The energy distributions of trapped electron states in ultra-pure prototype amorphous (a)-HfO2 insulator obtained from exhaustive photo-depopulation experiments demonstrate electron states in the energy range of 2–3 eV below the oxide conduction band. These energy distributions are compared to the results of density functional calculations of a-HfO2 models of realistic density. The experimental results can be explained by the presence of intrinsic charge trapping sites formed by under-coordinated Hf cations and elongated Hf–O bonds in a-HfO2. These charge trapping states can capture up to two electrons, forming polarons and bi-polarons. The corresponding trapping sites are different from the dangling-bond type defects responsible for trapping in glass-forming oxides, such as SiO2, in that the traps are formed without bonds being broken. Furthermore, introduction of hydrogen causes formation of somewhat energetically deeper electron traps when a proton is immobilized next to the trapped electron bi-polaron. The proposed novel mechanism of intrinsic charge trapping in a-HfO2 represents a new paradigm for charge trapping in a broad class of non-glass-forming amorphous insulators.

  19. Ligand trap for the activin type IIA receptor protects against vascular disease and renal fibrosis in mice with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapova, Olga A; Fang, Yifu; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    The causes of cardiovascular mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are partly attributed to the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The causes of the early CKD-MBD are not well known. Our discovery of Wnt (portmanteau of wingless and int) inhibitors, especially Dickkopf 1, produced during renal repair as participating in the pathogenesis of the vascular and skeletal components of the CKD-MBD implied that additional pathogenic factors are critical. In the search for such factors, we studied the effects of activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) signaling by using a ligand trap for the receptor, RAP-011 (a soluble extracellular domain of ActRIIA fused to a murine IgG-Fc fragment). In a mouse model of CKD that stimulated atherosclerotic calcification, RAP-011 significantly increased aortic ActRIIA signaling assessed by the levels of phosphorylated Smad2/3. Furthermore, RAP-011 treatment significantly reversed CKD-induced vascular smooth muscle dedifferentiation as assessed by smooth muscle 22α levels, osteoblastic transition, and neointimal plaque calcification. In the diseased kidneys, RAP-011 significantly stimulated αklotho levels and it inhibited ActRIIA signaling and decreased renal fibrosis and proteinuria. RAP-011 treatment significantly decreased both renal and circulating Dickkopf 1 levels, showing that Wnt activation was downstream of ActRIIA. Thus, ActRIIA signaling in CKD contributes to the CKD-MBD and renal fibrosis. ActRIIA signaling may be a potential therapeutic target in CKD. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colour study of facades in Zlato polje, Kranj, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Žnidaršič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A colour study of the facades of the Zlato Polje neighbourhood in Kranj.The buildings of the Zlato polje neighborhood in Kranj, built in the fifties and early sixties, are in need of additional insulation on their external walls, and as such, we face the need for new colours for the facades.For the free-standing buildings positioned in an orthogonal grid, we attempted to find a certain type of colour that would clearly express the different spaces and atmosphere created among the buildings themselves. Although the colours would differ subtly throughout the neighbourhood, the resulting effect should be a unified whole. The architectural elements of each building were also analysed and emphasised by the scale of intensity or by contrast with the chosen pigment.Two colour combinations for the buildings were made:1. a retained "grey-brown" version that evokes the general colour used when the buildings were constructed.2. a more vivacious "ochre" version in an attempt to include the nearby buildings that have already been renovated with aggressive tones, while unifying the whole as much as possible.

  1. Motion edges and regions guide image segmentation by colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, P; Hurlbert, A C

    1997-11-22

    Image segmentation is an important early stage in visual processing in which the visual system groups together parts of the image that belong together, prior to or in conjunction with object recognition. Two principal processes may be involved in image segmentation: an edge-based process that uses feature contrasts to mark boundaries of coherent regions, and a region-based process that groups similar features over a larger scale. Earlier, we have shown that motion and colour interact strongly in image segmentation by the human visual system. Here we explore the nature of this interaction in terms of edge- and region-based processes. We measure performance on a region-based colour segmentation task in the presence of distinct types of motion information, in the form of edges and regions which in themselves do not reveal the location of the colour target. The results show that both motion edges and regions may guide the integrative process required for this colour segmentation task. Motion edges appear to act by delimiting areas over which to integrate colour information, whereas motion similarities define primitive surfaces within which colour grouping and segmentation processes are deployed.

  2. Quantifying variability of avian colours: are signalling traits more variable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Delhey

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased variability in sexually selected ornaments, a key assumption of evolutionary theory, is thought to be maintained through condition-dependence. Condition-dependent handicap models of sexual selection predict that (a sexually selected traits show amplified variability compared to equivalent non-sexually selected traits, and since males are usually the sexually selected sex, that (b males are more variable than females, and (c sexually dimorphic traits more variable than monomorphic ones. So far these predictions have only been tested for metric traits. Surprisingly, they have not been examined for bright coloration, one of the most prominent sexual traits. This omission stems from computational difficulties: different types of colours are quantified on different scales precluding the use of coefficients of variation.Based on physiological models of avian colour vision we develop an index to quantify the degree of discriminable colour variation as it can be perceived by conspecifics. A comparison of variability in ornamental and non-ornamental colours in six bird species confirmed (a that those coloured patches that are sexually selected or act as indicators of quality show increased chromatic variability. However, we found no support for (b that males generally show higher levels of variability than females, or (c that sexual dichromatism per se is associated with increased variability.We show that it is currently possible to realistically estimate variability of animal colours as perceived by them, something difficult to achieve with other traits. Increased variability of known sexually-selected/quality-indicating colours in the studied species, provides support to the predictions borne from sexual selection theory but the lack of increased overall variability in males or dimorphic colours in general indicates that sexual differences might not always be shaped by similar selective forces.

  3. A skin colour code for the Nigerian (Negroid) population | George ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some researchers have codified various people of different racial and pigment backgrounds into skin types. The West African native population generally falls into type VI –least likely to burn. There is a need for skin colour code in a multiethnic country like Nigeria especially for the purpose of health matters. The human eye ...

  4. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  5. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Optimizing Trap Design and Trapping Protocols for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  7. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-12-18

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45-25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data.

  8. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45–25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  9. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  10. How to detect trap cluster systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2008-01-01

    Spatially correlated traps and recombination centres (trap-recombination centre pairs and larger clusters) are responsible for many anomalous phenomena that are difficult to explain in the framework of both classical models, i.e. model of localized transitions (LT) and the simple trap model (STM), even with a number of discrete energy levels. However, these 'anomalous' effects may provide a good platform for identifying trap cluster systems. This paper considers selected cluster-type effects, mainly relating to an anomalous dependence of TL on absorbed dose in the system of isolated clusters (ICs). Some consequences for interacting cluster (IAC) systems, involving both localized and delocalized transitions occurring simultaneously, are also discussed

  11. The effect of polyploidy and hybridization on the evolution of floral colour in Nicotiana (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Arnold, Sarah E J; Chittka, Lars; Le Comber, Steven C; Verity, Robert; Dodsworth, Steven; Knapp, Sandra; Kelly, Laura J; Chase, Mark W; Baldwin, Ian T; Kovařík, Aleš; Mhiri, Corinne; Taylor, Lin; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Speciation in angiosperms can be accompanied by changes in floral colour that may influence pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. This study investigates whether changes in floral colour can accompany polyploid and homoploid hybridization, important processes in angiosperm evolution. Spectral reflectance of corolla tissue was examined for 60 Nicotiana (Solanaceae) accessions (41 taxa) based on spectral shape (corresponding to pigmentation) as well as bee and hummingbird colour perception in order to assess patterns of floral colour evolution. Polyploid and homoploid hybrid spectra were compared with those of their progenitors to evaluate whether hybridization has resulted in floral colour shifts. Floral colour categories in Nicotiana seem to have arisen multiple times independently during the evolution of the genus. Most younger polyploids displayed an unexpected floral colour, considering those of their progenitors, in the colour perception of at least one pollinator type, whereas older polyploids tended to resemble one or both of their progenitors. Floral colour evolution in Nicotiana is weakly constrained by phylogeny, and colour shifts do occur in association with both polyploid and homoploid hybrid divergence. Transgressive floral colour in N. tabacum has arisen by inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation from its paternal progenitor while having a plastid phenotype like its maternal progenitor. Potentially, floral colour evolution has been driven by, or resulted in, pollinator shifts. However, those polyploids that are not sympatric (on a regional scale) with their progenitor lineages are typically not divergent in floral colour from them, perhaps because of a lack of competition for pollinators. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  13. Photodissociation comprehensive study of OH- on alkali halides and their interaction with colour centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.

    1985-01-01

    This work shows that the OH - defect induces changes in the electronics processes of the alkali halides such as in radiation damage and optical cycles of colour centers. Two cases were considered: with the presence of an OH - ion in the (1) excited state and (2) in the ground state; 1) the comprehensive study of resonant OH - photodissociation in several hosts showed that deep traps (for electrons) can be produced from the OH - dissociation. These traps can be effective for the capture of electrons produced in the radiation damage of the lattice as well as for trapping electrons from ionized color centers. It was observed a second channel (new) for the de-excitation of the (OH - )* molecule in KI and RbI. This effect can be effective only when the lattice around the molecule holds a large enough interstitial space. This new mechanism is responsible for the strong production at LNT of F centers and OH 0 molecules at the expenses of OH - defects. Considering the complete investigation of the full cycle it was proposed a phenomenological model that would explain the observed behaviour when one covers a wide variation of lattice parameters (KCl -> RbI); 2) It was verified that the OH - ion present in the lattice induces strong changes in the de-excitation processes of electronic defects with a spread out wave function (like F centers). A change in the reorientation behaviour of excited F 2 and F + 2 centers was also verified. Two main effects should be mentioned: A) The induced de-excitation is very fast and non-radiative on F centers. B) Another type of system investigated (F 2 and F + 2 ) has shown an intense increase of the speed of reorientation of the F 2 and F + 2 excited centers. (autor) [pt

  14. Relationship between Tooth Colour, Skin Colour and Age: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is presently limited scientific knowledge in the literature about the relationship between tooth and skin colour and ability to provide fully edentulous patients with their natural tooth color on their complete dentures has always been a ... Manufacturers should include lighter shades on the shade guides and acrylic teeth.

  15. Colour in digital pathology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Emily L; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Colour is central to the practice of pathology because of the use of coloured histochemical and immunohistochemical stains to visualize tissue features. Our reliance upon histochemical stains and light microscopy has evolved alongside a wide variation in slide colour, with little investigation into the implications of colour variation. However, the introduction of the digital microscope and whole-slide imaging has highlighted the need for further understanding and control of colour. This is because the digitization process itself introduces further colour variation which may affect diagnosis, and image analysis algorithms often use colour or intensity measures to detect or measure tissue features. The US Food and Drug Administration have released recent guidance stating the need to develop a method of controlling colour reproduction throughout the digitization process in whole-slide imaging for primary diagnostic use. This comprehensive review introduces applied basic colour physics and colour interpretation by the human visual system, before discussing the importance of colour in pathology. The process of colour calibration and its application to pathology are also included, as well as a summary of the current guidelines and recommendations regarding colour in digital pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Optimization of multifunnel traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): influence of size, trap coating, and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered.

  17. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    OpenAIRE

    Derek H. Arnold; Signy V. Wegener; Francesca Brown; Jason B. Mattingley

    2011-01-01

    Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ?mind's eye?, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presenta...

  18. Lightness and Hue Perception: The Bezold-Brucke Effect and Colour Basic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Julio; Aguado, Luis; Moreira, Humberto; Davies, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Using surface colours as stimuli, the present research was aimed at the two following goals: (1) To determine the chromatic angles related to categorical effects type B-B (Bezold-Brucke). (2) To determine the colourimetric characteristics compatible with each Spanish colour basic category. To get these goals the full set of tiles included in the…

  19. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  20. Biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zelinlan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-12-05

    Structural colours and superwettability are of great interest due to their unique characteristics. However, the application of materials with either structural colours or superwettability is limited. Moreover, materials possessing both structural colours and superwettability are crucial for many practical applications. The combination of structural colours and superwettability can result in materials for use various applications, such as in sensors, detectors, bioassays, anti-counterfeiting, and liquid actuators, by controlling surfaces to repel or absorb liquids. Regarding superwettability and structural colours, surface texture and chemical composition are two factors for the construction of materials with superwettable structural colours. This review aims at offering a comprehensive elaboration of the mechanism, recent biomimetic research, and applications of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours. Furthermore, this review provides significant insight into the design, fabrication, and application of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

  1. Please pass me the skin coloured crayon!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Martina; Levisen, Carsten; Beck, Thorhalla Gudmundsdottir

    2015-01-01

    -based colour concept to language socialisation. Our study suggests that children’s use of crayons in pre-schools, homes, and kindergartens have a formative impact on the acquisition of colour concepts in general, and in particular, in acquiring a skin-based colour concept. Apart from ‘crayon socialisation...... worldviews and idealised cognitive models embedded in skin-based colour concepts in contemporary German and Scandi- navian languages. Arguing that colour concepts are linguistic constructs through which speakers have learned to pay attention to their visual worlds, we trace the origin of the skin...... and Scandinavian languages could lead to similar changes as the ones which have taken place in English (i.e. the replacement of skin coloured with peach or a similar construct). Skin-based colours in Germanic languages also offer new perspectives on visual semantics, the social origins of colour...

  2. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy cons...... tool package (see [1–5])....

  3. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  4. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have. :olour preferences, preferring, for example, to pick red and yellow sweets from a multicoloured supply. Among normal nursery-school children the same 2 colours feature in tests for preference, and it has been suggested' that it might be useful to utilize these ...

  5. Estimation of the real colour gamut

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Romero, Esther; Chorro Calderón, Elísabet; Viqueira Pérez, Valentín; Martínez Verdú, Francisco Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en AIC 2009, 11th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC), 27 September-2 October 2009, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. In the present work, we have assessed the gamut of colour surfaces currently available for different colour technologies. Their colour reproduction capability have been analyzed by plotting CIELAB data under the illuminant D65 into constant lightness and hue-angle planes to be compared with MacAdam limits which defi...

  6. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Schuster, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed. (author)

  7. Auxochromic groups of a new kind of colour reagents bromophosphonobisazo derivatives and their effect on colour behaviour of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bincai; Qu Yuxin; Liu Hengchuan

    1985-01-01

    Based on the previous systematic studies, the reform of the original constitution of chlorophosphonazo type of colour reagents has been designed and a new kind of 14 asymmetrical bromophosphonobisazo colour reagents containing different auxochromic group has been synthesized. The relationship between constitution of the colour reagents and their behaviour of colour reaction with rare earth elements and the general colour behaviour of these reagents and the influence of organic solvents and surfactants have also been studied. This kind of reagents exhibits high acidity, high sensiyivity, large contrast and good stability when they react with rare earth elements. Some of them are better than analogous chlorophosphonazo derivatives and give excellent analytical behaviour. They may be used as better reagents for spectrophotometric determination of total, cerium-subgroup and yttrium-subgroup rare earth elements without preliminary separation

  8. Applicability of colour index calibrations to T Tauri stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, T.; Ammler, M.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the applicability of effective temperature scales of several broad band colours to T Tauri stars (TTS). We take into account different colour systems as well as stellar parameters like metallicity and surface gravity which influence the conversion from colour indices or spectral type to effective temperature. For a large sample of TTS, we derive temperatures from broad band colour indices and check if they are consistent in a statistical sense with temperatures inferred from spectral types. There are some scales (for V-H, V-K, I-J, J-H, and J-K) which indeed predict the same temperatures as the spectral types and therefore can be at least used to confirm effective temperatures. Furthermore, we examine whether TTS with dynamically derived masses can be used for a test of evolutionary models and effective temperature calibrations. We compare the observed parameters of the eclipsing T Tauri binary V1642 Ori A to the predictions of evolutionary models in both the H-R and the Kiel diagram using temperatures derived with several colour index scales. We check whether the evolutionary models and the colour index scales are consistent with coevality and the dynamical masses of the binary components. It turns out that the Kiel diagram offers a stricter test than the H-R diagram. Only the evolutionary models of \\cite {BCAH98} with mixing length parameter α=1.9 and of \\cite{DM94,DM97} show consistent results in the Kiel diagram in combination with some conversion scales of \\cite{HBS00} and of \\cite{KH95}.

  9. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners Regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neeske; Costandius, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour "human colour" or "skin colour". This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two…

  10. Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

  11. Large hadronic structures and colour confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar; Paria, Lina; Abbas, Samar

    1999-01-01

    Colour confinement is an experimentally well established property of QCD at temperature T = 0. Though it has not been conclusively demonstrated in QCD, it is universally believed to be true. Several model calculations indicate that indeed the 3-q and qq-bar colour-singlet states are more bound than for example the colour octet, decuplet representations

  12. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  13. An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

  14. 196 193 Species Abundance and Colour Prefer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Although many genera oviposited in more than one colour container, the general distribution of larvae revealed that Aedes and Culex preferred red colour, Mansonia preferred brown container while Anopheles preferred black container. This study shows the importance of colour in determining the breeding ...

  15. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  16. Colour development in the apple orchard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Unuk, T.; Stanislav Tojnko, S.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Colour is traditionally one of the important appearance features of all fruit for consumers in deciding to buy them. Colour is therefore important in the postharvest supply chain. But where does that colour of fruit come from? Clearly the period of growing and the circumstances during growth are

  17. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  18. Colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils is associated with the presence of Narcissus mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Donald A; Fletcher, John D; Davies, Kevin M; Zhang, Huaibi

    2011-08-21

    Daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) are one of the world's most popular ornamentals. They also provide a scientific model for studying the carotenoid pigments responsible for their yellow and orange flower colours. In reverse bicolour daffodils, the yellow flower trumpet fades to white with age. The flowers of this type of daffodil are particularly prone to colour break whereby, upon opening, the yellow colour of the perianth is observed to be 'broken' into patches of white. This colour break symptom is characteristic of potyviral infections in other ornamentals such as tulips whose colour break is due to alterations in the presence of anthocyanins. However, reverse bicolour flowers displaying colour break show no other virus-like symptoms such as leaf mottling or plant stunting, leading some to argue that the carotenoid-based colour breaking in reverse bicolour flowers may not be caused by virus infection. Although potyviruses have been reported to cause colour break in other flower species, enzyme-linked-immunoassays with an antibody specific to the potyviral family showed that potyviruses were not responsible for the occurrence of colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils. Colour break in this type of daffodil was clearly associated with the presence of large quantities of rod-shaped viral particles of lengths 502-580 nm in tepals. Sap from flowers displaying colour break caused red necrotic lesions on Gomphrena globosa, suggesting the presence of potexvirus. Red necrotic lesions were not observed in this indicator plant when sap from reverse bicolour flowers not showing colour break was used. The reverse transcriptase polymerase reactions using degenerate primers to carla-, potex- and poty-viruses linked viral RNA with colour break and sequencing of the amplified products indicated that the potexvirus Narcissisus mosaic virus was the predominant virus associated with the occurrence of the colour break. High viral counts were associated with the reverse

  19. Detection of coloured tracks of heavy ion particles using photographic colour film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Aoki, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2001-01-01

    A photographic colour film, which was exposed to heavy ions, reveals a coloured dye image of the ion tracks. Since the colour film consists of several layers and different colours appear on each layer, three-dimensional information on the tracks in the layers can be obtained by the colour image. Previously, we have reported the method for which the tracks in different colours represented differences of track depth and we also discussed the disadvantages of using commercial colour films. Here we present the procedure for a self-made photographic coating and the development formula which can overcome the disadvantages

  20. Kingfisher feathers - colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Tinbergen, Jan; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, reside in the barbs of the three main types of feather: the orange breast feathers, the cyan back feathers and the blue tail feathers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the orange barbs contain small pigment granules. The cyan and blue

  1. Treatment of pulping effluents by using alum and clay - colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of clay addition during alum coagulation, on the removal of colour from pulp-and-paper industry wastewaters, was investigated. Four types of clay, namely beige-and brown-sepiolites, calcium- and sodium-bentonites of different mesh sizes were used. Different quantities of alum and clay were applied, either singly ...

  2. Colour change of bakery products influenced by used additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Čáslavková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the effects of selected additions of vegetable origin on the colour of whole grain breads. The colour was assessed using model samples which were made of mixtures containing various wholemeal flour types (wheat, spelt, and rye flour and increasing amounts of additions in the form of buckwheat, oat, and barley flour. The additions were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per cent. Colour measurement was performed instrumentally, using an image analysis method which was modified for the purposes of this study. It was found out that, regardless of the flour/addition ratio, both factors in the form of wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour, and barley, oat and buckwheat flour additions and their interactions exhibited a significant influence on the colour of the bakery products (P P < 0.05 were found for the following combinations: mixture of wheat flour with buckwheat, barley, and oat; mixture of spelt flour with buckwheat and oat; and mixture of rye flour with buckwheat and barley. The proposed general regression model which was created using the data obtained in the experiment, showed colour variability of more than 95 per cent.

  3. A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod-cone opponency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesch, Maximilian; Meister, Markus

    2016-04-14

    In bright light, cone-photoreceptors are active and colour vision derives from a comparison of signals in cones with different visual pigments. This comparison begins in the retina, where certain retinal ganglion cells have 'colour-opponent' visual responses-excited by light of one colour and suppressed by another colour. In dim light, rod-photoreceptors are active, but colour vision is impossible because they all use the same visual pigment. Instead, the rod signals are thought to splice into retinal circuits at various points, in synergy with the cone signals. Here we report a new circuit for colour vision that challenges these expectations. A genetically identified type of mouse retinal ganglion cell called JAMB (J-RGC), was found to have colour-opponent responses, OFF to ultraviolet (UV) light and ON to green light. Although the mouse retina contains a green-sensitive cone, the ON response instead originates in rods. Rods and cones both contribute to the response over several decades of light intensity. Remarkably, the rod signal in this circuit is antagonistic to that from cones. For rodents, this UV-green channel may play a role in social communication, as suggested by spectral measurements from the environment. In the human retina, all of the components for this circuit exist as well, and its function can explain certain experiences of colour in dim lights, such as a 'blue shift' in twilight. The discovery of this genetically defined pathway will enable new targeted studies of colour processing in the brain.

  4. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek H. Arnold

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ‘mind's eye’, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presentations, versus the precision for recalled experiences cued by spoken graphemes. We recorded CIE coordinates, and found that matches for triggered sensations were equally variable relative to recalled experiences. To ensure this was not due to insensitivity of our apparatus, we next had synaesthetes and age-matched controls either match the colour of a circular patch while they could see it, or from memory after it had disappeared. Both synaesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and synaesthetes were more precise when matching colour hue, but not brightness. Interestingly, the variance of synaesthetes' recalled matches in this experiment matched that associated with synaesthetic colours in the first experiment. Overall, our data suggests that, for associative grapheme-colour synaesthetes, synaesthetic colours behave more like recalled colours, as opposed to physical colours that can be seen.

  5. Measurements and modelling of the influence of dentine colour and enamel on tooth colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Paul D; Battersby, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    We provide a quantitative predictive model for the extent to which coloured dentine, visible through the enamel, contributes to tooth colour. Our model uses (L(*),a(*),b(*)) measurements rather than spectral measurements. We have used a model system, composed of a slice of bovine enamel placed on top of coloured paper. We have measured the colour of the enamel-paper combination, as an analogue for a tooth, and have related this to the colour of the paper, as an analogue for dentine. By changing the paper colour, we have been able to explore how the colour of dentine determines tooth colour, according to our model system. We have also compared hydrated and desiccated samples. In qualitative terms, superimposing the enamel on top of the paper increases the "lightness" for all colours tested except white while simultaneously reducing the chromaticity, a measure of the extent to which the colour differs from grey. Desiccated enamel is much more effective at increasing the lightness and reducing the chromaticity than hydrated enamel. Quantitatively, our measurements are reproduced by the mathematical model we have developed to within 2% in "lightness" and about 8% in chromaticity. We are able to predict the colour of an analogue for a tooth, composed of bovine enamel and coloured paper, from the colour of an analogue for the dentine, the coloured paper alone, with good accuracy. This understanding provides insights into the role of dentine colour in determining tooth colour. Our work helps quantify the importance of dentine colour, compared to other, extrinsic causes of colour, such as staining, in determining the visible colour of teeth. Our predicted colours represent a baseline to which extrinsic sources will add. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Chirality sensing and size recognition of N-Boc-amino acids by cage-type dimeric lanthanide complexes: chirality detection of N-Boc-aspartate anions via luminescence colour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Satoshi

    2015-03-04

    Chiral luminescent lanthanide complexes, characterized by covalently-linked face-to-face octadentate cyclen (tetraaza-12-crown-4) ligands, specifically bound a chiral N-Boc-aspartate among various N-Boc amino acid anions to enhance Eu(III) luminescence intensity at 615 nm. The combination of Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes enabled naked-eye discrimination of N-Boc-D- and L-aspartates via the luminescence colour change.

  7. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry.

  8. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion--that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and (c) suggesting that all colour parameters are likely to be important when processing affective nonverbal person information, though not independently from each other.

  9. Sticky traps saturate with navel orangeworm in a nonlinear fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.S. Kuenen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trapping is an essential tool used to decide the need for and/or timing of an insecticide application. The assumption is that the information is accurate, but accuracy is dependent on trap reliability and efficacy. One factor that affects reliability is trap saturation, defined as the measurable decrease in trap capture due to reduced trapping effectiveness caused by the accumulation of insects already in a trap. In this study, we used unmated female navel orangeworm (NOW, Amyelois transitella (Walker as sex pheromone baits in wing traps that varied by color and glue/trapping surface in order to evaluate saturation thresholds and quantify trap effectiveness. Effectiveness decreased in each type of sticky trap as the number of insects caught increased, because of the accumulation of scales and insect bodies on the glue surface. The continued accumulation of insects further reduced trap capture, and this decrease in capture could be described by a regression using a power transformation. The resulting saturation equations that we calculated will help pest control advisers and growers interpret their trap data by better estimating the relationship between the number of males trapped versus those that visited the trap.

  10. Effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis. Methods: A total of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis in January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital for the treatment were selected, and randomly divided into 4 groups, each of 40 cases. Caltrate D was given as a basic treatment to all the patients, and the control group was given the treatment of insulin, and the metformin group was given the treatment of metformin, and the combination group was given the treatment of metformin combined alendronate, and the experiment group was given the treatment of insulin combined alendronate. BMD of the femoral neck and the serum levels of BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP were detected and recorded before the treatment and after one year’s treatment. Results: On index of bone mineral density, the control group and the metformin group showed no significant differences; the combination group was slightly improved, but showed no statistical significance; After the treatment, the bone mineral density of the experiment was significantly improved. On index of bone turnover, the levels of serum BAP and BGP all had been improved and the level of TRAP-5b all was reduced then before the treatment in the control group, the combination group and the experiment group, but only the experiment group showed significant differences; On index of bone turnover, the experiment group were better than other groups, the differences were statistical significant. Conclusions: It has greater clinical curative effect that insulin combined alendronate sodium in the treatment of aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis, it can effectively balance the metabolism of bone, safe and reliable, and it is worthy of application.

  11. Colour dependence of zodiacal light models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

    1973-01-01

    Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

  12. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    Development work was undertaken in order to produce a visual dosemeter system for measurement of radiation levels around the present and future high energy particle accelerators. This dosemeter should exhibit radiation induced colours in the visible part of the spectrum leading to a visual dose i...... such as commercial irradiation facilities is envisaged. Calibration of the dosemeters was made with a Co-60 source up to 10(6) Gy....... radiation; and (2) a paint containing a base substance with a pigment. The paint dosemeter remained unaffected by irradiation up to 3 x 10(4) Gy while the film dosemeter showed a measurable colour change from 10(4) Gy to 5 x 10(5) Gy. Above 10(6) Gy the film dosemeter is destroyed by radiation. Samples...... of paint and film dosemeters were installed in the 450 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and irradiated during operation for more than two years. Within the useful range of the dosemeters, dose comparisons with other dosemeter types gave satisfactory results. Application in other fields...

  13. Colour singlets in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassetto, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the axial gauge and at the leading log level, a definite and consistent picture seems to emerge of a parton decay into states in which many partons are found just before confinement should take place. They are grouped into colourless clusters in a number sufficient to exhaust the ''final'' state, still possessing a finite average mass. This result is peculiar of QCD, in particular of its non-abelian nature. Large transverse momenta or more generally average invariant quantities of partons are mainly due to the multiplicities involved in the branching processes. If eventually confinement would convert these clusters into hadrons (and this is of course the main issue which has still to be proven) without a large rearrangement of the colour lines, the picture we have found for colour singlets could apply to the real hadronic world. (author)

  14. Trap style influences wild pig behavior and trapping success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many natural resource professionals, wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding in many areas of the world. Although many creative techniques for controlling pig populations are being explored, trapping has been and still is themost commonly usedmethod of population control formany public and private land managers. We conducted an observational study to examine the efficiency of 2 frequently used trap styles: a small, portable box-style trap and a larger, semi-permanent, corral-style trap.We used game cameras to examine patterns of trap entry by wild pigs around each style of trap, and we conducted a trapping session to compare trapping success between trap styles. Adult female and juvenile wild pigs entered both styles of trap more readily than did adult males, and adult males seemed particularly averse to entering box traps. Less than 10% of adult male visits to box traps resulted in entries, easily the least percentage of any class at any style of trap. Adult females entered corral traps approximately 2.2 times more often per visit than box traps and re-entered corral traps >2 times more frequently. Juveniles entered and reentered both box and corral traps at similar rates. Overall (all-class) entry-per-visit rates at corral traps (0.71) were nearly double that of box traps (0.37). Subsequent trapping data supported these preliminary entry data; the capture rate for corral traps was >4 times that of box traps. Our data suggest that corral traps are temporally and economically superior to box traps with respect to efficiency; that is, corral traps effectively trap more pigs per trap night at a lower cost per pig than do box traps. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Colour categorization by domestic chicks.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C. D.; Osorio, D.; Baddeley, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Spectral stimuli form a physical continuum, which humans divide into discrete non-overlapping regions or categories that are designated by colour names. Little is known about whether non-verbal animals form categories on stimulus continua, but work in psychology and artificial intelligence provides models for stimulus generalization and categorization. We compare predictions of such models to the way poultry chicks (Gallus gallus) generalize to novel stimuli following appetitive training to e...

  16. Pollinator-prey conflicts in carnivorous plants: When flower and trap properties mean life or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Byers, John A; Suckling, David M

    2016-02-18

    Insect-pollinated carnivorous plants are expected to have higher fitness if they resolve pollinator-prey conflicts by sparing insects pollinating their flowers while trapping prey insects. We examined whether separation between flowers and traps of the carnivorous sundew species or pollinator preferences for colours of flowers enable these plants to spare pollinators. In addition, we collected odours from flowers and traps of each carnivorous species in order to identify volatile chemicals that are attractive or repellent to pollinators and prey insects. In Drosera spatulata and D. arcturi, no volatiles were detected from either their flowers or traps that could serve as kairomone attractants for insects. However, behavioural experiments indicated white colour and spatial separation between flowers and traps aid in reducing pollinator entrapment while capturing prey. In contrast, D. auriculata have flowers that are adjacent to their traps. In this species we identified chemical signals emanating from flowers that comprised an eight-component blend, while the plant's traps emitted a unique four-component blend. The floral odour attracted both pollinator and prey insects, while trap odour only attracted prey. This is the first scientific report to demonstrate that carnivorous plants utilize visual, spatial, and chemical signals to spare flower visitors while trapping prey insects.

  17. Colour transformations and K-means segmentation for automatic cloud detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blazek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to find simple criteria for automatic recognition of several meteorological phenomena using optical digital sensors (e.g., Wide-Field cameras, automatic DSLR cameras or robotic telescopes. The output of those sensors is commonly represented in RGB channels containing information about both colour and luminosity even when normalised. Transformation into other colour spaces (e.g., CIE 1931 xyz, CIE L*a*b*, YCbCr can separate colour from luminosity, which is especially useful in the image processing of automatic cloud boundary recognition. Different colour transformations provide different sectorization of cloudy images. Hence, the analysed meteorological phenomena (cloud types, clear sky project differently into the colour diagrams of each international colour systems. In such diagrams, statistical tools can be applied in search of criteria which could determine clear sky from a covered one and possibly even perform a meteorological classification of cloud types. For the purpose of this work, a database of sky images (both clear and cloudy, with emphasis on a variety of different observation conditions (e.g., time, altitude, solar angle, etc. was acquired. The effectiveness of several colour transformations for meteorological application is discussed and the representation of different clouds (or clear sky in those colour systems is analysed. Utilisation of this algorithm would be useful in all-sky surveys, supplementary meteorological observations, solar cell effectiveness predictions or daytime astronomical solar observations.

  18. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing.

  19. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing. PMID:28542426

  20. Composite colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams for Be stars in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermilliod, J.-C.

    1982-01-01

    By the end of 1980, the total number of Be stars discovered in the field of open clusters amounted to 180 stars distributed in 60 clusters. Among these, 110 Be stars belong to 32 clusters included in the sample studied, which contains 75 open clusters younger than the Hyades. But only 88 stars with complete UBV photoelectric photometry have been taken into consideration here. The concept of age groups, defined elsewhere (Mermilliod 1981a), is used throughout the present analysis, as well as the new estimate of the colour excesses and distance moduli obtained for these 32 clusters. Under the assumption of uniform reddening across the clusters, absolute magnitudes and dereddened colour indices have been calculated for the 88 Be stars. (Auth.)

  1. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  2. True and false memory for colour names versus actual colours: support for the visual distinctiveness heuristic in memory for colour information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Andrea N; Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2010-06-01

    In a colour variation of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, participants studied lists of words critically related to a nonstudied colour name (e.g., "blood, cherry, scarlet, rouge ... "); they later showed false memory for the critical colour name (e.g., "red"). Two additional experiments suggest that participants generate colour imagery in response to such colour-related DRM lists. First, participants claim to experience colour imagery more often following colour-related than standard non-colour-related DRM lists; they also rate their colour imagery as more vivid following colour-related lists. Second, participants exhibit facilitative priming for critical colours in a dot selection task that follows words in the colour-related DRM list, suggesting that colour-related DRM lists prime participants for the actual critical colours themselves. Despite these findings, false memory for critical colour names does not extend to the actual colours themselves (font colours). Rather than leading to source confusion about which colours were self-generated and which were studied, presenting the study lists in varied font colours actually worked to reduce false memory overall. Results are interpreted within the framework of the visual distinctiveness hypothesis.

  3. Torque and optical traps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Optical traps are an important tool for research in the field of single molecule biophysics. Recent advances in optical trapping have extended their functionality from simple linear manipulation and measurement of forces, to now the ability to rotate objects and measure torques. This mini review summarizes ...

  4. Versatile electrostatic trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, J.; Bethlem, H.L.; Schnell, M.; Meijer, G.

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of ND315 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to

  5. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron bound to the gravitational field, the 'geonium atom'. The first atomic hyperfine structure experiment on trapped ions was performed by Dehmelt's group using the stored-ion exchange-collision technique in a Paul trap which paved the way for some of the subsequent experiment for atomic frequency. A single atom at.

  6. What colour is the car? Implicit memory for colour information in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenbräuker, S; Hupbach, A; Wippich, W

    2001-11-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine age-related differences in colour memory. In Experiment 1, preschool age and elementary school age children were given a conceptual test of implicit colour memory (a colour-choice task). They were presented with the names or achromatic versions of previously studied coloured line drawings and asked to select an appropriate colour. Significant priming could be demonstrated: The children chose the previously seen colours more often than was expected by chance. Equivalent priming was found for both versions (pictorial and verbal) suggesting that colour priming may be conceptually mediated. Moreover, colour priming proved to be age invariant. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by using a wider age group (preschool, elementary school, and young adults) and by giving a perceptual implicit task (picture identification) in addition to a verbal colour-choice task. Colour did not affect priming in the perceptual task. Whereas priming showed no developmental change, age-related improvements were observed on an explicit colour memory task that differed only in the test instructions from the implicit colour-choice task (Experiments 2 and 3). Taken together, the results suggest that implicit colour memory may be mediated by conceptual processes that are age invariant.

  7. BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN FIVE FINNOUGRIC LANGUAGES AND ESTONIAN SIGN LANGUAGE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Hollman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare five Finno-Ugric languages – Estonian,Finnish, Hungarian, Udmurt and Komi-Zyrian – and the Estonian Sign Language (unclassified in different aspects: established basic colour terms, the proportion of basic colour terms and different colour terms in the collected word-corpora, the cognitive salience index values in the list task and the number of dominant colour tiles in the colour naming task. The data was collected, using the field method of Davies and Corbett, from all languages under consideration, providing a distinctive foundation for linguistic comparison. We argue that Finno-Ugric languages seem to possess relatively large colour vocabularies,especially due to their rich variety of word-formation types,e.g. the composition of compound words. All of the languages under consideration have developed to Stage VI or VII, possessing 7 to 11lexicalised basic colour terms. The cognitive salience index helps to distinguish primary and secondary basic colour terms, showing certain comprehensive patterns which are similar to Russian and English.

  8. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Pearce

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K, all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  9. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  10. Colour cues or spatial cues? Context-dependent preferences in the European greenfinch (Carduelis chloris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herborn, Katherine; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2011-03-01

    Using featural cues such as colour to identify ephemeral food can increase foraging efficiency. Featural cues may change over time however; therefore, animals should use spatial cues to relocate food that occurs in a temporally stable position. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the cue preferences of captive greenfinches Carduelis chloris when relocating food hidden in a foraging tray. In these standardised associative learning trials, greenfinches favoured colour cues when returning to a foraging context that they had encountered before only once ("one-trial test") but switched to spatial cues when they had encountered that scenario on ten previous occasions ("repeated-trial test"). We suggest that repeated encounters generated a context in which individuals had a prior expectation of temporal stability, and hence context-dependent cue selection. Next, we trained birds to find food in the absence of colour cues but tested them in the presence of visual distracters. Birds were able to learn spatial cues after one encounter, but only when visual distracters were identical in colouration. When a colourful distracter was present in the test phase, cue selection was random. Unlike the first one-trial test, birds were not biased towards this colourful visual distracter. Together, these results suggest that greenfinches are able to learn both cue types, colour cue biases represent learning, not simply distraction, and spatial cues are favoured over colour cues only in temporally stable contexts. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  11. On the intrinsic colours of cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Some consequences from new data on the photometrically obtained intrinsic colours are considered. It is shown that the small amplitude and almost sinusoidal light-curve cepheids (Cs-subtype) increase their pulsation amplitude towards the red instability strip edge, differing from the other galactic cepheids. This feature is discussed in connection with Efremov's (1968) hypothesis that the Cs-cepheids first cross the instability strip from left to right. The galactic cepheid period-colour relation obtained by Dean, Warren and Cousins (1978) satisfies rather well the LMC cepheid observations and, consequently, considerations for the period-luminosity relations are made. The residuals from the PL relation proposed by us correlate with the colour residuals from the DWC period-colour relation ΔV/delta(B-V) being equal to 2.7. The luminosity effect as a possible cause of the discrepancy between the spectroscopic cepheid colours and the photometric colours is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  13. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  14. Social perception in synaesthesia for colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik McErlean, Agnieszka B; Susilo, Tirta; Rezlescu, Constantin; Bray, Amy; Banissy, Michael J

    Synaesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which stimulation in one modality (e.g., audition) evokes a secondary percept not associated with the first (e.g., colour). Prior work has suggested links between synaesthesia and other neurodevelopmental conditions that are linked to altered social perception abilities. With this in mind, here we sought to examine social perception abilities in grapheme-colour synaesthesia (where achromatic graphemes evoke colour experiences) by examining facial identity and facial emotion perception in synaesthetes and controls. Our results indicate that individuals who experience grapheme-colour synaesthesia outperformed controls on tasks involving fine visual discrimination of facial identity and emotion, but not on tasks involving holistic face processing. These findings are discussed in the context of broader perceptual and cognitive traits previously associated with synaesthesia for colour, with the suggestion that performance benefits shown by grapheme-colour synaesthetes may be related to domain-general visual discrimination biases observed in this group.

  15. The Manchester Colour Wheel: enhancing its utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Whorwell, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    The Manchester Colour Wheel was developed to investigate the role of colour in the perception of illness in gastroenterology. During validation it was found that positive, neutral, or negative connotations of the shade of a colour were more important than the colour itself. However, when asked to relate mood to a colour, the response rate was greater in individuals with mood disorders than healthy controls. This study assessed whether response rate could be made more uniform by changing the wording of the question. Mood/colour choice was compared, using two slightly different questions, in 105 and 203 healthy volunteers, resulting in response rates of 39% and 95% respectively, with the latter not associated with increased false positive responses. These results show that adjustment of the wording of a mood-related question may allow equal response rates irrespective of the mood status of participants.

  16. Optical Addressing of Multi-Colour Photochromic Material Mixture for Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that colour transformations in the volume of a photochromic material (PM) are induced at the intersections of two control light channels, one controlling PM colouration and the other controlling decolouration. Thus, PM colouration is induced by position selectivity, and therefore, a dynamic volumetric display may be realised using these two control lights. Moreover, a mixture of multiple PM types with different absorption properties exhibits different colours depending on the control light spectrum. Particularly, the spectrum management of the control light allows colour-selective colouration besides position selectivity. Therefore, a PM-based, full-colour volumetric display is realised. We experimentally construct a mixture of two PM types and validate the operating principles of such a volumetric display system. Our system is constructed simply by mixing multiple PM types; therefore, the display hardware structure is extremely simple, and the minimum size of a volume element can be as small as the size of a molecule. Volumetric displays can provide natural three-dimensional (3D) perception; therefore, the potential uses of our system include high-definition 3D visualisation for medical applications, architectural design, human-computer interactions, advertising, and entertainment.

  17. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O., E-mail: omar.foda@unimelb.edu.au [Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wheeler, M., E-mail: mwheeler@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589 (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-06-11

    We study lattice configurations related to S{sub n}, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A{sub n} integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A{sub n} models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S{sub 2} (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S{sub 2}, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b_1} and {b_2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b_1}→∞, and/or {b_2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A{sub 1} vertex-model partition function.

  18. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2013-01-01

    We study lattice configurations related to S n , the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A n integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A n models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S 2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S 2 , which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b 1 } and {b 2 }, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b 1 }→∞, and/or {b 2 }→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A 1 vertex-model partition function

  19. Expanding the senses of drawing through colour

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Natacha Antão; Durão, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    By equating the creative use of colour with the disciplinary boundaries of architecture, this paper integrates observations, reflections and insights on a variety of alternative graphic strategies, and also expands the meanings attached to a drawing when the significance of colour is highlighted within the creative process of architectural design. Through the observations of numerous drawings from Portuguese architects we have already detected several functions or uses of colour in the design...

  20. Changes of meat colour during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bocian; Hanna Jankowiak; Wojciech Kapelański

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated a relation between objective colour measurement and standard meat quality traits together with changes of meat colour parameters (∆) during the 48 h storage time. Analysed meat derived from 30 market pigs F1 (plw × pl) originated from Kuyavian--Pomeranian voivodeship. In the samples taken from longissimus lumborum muscle at 48 h post mortem the pH48, visual colour intensity and meat heme pigment concentration, as well as meat holding capacity, drip loss and ...

  1. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rubita Sudirman; Ching Yee Yong; Kim Mey Chew

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the “match” of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized b...

  2. Colour terms in the interior design process

    OpenAIRE

    Attiah, DY; Cheung, TLV; Westland, S; Bromilow, D

    2015-01-01

    Colour is a very important topic that interior designers need to consider. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of colour application in interior design; in this study we are concerned with colour terms in interior design, mainly the terms designers use and know about. Fifteen interior designers with varied professional backgrounds, but based in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon, Egypt, and Turkey), were interviewed. Previously we reported that fourteen ou...

  3. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN COLOUR VISION TESTING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of psychological factors in the colour testing situation was assessed for a population of normal trichromats. The colour vision tests...discrimination task and (b) cognitive factors to the complexity of the test situation were put forward. Both hypotheses receive some confirmation from the...experimental data although the effect of these psychological factors is small. From the results of factor analysis it appears that each colour test in

  5. High Atom Number in Microsized Atom Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Final Performance Report on ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0608 High atom number in microsized atom traps for the period 15 May 2012 through 14 September...TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/15/2012-09/14/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High atom number in microsized atom traps...forces for implementing a small-footprint, large-number atom -chip instrument. Bichromatic forces rely on absorption and stimulated emission to produce

  6. Colour vision and computer-generated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Colour vision deficiencies affect approximately 8% of the male and approximately 0.4% of the female population. In this work, it is demonstrated that computer generated images oftentimes pose unnecessary problems for colour deficient viewers. Three examples, the visualization of molecular structures, graphs of mathematical functions, and colour coded images from numerical data are used to identify problematic colour combinations: red/black, green/black, red/yellow, yellow/white, fuchsia/white, and aqua/white. Alternatives for these combinations are discussed.

  7. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The CIE General Colour Rendering Index is currently the criterion used to describe and measure the colour-rendering properties of light sources. But over the past years, there has been increasing evidence of its limitations particularly its ability to predict the perceived colour quality of light...... but also with a preference index or a memory index calculated without blue and purple hues. A very low correlation was found between appreciation and naturalness indicating that colour quality needs more than one metric to describe subjective aspects.......The CIE General Colour Rendering Index is currently the criterion used to describe and measure the colour-rendering properties of light sources. But over the past years, there has been increasing evidence of its limitations particularly its ability to predict the perceived colour quality of light...... sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...

  8. Shell Colour Polymorphism in Bulla ampulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Colour patterns of Bulla ampulla shells collected from Africa eastward to Pacific Islands were studied. 1\\vo common colour morphs were found. The typical morph is commonest. It is closely and finely mottled or all over with pinkish-gray on a creamy or flesh~tinted ground, with darker clouds......, irregular, V-shaped, or as longitudinal bands. The colouration of the other common morph is more uniform. It is lacking the darker clouds or bands and the colour is more greyish. The entire shell surface is densely mottled all over with small brown spots on a grey or beige background. Both morphs seem...

  9. Mechanical performance of rat, mouse and mole spring traps, and possible implications for welfare performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive that would alter UK legislation, and a recent report advised the EU that trapping legislation should cover all trapped species and encourage improvement of traps. Mechanical trap performance is often used as an indicator of welfare impact. We examined the mechanical evidence for scope to improve the welfare standards of rat, mouse and mole spring traps. We measured mechanical performance among a range of rat, mouse and mole traps. Impact momentum values varied 6-8 fold, and clamping force values 4-5.5 fold, among traps for killing each species. There was considerable overlap in the performance of rat and mouse traps. Trap-opening angle and spring type were related to impact momentum and clamping force in traps for both species. There was no relationship between price and mechanical performance in traps for any species, except talpa mole traps. We are unable to judge the direct welfare impact of the traps tested, but rather the potential welfare threat associated with their exemption from approval. The wide variation in mechanical performance in traps for each species, overlap in performance between rat and mouse traps and increasing availability of weaker plastic rodent traps indicate considerable scope for improving the humaneness of spring traps for rats, mice and moles. We conclude that all such traps should be subject to the UK approval process. New welfare categories might improve trap standards further. Our results could also help improve rodent trap design and assist consumers in selecting more powerful traps. Many thousands of rats, mice and moles might benefit.

  10. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  11. An evolutionary approach for colour constancy based on gamut ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computer vision; colour; colour constancy; illuminant estimation; constraint satisfaction. 1. Introduction. All light sources with their features and characteristics involve in colour events and manipu- late the colour measuring. However, human visual system is somehow able to recognize the colour of objects irrespective of light ...

  12. What do colour-blind people really see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object

  13. Robust colour calibration of an imaging system using a colour space transform and advanced regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Elmasry, Gamal

    2012-08-01

    A new algorithm for the conversion of device dependent RGB colour data into device independent L*a*b* colour data without introducing noticeable error has been developed. By combining a linear colour space transform and advanced multiple regression methodologies it was possible to predict L*a*b* colour data with less than 2.2 colour units of error (CIE 1976). By transforming the red, green and blue colour components into new variables that better reflect the structure of the L*a*b* colour space, a low colour calibration error was immediately achieved (ΔE(CAL) = 14.1). Application of a range of regression models on the data further reduced the colour calibration error substantially (multilinear regression ΔE(CAL) = 5.4; response surface ΔE(CAL) = 2.9; PLSR ΔE(CAL) = 2.6; LASSO regression ΔE(CAL) = 2.1). Only the PLSR models deteriorated substantially under cross validation. The algorithm is adaptable and can be easily recalibrated to any working computer vision system. The algorithm was tested on a typical working laboratory computer vision system and delivered only a very marginal loss of colour information ΔE(CAL) = 2.35. Colour features derived on this system were able to safely discriminate between three classes of ham with 100% correct classification whereas colour features measured on a conventional colourimeter were not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the colour contribution to effective weak vertex in broken colour gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, R.

    1979-01-01

    Treating the breaking of colour symmetry via the mixing between the colour gluons and weak bosons (a la Rajasekaran and Roy) it is observed that the colour contribution to the effective weak vertex of a quark at zero momentum transfer is zero upto 0(α). (author)

  15. Colours sometimes count : Awareness and bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Jepma, Marieke; de Jong, Ritske

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do

  16. An example of applied colour vision research: the conspicuity of airplane colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the combined knowledge on colorimetry, colour imaging (visualization) and colour perception in an aviation related research project. It involves the optimisation of the conspicuity of the colour scheme of an airplane, with the purpose of minimizing the changes

  17. Assessment of analyte trapping in paper matrices and its effect on sensor performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govindasamy, K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available by labelling the bacteria both colorimetrically and fluorescently. For colorimetric analysis, bacteria were stained red. RGB colour profiling was then used to identify bacteria entrapment along the LFT. Fluorescent imaging was used to assess E.coli trapping...

  18. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis Forrester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an open data standard for storing and sharing camera trap data, developed by experts from a variety of organizations. The standard captures information necessary to share data between projects and offers a foundation for collecting the more detailed data needed for advanced analysis. The data standard captures information about study design, the type of camera used, and the location and species names for all detections in a standardized way. This information is critical for accurately assessing results from individual camera trapping projects and for combining data from multiple studies for meta-analysis. This data standard is an important step in aligning camera trapping surveys with best practices in data-intensive science. Ecology is moving rapidly into the realm of big data, and central data repositories are becoming a critical tool and are emerging for camera trap data. This data standard will help researchers standardize data terms, align past data to new repositories, and provide a framework for utilizing data across repositories and research projects to advance animal ecology and conservation.

  19. The kinetics of colour change in textiles and fibres treated with detergent solutions. Part I-Colour perception and fluorescence microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess colour changes that occur in several types of commonly available textiles as a result of the long-term effects of various popularly used laundry detergents. A 14 day experiment was conducted using blue, red and grey/black cotton, wool, acrylic and polyester textiles. Colour changes were evaluated through the visual comparison of the colour of the textile samples against that of the untreated (control) material. The kinetics of the changes in the colour of the fibres were monitored using fluorescence microscopy (UV excitation filter). The conclusions include an assessment of the observed changes from a fibre analysis expert's point of view, as well as that of an average user/consumer of the products involved.

  20. Large-Volume Gravid Traps Enhance Collection of Culex Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, David A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    Gravid mosquito collections were compared among several large-volume (infusion volume ≥35 liters) gravid trap designs and the small-volume (infusion volume  =  6 liters) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) gravid trap used routinely by vector control districts for vector and pathogen surveillance. The numbers of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and Cx. stigmatosoma collected by large gravid traps were greater than by the CDC gravid trap during nearly all overnight trials. Large-volume gravid traps collected on average 6.6-fold more adult female Culex mosquitoes compared to small-volume CDC gravid traps across 3 seasons during the 3 years of the studies. The differences in gravid mosquito collections between large-versus small-volume gravid traps were greatest during spring, when 8- to 56-fold more Culex individuals were collected using large-volume gravid traps. The proportion of gravid females in collections did not differ appreciably among the more effective trap designs tested. Important determinants of gravid trap performance were infusion container size and type as well as infusion volume, which determined the distance between the suction trap and the infusion surface. Of lesser importance for gravid trap performance were the number of suction traps, method of suction trap mounting, and infusion concentration. Fermentation of infusions between 1 and 4 wk weakly affected total mosquito collections, with Cx. stigmatosoma collections moderately enhanced by comparatively young and organically enriched infusions. A suction trap mounted above 100 liters of organic infusion housed in a 121-liter black plastic container collected the most gravid mosquitoes over the greatest range of experimental conditions, and a 35-liter infusion with side-mounted suction traps was a promising lesser-volume alternative design.

  1. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  2. A Hands-on to Teach Colour Perception: The Colour Vision Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Haagen-Schützenhöfer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One basic concept for understanding colour phenomena is the concept of vision. Although vision seems to be quite a natural and simple thing, students are often not familiar with the mechanism behind perceiving objects or even “the colour of objects”. This contribution introduces a simple hands-on experiment, the Colour Vision Tube. The Colour Vision Tube facilitates the experience of seeing “coloured” objects illuminated with other than white light sources. These experiences support students in understanding the relevance of the illuminating light and the conception of selective reflection for colour vision.

  3. Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

  4. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But, the inner interaction is always overlooked. Afterwards, the coloured network model has been brought in this scope by Wu et al [8]. A brief introduction of coloured network is reviewed as fol- lows: In social networks, there are many relationships between individuals, e.g., between schoolmates, relatives and collaborators.

  5. Global skin colour prediction from DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walsh (Susan); L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi); Breslin, K. (Krystal); Muralidharan, C. (Charanya); Bronikowska, A. (Agnieszka); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); Koller, J. (Julia); L. Kovatsi (Leda); A. Wollstein (Andreas); W. Branicki (Wojciech); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic

  6. A novel colour-sensitive CMOS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2009-01-01

    A novel colour-sensitive semiconductor detector is proposed. The device (named Transverse Field Detector (TFD)) can be used to measure the colour of the incident light without any colour filter. The device is completely compatible with standard CMOS processes and is suitable to be integrated in a pixel array for imaging purposes. The working principle is based on the capability of this device to collect at different superficial junctions the carriers, generated at different depths, by means of suitable transverse electric fields. The transverse components of the electric field are generated inside the depleted region by a suitable bias of the superficial junctions. Thanks to the differences in the light absorption coefficients at different wavelengths, the device performs colour separation. Among the advantages of this approach are the capability of an active tuning of the pixel colour response, which can be obtained just by changing the biasing values of collecting junctions, and foreseen higher colour fidelity, thanks to the easy extension to four colour pixels. First test structures of three colours TFD pixels were designed and built in a standard CMOS 90 nm technology. Operative principles of the device and first experimental results are presented.

  7. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

  8. Colour Perception Between Psychology and Art

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaruzza, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The poster refers to important contributions of psychological research on colours. Special emphasis is given to the fundamental classification proposed by David Katz, who strongly influenced subsequent studies; e.g., those by Karl Bühler and Gaetano Kanizsa. In particular, the opposition between diaphanic and epiphanic colours is discussed and applied to two recent paintings of a contemporary experimental artist.

  9. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubita Sudirman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the match of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized by a single colour. The approaches used in this experiment for analysis are psychology disciplines and colours engineering. These seven emotions are being matched by the subjects with their perceptions and feeling. Then, 12 male and 12 female data are randomly chosen from among the previous data to make a colour perception comparison between genders. The successes or failures in running of this test depend on the possibility of subjects to propose their every single colour for each expression. The result will translate into number and percentage as a guide for colours designers and psychology field.

  10. Natural colour mapping for multiband nightvision imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method to give (fused) multiband night-time imagery a natural day-time colour appearance. For input, the method requires a false colour RGB image that is produced by mapping three individual bands (or the .rst three principal components) of a multiband nightvision system to the

  11. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  12. Kingfisher feathers - colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Tinbergen, Jan; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, reside in the barbs of the three main types of feather: the orange breast feathers, the cyan back feathers and the blue tail feathers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the orange barbs contain small pigment granules. The cyan and blue barbs contain spongy nanostructures with slightly different dimensions, causing different reflectance spectra. Imaging scatterometry showed that the pigmented barbs create a diffuse orange scattering a...

  13. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B.; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D.; Bray, Crystal C.; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L.; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Gill, David R.; Hangst, Jeffrey S.; Hardy, Walter N.; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hayden, Michael E.; Humphries, Andrew J.; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jorgensen, Lars V.; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M.; So, Chukman; Storey, James W.; Thompson, Robert I.; van der Werf, Dirk P.; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  14. Keystone flaps in coloured skin: Flap technology for the masses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish P Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viscoelastic properties of skin in coloured ethnic groups are less favourable compared to Caucasians for executing Keystone flaps. Keystone flaps have so far been evaluated and reported only in Caucasians. The potential of Keystone flaps in a coloured ethnic group is yet unknown. Aim: This article reviews the experience to reconstruct skin defects presenting in a coloured ethnic group, by using Keystone flaps, with a review of existing literature. Design: Uncontrolled case series. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves 55 consecutive Keystone flaps used from 2009 to 2012, for skin defects in various locations. Patient demographic data, medical history, co-morbidity, surgical indication, defect features, complications, and clinical outcomes are evaluated and presented. Results: In this population group with Fitzpatrick type 4 and 5 skin, the average patient age was 35.73. Though 60% of flaps (33/55 in the series involved specific risk factors, only two flaps failed. Though seven flaps had complications, sound healing was achieved by suitable intervention giving a success rate of 96.36%. Skin grafts were needed in only four cases. Conclusions: Keystone flaps achieve primary wound healing for a wide spectrum of defects with an acceptable success rate in a coloured skin population with unfavorable biophysical properties. By avoiding conventional local flaps and at times even microsurgical flaps, good aesthetic outcome is achieved without additional skin grafts or extensive operative time. All advantages seen in previous studies were verified. These benefits can be most appreciated in coloured populations, with limited resources and higher proportion of younger patients and unfavorable defects.

  15. The description of colour terms in Ethiopian languages | Leyew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The research endorses that lexical representation of colour terms relies heavily on the ... does not mean mothertongue speakers are unequal in sensing and discriminating colours. Keywords: Colour, language, culture, perception, nature ...

  16. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  17. Mutagenesis in naturally coloured cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatod, J.P.; Meshram, L.D.; Jain, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The seeds of naturally coloured cotton were treated with 15 kR, 20 kR doses of gamma rays and 0.5% Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) and their combinations. The M 1 and M 2 generations were studied for mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in inducing the useful mutants, spectrum of mutation and their effects on bract characters. Results obtained revealed that 15 kR and 20 kR doses were more effective in inducing the mutations. In G. hirsutum, significant differences were found for bract size and dry weight of bract was noted in 20 kR dose and low in 0.5% EMS in M 1 . In the M 2 generation increased ratio of bract surface area to lint weight per boll was noted in 20 kR + 0.5% EMS. (author)

  18. Colour screening and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1978-03-01

    It is proposed that in Quantum Chromodynamics the colour charge of gluons and of anything with zero triality is screened by a dynamical Higgs mechanism with Higgs scalars made out of gluons. The center Z 3 of the gauge group SU(3) is left unbroken in this way, and single quarks, which have nonzero triality, cannot be screened. Long range forces between them persist therefore. Given that the Higgs mechanism produces a mass gap, the most favorable configuration of field lines between e.g. quark and antiquark will be in strings analogous to magnetic field lines in a superconductor. The strings confine the quarks. The screening mechanism, on the other hand, produces not only the mass gap (which leads to string formation) but is also responsible for saturation of forces, i.e. absence of bound states of six quarks etc. (orig.) [de

  19. The colour of pain: can patients use colour to describe osteoarthritis pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Wells, Victoria; Dixon, Samantha; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore patients' views on the acceptability and feasibility of using colour to describe osteoarthritis (OA) pain, and whether colour could be used to communicate pain to healthcare professionals. Six group interviews were conducted with 17 patients with knee OA. Discussion topics included first impressions about using colour to describe pain, whether participants could associate their pain with colour, how colours related to changes to intensity and different pain qualities, and whether they could envisage using colour to describe pain to healthcare professionals. The group interviews indicated that, although the idea of using colour was generally acceptable, it did not suit all participants as a way of describing their pain. The majority of participants chose red to describe high-intensity pain; the reasons given were because red symbolized inflammation, fire, anger and the stop signal in a traffic light system. Colours used to describe the absence of pain were chosen because of their association with positive emotional feelings, such as purity, calmness and happiness. A range of colours was chosen to represent changes in pain intensity. Aching pain was consistently identified as being associated with colours such as grey or black, whereas sharp pain was described using a wider selection of colours. The majority of participants thought that they would be able to use colour to describe their pain to healthcare professionals, although issues around the interpretability and standardization of colour were raised. For some patients, using colour to describe their pain experience may be a useful tool to improve doctor-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Blue-Detuned Magneto-Optical Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, K. N.; Devlin, J. A.; Wall, T. E.; Sauer, B. E.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    We present the properties and advantages of a new magneto-optical trap (MOT) where blue-detuned light drives "type-II" transitions that have dark ground states. Using 87Rb, we reach a radiation-pressure-limited density exceeding 1 011 cm-3 and a temperature below 30 μ K . The phase-space density is higher than in normal atomic MOTs and a million times higher than comparable red-detuned type-II MOTs, making the blue-detuned MOT particularly attractive for molecular MOTs, which rely on type-II transitions. The loss of atoms from the trap is dominated by ultracold collisions between Rb atoms. For typical trapping conditions, we measure a loss rate of 1.8 (4 )×10-10 cm3 s-1 .

  1. Colour and chloride removal from kraft pulp mill effluent using ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, G.; Ikehata, K.; Buchanan, I.D.

    2002-01-01

    Two weakly basic ion exchange resins (WBA) and seven strongly basic ion exchange resins (SBA) were evaluated on a bench scale for colour and chloride ion removal from kraft pulp mill effluent. Chloride ion was selected as a surrogate for non-process anions. Batch testing was carried out to determine effective resins and regenerants for colour and chloride removal. Although all of the WBA and SBA tested removed colour from the effluent to some extent, the results from the screening tests indicate that three SBA (IRA958, IRA458 and IRA900) have higher potential for complete removal of colour from the effluent. The three resins were successfully regenerated to nearly their original colour removal capacity using 1 N NaOH combined with 1 N NaCl. A macroporous acrylic SBA, IRA958, exhibited the highest average exchange capacity of the resins tested during three colour removal and two regeneration cycles. IRN78 and 4400OH, gel-type styrene-divinylbenzene SBA in the hydroxide form, were found to be effective for chloride removal. Breakthrough studies were conducted at various flow rates through columns of differing bed depths. The effectiveness of the selected resins and regenerating solutions was confirmed with these studies for both colour and chloride removal. (author)

  2. Reliability of tristimulus colourimetry in the assessment of cutaneous bruise colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafide, Katherine N; Sheridan, Daniel J; Taylor, Laura A; Hayat, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    Bruising is one of the most common types of injury clinicians observe among victims of violence and other trauma patients. However, research has shown commonly used qualitative description of cutaneous bruise colour via the naked eye is subjective and unreliable. No published work has formally evaluated the reliability of tristimulus colourimetry as an alternative for assessing bruise colour, despite its clinical and research applications in accurately assessing skin colour. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the test-retest and inter-observer reliability of tristimulus colourimetry in the assessment of cutaneous bruise colour. Two researchers obtained repeated tristimulus colourimetry measures of cutaneous bruises with participants of diverse skin colour. Measures were obtained using the Minolta CR-400 Chomameter. Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* colour space was used. Data was analysed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Cronbach's alpha, and minimal detectable change (MDC) on all three L*a*b* values. The colorimeter demonstrated excellent test-retest or intra-rater reliability (L* ICC=0.999; a* ICC=0.973; b* ICC=0.892) and inter-rater reliability (L* ICC=0.997; a* ICC=0.976; b* ICC=0.982). With consistent placement, the tristimulus colourimetry is reliable for the objective assessment and documentation of cutaneous bruise colour for purposes of clinical practice and research. Recommendations for use in practice/research are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Qiuhong; Connor, Thomas B; Kuchenbecker, James A; Mauck, Matthew C; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2009-10-08

    Red-green colour blindness, which results from the absence of either the long- (L) or the middle- (M) wavelength-sensitive visual photopigments, is the most common single locus genetic disorder. Here we explore the possibility of curing colour blindness using gene therapy in experiments on adult monkeys that had been colour blind since birth. A third type of cone pigment was added to dichromatic retinas, providing the receptoral basis for trichromatic colour vision. This opened a new avenue to explore the requirements for establishing the neural circuits for a new dimension of colour sensation. Classic visual deprivation experiments have led to the expectation that neural connections established during development would not appropriately process an input that was not present from birth. Therefore, it was believed that the treatment of congenital vision disorders would be ineffective unless administered to the very young. However, here we show that the addition of a third opsin in adult red-green colour-deficient primates was sufficient to produce trichromatic colour vision behaviour. Thus, trichromacy can arise from a single addition of a third cone class and it does not require an early developmental process. This provides a positive outlook for the potential of gene therapy to cure adult vision disorders.

  4. Trapped in Another Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    “I’m going to give you a memory blank” says the tall and coloured young neighbour in a threatening tone. To my “tough, hey?” he answers, “do you think that I don’t beat women?” A few minutes later, that same young man, together with a few others from the gang, are throwing stones onto Frida Kahlo...

  5. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  6. New macroscopic theory of anamalous diffusion induced by the dissipative trapped-ion instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1975-03-01

    For an axisymmetric toroidal plasma of the TOKAMAK type a new set of dissipative trapped-fluid equations is established. In addition to E vector x B vector drifts and collisions of the trapped particles, these equations take full account of the effect of Esub(//) (of the trapped ion modes) on free and trapped particles, and of the effect of grad delta 0 (delta 0 = equilibrium fraction of trapped particles). From the new equations the linear-mode properties of the dissipative trapped-ion instability and the anomalous diffusion flux of the trapped particles are derived. (orig.) [de

  7. Antihydrogen formation and trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Antihydrogen, the bound state of a positron and an antiproton, is the only neutral pure antimatter system available to date, and as such provides an excellent testbed for probing fundamental symmetries between matter and antimatter. In this chapter we will concentrate on the physics issues that were addressed in order to achieve the first trapping of antihydrogen. Antihydrogen can be created by merging antiprotons and positrons in a Penning–Malmberg trap. However, traps for antihydrogen are at best about ∼50 μeV deep and, as no readily available cooling techniques exist, the antihydrogen must be formed trapped. Antiprotons are sourced from an accelerator and arrive with a typical energy of 5.3 MeV. The large numbers of positrons needed means that the self-potential of the positrons are of order 2–5 V. With such energetic ingredients a range of plasma control and diagnostic techniques must be brought to bear on the particles to succeed in making any antihydrogen cold enough to be trapped.

  8. Colloidal approach to prepare colour blends from colourants with different solubility profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A R; Heussen, P C M; Dorst, E; Hazekamp, J; Velikov, K P

    2013-11-15

    Food colouring plays a vital and a determining role in the processing and the manufacturing of food products because the appearance of products is critical for attracting consumers and influencing their food choices. However, factors such as legislative restrictions, limited number of approved colourants and the processing, formulation and stability issues of the natural colourants severely limits the application of food colouring in actual product formats. Hence, finding alternatives to the currently utilised formulation practises, represents an important area of research. Here, we report a simple colloidal approach to prepare colour blends by co-incorporating colourants with contrasting aqueous solubility profiles in composite colloidal particles. Curcumin and indigocarmine were selected as water insoluble and water soluble food-grade colourants respectively and incorporated in the colloidal particles prepared from food protein-zein. Composite particles obtained by loading of curcumin and indigocarmine (at different ratios) had mean particle size ranging from 76 to 300nm. The spherical shape of the colloidal particles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and the colloidal dispersions were further characterised using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of colourants in colloidal particles led to the generation of different shade of colour in yellow-green-blue range. The encapsulation also led to the stabilization of individual pigments against photodegradation. Such composite colloidal particles could potentially serve as an approach for developing tuneable colouring system for food and nutraceutical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicele Jonauskaite

    Full Text Available Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  10. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  11. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M.; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally. PMID:27022909

  12. Incisor inclination and perceived tooth colour changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucchi, Philip; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2017-10-01

    Social attractiveness is influenced by a variety of different smile-related factors. We evaluated whether the degree of upper central incisor proclination can result in tooth colour change. Forty young adult subjects (20-25 years) in good health with a complete sound dentition were selected. The subjects were seated in standardized light conditions with an above-directed light source. Their natural head position was stated as 0 degrees. To mimic the range of possible anterior torque movements they were asked to tilt their heads upward +15 degrees (upward tilting) and downward -15 degrees (downward tilting). Frontal macro photographs, parallel to the Frankfort plane of the patient's natural head position were taken at the three head angulations (+15, 0, and -15 degrees ). Photographs were analysed for colour differences at the centre of the incisor clinical crowns with a CIE L*a*b* colour model based software. A paired t-test was used to test for significance between each value for each inclination. Differences were found between the CIE L*a*b* colour values for: upward tilting, downward tilting, and -15 to +15 degrees (total tilting) except for b* values for downward tilting. As the inclination of the subject's head changed downward, the upper incisors were retroclined and the CIE L*a*b* values indicated a darker and less green but redder colour component. As the inclination of the subject's head changed upwards the upper incisors were proclined and the L*a*b* values indicated a lighter and less green and yellow but redder and bluer colour component. Proclination of upper incisors caused lighter tooth colour parameters compared to retroclined incisors and colour changes. Orthodontic change of upper incisor inclination may induce alterations on how tooth colour is perceived.

  13. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  14. An Introduction to the Practical Use of Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    this, we have combined the strength of Petri nets with the strength of programming languages. Petri nets provide the primitives for describing synchronisation of concurrent processes, while programming languages provide the primitives for definition of data types and manipulation of their data values......The development of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) has been driven by the desire to develop a modelling language - at the same time theoretically well-founded and versatile enough to be used in practice for systems of the size and complexity found in typical industrial projects. To achieve....... The paper focuses on the practical use of Coloured Petri Nets. It introduces the basic ideas behind the CPN language, and it illustrates how CPN models can be analysed by means of simulation, state spaces and condensed state spaces. The paper also describes how CP-nets can be extended with a time concept...

  15. Independent effects of colour on object identification and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2009-02-01

    We examined the effects of colour on object identification and memory using a study-test priming procedure with a coloured-object decision task at test (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured). Objects were selected to have a single associated colour and were either correctly or incorrectly coloured. In addition, object shape and colour were either spatially integrated (i.e., colour fell on the object surface) or spatially separated (i.e., colour formed the background to the object). Transforming the colour of an object from study to test (e.g., from a yellow banana to a purple banana) reduced priming of response times, as compared to when the object was untransformed. This utilization of colour information in object memory was not contingent upon colour falling on the object surface or whether the resulting configuration was of a correctly or incorrectly coloured object. In addition, we observed independent effects of colour on response times, whereby coloured-object decisions were more efficient for correctly than for incorrectly coloured objects but only when colour fell on the object surface. These findings provide evidence for two distinct mechanisms of shape-colour binding in object processing.

  16. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Ronald H [Concord, MA

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  17. Comparative efficacy of three suction traps for collecting phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in open habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Roy; Cuño, Ruben; Warburg, Alon

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of three suction traps for trapping phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was compared. Traps were baited with Co(2) and used without any light source. CO(2)-baited CDC traps were evaluated either in their standard downdraft orientation or inverted (iCDC traps). Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) counterflow geometry traps were tested in the updraft orientation only. Both updraft traps (iCDC and MMX) were deployed with their opening ∼10 cm from the ground while the opening of the downdraft (CDC) trap was ∼40 cm above ground. Comparisons were conducted in two arid locations where different sand fly species prevail. In the Jordan Valley, 3,367 sand flies were caught, 2,370 of which were females. The predominant species was Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi, Scopoli 1786 (>99%). The updraft-type traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 118 and 67.1 sand flies per trap night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 32.9 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. In the Judean desert, traps were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. A total of 565 sand flies were caught, 345 of which were females. The predominant species was P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot 1917 (87%). The updraft traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 25.6 and 17.9 sand flies per trap per night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 7.8 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. The female to male ratio was 1.7 on average for all trap types. In conclusion, updraft traps deployed with their opening close to the ground are clearly more effective for trapping sand flies than downdraft CDC traps in open habitats.

  18. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond the subjective experience of colour: An experimental case study of grapheme-texture synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Koga, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Saiki, Jun

    2017-07-01

    This study was a case investigation of grapheme-texture synestheste TH, a female who subjectively reported experiencing a visual association between grapheme and colour/texture. First, we validated the existence of a synesthetic association in an objective manner. Involuntarily elicited experience is a major hallmark that is common to different types of synesthetes. Our results indicated interference between physical and synesthetic texture, suggesting the involuntary occurrence of synesthetic textural experience. We analysed the behavioural measures using the EZ diffusion model. The result suggested that TH's synesthetic experience was dissociable from that of briefly trained associative processing of non-synesthetes. Second, we investigated how the synesthetic experience of colour and texture dimensions was bound in the visual representation. We found that the interference effects of colour and texture were not independent. This suggested that in the elicited experience, the colour and texture features construct an integrated representation.

  20. Effects of environmental colour on mood: a wearable life colour capture device

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Aiden R.; Kelly, Philip; Smeaton, Alan F.; O'Flynn, Brendan; Curran, Padraig; Ó Mathuna, Cian; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2010-01-01

    Colour is everywhere in our daily lives and impacts things like our mood, yet we rarely take notice of it. One method of capturing and analysing the predominant colours that we encounter is through visual lifelogging devices such as the SenseCam. However an issue related to these devices is the privacy concerns of capturing image level detail. Therefore in this work we demonstrate a hardware prototype wearable camera that captures only one pixel - of the dominant colour prevelant in front of ...

  1. Comparision of carbon dioxide-baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Braks, M.A.H.; Takken, W.

    2000-01-01

    For collecting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) the outdoor catching efficiency of four types of trapping devices baited with carbon dioxide (CO2, 300 ml/min) was evaluated and compared in two areas of Tanzania. The types of traps employed were: the CDC miniature trap with the incandescent light bulb

  2. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence ...

  3. How to pass higher English colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2009-01-01

    How to Pass is the Number 1 revision series for Scottish qualifications across the three examination levels of Standard Grade, Intermediate and Higher! Second editions of the books present all of the material in full colour for the first time.

  4. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    Performance is often a central issue in the design, development, and configuration of systems. It is not always enough to know that systems work properly, they must also work effectively. There are numerous studies, e.g. in the areas of computer and telecommunication systems, manufacturing...... of a system. There are three alternative techniques for analysing the performance of a system: measurement, analytical models, and simulation models. This dissertation focuses on the the use of coloured Petri nets for simulationbased performance analysis of industrial-sized systems. Coloured Petri nets...... of an industrial-sized system using coloured Petri nets and the improved performance facilities that are described in the first paper. The case study demonstrated that typical users of coloured Petri nets are not experienced performance analysts, and that this fact ought to be taken into consideration when...

  5. Colour spaces in ecology and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Julien P; Kelber, Almut; Schaefer, H Martin

    2017-02-01

    The recognition that animals sense the world in a different way than we do has unlocked important lines of research in ecology and evolutionary biology. In practice, the subjective study of natural stimuli has been permitted by perceptual spaces, which are graphical models of how stimuli are perceived by a given animal. Because colour vision is arguably the best-known sensory modality in most animals, a diversity of colour spaces are now available to visual ecologists, ranging from generalist and basic models allowing rough but robust predictions on colour perception, to species-specific, more complex models giving accurate but context-dependent predictions. Selecting among these models is most often influenced by historical contingencies that have associated models to specific questions and organisms; however, these associations are not always optimal. The aim of this review is to provide visual ecologists with a critical perspective on how models of colour space are built, how well they perform and where their main limitations are with regard to their most frequent uses in ecology and evolutionary biology. We propose a classification of models based on their complexity, defined as whether and how they model the mechanisms of chromatic adaptation and receptor opponency, the nonlinear association between the stimulus and its perception, and whether or not models have been fitted to experimental data. Then, we review the effect of modelling these mechanisms on predictions of colour detection and discrimination, colour conspicuousness, colour diversity and diversification, and for comparing the perception of colour traits between distinct perceivers. While a few rules emerge (e.g. opponent log-linear models should be preferred when analysing very distinct colours), in general model parameters still have poorly known effects. Colour spaces have nonetheless permitted significant advances in ecology and evolutionary biology, and more progress is expected if ecologists

  6. Colour Management as a Precondition of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour management technology has reached a high level of maturity. Only ten years after it first appeared on the market, ICC colour profiles have become indispensable in modern premedia. It can be said without exaggeration that colour management has revolutionised digital proof printing. A whole range of newcomers in the print industry supplier community offer an intelligent combination of a PostScript RIP with integral colour management functions. The quality of these low-priced proofing systems has now reached such a high level that even discerning customers accept such digital proofs as contract proofs. Modular proofing solutions are regularly to be found among the leaders in the digital proofer tests.Working with colour profiles and profiled workflows is still a major problem area. It is no mere chance that notably digital proofing is the field in which users work with colour profiles in virtually all systems, since applications here are locally limited.An important step for the widespread use of colour management technology is the now very extensive implementation of ICC mechanisms in application programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Version 7 is regarded as a model of well thought-out ICC-based colour management implementation. As Microsoft has neglected the ICC standard in recent years, Adobe has created its own colour management interface, called ACE. Based on the ICC standard, it is regarded by many experts as a reference implementation. Adobe products, which are so important for the graphic arts industry, now contain a standard colour management platform across all supported operating systems. Incompatibilities at system level can now be virtually ruled out, at least across the Adobe product line, including the important interfaces with PostScript and PDF.Modern prepress technology is set to move ever further away from exclusive print production for standardised offset print. Multiple use of production data is still at an early stage

  7. Removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease for slaughterhouse wastewater using electrocoagulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Azwan, Azlyza Mohd; Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    In this study electrocoagulation method is used to treat slaughterhouse wastewaters. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of electrocoagulation method for the removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease of slaughterhouse wastewaters. The factors of electrode types, and voltage applied during treatment are the study parameters. The types of electrode used are Aluminium (Al) grade 6082 and Iron (Fe) grade 1050. Meanwhile, the ranges of voltage applied are 2, 4, 6, 8 volts at a time interval of 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. The effect of these factors on the removal of fat oil and grease (FOG), colour and turbidity are analyzed. The results show maximum removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are recorded using Fe electrode at 8 V of applied voltage with 30 minutes of treatment time. The increase in treatment time of the cell will also increase the amount of hydrogen bubbles at the cathode which results in a greater upwards flux and a faster removal of FOG,, turbidity and colour. The removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 98%, 92% and 91 % respectively. Meanwhile, by using Al electrodes in the same condition, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 91%, 85% and 87 % respectively. Whereas by using Fe-Al as electrodes pairs, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are found to be at 90%, 87% and 76 % respectively. In this case, the Fe-Fe pair electrodes have been proven to provide better performance for FOG, colour and turbidity removals of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Therefore, it is feasible to be considered as an alternative method for wastewater treatment.

  8. Colour blindness-A rural prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natu Maya

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour vision is important for aeroplane pilots, motor drivers, seamen and signal men for their professional work Not much of attention has been paid to population studies of colour blindness as there is no interference with daily routine in majority of persons However there is a need to undertake community wide prevalence surveys which could be useful in study of other genetically transmitted diseases

  9. Colour Dematerialization in Spiritual Literature and Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Dadang; Piliang, Yasraf Amir; Sanjaya, Tisna; Kusmara, Andriyanto Rikrik

    2017-01-01

    Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory...

  10. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, E.; Leonidov, A.; McLerran, L.

    2001-01-01

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory

  11. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  12. Modelling colour changes during the caramelisation reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Mafalda A.C.; Brandão, Teresa R.S.; Silva, Cristina L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrose solutions, with concentrations near or superior to saturation, present high potentialities for the candy and pastry industries. The development of colour in a neutral and highly concentrated sucrose solution (16.32%(w/w) water content) subjected to isothermal heat treatment (in the 100–160 C range) was investigated. Under such conditions, sucrose degrades through caramelisation and 5- hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed. Colour development was monitored through lightness/darkening ...

  13. A gentilion hypothesis for quark colours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.S.D.; Fernandes, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    Extendind the Noether's theorem it is possible to identify the colour quantum numbers with the eigenvalue of a S sup((3)) algebra invariant. In the gentilion approximation, the composition of the coloured S sup((3)) with the symmetric quark model seems to constitute in an exact symmetry of the nature. Some general properties related with the observationality in Quantum Mechanics are also approached and the Gentile statistical universality is asserted. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Not so colourful after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell colour space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking colours and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08-0.10% of the avian perceivable colour space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of colour, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately predicted by colour mixing models based on the relative contribution of both pigments and we demonstrate that the models' predictions can be improved by accounting for the reflectance of the eggshell's calcium carbonate matrix. The establishment of these proximate links between pigmentation and colour will enable future tests of hypotheses on the functions of perceived avian eggshell colours that depend on eggshell chemistry. More generally, colour mixing models are not limited to avian eggshell colours but apply to any natural colour. Our approach illustrates how modelling can aid the understanding of constraints on phenotypic diversity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding WCAG2.0 Colour Contrast Requirements Through 3D Colour Space Visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient contrast between text and background is needed to achieve sufficient readability. WCAG2.0 provides a specific definition of sufficient contrast on the web. However, the definition is hard to understand and most designers thus use contrast calculators to validate their colour choices. Often, such checks are performed after design and this may be too late. This paper proposes a colour selection approach based on three-dimensional visualisation of the colour space. The complex non-linear relationships between the colour components become comprehendible when viewed in 3D. The method visualises the available colours in an intuitive manner and allows designers to check a colour against the set of other valid colours. Unlike the contrast calculators, the proposed method is proactive and fun to use. A colour space builder was developed and the resulting models were viewed with a point cloud viewer. The technique can be used as both a design tool and a pedagogical aid to teach colour theory and design.

  16. A new colour constancy algorithm based on automatic determination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/039/02/0267-0281. Keywords. Colour constancy; illumination estimation; neural network; generalized gray world; classification. Abstract. Colour constancy is defined as the ability to estimate the actual colours of objects in an acquired image disregarding the colour of scene illuminant.

  17. Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

  18. Flower Colour Inheritance in Nicotiana alata (Solanaceae) and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flower Colour Inheritance in Nicotiana alata (Solanaceae) and its Use as a Genetic Marker for Gene Flow Studies. ... Abstract. In Nicotiana alata, flower colour inheritance has followed Mendelian inheritance with dark colours being dominant over lighter colours. Reciprocal crosses concluded the absence of the cytoplasm ...

  19. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  20. Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Calà Lesina, Antonino; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Poitras, Daniel; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and aluminium. We demonstrate the process on silver coins weighing up to 5 kg and bearing large topographic variations (~1.5 cm). We find that colours are related to a single parameter, the total accumulated fluence, making the process suitable for high-throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of laser-irradiated surfaces reveal various nanoparticle size distributions. Large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations based on these nanoparticle distributions reproduce trends seen in reflectance measurements, and demonstrate the key role of plasmonic resonances in colour formation.

  1. Trapping metastable chromium atoms in a crossed optical dipole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Q.; Chicireanu, R.; Pouderous, A.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.; Maréchal, E.; Vernac, L.; Keller, J.-C.; Gorceix, O.

    We report the fast accumulation of up to 1 million 52Cr metastable atoms in a mixed trap formed by the superposition of a quadrupolar magnetic trap and a strongly confining optical trap. The cloud is at a temperature of 100 μK with a peak density of 1018 atoms/m3, which is a promising starting point to reach quantum degeneracy by forced evaporation in an optical trap.

  2. An Urban Colour Space in the Context of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zheleznyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A colour space is seen as an actual discourse when discussing problems of formation and inhabitation of the modern city environment. The key aspect of such understanding is an activity-cultural interpretation of the urban environment colouristics proposed by the author, which allows building of an integral sphere of colour existence. This model of working with colour includes basic components and structures a colour space, while matching up all the elements (basic paradigms that provide proper functioning and development of the colour space; mechanisms of formation of colour paradigms; processes of formation and transformation of cultural norms and stereotypes; the culture of colour as a holistic unit that penetrates the variety of colour space forms, as well as the reality of colour establishment in the framework of human culture; the urban colouristics as a material and virtual, artificial and natural, organized and spontaneously appearing colour reality together with professional and conventional visions of it, etc..

  3. The Attentional Capture of Colour in Visual Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The use of colour is an integral component in visual interface design for creating separation between objects and for conveying meaning. It has previously been established that colours can be separated in a hierarchy of primary colours and secondary colours, and that colours are consistently...... associated with specific mood tones. However, it has thus far not been investigated whether these two factors, which we refer to as the perception-primacy and emotion-conveyance, are associated with attentional capture in a congruent manner. To investigate this, we conducted a visual search task study...... in a controlled environment, in which 11 participants scanned a 20 item display for a coloured target amongst coloured distractors. We found evidence to support that primary colours capture attention significantly more than secondary colours, and inconclusive evidence that colours convey their meaning...

  4. Colour and texture associations in voice-induced synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eMoos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.

  5. Dissipative Solitons that Cannot be Trapped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Rosa; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-01-01

    We show that dissipative solitons in systems with high-order nonlinear dissipation cannot survive in the presence of trapping potentials of the rigid wall or asymptotically increasing type. Solitons in such systems can survive in the presence of a weak potential but only with energies out of the interval of existence of linear quantum mechanical stationary states

  6. A floating trap for sampling downstream migrant fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; Fred H. Everest; William R. Humphreys; Mario F. Solazzi

    1989-01-01

    Fishery scientists and managers are interested in obtaining information about downstream movements of fish species for biological and economic reasons. Different types of nets and traps have been used for this purpose with only partial success. The floating, self-cleaning downstream migrant trap described here proved successful for sampling several salmoniform and...

  7. A live-trap and trapping technique for fossorial mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    injuries, the trauma involved in such capture does not promote acclimatization ... involved in the evolution of trap design for use in various field conditions and live capture of other fossorial mammals are discussed. Materials and Methods. Constructing the .... work of setting traps halved by placing only one trap instead of the ...

  8. A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

  9. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study......, we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  10. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  11. Feedback trap using optical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    Recently, the feedback trap using electrophoretic force (ABEL trap) has been used in the experimental study of non-equilibrium thermodynamics such as Landauer's erasure principle. This trap can trap and manipulate a small particle in solution by canceling the Brownian fluctuations. Here, we propose a simple way to control a bead using optical force with feedback and show the dynamics of a single particle in the virtual potential.

  12. Laser-induced colour marking-Sensitivity scaling for a stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kocoń, Dariusz; Nowak, Maciej; Kozioł, Paweł; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements and analysis of the influence of laser marking process parameters on the colour obtained. The study was conducted for AISI 304 multipurpose stainless steel using a commercially available industrial fibre laser. It was determined how various process parameters, such as laser power, pulse repetition rate, scan speed of the material, spacing between successive lines, thickness and temperature of the material, location of the sample relative to the focal plane, size of marked fields and position in the workpiece, affect the repeatability of the colours obtained. For objective assessment of colour changes, an optical spectrometer and the CIE colour difference parameter ΔEab* were used. Additionally, in order to determine the susceptibility of laser colour marking to the ageing process, two types of tests - UV radiation and a salt spray test - were performed. Based on this analysis, necessary modifications to the laser systems commonly used for monochrome marking are proposed in order to achieve greater repeatability in colour marking.

  13. Instant photographic documentation in nuclear medicine and the use of colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging techniques in medicine require fast transfer of images and written information to the clinician in order to allow immediate decision making. This task is markedly alleviated by use of instant film material without need of darkroom, chemical solutions, time consuming processing machines which require space and service. There are several facilities to have the clinical information on transparency film or paper film at all film sizes. Colour film provides special advantages to show the clinician convincing results, however, up to now colour was only seldom used to stress the significance of circumscribed abnormalities in scintiscans. Furthermore colour is a facility to co-ordinate heterogenous information providing a basic structure which is easily seized, so that the conduction of written and pictorial information to the reader is guided by use of colour (identical colour for ROI, curve, numerical results, written text). 35 mm film (colour, black/white) to be used in everyday standard camera types and processed within 2 min is the last step for a complete concept, as it facilitates the minification of images for long-time documentation of medical training (slides) having the data always in the department without the possibility of data misuse during extern film development. (orig.) [de

  14. Fundus autofluorescence and colour fundus imaging compared during telemedicine screening in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeyer, Anton M; Baumrind, Benjamin R; Szirth, Bernard C; Shahid, Khadija; Khouri, Albert S

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the use of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging in screening the eyes of patients with diabetes. Images were obtained from 50 patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing telemedicine screening with colour fundus imaging. The colour and FAF images were obtained with a 15.1 megapixel non-mydriatic retinal camera. Colour and FAF images were compared for pathology seen in nonproliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR and PDR, respectively). A qualitative assessment was made of the ease of detecting early retinopathy changes and the extent of existing retinopathy. The mean age of the patients was 47 years, most were male (82%) and most were African American (68%). Their mean visual acuity was 20/45 and their mean intraocular pressure was 14.3 mm Hg. Thirty-eight eyes (76%) did not show any diabetic retinopathy changes on colour or FAF imaging. Seven patients (14%) met the criteria for NPDR and five (10%) for severe NPDR or PDR. The most common findings were microaneurysms, hard exudates and intra-retinal haemorrhages (IRH) (n = 6 for each). IRH, microaneurysms and chorioretinal scars were more easily visible on FAF images. Hard exudates, pre-retinal haemorrhage and fibrosis, macular oedema and Hollenhorst plaque were easier to identify on colour photographs. The value of FAF imaging as a complementary technique to colour fundus imaging in detecting diabetic retinopathy during ocular screening warrants further investigation.

  15. Potential weekly intake of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, M C; Guerchon, M S; Ragazzi, S

    1992-01-01

    The Potential Weekly Intake (PWI) of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children living in the District of Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated on the basis of average consumption data of artificially coloured food and analytically determined colour concentration in foodstuffs ingested. Coloured food consumption data were obtained through dietary recall interviews and collection of the packages and/or labels of the coloured foods consumed during a two-week period. Colours found in the individual types of foods detected through the consumption survey were identified and determined by methods that included wool dyeing and polyamide column extractions, ascending paper chromatography and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all artificial colours used in the composition of 83 commercial food products, including jellies, juices, soft drinks, syrups and 57 different candies, were permitted for use in food in Brazil the year the survey was conducted (1986), in amounts below those prescribed by law. Statistical analysis performed to compare the PWI for different population groups demonstrated that young male children, especially from lower social classes, were most exposed to artificial colours. Comparison of the estimated potential intakes with the toxicologically Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) showed that consumption of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Indigotine and Tartrazine by all children in the study represented approximately 24%, 3%, 0.05% and 0.4%, of the actual ADI values, respectively.

  16. Coat colour phenotype of Qingyu pig is associated with polymorphisms of melanocortin receptor 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Qingyu pig, a Chinese indigenous pig breed, exhibits two types of coat colour phenotypes, including pure black and white with black spotting respectively. Melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R and agouti signaling protein (ASIP are two widely reported pivotal genes that significantly affect the regulation of coat colour. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the polymorphisms of these two genes are associated with coat colour and analyze the molecular mechanism of the coat colour separation in Qingyu pig. Methods We studied the phenotype segregation and used polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing to investigate the polymorphism of MC1R and ASIP in 121 Qingyu pigs, consisting of 115 black and 6 white with black spotted pigs. Results Coat colour of Qingyu pig is associated with the polymorphisms of MC1R but not ASIP. We only found 2 haplotypes, EQY and Eqy, based on the 13 observed mutations from MC1R gene. Among which, Eqy presented a recessive inheritance mode in black spotted Qingyu pigs. Further analysis revealed a g.462–463CC insertion that caused a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon, thus changed the first transmembrane domain completely and lost the remaining six transmembrane domains. Altogether, our results strongly support that the variety of Qingyu pig’s coat colour is related to MC1R. Conclusion Our findings indicated that black coat colour in Qingyu pig was dominant to white with black spotted phenotype and MC1R gene polymorphism was associated with coat colour separation in Qingyu pig.

  17. Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-12-06

    A colour quality metric based on memory colours is presented. The basic idea is simple. The colour quality of a test source is evaluated as the degree of similarity between the colour appearance of a set of familiar objects and their memory colours. The closer the match, the better the colour quality. This similarity was quantified using a set of similarity distributions obtained by Smet et al. in a previous study. The metric was validated by calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between the metric predictions and the visual appreciation results obtained in a validation experiment conducted by the authors as well those obtained in two independent studies. The metric was found to correlate well with the visual appreciation of the lighting quality of the sources used in the three experiments. Its performance was also compared with that of the CIE colour rendering index and the NIST colour quality scale. For all three experiments, the metric was found to be significantly better at predicting the correct visual rank order of the light sources (p < 0.1).

  18. Colour unwound - disentangling colours for azimuthal asymmetries in Drell-Yan scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniël; Daal, Tom van; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that a colour-entanglement effect exists in the Drell-Yan cross section for the 'double T-odd' contributions at low transverse momentum $Q_T$, rendering the colour structure different from that predicted by the usual factorisation formula [1]. These T-odd contributions can come

  19. Pollinators show flower colour preferences but flowers with similar colours do not attract similar pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverté, Sara; Retana, Javier; Gómez, José M; Bosch, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Colour is one of the main floral traits used by pollinators to locate flowers. Although pollinators show innate colour preferences, the view that the colour of a flower may be considered an important predictor of its main pollinators is highly controversial because flower choice is highly context-dependent, and initial innate preferences may be overridden by subsequent associative learning. Our objective is to establish whether there is a relationship between flower colour and pollinator composition in natural communities. We measured the flower reflectance spectrum and pollinator composition in four plant communities (85 plant species represented by 109 populations, and 32 305 plant-pollinator interactions in total). Pollinators were divided into six taxonomic groups: bees, ants, wasps, coleopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. We found consistent associations between pollinator groups and certain colours. These associations matched innate preferences experimentally established for several pollinators and predictions of the pollination syndrome theory. However, flowers with similar colours did not attract similar pollinator assemblages. The explanation for this paradoxical result is that most flower species are pollination generalists. We conclude that although pollinator colour preferences seem to condition plant-pollinator interactions, the selective force behind these preferences has not been strong enough to mediate the appearance and maintenance of tight colour-based plant-pollinator associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Quasi-conical centrifugal ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Yu.K.; Solov'ev, K.V.; Grigor'ev, D.V.; Flegontova, E.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new excellent ion trap that principally differs from the classic hyperbolic one by its action. The action is based on the axisymmetric electrostatic quasi-conical field with the following potential type: F=F 0 [ln r - r 2 /2+z 2 ], where r, z are cylindrical dimensionless coordinates. The radial potential run (f=ln r-r 2 /2), in this case, is exactly presented by the approximation function f a =ar 2 +b/r 2 +c. In addition, there are some ranges of r (for example, 0.6< r<0.35), in which the concurrence accuracy value is above 0.5%. The paper presents the theory of particles dynamics in the centrifugal trap. Basic correlation for resolution ratios and sensitivity values are developed. Recommendations on the centrifugal trap design implementation, including the recording system, are given

  1. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F

    2014-10-31

    We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39)  C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10)  cm(3) s(-1).

  2. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  3. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  4. Trap diversity and character evolution in carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeier, Anna Sofia; Fleischmann, Andreas; Müller, Kai; Schäferhoff, Bastian; Rubach, Carmen; Speck, Thomas; Poppinga, Simon

    2017-09-21

    Bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) constitute the largest genus of carnivorous plants but only aquatic species (about one fifth of the genus) have so far been thoroughly studied as to their suction trap functioning. In this study, we comparatively investigated trap biomechanics in 19 Utricularia species to examine correlations between life-forms, trapping mechanisms, and functional-morphological traits. Our investigations show the existence of two functional trap principles (passive trap in U. multifida vs. active suction traps), and - in active suction traps - three main trapdoor movement types (with several subtypes). The trapdoor movement types and their corresponding functional-morphological features most presumably represent adaptations to the respective habitat. We furthermore give insights into fluid dynamics during suction in three representatives of the main types of trapdoor movement. The results on functional morphology and trapdoor movement were mapped onto a new phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus, derived from the rapidly evolving chloroplast regions trnK, rps16 and trnQ-rps16 and a sampling of 105 Utricularia species in total. We discuss potential scenarios of trap character evolution and species radiation, highlighting possible key innovations that enable such a unique carnivorous lifestyle in different habitats.

  5. Characterisation of flower colouration in 30 Rhododendron species via anthocyanin and flavonol identification and quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, H; Lai, L; Wang, F; Sun, W; Zhang, L; Li, X; Wang, L; Jiang, L; Zheng, Y

    2018-01-01

    Floral colour is a key reproductive character, often associated with environmental adaptation, and subject to human intervention. A large number of Rhododendron species differ widely in flower colour, providing a good model for flower colouration. The chromatic features and anthocyanin compositions of 30 species from seven subgenera were systematically analysed. The Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart and CIE L*a*b* system were employed to describe and investigate flower colours. The UPLC-PDA/ESI-MS n system was used to identify and quantify anthocyanins in petal extracts. The flower colours of 30 Rhododendron species were categorised into four groups - red, purplish pink, purple and white. Seven anthocyanins were identified and quantified in petals: delphinidin, cyanidin and malvidin 3-O-arabinoside-5-O-glucosides, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, 3-O-galactoside and 3-O-arabinoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. The red-flowered species mainly contained cyanidin monoglycosides and had much higher total anthocyanin content than purplish pink- and purple-flowered species. Purplish pink- and purple-flowered species had similar anthocyanin types and content. The chromatic differences were significant among groups, except the purplish pink and purple groups. Statistical analysis showed that Cy3Gal and Cy3Arb are characteristic for red-flowered species, and Mv3Arb5G and Dp3Arb5G play important roles in purple colouration; their contents were major components that greatly affected the chromatic parameters. In total, 21 flavonol derivates were identified. However, total flavonol content and co-pigmentation index showed no significant difference or correlation among/with colour groups, suggesting that flavonols might not play a major role in colouration. These results enhance our knowledge of the biochemical basis of flower colouration in Rhododendron species, and provide a foundation for genetic variation studies and aid in breeding cultivars with novel flower colours

  6. A simplified method for generation of pseudo natural colours from colour infrared aerial photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Olsen, Brian Pilemann

    In spite of their high potential for automated discrimination between vegetation and human made objects, colour-infrared (CIR) aerial photos have not been in widespread use for traditional photogrammetric mapping. This is probably due to their awkward colour representation invalidating the visual...... analytical experience of the stereo analysts doing the actual registration of the topographical data. In this paper, we present a method for generating pseudo natural colour (PNC) representations from CIR photos. This enables the combination of automated vegetation discrimination with traditional manual....... In the second step the blue colour component is estimated using tailored models for each domain. Green and red colour components are taken directly fron the CIR photo. The visual impression of the results from the 2 step method is only slightly inferior to the original 7 step method. The implementation, however...

  7. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  8. Colour dematerialization in spiritual literature and painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Sudrajat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory and the knowledge of tasawwuf or sufism, the aesthetics, and arts. Results showed that both sufis, Ahmad Sadali and Suprapto Kadis, share similarities in doing dematerialization towards colour. For them, colour was initially taken from nature (the external territory which then experienced dematerialization when it made contact with inspiration that was created from the internal area (mental. On the other hand, the difference between the two art works lies on an understanding that colour in FJW is naturalistic mimesis in nature, meanwhile, the painting of Ahmad Sadali is naturaly abstract.

  9. Pseudoisochromatic test plate colour representation dependence on printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, K; Ozolinsh, M; Fomins, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine best printing technology for creation of colour vision deficiency tests. Valid tests for protanopia and deuteranopia were created from perceived colour matching experiments from printed colour samples by colour deficient individuals. Calibrated EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer for ink prints and Noritsu HD 3701 digital printer for photographic prints were used. Multispectral imagery (by tunable liquid crystal filters system CRI Nuance Vis 07) data analysis show that in case of ink prints, the measured pixel colour coordinate dispersion (in the CIExy colour diagram) of similar colour arrays is smaller than in case of photographic printing. The print quality in terms of colour coordinate dispersion for printing methods used is much higher than in case of commercially available colour vision deficiency tests.

  10. Influence of drug colour on perceived drug effects and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Wang, Tieyan; Wang, Tieshan; Qu, Xingda

    2018-02-01

    A drug's physical characteristics, such as colour, could be factors influencing its therapeutic effects. It is not well understood whether people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy are affected by colour, especially among Chinese population. This study was conducted to examine people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy on the basis of drug colour, and to reveal possible gender differences in colour-related drug expectations. Participants (n = 224) were asked to classify seven single-coloured and six two-coloured capsules into one of four categories of drug effects, and to indicate the strength of drug efficacy. It is found that all the coloured capsules yielded non-chance distributions in classifications of drug effects, with six single-coloured and four two-coloured capsules associated with specific drug effects. Colour also conveyed differential strengths of drug efficacy in general and in relation to specific drug effects. There were gender differences in drug expectations for some colours and colour combinations. Practitioner Summary: Drug colour was found to have impacts on perceived drug effects and efficacy. The findings from the present study can be used by ergonomics practitioners to design appropriate drug colours in support of drug differentiation, therapeutic effects and medication adherence.

  11. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  12. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    Development work was undertaken in order to produce a visual dosemeter system for measurement of radiation levels around the present and future high energy particle accelerators. This dosemeter should exhibit radiation induced colours in the visible part of the spectrum leading to a visual dose...... interpretation or a dose measurement with a simple instrument such as a portable reflecting densitometer in the range of 10(3) to 10(6) Gy. Two projects were investigated: (1) a thin plastic film with a self adhesive tape containing a radiochromic dye which induces a colour change when exposed to ionising...... radiation; and (2) a paint containing a base substance with a pigment. The paint dosemeter remained unaffected by irradiation up to 3 x 10(4) Gy while the film dosemeter showed a measurable colour change from 10(4) Gy to 5 x 10(5) Gy. Above 10(6) Gy the film dosemeter is destroyed by radiation. Samples...

  13. Gaze Duration Biases for Colours in Combination with Dissonant and Consonant Sounds: A Comparative Eye-Tracking Study with Orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenbeck, Cordelia; Liebal, Katja; Pritsch, Carla; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research on colour preferences in humans and non-human primates suggests similar patterns of biases for and avoidance of specific colours, indicating that these colours are connected to a psychological reaction. Similarly, in the acoustic domain, approach reactions to consonant sounds (considered as positive) and avoidance reactions to dissonant sounds (considered as negative) have been found in human adults and children, and it has been demonstrated that non-human primates are able to discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds. Yet it remains unclear whether the visual and acoustic approach-avoidance patterns remain consistent when both types of stimuli are combined, how they relate to and influence each other, and whether these are similar for humans and other primates. Therefore, to investigate whether gaze duration biases for colours are similar across primates and whether reactions to consonant and dissonant sounds cumulate with reactions to specific colours, we conducted an eye-tracking study in which we compared humans with one species of great apes, the orangutans. We presented four different colours either in isolation or in combination with consonant and dissonant sounds. We hypothesised that the viewing time for specific colours should be influenced by dissonant sounds and that previously existing avoidance behaviours with regard to colours should be intensified, reflecting their association with negative acoustic information. The results showed that the humans had constant gaze durations which were independent of the auditory stimulus, with a clear avoidance of yellow. In contrast, the orangutans did not show any clear gaze duration bias or avoidance of colours, and they were also not influenced by the auditory stimuli. In conclusion, our findings only partially support the previously identified pattern of biases for and avoidance of specific colours in humans and do not confirm such a pattern for orangutans.

  14. Phenotypic characterisation of colour stability of lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin H; D'Antuono, Mario F; Gilmour, Arthur R; Warner, Robyn D

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken, using 2701 overwrapped loin samples aged for 5 days and subjected to a simulated retail display (SRD) for 3 days; sourced from lambs in the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation information nucleus flock, born 2007-2009. The ratio of reflectance of light in the wavelengths of 630 nm and 580 nm (oxy/met) was measured daily during the SRD, using a Hunterlab spectrophotometer. A series of linear mixed models was fitted to the oxy/met and time data to compare 4 breed types and identify relevant covariates, of 19, using a forward selection process. Breed type, pH at 24 h post slaughter and Linoleic acid concentration (LA) were the most important factors and covariates, in that order. Merino breed type, high pH and high LA reduced colour stability. Fitting a spline model to predict the time for oxy/met to reach a set value, represents an alternative to comparing oxy/met at a set time, for describing colour stability. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  16. Moisture sorption in naturally coloured cotton fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ö.; De Clerck, K.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing environmental concerns have stimulated an interest in naturally coloured cottons. As many commercial and technical performance aspects of cotton fibres are influenced by their response towards atmospheric humidity, an in-depth research on moisture sorption behaviour of these fibres using dynamic vapour sorption is carried out. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity and hysteresis behaviour of brown and green cotton fibres. These differences are mainly attributed to the variations in maturity and crystallinity index of the fibres. This study provides valuable insights into the moisture sorption behaviour of naturally coloured cotton fibres.

  17. PHILOSOPHIES OF COLOUR: GENDER AND ACCULTURATION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Helen V

    2003-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/658 on 06.20.2017 by CS (TIS) My hypothesis is that 'Colour' as idea acts as a dynamic in the production of meaning and as such is part of what Le Doeuff (1991: 46-49) argues are deeply held epistemes that structure and govern our ways of thinking. I have dealt with the difficulties attendant on the analysis of a phenomenon as insubstantial as colour (as idea and as precept) by assuming Goethe's (1810: 305-323) concept of the enrobement o...

  18. Structural Colour in Colourimetric Sensors and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    quality control of consumer products (e.g. food, fuel, drugs, cosmetics , etc.) at home or in the eld.10 Despite usually being associated with a sacri...a portion of a coloured lm (e.g. by masking a portion with a transparent barrier). In this approach, colour changes would be recognised by the...Cooks, Chem. Commun., 2005, 1950. 10 K. Anderson, Cosmet . Toiletries, 2011, 126, 756. 11 T. Mosmann, J. Immunol. Methods, 1983, 65, 55. 12 M. Dubois, K

  19. Imagery, colour and illness: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R

    2011-09-01

    This paper reviews research on the role of colour and imagery in relation to illness and examines how this might improve communication between the sufferer and those treating or caring for them. It describes a method by which colour can be related to situations such as an individual's mood and how this might be used to predict response to treatment. Furthermore, it provides evidence that documenting the imagery of an illness might give insight into the patients' fears and concerns about their condition as well as helping non-sufferers to understand what they are going through.

  20. Colour-temperature correspondences: when reactions to thermal stimuli are influenced by colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant's responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented.

  1. Colour-Temperature Correspondences: When Reactions to Thermal Stimuli Are Influenced by Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H.; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant’s responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

  2. Artificial lights improve the catchability of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Q. Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the behaviour and commercial catchability of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio in response to different low-powered LED lights under laboratory and field conditions. We created a novel choice-experiment in a laboratory setting in which we investigated the behaviour of snow crab in response to coloured LED lights. The results showed that snow crab movement was dependent on light colour, with animals choosing to move toward blue and white lights, away from purple lights, and no detectable effect for green and red lights. We then conducted two field experiments to investigate the effect of the same LED lights on the catch rates of commercial traps during the 2016 snow crab fishery on the east coast of Newfoundland and Labrador. Results from the first field experiment showed that adding white and purple LED lights into baited traps significantly improved Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE by 77% and 47% respectively. Results from the second field experiment showed that unbaited traps equipped with only LED lights (no bait, could also catch snow crab in comparable amounts to traditional baited traps, with soak time and depth explaining some of the variation in CPUE. Taken together, these experiments suggest that fishing enterprises can improve their catching performance and profitability by adding LED lights to their traps, or by using LED lights as a bait replacement.

  3. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult mosquito traps of four types that are marketed for homeowner use in residential settings were compared with a standard CDC light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies. We evaluated the Mosquito MagnetTM Pro (MMP), the SentinelTM 360 mosquito trap (S360), the BG-SentinelTM mo...

  4. Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia Frustrana, lures and traps: What is the optimum combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. DeBarr; J. wayne Brewer; R. Scott Cameron; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Pheromone traps are used to monitor flight activity of male Nantucket pine tip moths, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), to initialize spray timing models, determine activity periods, or detect population trends. However, a standardized trapping procedure has not been developed. The relative efficacies of six types of lures and eight commercial pheromone traps were...

  5. Sticky traps saturate with navel orangeworm in a non-linear fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to evaluate saturation thresholds as well as differences among wing-trap types, we used unmated female navel orangeworm (NOW) as sex pheromone baits in wing-traps that varied by color and glue/trapping surface. These results were compared to male capture in red delta and simple water cup tr...

  6. Investigation on the Use of trapping in the Management of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this 11-month study, the potential of two trap types (pseudostem and pheromone traps) to lure weevils in banana fields was determined at three different ecological sites (Clemencia, Nouvelle France and Rivière du Poste). The effect of treatment of pseudostem trap with insecticides (Imidachloprid, Cyfluthrin and ...

  7. Colour doppler ultrasound assessment of the normal neonatal hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Neira, C.L.; Laffan, E.; Daneman, A.; Fong, K.; Roposch, A.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the morphology and hemodynamic characteristics of the arterial vessels of the proximal femur according to specific anatomic regions in asymptomatic neonates in 2 pediatric-based health care institutions. Forty-three neonates (29 female, 14 male; age range, 2 d-3 mo; median age, 3 d) were enrolled in the study. Thirty-two (37%) of 86 hips were classified as Graf type IIA joints (mean alpha angle, 56.0 o ± 2.7 o ), and 54 (63%) were classified as type I joints (mean alpha angle, 65.0 o ± 4.6 o ). Colour and spectral Doppler imaging identified vessels running along the acetabular labrum, epiphyseal vessels, and femoral neck. We showed 4 different patterns of vascularity of the hips: radial, parallel, mixed radial-parallel, and indeterminate, however, they were not related to the hip maturity (P = .3, coronal plane; P = .62, transverse plane) or to the amount of colour pixels identified in each region (P = .35). The mean number of pixels in the ligamentum teres region was significantly higher than that in other regions of interest (P =.03). Except for the acetabular labrum arteries, Doppler spectrum waveforms of proximal femur arteries presented with low resistivity. There was a tendency towards females' acetabular arteries presenting with lower peak systolic velocities than males' acetabular arteries (P =.06). Colour Doppler spectrum waveforms and intensity of vascularity in normal neonatal hips differ according to the anatomic region under evaluation. This observation deserves further investigation on its role on the physiopathogenesis of neonatal hip disorders. (author)

  8. The dual rod system of amphibians supports colour discrimination at the absolute visual threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanovich, Carola A M; Koskela, Sanna M; Nevala, Noora; Kondrashev, Sergei L; Kelber, Almut; Donner, Kristian

    2017-04-05

    The presence of two spectrally different kinds of rod photoreceptors in amphibians has been hypothesized to enable purely rod-based colour vision at very low light levels. The hypothesis has never been properly tested, so we performed three behavioural experiments at different light intensities with toads ( Bufo ) and frogs ( Rana ) to determine the thresholds for colour discrimination. The thresholds of toads were different in mate choice and prey-catching tasks, suggesting that the differential sensitivities of different spectral cone types as well as task-specific factors set limits for the use of colour in these behavioural contexts. In neither task was there any indication of rod-based colour discrimination. By contrast, frogs performing phototactic jumping were able to distinguish blue from green light down to the absolute visual threshold, where vision relies only on rod signals. The remarkable sensitivity of this mechanism comparing signals from the two spectrally different rod types approaches theoretical limits set by photon fluctuations and intrinsic noise. Together, the results indicate that different pathways are involved in processing colour cues depending on the ecological relevance of this information for each task.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. The Honey Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilism The automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis...... demonstrates the manner in which automobilism in Denmark was invented, constructed, represented, and appropriated as a leisure culture after 1900 through a mediation and consumption junction that was initiated and promoted by FDM. This is basically the story of unlimited access to Sunday driving or the daytrip...

  10. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  11. Exposure of Polish children to Southampton food colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda-Wyrębek, J; Kuźma, K; Świtka, A; Jarecka, J; Beresińska, M; Postupolski, J

    2017-01-01

    A study published in 2007 showed that the intake of six food colours (the so-called 'Southampton colours') may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children. The present study set out to assess the exposure of Polish children (3 and 8-9 years old, n = 149) to six of the target colours. Two methods were used to evaluate colour consumption by children: scenario 1 using the maximum permitted levels (MPLs) and actual food consumption data; and scenario 2 using the actual levels in food and actual food consumption data. The data on the actual consumption of food containing the colours was collected using a 7-day questionnaire survey. The results of laboratory analysis of food consumed by children provided data on the actual levels of the colours in food. Consumption of the colours estimated by scenario 1 in any case did not exceed the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of the colours in both age groups of children. For more refined colour intake (scenario 2), isolated cases exceeding the ADI were recorded for four colours, but assuming that manufacturers comply with the current legislation on MPL of colours in food, the intake of the colours assessed in scenario 2 should not be a reason for exceeding of ADIs for the target food colours.

  12. Determinants of Colour Constancy and the Blue Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We investigated several sensory and cognitive determinants of colour constancy across 40 illumination hues. In the first experiment, we measured colour naming for the illumination and for the colour induced by the illumination on the colorimetric grey. Results confirmed that the induced colours are approximately complementary to the colour of the illumination. In the second experiment, we measured colour constancy using achromatic adjustments. Average colour constancy was perfect under the blue daylight illumination and decreased in colour directions away from the blue daylight illumination due to undershooting and a strong blue bias. Apart from this blue bias, colour constancy was not related to illumination discrimination and to chromatic detection measured previously with the same setup and stimuli. We also observed a strong negative relationship between the degree of colour constancy and the consensus of naming the illumination colour. Constancy coincided with a low naming consensus, in particular because bluish illumination colours were sometimes seen as achromatic. Blue bias and category consensus alone explained >68%, and all determinants together explained >94% of the variance of achromatic adjustments. These findings suggest that colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight. PMID:29348910

  13. Automaticity and localisation of concurrents predicts colour area activity in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould van Praag, Cassandra D; Garfinkel, Sarah; Ward, Jamie; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2016-07-29

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia (GCS), the presentation of letters or numbers induces an additional 'concurrent' experience of colour. Early functional MRI (fMRI) investigations of GCS reported activation in colour-selective area V4 during the concurrent experience. However, others have failed to replicate this key finding. We reasoned that individual differences in synaesthetic phenomenology might explain this inconsistency in the literature. To test this hypothesis, we examined fMRI BOLD responses in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (n=20) and matched controls (n=20) while characterising the individual phenomenology of the synaesthetes along dimensions of 'automaticity' and 'localisation'. We used an independent functional localiser to identify colour-selective areas in both groups. Activations in these areas were then assessed during achromatic synaesthesia-inducing, and non-inducing conditions; we also explored whole brain activations, where we sought to replicate the existing literature regarding synaesthesia effects. Controls showed no significant activations in the contrast of inducing > non-inducing synaesthetic stimuli, in colour-selective ROIs or at the whole brain level. In the synaesthete group, we correlated activation within colour-selective ROIs with individual differences in phenomenology using the Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN) questionnaire which measures, amongst other attributes, the subjective automaticity/attention in synaesthetic concurrents, and their spatial localisation. Supporting our hypothesis, we found significant correlations between individual measures of synaesthetic phenomenology and BOLD responses in colour-selective areas, when contrasting inducing against non-inducing stimuli. Specifically, left-hemisphere colour area responses were stronger for synaesthetes scoring high on phenomenological localisation and automaticity/attention, while right-hemisphere colour area responses showed a relationship with localisation

  14. Magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphasis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasms in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In addition, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps in the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (orig.)

  15. Characteristics of trapped electrons and electron traps in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Potienko, G.; Box, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two additional carbohydrates are reported whose crystal structures trap electrons intermolecularly in single crystals x irradiated at low temperature, namely sucrose and rhamnose. Five carbohydrate and polyhydroxy compounds are now known which exhibit this phenomenon. The following characteristics of the phenomenon were investigated: (1) the hyperfine couplings of the electron with protons of the polarized hydroxy groups forming the trap; (2) the distances between these protons and the trapped electron; (3) the spin density of the electron at the protons and (4) the relative stabilities of the electron trapped in various crystal structures

  16. Selective interference reveals dissociation between memory for location and colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, V; Rämä, P; Raninen, A; Aronen, H J; Carlson, S

    1999-08-02

    The aim was to study whether there is indication of a dissociation in processing of visuospatial and colour information in working memory in humans. Experimental subjects performed visuospatial and colour n-back tasks with and without visuospatial and colour distractive stimuli presented in the middle of the delay period to specifically affect mnemonic processing of task-related information. In the high memory-load condition, the visuospatial, but not the colour, task was selectively disrupted by visuospatial but not colour distractors. When subvocal rehearsal of the memoranda in the colour task was prevented by articulatory suppression; colour task performance was also selectively disrupted by distractors qualitatively similar to the memoranda. The results support the suggestion that visual working memory for location is processed separate from that for colour.

  17. Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Oliver; Davies, Ian R L; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Whorfian hypothesis suggests that differences between languages cause differences in cognitive processes. Support for this idea comes from studies that find that patterns of colour memory errors made by speakers of different languages align with differences in colour lexicons. The current study provides a large-scale investigation of the relationship between colour language and colour memory, adopting a cross-linguistic and developmental approach. Colour memory on a delayed matching-to-sample (XAB) task was investigated in 2 language groups with differing colour lexicons, for 3 developmental stages and 2 regions of colour space. Analyses used a Bayesian technique to provide simultaneous assessment of two competing hypotheses (H1-Whorfian effect present, H0-Whorfian effect absent). Results of the analyses consistently favoured H0. The findings suggest that Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable and that the importance of such effects should not be overestimated.

  18. Carotenoid-based breast plumage colour, body condition and clutch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent ornamental trait. In some species of birds, red, orange and yellow feather colouration reflects male quality and advertises the carotenoid concentration of feathers. Such colouration is an important aspect of mate selection by females.

  19. Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrenson, J G; Kelly, C; Lawrenson, A L; Birch, J

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Disturbances of colour vision are a frequently reported sign of digoxin toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of acquired colour vision deficiency in elderly hospitalised patients receiving maintenance digoxin therapy.

  20. Visualising fragrances through colours: the mediating role of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Tanudjaja, Inge

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate communication about fragrances, one can use the colours people tend to associate with their smells. We investigated to what extent odour-colour correspondences for fine fragrances can be accounted for by underlying emotional associations. Odour-colour matches and degree-of-fit judgments revealed that odours were matched to colours non-randomly. Matching colours differed mainly on blackness (brightness), and less on chromaticness (saturation) and hue. Furthermore, we found a consistent negative relationship between odour-colour degree-of-fit ratings and the difference between the odour scores and the colour scores on one of the emotion dimensions (pleasure). This suggests that emotional associations may partly underlie odour-colour correspondences.

  1. Classical confining solutions of a tensor gauge theory incorporating colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-04-01

    A mass-modified Einstein-Weyl gauge theory of colour carrying spin-two mesons is formulated. A classical solution is exhibited for the case of internal SU(2) symmetry which may confine quarks in colour singlets

  2. Kac's ring: The case of four colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-15

    Mar 15, 2017 ... Abstract. We present an instance from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics which combines increase in entropy and finite Poincaré recurrence time. The model we consider is a variation of the well-known Kac's ring where we consider balls of four colours. As is known, Kac introduced this model where balls ...

  3. Kac's ring: The case of four colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present an instance from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics which combines increase in entropy and finite Poincaré recurrence time. The model we consider is a variation of the well-known Kac's ring where we consider balls of four colours. As is known, Kac introduced this model where balls arranged between lattice ...

  4. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  5. ELECTROCOAGULATION METHOD FOR COLOUR REMOVAL IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. A simple and efficient electrochemical method that utilizes two steel electrodes and is capable of reducing the colour of tea effluent prior to its discharge into the river system has been developed. The effects of potential difference, inter-electrode distance, surface area of electrodes to effluent volume ...

  6. Colourful, Courageous and Community-building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd Nordic STS conference, held in Copenhagen 2015, was an occassion to take stock of the current trends and developments of Nordic STS. In this paper, the leading organizer reflects on the event and characterises contemporary Nordic STS as colourful (spanning a wide range of perspectives...

  7. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  8. Jottings on protective colour in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort, de L.F.

    1964-01-01

    I have often been puzzled about the remarkable change of colour in the roedeer, a species that I can watch almost daily from my house. In the winter the greyish brown coat can hardly be distinguished against the dull, brownish shrubby wood, at the border of which they come to feed. The only visible

  9. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functions and a summation formula are obtained. Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given. Keywords. Compositions; n-colour compositions; self-inverse compositions; seq- uences; recurrence formulas; generating functions; binomial identities. 1. Introduction. In the classical theory of partitions, ...

  10. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  11. luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    irradiated alkali halide crystals are similar to the luminescence excited by high energy radiation. Ueta et al [11] ... emission, a correlation between the deformation bleaching and mechanoluminescence of coloured alkali ..... [32] V P Zakrevskii, T S Orlova and A V Shuldiner, J. Solid State 37, 675 (1995). [33] C D Clark and ...

  12. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  13. ELECTROCOAGULATION METHOD FOR COLOUR REMOVAL IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    water usage during the factory cleaning procedures, hence large volumes of effluent wastewater are discharged per day (from 10 m3 to 20 m3). At the present the biological wastewater treatment facility is unable to remove colour from the tea effluent and this has been a major issue in the whole tea industry, i.e. not only the ...

  14. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  15. Effectiveness of pheromone traps for the European spruce bark beetle: a comparative study of four commercial products and two new models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galko Juraj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Six types of pheromone traps were tested between 2012 and 2014 in the High Tatra Mountains, northern Slovakia. Traps were baited with lures for attracting the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae. Among the tested traps, four types are commercial products; Theysohn (T-trap, Ecotrap (E-trap, Lindgren funnel trap (L-trap, BEKA trap (B-trap and two are our newly developed models; Funnel trap (P-trap and Cross trap (K-trap. The traps were set up on ten selected sites and tested during three growing seasons (2012, 2013 and 2014. The newly developed models were compared to the commercially available models for trapping efficiency of target pest, easy to use and impact on non-target insect species. We found that the best commercially available model is the L-trap, however the bottom of L-trap is considered too shallow resulting in an accumulation of rainwater that increases the traps attractiveness for Silphids. In our experiment, the newly developed models; P-trap and K-trap performed better compared to commercially used models. P-trap caught 28% more I. typographus and K-trap caught 57% more beetles compared to T-trap in 2014. There are additional advantages of the newly developed traps such as easy handling, good rainwater drainage, higher collection container volume, and scale marking within the collection container. The results of this study have encouraged us to patent P-trap and K-trap as utility models.

  16. Colour is more than hue: preferences for compiled colour traits in the stingless bees Melipona mondury and M. quadrifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bossems, Jessica; Dyer, Adrian G; Lunau, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The colour vision of bees has been extensively analysed in honeybees and bumblebees, but few studies consider the visual perception of stingless bees (Meliponini). In a five-stage experiment the preference for colour intensity and purity, and the preference for the dominant wavelength were tested by presenting four colour stimuli in each test to freely flying experienced workers of two stingless bee species, Melipona mondury and Melipona quadrifasciata. The results with bee-blue, bee-UV-blue and bee-green colours offered in four combinations of varying colour intensity and purity suggest a complex interaction between these colour traits for the determination of colour choice. Specifically, M. mondury preferred bee-UV-blue colours over bee-green, bee-blue and bee-blue-green colours while M. quadrifasciata preferred bee-green colour stimuli. Moreover in M. mondury the preferences were different if the background colour was changed from grey to green. There was a significant difference between species where M. mondury preferred UV-reflecting over UV-absorbing bee-blue-green colour stimuli, whereas M. quadrifasciata showed an opposite preference. The different colour preferences of the free flying bees in identical conditions may be caused by the bees' experience with natural flowers precedent to the choice tests, suggesting reward partitioning between species.

  17. Vacancy clusters, dislocations and brown colouration in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, U; Barnes, R; Gass, M H; Bleloch, A L; Godfrey, I S

    2009-09-09

    Following on from the idea that clusters of vacancies are the origin of the featureless absorption and brown colouration in natural diamond, dislocations are shown to exhibit sub-bandgap absorption also. The vacancy cluster idea has arisen from theoretical predictions of π-bonded chains reconstructing the cluster surfaces and has been confirmed by energy loss studies. In contrast, bandgap states at dislocations are observed in brown and colourless diamonds alike, giving rise to weak absorption, which resembles that theoretically predicted from shuffle dislocation segments. This, however, would not account for the degrees of brownness in the diamonds, but it suggests that if such shuffle segments exist, vacancies must have been present and moved to dislocations to create these configurations in the first place. The question arises, what happens to the vast number of vacancy clusters upon high pressure high temperature (HPHT) annealing, which renders the diamonds colourless. Our observations on natural brown diamonds after HPHT treatment suggest that vacancy clusters, trapped in the strain fields of dislocations, grow in size accompanied by a decrease in their numbers; this leads to much reduced optical absorption.

  18. Modelling ocean-colour-derived chlorophyll a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Hickman, Anna E.; Jahn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a proof of concept for using a biogeochemical/ecosystem/optical model with a radiative transfer component as a laboratory to explore aspects of ocean colour. We focus here on the satellite ocean colour chlorophyll a (Chl a) product provided by the often-used blue/green reflectance ratio algorithm. The model produces output that can be compared directly to the real-world ocean colour remotely sensed reflectance. This model output can then be used to produce an ocean colour satellite-like Chl a product using an algorithm linking the blue versus green reflectance similar to that used for the real world. Given that the model includes complete knowledge of the (model) water constituents, optics and reflectance, we can explore uncertainties and their causes in this proxy for Chl a (called derived Chl a in this paper). We compare the derived Chl a to the actual model Chl a field. In the model we find that the mean absolute bias due to the algorithm is 22 % between derived and actual Chl a. The real-world algorithm is found using concurrent in situ measurement of Chl a and radiometry. We ask whether increased in situ measurements to train the algorithm would improve the algorithm, and find a mixed result. There is a global overall improvement, but at the expense of some regions, especially in lower latitudes where the biases increase. Not surprisingly, we find that region-specific algorithms provide a significant improvement, at least in the annual mean. However, in the model, we find that no matter how the algorithm coefficients are found there can be a temporal mismatch between the derived Chl a and the actual Chl a. These mismatches stem from temporal decoupling between Chl a and other optically important water constituents (such as coloured dissolved organic matter and detrital matter). The degree of decoupling differs regionally and over time. For example, in many highly seasonal regions, the timing of initiation and peak of the spring bloom in

  19. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  20. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 1: Introduction (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  1. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 2: Grey Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  2. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeske Alexander

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour “human colour” or “skin colour”. This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two schools in the Western Cape, investigated Grade 3 learners’ attitudes and perceptions regarding race and skin colour through art processes and discussion. The aim was to promote critical engagement with race in Foundation Phase educational contexts. Suggestions include changing the language used to describe skin colour, just recognition and representation of races in educational resources and the promotion of critical citizenship education. This research indicates the need to create practical curriculum guidelines to discuss race issues in the South African classroom.

  3. Diffusion of coloured silica nanoparticles into human hair

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Jaime Rocha; Sampaio, Sandra; Maia, Frederico

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for dyeing human hair fibres using coloured silica nanoparticles of 206 nm has been developed. Diffusion of coloured silica nanoparticles into hair fibres has been investigated; silica nanoparticles do not penetrate at all, or do so only sparingly, into the structure of Caucasian virgin hair. However, coloured silica nanoparticles diffused readily into bleached hair fibres. Scanning electron microscopy showed that coloured silica nanoparticles were present mainly in...

  4. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    OpenAIRE

    Rahela Kulcar; Marta Klanjsek Gunde; Nina Knesaurek

    2012-01-01

    Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric pr...

  5. n-Colour even self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Agarwal [6] defined an n-colour self-inverse composition as follows: DEFINITION 1.2 [6]. An n-colour composition whose parts read from left to right are identical with when read from right to left and is called an n-colour self-inverse composition. Thus, for example there are 8 n-colour self-inverse compositions of 4, viz.,.

  6. The cause of 50 million-year-old colour.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' colours in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural colour, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original colours from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original colours of o...

  7. Molecular logic behind the three-way stochastic choices that expand butterfly colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Saldi, Giuseppe; Huo, Lucy; Arikawa, Kentaro; Desplan, Claude

    2016-07-14

    Butterflies rely extensively on colour vision to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of colour-sensitive Rhodopsin proteins in three types of ommatidia (unit eyes), which are distributed stochastically across the retina. The retinas of Drosophila melanogaster use just two main types, in which fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless in R7 photoreceptors. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional colour comparisons and an expanded range of colour vision. We show that the Japanese yellow swallowtail (Papilio xuthus, Papilionidae) and the painted lady (Vanessa cardui, Nymphalidae) butterflies have a second R7-like photoreceptor in each ommatidium. Independent stochastic expression of Spineless in each R7-like cell results in expression of a blue-sensitive (Spineless(ON)) or an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive (Spineless(OFF)) Rhodopsin. In P. xuthus these choices of blue/blue, blue/UV or UV/UV sensitivity in the two R7 cells are coordinated with expression of additional Rhodopsin proteins in the remaining photoreceptors, and together define the three types of ommatidia. Knocking out spineless using CRISPR/Cas9 (refs 5, 6) leads to the loss of the blue-sensitive fate in R7-like cells and transforms retinas into homogeneous fields of UV/UV-type ommatidia, with corresponding changes in other coordinated features of ommatidial type. Hence, the three possible outcomes of Spineless expression define the three ommatidial types in butterflies. This developmental strategy allowed the deployment of an additional red-sensitive Rhodopsin in P. xuthus, allowing for the evolution of expanded colour vision with a greater variety of receptors. This surprisingly simple mechanism that makes use of two binary stochastic decisions coupled with local coordination may prove

  8. Colour-scent associations in a tropical orchid: three colours but two odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Juillet, Nicolas; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Grison, Claude; Barthes, Nicolas; Pailler, Thierry; Dormont, Laurent; Schatz, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Colour and scent are the major pollinator attractants to flowers, and their production may be linked by shared biosynthetic pathways. Species with polymorphic floral traits are particularly relevant to study the joint evolution of floral traits. We used in this study the tropical orchid Calanthe sylvatica from Réunion Island. Three distinct colour varieties are observed, presenting lilac, white or purple flowers, and named respectively C. sylvaticavar.lilacina (hereafter referred as var. lilacina), C. sylvaticavar. alba (var. alba) and C. sylvatica var. purpurea (var. purpurea). We investigated the composition of the floral scent produced by these colour varieties using the non-invasive SPME technique in the wild. Scent emissions are dominated by aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, the presence of the terpenoid (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triène (DMNT) is diagnostic of var. purpurea, with the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by some individuals containing up to 60% of DMNT. We evidence specific colour-scent associations in C. sylvatica, with two distinct scent profiles in the three colour varieties: the lilacina-like profile containing no or very little DMNT (2%). Calanthe sylvatica var. alba individuals group with one or the other scent profile independently of their population of origin. We suggest that white-flowered individuals have evolved at least twice, once from var. lilacina and at least once from var. purpurea after the colonisation of la Réunion. White-flowered individuals may have been favoured by the particular pollinator fauna characterising the island. These flowering varieties of C. sylvatica, which display three colours but two scents profiles prove that colour is not always a good indicator of odour and that colour-scent associations may be complex, depending on pollination ecology of the populations concerned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Are the unken reflex and the aposematic colouration of Red-Bellied Toads efficient against bird predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, Valentina Zaffaroni; Colombo, Patrick; Abadie, Michelle; Brack, Ismael Verrastro; Dasoler, Bibiana Terra; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2018-01-01

    Aposematic signals as well as body behaviours may be important anti-predator defences. Species of the genus Melanophryniscus are characterised by having toxic lipophilic alkaloids in the skin and for presenting a red ventral colouration, which can be observed when they perform the behaviour called the unken reflex. Both the reflex behaviour and the colouration pattern are described as defence mechanisms. However, there are currently no studies testing their effectiveness against predators. This study aimed to test experimentally if both ventral conspicuous colouration and the unken reflex in Melanophryniscus cambaraensis function as aposematic signals against visually oriented predators (birds). We simulated the species studied using three different clay toad models as follows: (a) in a normal position with green coloured bodies, (b) in the unken reflex position with green coloured body and extremities and (c) in the unken reflex position with a green body and red extremities. Models were distributed on a known M. cambaraensis breeding site and in the adjacent forest. More than half of the attacks on the models were from birds; however, there was no preference for any model type. Thus, just the presence of the red colour associated with the motionless unken reflex position does not seem to prevent attacks from potential predators. It is possible that the effective aposematic signal in Melanophryniscus is achieved through the unken reflex movement together with the subsequent exhibition of the warning colouration and the secretion of toxins. PMID:29596437

  10. Effect of light, packaging condition and dark storage durations on colour and lipid oxidative stability of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewez Moges; De Smet, Stefaan; Claeys, Erik; Vossen, Els

    2013-04-01

    The colour and lipid oxidative stability of sliced cooked ham stored at 4 °C were studied in relation to dark storage duration, lighting and packaging conditions. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b* colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significantly higher discoloration observed in products wrapped in foil and kept in light than products wrapped in foil and kept in dark. Colour loss was estimated by loss of redness (a*), a*/b*, nitrosomyoglobin, chroma (C); or increase of lightness (L*), MetMb, hue angle (H°). Colour loss was more dependent upon photochemical process than dark storage duration and packaging types. Lipid oxidation was not significantly affected by light exposure. However lipid oxidation was significantly affected by dark storage duration as noticed from better lipid stability of products stored for short duration in dark. Better colour stability was observed on products packed in MAP with less residual oxygen.

  11. A transparent look at the measurement and application of colour rendering in the use of LED light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, F. W.; Van Der Westhuyzen, J. G. J.

    2014-06-01

    The technology for the measurement of colour rendering and colour quality is not new, but many parameters related to this issue are currently changing. A number of standard methods were developed and are used by different specialty areas of the lighting industry. CIE 13.3 has been the accepted standard implemented by many users and used for many years. Light-emitting Diode (LED) technology moves at a rapid pace and, as this lighting source finds wider acceptance, it appears that traditional colour-rendering measurement methods produce inconsistent results. Practical application of various types of LEDs yielded results that challenged conventional thinking regarding colour measurement of light sources. Recent studies have shown that the anatomy and physiology of the human eye is more complex than formerly accepted. Therefore, the development of updated measurement methodology also forces a fresh look at functioning and colour perception of the human eye, especially with regard to LEDs. This paper includes a short description of the history and need for the measurement of colour rendering. Some of the traditional measurement methods are presented and inadequacies are discussed. The latest discoveries regarding the functioning of the human eye and the perception of colour, especially when LEDs are used as light sources, are discussed. The unique properties of LEDs when used in practical applications such as luminaires are highlighted.

  12. Red, green, blue equals 1, 2, 3 : Investigating the bidirectionality of digit-colour synaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, A Lina; Nieuwenstein, Mark; Rich, Anina N

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia, letters and digits elicit vivid and highly consistent experiences of colour. Typically, the conscious experience is unidirectional: digits elicit colours but colours do not elicit digits. If synaesthesia reflects an involuntary connection between representations,

  13. Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [ Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata) (L) Walp.] Y Mustapha. Abstract. Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the inheritance of seed colour pattern in cowpea. Cowpea varieties of varying seed coat colour were used as parents for the investigation. Parental ...

  14. Colour discrimination against persons with albinism in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores issues relating to discrimination against persons living with albinism, against the background of colour discrimination. It also addresses calls for 'colourism' to be recognised as a distinct form of discrimination. Although colour as grounds for discrimination is prohibited in the equality clause of the ...

  15. Forbidden Structures for Planar Perfect Consecutively Colourable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Olszewska Marta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A consecutive colouring of a graph is a proper edge colouring with posi- tive integers in which the colours of edges incident with each vertex form an interval of integers. The idea of this colouring was introduced in 1987 by Asratian and Kamalian under the name of interval colouring. Sevast- janov showed that the corresponding decision problem is NP-complete even restricted to the class of bipartite graphs. We focus our attention on the class of consecutively colourable graphs whose all induced subgraphs are consecutively colourable, too. We call elements of this class perfect consecutively colourable to emphasise the conceptual similarity to perfect graphs. Obviously, the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs is induced hereditary, so it can be characterized by the family of induced forbidden graphs. In this work we give a necessary and sufficient conditions that must be satisfied by the generalized Sevastjanov rosette to be an induced forbid- den graph for the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs. Along the way, we show the exact values of the deficiency of all generalized Sevastjanov rosettes, which improves the earlier known estimating result. It should be mentioned that the deficiency of a graph measures its closeness to the class of consecutively colourable graphs. We motivate the investigation of graphs considered here by showing their connection to the class of planar perfect consecutively colourable graphs.

  16. n-Colour even self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.

  17. Summing large-N towers in colour flow evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2013-12-01

    We consider soft gluon evolution in the colour flow basis. We give explicit expressions for the colour structure of the (one-loop) soft anomalous dimension matrix for an arbitrary number of partons, and show how the successive exponentiation of classes of large-N contributions can be achieved to provide a systematic expansion of the evolution in terms of colour supressed contributions.

  18. Teaching the Absorption of Light Colours Using an Artificial Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light colours by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment colours. The light colours composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…

  19. An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

  20. Determination of Colour Vision Using Ishihara and Dvorine Plates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colour vision is important in everyday life and colour vision deficiency generally lowers the quality of life. The objective of the study was to perform tests and measurements to investigate the prevalence of colour vision abnormalities within a normal sample population of the University of Jos. Methodology: ...