Optimization of CPMG sequences to measure NMR transverse relaxation time T2 in borehole applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ronczka
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR can provide key information such as porosity and permeability for hydrological characterization of geological material. In particular the NMR transverse relaxation time T2 is used to estimate permeability since it reflects a pore-size dependent relaxation process. The measurement sequence (CPMG usually consists of several thousands of electromagnetic pulses to densely record the relaxation process and to avoid relaxation processes that are due to diffusion. These pulses are equidistantly spaced by a time constant tE. In NMR borehole applications the use of CPMG sequences for measuring the transverse relaxation time T2 is limited due to requirements on energy consumption. For measuring T2, it is state-of-the-art to conduct at least two sequences with different echo spacings (tE for recording fast and slow relaxing processes that correspond to different pore-sizes. We focus on conducting only a single CPMG sequence and reducing the amount of energy while obtaining both slow and fast decaying components and minimizing the influence of relaxation due to diffusion. Therefore, we tested the usage of CPMG sequences with an increasing tE and a decreasing number of pulses. A synthetic study as well as laboratory measurements on samples of glass beads and granulate material of different grain size spectra were conducted to evaluate the effects of an increasing tE. We show that T2 distributions are broadened if the number of pulses is decreasing and the mean grain size is increasing, which is mostly an effect of a significantly shortened acquisition time. The shift of T2 distributions to small decay times as a function of tE and the mean grain size distribution is observed. We found that it is possible to conduct CPMG sequences with an increased tE. According to the acquisition time and increasing influence of relaxation due to diffusion, the sequence parameters need to be chosen carefully to avoid misinterpretations.
A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Jixi, E-mail: lujixi@buaa.edu.cn; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)
2015-04-15
We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.
Du, G; Lewis, M M; Kanekar, S; Sterling, N W; He, L; Kong, L; Li, R; Huang, X
2017-05-01
Both diffusion tensor imaging and the apparent transverse relaxation rate have shown promise in differentiating Parkinson disease from atypical parkinsonism (particularly multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy). The objective of the study was to assess the ability of DTI, the apparent transverse relaxation rate, and their combination for differentiating Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and controls. A total of 106 subjects (36 controls, 35 patients with Parkinson disease, 16 with multiple system atrophy, and 19 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were included. DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate measures from the striatal, midbrain, limbic, and cerebellar regions were obtained and compared among groups. The discrimination performance of DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate among groups was assessed by using Elastic-Net machine learning and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Compared with controls, patients with Parkinson disease showed significant apparent transverse relaxation rate differences in the red nucleus. Compared to those with Parkinson disease, patients with both multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy showed more widespread changes, extending from the midbrain to striatal and cerebellar structures. The pattern of changes, however, was different between the 2 groups. For instance, patients with multiple system atrophy showed decreased fractional anisotropy and an increased apparent transverse relaxation rate in the subthalamic nucleus, whereas patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed an increased mean diffusivity in the hippocampus. Combined, DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate were significantly better than DTI or the apparent transverse relaxation rate alone in separating controls from those with Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy/progressive supranuclear palsy; controls from those with Parkinson
Relaxed energy for transversely isotropic two-phase materials
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šilhavý, Miroslav; Padovani, C.
2002-01-01
Roč. 67, 3 (2002), s. 187-204 ISSN 0374-3535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1516 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : double-well materials * transverse isotropy * quasiconvexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.615, year: 2002
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dědourková, T.; Kaman, Ondřej; Veverka, Pavel; Koktan, Jakub; Veverka, Miroslav; Kuličková, Jarmila; Jirák, Zdeněk; Herynek, V.
2015-01-01
Roč. 51, č. 11 (2015), s. 5300804 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10088S; GA MPO FR-TI3/521 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : contrast agents * magnetic resonance imaging * magnetic nanoparticles * manganites * transverse relaxivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015
The transverse acetabular ligament: optimizing version.
Beverland, David
2010-09-07
In total hip arthroplasty (THA), excessive retroversion is associated with posterior instability, anterior impingement, and resultant groin pain. Excessive anteversion can lead to anterior instability and posterior impingement. The transverse acetabular ligament straddles the inferior limit of the bony acetabulum. It is a strong load-bearing structure and, in the normal hip, in association with the labrum, provides part of the load-bearing surface for the femoral head. It is our hypothesis that the transverse acetabular ligament defines normal version for the acetabulum. In Belfast, we found that using the transverse acetabular ligament helped reduce our primary dislocation rate from 3.7% to 1%. The key is good intraoperative exposure. A grading of 1 to 4 was based on 1000 consecutive cases: (1) normal transverse acetabular ligament easily visible on exposure of the acetabulum, 49%; (2) covered by soft tissue, 35.1%--cleared by blunt dissection; (3) covered by osteophytes, 15.6%--cleared using an acetabular reamer; (4) no transverse acetabular ligament identified, 0.3%. As can be seen, the transverse acetabular ligament is only immediately visible in 49% of cases. In the other 51%, soft tissue or bone must be cleared to define the ligament. The advantages of the transverse acetabular ligament are many. It is independent of patient positioning. The cup version can be individualized by the patient. The surgeon can avoid estimating version angle of 15° to 20° intraoperatively. It is easy to teach and consistently present. It is valuable in minimally invasive surgery. Using the transverse acetabular ligament provides an acceptable dislocation rate with the posterior approach. If the cup is cradled by the transverse acetabular ligament, it helps restore acetabular joint center. However, the transverse acetabular ligament does not help with inclination. We recommend 35° of operative inclination when using the posterior approach. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Scaling of transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation due to magnetic nanoparticle aggregation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Keith A.; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Issadore, David; Berezovsky, Jesse; Cima, Michael J.; Westervelt, R.M.
2010-01-01
The aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles decreases the transverse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time T 2 CP of adjacent water molecules measured by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse-echo sequence. This effect is commonly used to measure the concentrations of a variety of small molecules. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of water diffusing around SPIO nanoparticle aggregates to determine the relationship between T 2 CP and details of the aggregate. We find that in the motional averaging regime T 2 CP scales as a power law with the number N of nanoparticles in an aggregate. The specific scaling is dependent on the fractal dimension d of the aggregates. We find T 2 CP ∝Ν -0.44 for aggregates with d=2.2, a value typical of diffusion limited aggregation. We also find that in two-nanoparticle systems, T 2 CP is strongly dependent on the orientation of the two nanoparticles relative to the external magnetic field, which implies that it may be possible to sense the orientation of a two-nanoparticle aggregate. To optimize the sensitivity of SPIO nanoparticle sensors, we propose that it is best to have aggregates with few nanoparticles, close together, measured with long pulse-echo times.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kaman, Ondřej; Kuličková, Jarmila; Maryško, Miroslav; Veverka, Pavel; Herynek, V.; Havelek, R.; Královec, K.; Kubániová, D.; Kohout, J.; Dvořák, P.; Jirák, Zdeněk
2017-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 11 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 5300908. ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04340S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amorphous titania * silica * magnetic nanoparticles * Mn-Zn ferrite * transverse relaxivity * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaman, Ondřej, E-mail: kamano@seznam.cz [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kuličková, Jarmila [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Herynek, Vít [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vídeňská 1958/9, 140 21 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Koktan, Jakub [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Maryško, Miroslav [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Dědourková, Tereza [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Knížek, Karel; Jirák, Zdeněk [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)
2017-04-01
Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles followed by direct encapsulation of the as-grown material into silica is demonstrated as a fast and facile method for preparation of efficient negative contrast agents based on clusters of ferrite crystallites. At first, the hydrothermal procedure is optimized to achieve strictly single-phase magnetic nanoparticles of Mn-Zn ferrites in the compositional range of x≈0.2–0.6 and with the mean size of crystallites ≈10 nm. The products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and SQUID magnetometry, and the composition close to x=0.4 is selected for the preparation of silica-coated clusters with the mean diameter of magnetic cores ≈25 nm. Their composite structure is studied by means of transmission electron microscopy combined with detailed image analysis and magnetic measurements in DC fields. The relaxometric studies, performed in the magnetic field of B{sub 0}=0.5 T, reveal high transverse relaxivity (r{sub 2}(20 °C)=450 s{sup −1} mmol(Me{sub 3}O{sub 4}){sup −1} L) with a pronounced temperature dependence, which correlates with the observed temperature dependence of magnetization and is ascribed to a mechanism of transverse relaxation similar to the motional averaging regime. - Highlights: • Mn-Zn ferrite particles with size of ≈10 nm are synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Their structure and magnetic properties are analysed in dependence on composition. • Silica-coated clusters with the size ≈26 nm are prepared as contrast agent for MRI. • Their transverse relaxivity shows strong temperature dependence.
Low-Dimensional Nanoparticle Clustering in Polymer Micelles and Their Transverse Relaxivity Rates
Hickey, Robert J.; Meng, Xin; Zhang, Peijun; Park, So-Jung
2015-01-01
One- or two-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanoparticles were formed in colloidal assemblies of amphiphilic polymers. Electron tomography imaging revealed that nanoparticles are arranged into one-dimensional strings in magneto-micelles or two-dimensional sheets in magneto-core/shell assemblies. The distinct directional assembly behavior was attributed to the interparticle interaction relative to the nanoparticle–polymer interaction, which was modulated by varying the cosolvent used for the solution phase self-assembly. Magneto-core/shell assemblies with varying structural parameters were formed with a range of different sized as-synthesized nanoparticles. The transverse magnetic relaxivity rates (r2) of a series of different assemblies were determined to examine the effect of nanoparticle arrangement on the magnetic relaxivity for their potential applications in MRI. The results indicated that the assembly structure of nanoparticles in polymer micelles significantly affects the r2 of surrounding water, providing a way to control magnetic relaxivity. PMID:23731021
Kaman, Ondřej; Kuličková, Jarmila; Herynek, Vít; Koktan, Jakub; Maryško, Miroslav; Dědourková, Tereza; Knížek, Karel; Jirák, Zdeněk
2017-04-01
Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 nanoparticles followed by direct encapsulation of the as-grown material into silica is demonstrated as a fast and facile method for preparation of efficient negative contrast agents based on clusters of ferrite crystallites. At first, the hydrothermal procedure is optimized to achieve strictly single-phase magnetic nanoparticles of Mn-Zn ferrites in the compositional range of x≈0.2-0.6 and with the mean size of crystallites ≈10 nm. The products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and SQUID magnetometry, and the composition close to x=0.4 is selected for the preparation of silica-coated clusters with the mean diameter of magnetic cores ≈25 nm. Their composite structure is studied by means of transmission electron microscopy combined with detailed image analysis and magnetic measurements in DC fields. The relaxometric studies, performed in the magnetic field of B0=0.5 T, reveal high transverse relaxivity (r2(20 °C)=450 s-1 mmol(Me3O4)-1 L) with a pronounced temperature dependence, which correlates with the observed temperature dependence of magnetization and is ascribed to a mechanism of transverse relaxation similar to the motional averaging regime.
Separating the contributions to 15N transverse relaxation in a fibronectin type III domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meekhof, Alison E.; Freund, Stefan M.V.
1999-01-01
In proteins, dynamic mobility is an important feature of structure, stability, and biomolecular recognition. Uniquely sensitive to motion throughout the milli- to picosecond range, rates of transverse relaxation, R2, are commonly obtained for the characterization of chemical exchange, and the construction of motional models that attempt to separate overall and internal mobility. We have performed an in-depth study of transverse relaxation rates of backbone 15N nuclei in TNfn31-90, the third fibronectin type III domain from human tenascin. By combining the results of spin-echo (CPMG) and off-resonance T1ρ experiments, we present R2 rates at effective field strengths of 2 to 40 krad/s, obtaining a full spectrum of 16 independent R2 data points for most residues. Collecting such a large number of replicate measurements provides insight into intrinsic uncertainties. The median standard deviation in R2 for non-exchanging residues is 0.31, indicating that isolated measurements may not be sufficiently accurate for a precise interpretation of motional models. Chemical exchange events on a timescale of 570 μs were observed in a cluster of residues at the C terminus. Rates of exchange for five other residues were faster than the sampled range of frequencies and could not be determined. Averaged 'exchange free' transverse relaxation rates, R20, were used to calculate the diffusion tensor for rotational motion. Despite a highly asymmetric moment of inertia, the narrow angular dispersion of N-H vectors within the β sandwich proves insufficient to define deviations from isotropic rotation. Loop residues provide exclusive evidence for axially symmetric diffusion (Dpar/Dper=1.55)
Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Kanaji, Shingo; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro
2018-04-02
Although the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer have been shown by the recent studies, the optimal laparoscopic approach for mid-transverse colon cancer is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with the mid-transverse colon cancer at our institutions between January 2007 and April 2017. Thirty-eight and 34 patients who received extended right hemicolectomy and transverse colectomy, respectively, were enrolled. There were no significant differences in operating time, blood loss, and hospital stay between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 10 of 34 patients (29.4%; wound infection: 2 cases, anastomotic leakage: 2 cases, bowel obstruction: 1 case, incisional hernia: 2 cases, others: 3 cases) for the transverse colectomy group and in 4 of 38 patients (10.5%; wound infection: 1 case, anastomotic leakage: 0 case, bowel obstruction: 2 cases, incisional hernia: 0 case, others: 1 case) for the extended right hemicolectomy group (P = 0.014). Although the median number of harvested #221 and #222 LNs was similar between the two groups (6 vs. 8, P = 0.710, and 3 vs. 2, P = 0.256, respectively), that of #223 was significantly larger in extended right hemicolectomy than in transverse colectomy (3 vs. 1, P = 0.038). The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 92.4 and 90.3% for the extended right hemicolectomy group, and 95.7 and 79.6% for the transverse colectomy group (P = 0.593 and P = 0.638, respectively). Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy and laparoscopic transverse colectomy offer similar oncological outcomes for mid-transverse colon cancer. Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy might be associated with fewer postoperative complications.
A hybrid optimization method for biplanar transverse gradient coil design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Feng; Tang Xin; Jin Zhe; Jiang Zhongde; Shen Yifei; Meng Bin; Zu Donglin; Wang Weimin
2007-01-01
The optimization of transverse gradient coils is one of the fundamental problems in designing magnetic resonance imaging gradient systems. A new approach is presented in this paper to optimize the transverse gradient coils' performance. First, in the traditional spherical harmonic target field method, high order coefficients, which are commonly ignored, are used in the first stage of the optimization process to give better homogeneity. Then, some cosine terms are introduced into the series expansion of stream function. These new terms provide simulated annealing optimization with new freedoms. Comparison between the traditional method and the optimized method shows that the inhomogeneity in the region of interest can be reduced from 5.03% to 1.39%, the coil efficiency increased from 3.83 to 6.31 mT m -1 A -1 and the minimum distance of these discrete coils raised from 1.54 to 3.16 mm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishima, Rieko; Torchia, Dennis A.
2005-01-01
Off-resonance effects can introduce significant systematic errors in R 2 measurements in constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation dispersion experiments. For an off-resonance chemical shift of 500 Hz, 15 N relaxation dispersion profiles obtained from experiment and computer simulation indicated a systematic error of ca. 3%. This error is three- to five-fold larger than the random error in R 2 caused by noise. Good estimates of total R 2 uncertainty are critical in order to obtain accurate estimates in optimized chemical exchange parameters and their uncertainties derived from χ 2 minimization of a target function. Here, we present a simple empirical approach that provides a good estimate of the total error (systematic + random) in 15 N R 2 values measured for the HIV protease. The advantage of this empirical error estimate is that it is applicable even when some of the factors that contribute to the off-resonance error are not known. These errors are incorporated into a χ 2 minimization protocol, in which the Carver-Richards equation is used fit the observed R 2 dispersion profiles, that yields optimized chemical exchange parameters and their confidence limits. Optimized parameters are also derived, using the same protein sample and data-fitting protocol, from 1 H R 2 measurements in which systematic errors are negligible. Although 1 H and 15 N relaxation profiles of individual residues were well fit, the optimized exchange parameters had large uncertainties (confidence limits). In contrast, when a single pair of exchange parameters (the exchange lifetime, τ ex , and the fractional population, p a ), were constrained to globally fit all R 2 profiles for residues in the dimer interface of the protein, confidence limits were less than 8% for all optimized exchange parameters. In addition, F-tests showed that quality of the fits obtained using τ ex , p a as global parameters were not improved when these parameters were free to fit the R
Faster metabolite (1H transverse relaxation in the elder human brain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Małgorzata Marjańska
Full Text Available (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is unique among imaging modalities because signals from several metabolites are measured during a single examination period. Each metabolite reflects a distinct intracellular process. Furthermore transverse (T2 relaxation times probe the viability of the cell microenvironment, e.g., the viscosity of the cellular fluids, the microscopic susceptibility distribution within the cells, and the iron content. In this study, T2s of brain metabolites were measured in the occipital lobe of eighteen young and fourteen elderly subjects at a field strength of 4 tesla. The T2s of N-acetylaspartate, total creatine, and total choline were 23%, 16% and 10% shorter in elderly than in young subjects. The findings of this study suggest that noninvasive detection of T2 provides useful biological information on changes in the cellular microenvironment that take place during aging.
Zapp, Jascha; Domsch, Sebastian; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Schad, Lothar R
2017-05-01
To characterize the reversible transverse relaxation in pulmonary tissue and to study the benefit of a quadratic exponential (Gaussian) model over the commonly used linear exponential model for increased quantification precision. A point-resolved spectroscopy sequence was used for comprehensive sampling of the relaxation around spin echoes. Measurements were performed in an ex vivo tissue sample and in healthy volunteers at 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3 T. The goodness of fit using χred2 and the precision of the fitted relaxation time by means of its confidence interval were compared between the two relaxation models. The Gaussian model provides enhanced descriptions of pulmonary relaxation with lower χred2 by average factors of 4 ex vivo and 3 in volunteers. The Gaussian model indicates higher sensitivity to tissue structure alteration with increased precision of reversible transverse relaxation time measurements also by average factors of 4 ex vivo and 3 in volunteers. The mean relaxation times of the Gaussian model in volunteers are T2,G' = (1.97 ± 0.27) msec at 1.5 T and T2,G' = (0.83 ± 0.21) msec at 3 T. Pulmonary signal relaxation was found to be accurately modeled as Gaussian, providing a potential biomarker T2,G' with high sensitivity. Magn Reson Med 77:1938-1945, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kaman, Ondřej; Kuličková, Jarmila; Herynek, Vít; Koktan, Jakub; Maryško, Miroslav; Dědourková, T.; Knížek, Karel; Jirák, Zdeněk
2017-01-01
Roč. 427, Apr (2017), s. 251-257 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : magnetic nanoparticles * Mn-Zn ferrite * hydrothermal synthesis * magnetic resonance imaging * transverse relaxivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016
Better relaxations of classical discrete optimization problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lancia, Giuseppe; Konjevod, Goran; Carr, Robert D.; Parehk, Ojas
2008-08-01
A mathematical program is an optimization problem expressed as an objective function of multiple variables subject to set of constraints. When the optimization problem has specific structure, the problem class usually has a special name. A linear program is the optimization of a linear objective function subject to linear constraints. An integer program is a linear program where some of the variables must take only integer values. A semidefinite program is a linear program where the variables are arranged in a matrix and for all feasible solutions, this matrix must be positive semidefinite. There are general-purpose solvers for each of these classes of mathematical program. There are usually many ways to express a problem as a correct, say, linear program. However, equivalent formulations can have significantly different practical tractability. In this poster, we present new formulations for two classic discrete optimization problems, maximum cut (max cut) and the graphical traveling salesman problem (GTSP), that are significantly stronger, and hence more computationally tractable, than any previous formulations of their class. Both partially answer longstanding open theoretical questions in polyhedral combinatorics.
Determination of proton transverse relaxation times in homonuclear-coupled Spin Systems
Gochin, Miriam
A new method is described for obtaining proton transverse relaxation times in homonuclear-coupled systems. The oscillatory effect of the coupling on the T2 decay was removed by using the attached heteronucleus as a filter. A BIRD pulse (J. R. Garbow, D. P. Weitekamp, and A. Pines, Chem. Phys. Lett.93, 504, 1982) was applied in the center of the T2 decay period, causing protons directly and remotely connected to the heteronucleus to be decoupled from each other. Protons directly bound to the heteronucleus were inverted, leaving remote protons unaffected. Thus the method works well in natural-abundance 13C and 15N systems or for 15N-enriched biological materials, where no NN connectivities exist. The importance of obtaining proton T2 values pertains to their usefulness and sensitivity in quantitating structure and mobility in molecules. Sequences for obtaining proton T2 values were described and demonstrated on formate, alcohol, and gramicidin S. The accuracy of the measured T2 as a function of X-nucleus offset and heteronuclear coupling constant was assessed.
Rauf, N.; Alam, D. Y.; Jamaluddin, M.; Samad, B. A.
2018-03-01
The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that uses the interaction between the magnetic field and the nuclear spins. MRI can be used to show disparity of pathology by transversal relaxation time (T2) weighted images. Some techniques for producing T2-weighted images are Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR). A comparison of T2 PROPELLER and T2 FLAIR parameters in MRI image has been conducted. And improve Image Quality the image by using RadiAnt DICOM Viewer and ENVI software with method of image segmentation and Region of Interest (ROI). Brain images were randomly selected. The result of research showed that Time Repetition (TR) and Time Echo (TE) values in all types of images were not influenced by age. T2 FLAIR images had longer TR value (9000 ms), meanwhile T2 PROPELLER images had longer TE value (100.75 - 102.1 ms). Furthermore, areas with low and medium signal intensity appeared clearer by using T2 PROPELLER images (average coefficients of variation for low and medium signal intensity were 0.0431 and 0.0705, respectively). As for areas with high signal intensity appeared clearer by using T2 FLAIR images (average coefficient of variation was 0.0637).
Mechanical Impedance of the non-loaded Lower Leg with Relaxed Muscles in the Transverse Plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evandro Maicon Ficanha
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the protocols and results of the experiments for the estimation of the mechanical impedance of the humans’ lower leg in the External-Internal (EI direction in the transverse plane under non-load bearing condition and with relaxed muscles. The objectives of the estimation of the lower leg’s mechanical impedance are to facilitate the design of passive and active prostheses with mechanical characteristics similar to the humans’ lower leg, and to define a reference that can be compared to the values from the patients suffering from spasticity. The experiments were performed with 10 unimpaired male subjects using a lower extremity rehabilitation robot (Anklebot, Interactive Motion Technologies, Inc. capable of applying torque perturbations to the foot. The subjects were in a seated position, and the Anklebot recorded the applied torques and the resulting angular movement of the lower leg. In this configuration, the recorded dynamics are due mainly to the rotations of the ankle’s talocrural and the subtalar joints, and any contribution of the tibiofibular joints and knee joint. The dynamic mechanical impedance of the lower leg was estimated in the frequency domain with an average coherence of 0.92 within the frequency range of 0 to 30Hz, showing a linear correlation between the displacement and the torques within this frequency range under the conditions of the experiment. The mean magnitude of the quasi-static stiffness of the lower leg (the impedance magnitude averaged in the range of 0-1 Hz was determined as 4.9±0.74 Nm/rad. The direct estimation of the quasi-static stiffness of the lower leg results in the mean value of 5.8±0.81 Nm/rad. An analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that the estimated values for the quasi-static stiffness from the two experiments are not statistically different.
Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram
2017-09-01
Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.
Wettability of quartz surface as observed by NMR transverse relaxation time (T_{2})
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Katika, Konstantina; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
the wettability property of quartz surface by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) method. The principle of this method is that protons in water relax faster when it comes close to solid surface. We observed that quart is highly water wet. A layer of water (bound water) forms on the quartz surface when...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dev, Jyoti; Brüschweiler, Sven; Ouyang, Bo; Chou, James J.
2015-01-01
The p7 membrane protein encoded by hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembles into a homo-hexamer that selectively conducts cations. An earlier solution NMR structure of the hexameric complex revealed a funnel-like architecture and suggests that a ring of conserved asparagines near the narrow end of the funnel are important for cation interaction. NMR based drug-binding experiments also suggest that rimantadine can allosterically inhibit ion conduction via a molecular wedge mechanism. These results suggest the presence of dilation and contraction of the funnel tip that are important for channel activity and that the action of the drug is attenuating this motion. Here, we determined the conformational dynamics and solvent accessibility of the p7 channel. The proton exchange measurements show that the cavity-lining residues are largely water accessible, consistent with the overall funnel shape of the channel. Our relaxation dispersion data show that residues Val7 and Leu8 near the asparagine ring are subject to large chemical exchange, suggesting significant intrinsic channel breathing at the tip of the funnel. Moreover, the hinge regions connecting the narrow and wide regions of the funnel show strong relaxation dispersion and these regions are the binding sites for rimantadine. Presence of rimantadine decreases the conformational dynamics near the asparagine ring and the hinge area. Our data provide direct observation of μs–ms dynamics of the p7 channel and support the molecular wedge mechanism of rimantadine inhibition of the HCV p7 channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dev, Jyoti; Brüschweiler, Sven [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Ouyang, Bo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (China); Chou, James J., E-mail: james-chou@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)
2015-04-15
The p7 membrane protein encoded by hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembles into a homo-hexamer that selectively conducts cations. An earlier solution NMR structure of the hexameric complex revealed a funnel-like architecture and suggests that a ring of conserved asparagines near the narrow end of the funnel are important for cation interaction. NMR based drug-binding experiments also suggest that rimantadine can allosterically inhibit ion conduction via a molecular wedge mechanism. These results suggest the presence of dilation and contraction of the funnel tip that are important for channel activity and that the action of the drug is attenuating this motion. Here, we determined the conformational dynamics and solvent accessibility of the p7 channel. The proton exchange measurements show that the cavity-lining residues are largely water accessible, consistent with the overall funnel shape of the channel. Our relaxation dispersion data show that residues Val7 and Leu8 near the asparagine ring are subject to large chemical exchange, suggesting significant intrinsic channel breathing at the tip of the funnel. Moreover, the hinge regions connecting the narrow and wide regions of the funnel show strong relaxation dispersion and these regions are the binding sites for rimantadine. Presence of rimantadine decreases the conformational dynamics near the asparagine ring and the hinge area. Our data provide direct observation of μs–ms dynamics of the p7 channel and support the molecular wedge mechanism of rimantadine inhibition of the HCV p7 channel.
SU-E-I-64: Transverse Relaxation Time in Methylene Protons of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-06-15
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance compared to other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point — resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated considering repetition time (TR) as 6000 msec and echo time (TE) as 40 — 550 msec. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H — MRS), eight male Sprague — Dawley rats were given free access to a normal - chow (NC) and eight other male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high — fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T{sub 2} measurements in the rats’ livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000 msec and TE of 40 – 220 msec. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: A chemical analysis of phantom and liver was not performed but a T{sub 2} decay curve was acquired. The T{sub 2} relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.07 ± 4.32 msec; HF rats, 31.43 ± 1.81 msec (p < 0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p < 0.005). Conclusion: This study of {sup 1}H-MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal — to — noise ratio differences to characterize all observable resonances for yielding T{sub 2} relaxation times of methylene resonance. {sup 1}H — MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. This study was supported by grant (2012-007883 and 2014R1A2A1A10050270) from the Mid-career Researcher Program through the NRF funded by Ministry of Science. In addition, this study was supported by the Industrial R&D of MOTIE/KEIT (10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI-guided tumor tracking)
Blood longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation time constants at 11.7 Tesla.
Lin, Ai-Ling; Qin, Qin; Zhao, Xia; Duong, Timothy Q
2012-06-01
The goal of the study was to determine blood T(1) and T(2) values as functions of oxygen saturation (Y), temperature (Temp) and hematocrit (Hct) at an ultrahigh MR field (11.7 T) and explore their impacts on physiological measurements, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygenation determination. T(1) and T(2) were simultaneously measured. Temperature was adjusted from 25 to 40°C to determine Temp dependence; Hct of 0.17-0.51 to evaluate Hct dependence at 25 and 37°C; and Y of 40-100% to evaluate Y dependence at 25 and 37°C. Comparisons were made with published data obtained at different magnetic field strengths (B(0)). T(1) was positively correlated with Temp, independent of Y, and negatively correlated with Hct. T(2) was negatively correlated with Temp and Hct, but positively correlated with Y, in a non-linear fashion. T(1) increased linearly with B(0), whereas T(2) decreased exponentially with B(0). This study reported blood T(1) and T(2) measurements at 11.7 T for the first time. These blood relaxation data could have implications in numerous functional and physiological MRI studies at 11.7 T.
Belliveau, Jean-Guy; Jensen, Michael D; Stewart, James M P; Solovey, Igor; Klassen, L Martyn; Bauman, Glenn S; Menon, Ravi S
2018-01-26
Radiation necrosis remains an irreversible long-term side-effect following radiotherapy to the brain. The ability to predict areas that could ultimately develop into necrosis could lead to prevention and management of radiation necrosis. Fischer 344 rats were irradiated using two platforms (micro-CT irradiator and x-Rad 225 IGRT) with radiation up to 30 Gy for the micro-CT and 40 Gy for the xRAD-224 to half the brain. Animals were subsequently imaged using a 9.4 T MRI scanner every 2-4 weeks for up to 28 weeks using a 7-echo gradient echo sequence. The apparent transverse relaxation constant ([Formula: see text]) was calculated and retrospectively analyzed. Animals irradiated with the low-dose rate micro-CT did not exhibit any symptoms or imaging changes associated with RN. Animals irradiated with the xRAD-225 exhibited imaging changes consistent with RN at week 24. Analysis of the [Formula: see text] coefficient within the lesion and hippocampus shows the potential for detection of RN up to 10 weeks prior to morphological changes. The ability to predict areas of RN and increases of [Formula: see text] within the hippocampus provides a method for long-term monitoring and prediction of RN.
Belliveau, Jean-Guy; Jensen, Michael D.; Stewart, James M. P.; Solovey, Igor; Klassen, L. Martyn; Bauman, Glenn S.; Menon, Ravi S.
2018-02-01
Background and purpose. Radiation necrosis remains an irreversible long-term side-effect following radiotherapy to the brain. The ability to predict areas that could ultimately develop into necrosis could lead to prevention and management of radiation necrosis. Materials and Methods. Fischer 344 rats were irradiated using two platforms (micro-CT irradiator and x-Rad 225 IGRT) with radiation up to 30 Gy for the micro-CT and 40 Gy for the xRAD-224 to half the brain. Animals were subsequently imaged using a 9.4 T MRI scanner every 2–4 weeks for up to 28 weeks using a 7-echo gradient echo sequence. The apparent transverse relaxation constant (R2* ) was calculated and retrospectively analyzed. Results. Animals irradiated with the low-dose rate micro-CT did not exhibit any symptoms or imaging changes associated with RN. Animals irradiated with the xRAD-225 exhibited imaging changes consistent with RN at week 24. Analysis of the R2* coefficient within the lesion and hippocampus shows the potential for detection of RN up to 10 weeks prior to morphological changes. Conclusions. The ability to predict areas of RN and increases of R2* within the hippocampus provides a method for long-term monitoring and prediction of RN.
Search Trees with Relaxed Balance and Near-Optimal Height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fagerberg, Rolf; Jensen, Rune E.; Larsen, Kim Skak
2001-01-01
We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense. This ...... constant rebalancing, which is an improvement over the current definition. World Wide Web search engines are possible applications for this line of work.......We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense....... This is the first binary search tree with relaxed balance having a height bound better than c log_2 n for a fixed constant c. In all previous proposals, the constant is at least 1/log_2 phi>1.44, where phi is the golden ratio. As a consequence, we can also define a standard (non-relaxed) k-tree with amortized...
Guan, Ji-Jing; Feng, Yan-Qiu
2018-03-20
To evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping in the measurement of brain iron deposition. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) phantoms and mouse models of Parkinson's disease (PD) related to iron deposition in the substantia nigra (SN) underwent 7.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scans (Bruker, 70/16) with a multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence, and the acquired data were processed to obtain QSM and R2*. Linear regression analysis was performed for susceptibility and R2* in the SPIO phantoms containing 5 SPIO concentrations (30, 15, 7.5, 3.75 and 1.875 µg/mL) to evaluate the accuracy of QSM and R2* in quantitative iron analysis. The sensitivities of QSM and R2* mapping in quantitative detection of brain iron deposition were assessed using mouse models of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahy-dropyridine (MPTP) in comparison with the control mice. In SPIO phantoms, QSM provided a higher accuracy than R2* mapping and their goodness-of-fit coefficients (R 2 ) were 0.98 and 0.89, respectively. In the mouse models of PD and control mice, the susceptibility of the SN was significantly higher in the PD models (5.19∓1.58 vs 2.98∓0.88, n=5; Pbrain iron deposition than R2*, and the susceptibility derived by QSM can be a potentially useful biomarker for studying PD.
Relaxed error control in shape optimization that utilizes remeshing
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Wilke, DN
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Shape optimization strategies based on error indicators usually require strict error control for every computed design during the optimization run. The strict error control serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for the accurate computation...
Topology optimized design of a transverse electric higher order mode converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frellsen, Louise Floor; Ding, Yunhong; Sigmund, Ole
2016-01-01
present the possibility of employing topology optimization (TO) to design a device that allows for reversible conversion between the transverse electric fundamental even (TE0) mode and the second higher order odd mode (TE2). Topology optimization is an iterative inverse design process, where repeated......]. The design is made for fabrication in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and previous work has shown excellent concordance between simulations and experimental results when employing 3D TO [6]....
Designing optimal mixtures using generalized disjunctive programming: Hull relaxations
Jonuzaj, S; Adjiman, CSJ
2016-01-01
A general modeling framework for mixture design problems, which integrates Generalized Disjunctive Programming (GDP) into the Computer-Aided Mixture/blend Design (CAMbD) framework, was recently proposed (S. Jonuzaj, P.T. Akula, P.-M. Kleniati, C.S. Adjiman, 2016. AIChE Journal 62, 1616???1633). In this paper we derive Hull Relaxations (HR) of GDP mixture design problems as an alternative to the big-M (BM) approach presented in this earlier work. We show that in restricted mixture design probl...
A Sufficient Condition on Convex Relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a sufficient condition for the convex relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in radial distribution networks as a second order cone program (SOCP) to be exact. The condition requires that the allowed reverse power flow is only reactive or active, or none. Under the proposed...... solution of the SOCP can be converted to an optimal solution of the original AC OPF. The efficacy of the convex relaxation to solve the AC OPF is demonstrated by case studies of an optimal multi-period planning problem of electric vehicles (EVs) in distribution networks....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jhon E. González-Pérez
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a methodology for design of electrical field relaxing electrodes is shown. This design methodology is based in an optimization process carried out by particle swarm optimization technique. The objective function of the optimization process, include the electro statics model of the high voltage equipment that is solved by the finite element method. The proposed methodology was implemented using the computational tools Matlab and Comsol. This methodology was validated by designing the electric fields relaxing electrodes in a high voltage resistive divider, which used in measurement of lightning impulse waves.
Optimal control of transverse mode coupling instability based on the two particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogata, Atsushi
1985-01-01
The optimal regulator design technique is applied to asymptotically stabilize the transverse mode coupling instability of a storage ring. The state equations are based on the two particle model. These are a pair of equation sets, one for the first and one for the second half of the synchrotron phase. Each set consists of first-order difference equations in vector-matrix form, with time step equal to the revolution time of the ring. Solution of the discrete Riccati equation gives the optimal gain matrix of the transverse feedback. Computer simulations are carried out to verify its effectiveness. Some modifications necessary to apply it to the real accelerator operation are made. The old methods, the classical output feedback and the reactive feedback, are interpreted from the viewpoint of the optimal control. (orig.)
Optimal Design of the Transverse Flux Machine Using a Fitted Genetic Algorithm with Real Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika
2012-01-01
This paper applies a fitted genetic algorithm (GA) to the optimal design of transverse flux machine (TFM). The main goal is to provide a tool for the optimal design of TFM that is an easy to use. The GA optimizes the analytic basic design of two TFM topologies: the C-core and the U-core. First......, the GA was designed with real parameters. A further, objective of the fitted GA is minimization of the computation time, related to the number of individuals, the number of generations and the types of operators and their specific parameters....
Grgac, Ksenija; Li, Wenbo; Huang, Alan; Qin, Qin; van Zijl, Peter C M
2017-05-01
Blood is a physiological substance with multiple water compartments, which contain water-binding proteins such as hemoglobin in erythrocytes and albumin in plasma. Knowing the water transverse (R 2 ) relaxation rates from these different blood compartments is a prerequisite for quantifying the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Here, we report the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) based transverse (R 2CPMG ) relaxation rates of water in bovine blood samples circulated in a perfusion system at physiological temperature in order to mimic blood perfusion in humans. R 2CPMG values of blood plasma, lysed packed erythrocytes, lysed plasma/erythrocyte mixtures, and whole blood at 3 T, 7 T, 9.4 T, 11.7 T and 16.4 T were measured as a function of hematocrit or hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and CPMG inter-echo spacing (τ cp ). R 2CPMG in lysed cells showed a small τ cp dependence, attributed to the water exchange rate between free and hemoglobin-bound water to be much faster than τ cp . This was contrary to the tangential dependence in whole blood, where a much slower exchange between cells and blood plasma applies. Whole blood data were fitted as a function of τ cp using a general tangential correlation time model applicable for exchange as well as diffusion contributions to R 2CPMG , and the intercept R 20blood at infinitely short τ cp was determined. The R 20blood values at different hematocrit and the R 2CPMG values of lysed erythrocyte/plasma mixtures at different hemoglobin concentration were used to determine the relaxivity of hemoglobin inside the erythrocyte (r 2Hb ) and albumin (r 2Alb ) in plasma. The r 2Hb values obtained from lysed erythrocytes and whole blood were comparable at full oxygenation. However, while r 2Hb determined from lysed cells showed a linear dependence on oxygenation, this dependence became quadratic in whole blood. This possibly suggests an additional relaxation effect inside intact cells, perhaps due to hemoglobin
Swanberg, Kelley M.; Prinsen, Hetty; Coman, Daniel; de Graaf, Robin A.; Juchem, Christoph
2018-05-01
Glutathione (GSH) is an endogenous antioxidant implicated in numerous biological processes, including those associated with multiple sclerosis, aging, and cancer. Spectral editing techniques have greatly facilitated the acquisition of glutathione signal in living humans via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, but signal quantification at 7 Tesla is still hampered by uncertainty about the glutathione transverse decay rate T2 relative to those of commonly employed quantitative references like N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total creatine, or water. While the T2 of uncoupled singlets can be derived in a straightforward manner from exponential signal decay as a function of echo time, similar estimation of signal decay in GSH is complicated by a spin system that involves both weak and strong J-couplings as well as resonances that overlap those of several other metabolites and macromolecules. Here, we extend a previously published method for quantifying the T2 of GABA, a weakly coupled system, to quantify T2 of the strongly coupled spin system glutathione in the human brain at 7 Tesla. Using full density matrix simulation of glutathione signal behavior, we selected an array of eight optimized echo times between 72 and 322 ms for glutathione signal acquisition by J-difference editing (JDE). We varied the selectivity and symmetry parameters of the inversion pulses used for echo time extension to further optimize the intensity, simplicity, and distinctiveness of glutathione signals at chosen echo times. Pairs of selective adiabatic inversion pulses replaced nonselective pulses at three extended echo times, and symmetry of the time intervals between the two extension pulses was adjusted at one extended echo time to compensate for J-modulation, thereby resulting in appreciable signal-to-noise ratio and quantifiable signal shapes at all measured points. Glutathione signal across all echo times fit smooth monoexponential curves over ten scans of occipital cortex voxels in nine
Mixed-Integer Nonconvex Quadratic Optimization Relaxations and Performance Analysis
2016-10-11
optimal deleveraging strategy are obtained. They provide guidance on how we liquidate a portfolio according to endogenous and exogenous factors. A...Statistical Performance, and Algorithmic Theory for Local Solutions,” (H. Liu, T. Yao, R. Li, Y. Ye) manuscript, 2nd revision in Math Programming
Efficient relaxations for joint chance constrained AC optimal power flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Kyri; Toomey, Bridget
2017-07-01
Evolving power systems with increasing levels of stochasticity call for a need to solve optimal power flow problems with large quantities of random variables. Weather forecasts, electricity prices, and shifting load patterns introduce higher levels of uncertainty and can yield optimization problems that are difficult to solve in an efficient manner. Solution methods for single chance constraints in optimal power flow problems have been considered in the literature, ensuring single constraints are satisfied with a prescribed probability; however, joint chance constraints, ensuring multiple constraints are simultaneously satisfied, have predominantly been solved via scenario-based approaches or by utilizing Boole's inequality as an upper bound. In this paper, joint chance constraints are used to solve an AC optimal power flow problem while preventing overvoltages in distribution grids under high penetrations of photovoltaic systems. A tighter version of Boole's inequality is derived and used to provide a new upper bound on the joint chance constraint, and simulation results are shown demonstrating the benefit of the proposed upper bound. The new framework allows for a less conservative and more computationally efficient solution to considering joint chance constraints, specifically regarding preventing overvoltages.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Aimin; Yin, Xu; Yuan, Minghai
2015-01-01
There are two problems in Collaborative optimization (CO): (1) the local optima arising from the selection of an inappropriate initial point; (2) the low efficiency and accuracy root in inappropriate relaxation factors. To solve these problems, we first develop the Latin hypercube design (LHD) to determine an initial point of optimization, and then use the non-linear programming by quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL) to search for the global solution. The effectiveness of the initial point selection strategy is verified by three benchmark functions with some dimensions and different complexities. Then we propose the Adaptive relaxation collaborative optimization (ARCO) algorithm to solve the inconsistency between the system level and the disciplines level, and in this method, the relaxation factors are determined according to the three separated stages of CO respectively. The performance of the ARCO algorithm is compared with the standard collaborative algorithm and the constant relaxation collaborative algorithm with a typical numerical example, which indicates that the ARCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate. Finally, we propose a Hybrid collaborative optimization (HCO) approach, which integrates the selection strategy of initial point with the ARCO algorithm. The results show that HCO can achieve the global optimal solution without the initial value and it also has advantages in convergence, accuracy and robustness. Therefore, the proposed HCO approach can solve the CO problems with applications in the spindle and the speed reducer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Aimin; Yin, Xu; Yuan, Minghai [Hohai University, Changzhou (China)
2015-09-15
There are two problems in Collaborative optimization (CO): (1) the local optima arising from the selection of an inappropriate initial point; (2) the low efficiency and accuracy root in inappropriate relaxation factors. To solve these problems, we first develop the Latin hypercube design (LHD) to determine an initial point of optimization, and then use the non-linear programming by quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL) to search for the global solution. The effectiveness of the initial point selection strategy is verified by three benchmark functions with some dimensions and different complexities. Then we propose the Adaptive relaxation collaborative optimization (ARCO) algorithm to solve the inconsistency between the system level and the disciplines level, and in this method, the relaxation factors are determined according to the three separated stages of CO respectively. The performance of the ARCO algorithm is compared with the standard collaborative algorithm and the constant relaxation collaborative algorithm with a typical numerical example, which indicates that the ARCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate. Finally, we propose a Hybrid collaborative optimization (HCO) approach, which integrates the selection strategy of initial point with the ARCO algorithm. The results show that HCO can achieve the global optimal solution without the initial value and it also has advantages in convergence, accuracy and robustness. Therefore, the proposed HCO approach can solve the CO problems with applications in the spindle and the speed reducer.
Optimality Bounds for a Variational Relaxation of the Image Partitioning Problem
Lellmann, Jan
2012-11-09
We consider a variational convex relaxation of a class of optimal partitioning and multiclass labeling problems, which has recently proven quite successful and can be seen as a continuous analogue of Linear Programming (LP) relaxation methods for finite-dimensional problems. While for the latter several optimality bounds are known, to our knowledge no such bounds exist in the infinite-dimensional setting. We provide such a bound by analyzing a probabilistic rounding method, showing that it is possible to obtain an integral solution of the original partitioning problem from a solution of the relaxed problem with an a priori upper bound on the objective. The approach has a natural interpretation as an approximate, multiclass variant of the celebrated coarea formula. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Convex Relaxations of Chance Constrained AC Optimal Power Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Venzke, Andreas; Halilbasic, Lejla; Markovic, Uros
2017-01-01
High penetration of renewable energy sources and the increasing share of stochastic loads require the explicit representation of uncertainty in tools such as the optimal power ﬂow (OPF).Current approaches follow either a linearized approach or an iterative approximation of non-linearities. This p......High penetration of renewable energy sources and the increasing share of stochastic loads require the explicit representation of uncertainty in tools such as the optimal power ﬂow (OPF).Current approaches follow either a linearized approach or an iterative approximation of non......, reactive power, and voltage. We state a tractable formulation for two types of uncertainty sets. Using a scenario-based approach and making no prior assumptions about the probability distribution of the forecast errors, we obtain a robust formulation for a rectangular uncertainty set. Alternatively......, assuming a Gaussian distribution of the forecast errors, we propose an analytical reformulation of the chance constraints suitable for semideﬁnite programming. We demonstrate the performance of our approach on the IEEE 24 and 118 bus system using realistic day-ahead forecast data and obtain tight near...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuhang Guo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Relative permeability and transverse relaxation time are both important physical parameters of rock physics. In this paper, a new transformation model between the transverse relaxation time and the wetting phase’s relative permeability is established. The data shows that the cores in the northwest of China have continuous fractal dimension characteristics, and great differences existed in the different pore size scales. Therefore, a piece-wise method is used to calculate the fractal dimension in our transformation model. The transformation results are found to be quite consistent with the relative permeability curve of the laboratory measurements. Based on this new model, we put forward a new method to identify reservoir in tight sandstone reservoir. We focus on the Well M in the northwestern China. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR logging is used to obtain the point-by-point relative permeability curve. In addition, we identify the gas and water layers based on new T2-Kr model and the results showed our new method is feasible. In the case of the price of crude oil being low, this method can save time and reduce the cost.
Kim, Daniel; Jensen, Jens H.; Wu, Ed X.; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Cheung, Jerry S.; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S.; Brittenham, Gary M.
2011-01-01
In iron overload, almost all the excess iron is stored intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable ferritin iron and slowly exchangeable hemosiderin iron. Increases in cytosolic iron may produce oxidative damage that ultimately results in cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Because intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool, measurements of ferritin iron potentially provide a clinically useful indicator of changes in cytosolic iron. The cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) index of cardiac iron used clinically, the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*), is principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and changes only slowly over several months, even with intensive iron-chelating therapy. Another conventional CMR index of cardiac iron, the transverse relaxation rate (R2), is sensitive to both hemosiderin iron and ferritin iron. We have developed a new MRI measure, the ‘reduced transverse relaxation rate’ (RR2), and have proposed in previous studies that this measure is primarily sensitive to ferritin iron and largely independent of hemosiderin iron in phantoms mimicking ferritin iron and human liver explants. We hypothesized that RR2 could detect changes produced by 1 week of iron-chelating therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. We imaged 10 patients with thalassemia major at 1.5 T in mid-ventricular short-axis planes of the heart, initially after suspending iron-chelating therapy for 1 week and subsequently after resuming oral deferasirox. After resuming iron-chelating therapy, significant decreases were observed in the mean myocardial RR2 (7.8%, p 0.90). Although the difference between changes in RR2 and R2 was not significant (p > 0.3), RR2 was consistently more sensitive than R2 (and R2*) to the resumption of iron-chelating therapy, as judged by the effect sizes of relaxation rate differences detected. Although further studies are needed, myocardial RR2 may be a promising
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Venkatesha, N.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail: csrivastava@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Poojar, Pavan; Geethanath, Sairam [Medical Imaging Research Centre, Dayananda Sagar Institutions, Bangalore 560078 (India); Qurishi, Yasrib [Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)
2015-04-21
The potential of graphene oxide–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle (GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite as an image contrast enhancing material in magnetic resonance imaging has been investigated. Proton relaxivity values were obtained in three different homogeneous dispersions of GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites synthesized by precipitating Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in three different reaction mixtures containing 0.01 g, 0.1 g, and 0.2 g of graphene oxide. A noticeable difference in proton relaxivity values was observed between the three cases. A comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization revealed discrete differences in the extent of reduction of the graphene oxide and spacing between the graphene oxide sheets in the three composites. The GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite framework that contained graphene oxide with least extent of reduction of the carboxyl groups and largest spacing between the graphene oxide sheets provided the optimum structure for yielding a very high transverse proton relaxivity value. It was found that the GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites possessed good biocompatibility with normal cell lines, whereas they exhibited considerable toxicity towards breast cancer cells.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Ping-Chang, E-mail: pingchang.lin@howard.edu [Howard University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (United States)
2015-06-15
A number of NMR methods possess the capability of probing chemical exchange dynamics in solution. However, certain drawbacks limit the applications of these NMR approaches, particularly, to a complex system. Here, we propose a procedure that integrates the regularized nonnegative least squares (NNLS) analysis of multiexponential T{sub 2} relaxation into Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiments to probe chemical exchange in a multicompartmental system. The proposed procedure was validated through analysis of {sup 19}F T{sub 2} relaxation data of 6-fluoro-DL-tryptophan in a two-compartment solution with and without bovine serum albumin. Given the regularized NNLS analysis of a T{sub 2} relaxation curve acquired, for example, at the CPMG frequency υ{sub CPMG} = 125, the nature of two distinct peaks in the associated T{sub 2} distribution spectrum indicated 6-fluoro-DL-tryptophan either retaining the free state, with geometric mean */multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) = 1851.2 ms */1.51, or undergoing free/albumin-bound interconversion, with geometric mean */MSD = 236.8 ms */1.54, in the two-compartment system. Quantities of the individual tryptophan species were accurately reflected by the associated T{sub 2} peak areas, with an interconversion state-to-free state ratio of 0.45 ± 0.11. Furthermore, the CPMG relaxation dispersion analysis estimated the exchange rate between the free and albumin-bound states in this fluorinated tryptophan analog and the corresponding dissociation constant of the fluorinated tryptophan–albumin complex in the chemical-exchanging, two-compartment system.
Swanberg, Kelley M; Prinsen, Hetty; Coman, Daniel; de Graaf, Robin A; Juchem, Christoph
2018-03-01
Glutathione (GSH) is an endogenous antioxidant implicated in numerous biological processes, including those associated with multiple sclerosis, aging, and cancer. Spectral editing techniques have greatly facilitated the acquisition of glutathione signal in living humans via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, but signal quantification at 7 Tesla is still hampered by uncertainty about the glutathione transverse decay rate T 2 relative to those of commonly employed quantitative references like N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total creatine, or water. While the T 2 of uncoupled singlets can be derived in a straightforward manner from exponential signal decay as a function of echo time, similar estimation of signal decay in GSH is complicated by a spin system that involves both weak and strong J-couplings as well as resonances that overlap those of several other metabolites and macromolecules. Here, we extend a previously published method for quantifying the T 2 of GABA, a weakly coupled system, to quantify T 2 of the strongly coupled spin system glutathione in the human brain at 7 Tesla. Using full density matrix simulation of glutathione signal behavior, we selected an array of eight optimized echo times between 72 and 322 ms for glutathione signal acquisition by J-difference editing (JDE). We varied the selectivity and symmetry parameters of the inversion pulses used for echo time extension to further optimize the intensity, simplicity, and distinctiveness of glutathione signals at chosen echo times. Pairs of selective adiabatic inversion pulses replaced nonselective pulses at three extended echo times, and symmetry of the time intervals between the two extension pulses was adjusted at one extended echo time to compensate for J-modulation, thereby resulting in appreciable signal-to-noise ratio and quantifiable signal shapes at all measured points. Glutathione signal across all echo times fit smooth monoexponential curves over ten scans of occipital cortex voxels in
Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas—Part I: Theory of relaxed problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias
2008-01-01
. The main issue of the paper and of the approach lies in the fact that the relaxed nonlinear optimization problem can be formulated as a quadratic program (QP). Here the paper generalizes and extends the available theory from the literature. Although the Hessian of this QP is indefinite, it is possible...... to circumvent the non-convexity and to calculate global optimizers. Moreover, the QPs to be treated in the branch-and-bound search tree differ from each other just in the objective function. In Part I we give an introduction to the problem and collect all theory and related proofs for the treatment...
Multi-objective design optimization of the transverse gaseous jet in supersonic flows
Huang, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yan, Li
2014-01-01
The mixing process between the injectant and the supersonic crossflow is one of the important issues for the design of the scramjet engine, and the efficiency mixing has a great impact on the improvement of the combustion efficiency. A hovering vortex is formed between the separation region and the barrel shock wave, and this may be induced by the large negative density gradient. The separation region provides a good mixing area for the injectant and the subsonic boundary layer. In the current study, the transverse injection flow field with a freestream Mach number of 3.5 has been optimized by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) coupled with the Kriging surrogate model; and the variance analysis method and the extreme difference analysis method have been employed to evaluate the values of the objective functions. The obtained results show that the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio is the most important design variable for the transverse injection flow field, and the injectant molecular weight and the slot width should be considered for the mixing process between the injectant and the supersonic crossflow. There exists an optimal penetration height for the mixing efficiency, and its value is about 14.3 mm in the range considered in the current study. The larger penetration height provides a larger total pressure loss, and there must be a tradeoff between these two objection functions. In addition, this study demonstrates that the multi-objective design optimization method with the data mining technique can be used efficiently to explore the relationship between the design variables and the objective functions.
Analytical Model-Based Design Optimization of a Transverse Flux Machine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasan, Iftekhar; Husain, Tausif; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard
2017-02-16
This paper proposes an analytical machine design tool using magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC)-based particle swarm optimization (PSO) for a double-sided, flux-concentrating transverse flux machine (TFM). The magnetic equivalent circuit method is applied to analytically establish the relationship between the design objective and the input variables of prospective TFM designs. This is computationally less intensive and more time efficient than finite element solvers. A PSO algorithm is then used to design a machine with the highest torque density within the specified power range along with some geometric design constraints. The stator pole length, magnet length, and rotor thickness are the variables that define the optimization search space. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to verify the performance of the MEC-PSO optimized machine. The proposed analytical design tool helps save computation time by at least 50% when compared to commercial FEA-based optimization programs, with results found to be in agreement with less than 5% error.
Convex relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Feeders with embedded solar power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun
2016-01-01
There is an increasing interest in using Distributed Energy Resources (DER) directly coupled to end user distribution feeders. This poses an array of challenges because most of today’s distribution feeders are designed for unidirectional power flow. Therefore when installing DERs such as solar...... panels with uncontrolled inverters, the upper limit of installable capacity is quickly reached in many of today’s distribution feeders. This problem can often be mitigated by optimally controlling the voltage angles of inverters. However, the optimal power flow problem in its standard form is a large...... scale non-convex optimization problem, and thus can’t be solved precisely and also is computationally heavy and intractable for large systems. This paper examines the use of a convex relaxation using Semi-definite programming to optimally control solar power inverters in a distribution grid in order...
An optimized method for (15)N R(1) relaxation rate measurements in non-deuterated proteins.
Gairí, Margarida; Dyachenko, Andrey; González, M Teresa; Feliz, Miguel; Pons, Miquel; Giralt, Ernest
2015-06-01
(15)N longitudinal relaxation rates are extensively used for the characterization of protein dynamics; however, their accurate measurement is hindered by systematic errors. (15)N CSA/(1)H-(15)N dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CC) and amide proton exchange saturation transfer from water protons are the two main sources of systematic errors in the determination of (15)N R1 rates through (1)H-(15)N HSQC-based experiments. CC is usually suppressed through a train of 180° proton pulses applied during the variable (15)N relaxation period (T), which can perturb water magnetization. Thus CC cancellation is required in such a way as to minimize water saturation effects. Here we examined the level of water saturation during the T period caused by various types of inversion proton pulses to suppress CC: (I) amide-selective IBURP-2; (II) cosine-modulated IBURP-2; (III) Watergate-like blocks; and (IV) non-selective hard. We additionally demonstrate the effect of uncontrolled saturation of aliphatic protons on (15)N R1 rates. In this paper we present an optimized pulse sequence that takes into account the crucial effect of controlling also the saturation of the aliphatic protons during (15)N R1 measurements in non-deuterated proteins. We show that using cosine-modulated IBURP-2 pulses spaced 40 ms to cancel CC in this optimized pulse program is the method of choice to minimize systematic errors coming from water and aliphatic protons saturation effects.
Optimal design through the sub-relaxation method understanding the basic principles
Pedregal, Pablo
2016-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive guide to analyzing and solving optimal design problems in continuous media by means of the so-called sub-relaxation method. Though the underlying ideas are borrowed from other, more classical approaches, here they are used and organized in a novel way, yielding a distinct perspective on how to approach this kind of optimization problems. Starting with a discussion of the background motivation, the book broadly explains the sub-relaxation method in general terms, helping readers to grasp, from the very beginning, the driving idea and where the text is heading. In addition to the analytical content of the method, it examines practical issues like optimality and numerical approximation. Though the primary focus is on the development of the method for the conductivity context, the book’s final two chapters explore several extensions of the method to other problems, as well as formal proofs. The text can be used for a graduate course in optimal design, even if the method would ...
Optimal Configuration for Relaxation Times Estimation in Complex Spin Echo Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Baselice
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Many pathologies can be identified by evaluating differences raised in the physical parameters of involved tissues. In a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI framework, spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation time parameters play a major role in such an identification. In this manuscript, a theoretical study related to the evaluation of the achievable performances in the estimation of relaxation times in MRI is proposed. After a discussion about the considered acquisition model, an analysis on the ideal imaging acquisition parameters in the case of spin echo sequences, i.e., echo and repetition times, is conducted. In particular, the aim of the manuscript consists in providing an empirical rule for optimal imaging parameter identification with respect to the tissues under investigation. Theoretical results are validated on different datasets in order to show the effectiveness of the presented study and of the proposed methodology.
Optimization of Transverse Oscillating Fields for Vector Velocity Estimation with Convex Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2013-01-01
A method for making Vector Flow Images using the transverse oscillation (TO) approach on a convex array is presented. The paper presents optimization schemes for TO fields for convex probes and evaluates their performance using Field II simulations and measurements using the SARUS experimental...... scanner. A 3 MHz 192 elements convex array probe (pitch 0.33 mm) is used in both simulations and measurements. An F-number of 5 is used in transmit and two 32 element wide peaks are used in receive separated by 96 elements between peaks. Parabolic velocity profiles are simulated at beam-to-flow angles......) at a depth of 40 mm. Measurements have been made using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner and a BK Medical 8820e convex array transducer. Sixty-four elements was used in transmit and 2 x 32 elements in receive for creating a color flow map image of a flow rig phantom with a laminar, parabolic flow...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales-Valdés, Pilar; Flores-Tlacuahuac, Antonio; Zavala, Victor M.
2014-12-01
We present a multiobjective optimization framework to evaluate the effects of comfort relaxation on the energy demands of buildings. This work is motivated by recent interest in understanding demand elasticity available for real-time electricity market operations and demand response events. We analyze the flexibility provided by an economics-based control architecture that directly minimizes total energy and by a traditional tracking control system that minimizes deviations from reference temperature and relative humidity set-points. Our study provides the following insights: (i) using percentage mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) constraints within an economics-based system consistently gives the most flexibility as comfort is relaxed, (ii) using PMV and PPD penalization objectives results in high comfort volatility, (iii) using temperature and relative humidity bounds severely overestimates flexibility, and (iv) tracking control offers limited flexibility even if used with optimal set-back conditions. We present a strategy to approximate nonlinear comfort regions using linear polyhedral regions, and we demonstrate that this reduces the computational complexity of optimal control formulations. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Optimal homotopy asymptotic method for solving fractional relaxation-oscillation equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Hamarsheh
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an approximate analytical solution of linear fractional relaxation-oscillation equations in which the fractional derivatives are given in the Caputo sense, is obtained by the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM. The studied OHAM is based on minimizing the residual error. The results given by OHAM are compared with the exact solutions and the solutions obtained by generalized Taylor matrix method. The reliability and efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated in three examples with the aid of the symbolic algebra program Maple.
Convex Array Vector Velocity Imaging Using Transverse Oscillation and Its Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael
2015-01-01
array probe (pitch 0.33 mm) is used in both simulations and measurements. A parabolic velocity profile is simulated at a beam-to-flow angle of 90°. The optimization routine changes the lateral oscillation period λx as a function of depth to yield the best possible estimates based on the energy ratio...... between positive and negative spatial frequencies in the ultrasound field. The energy ratio is reduced from −17.1 dB to −22.1 dB. Parabolic profiles are estimated on simulated data using 16 emissions. The optimization gives a reduction in standard deviation from 8.81% to 7.4% for 16 emissions......, with a reduction in lateral velocity bias from −15.93% to 0.78% at 90° (transverse flow) at a depth of 40 mm. Measurements have been performed using the experimental ultrasound scanner and a convex array transducer. A bias of −0.93% was obtained at 87° for a parabolic velocity profile along with a standard...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hye Young Choi
Full Text Available To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance transverse relaxation rate (R2* and prognostic factors.A total of 159 women with invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI including blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD sequence at 3 T. The distribution of the measured R2* values were analyzed, and the correlation between R2* and various prognostic factors (age, tumor size, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, and axillary lymph node status, as well as expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, p53, and Ki-67 were retrospectively assessed using patient medical records.The baseline R2* values of the IDCs were very heterogeneous with wide range among the patients. The mean R2* value was (32.8 ± 14.0 Hz with a median of 29.3 Hz (range 13.5-109.4 Hz. In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with decreased R2* value (P = 0.011 and IDCs with p53-overexpression showed higher R2* values than those without p53-overexpression group (P = 0.031. Other prognostic factors were not significantly correlated with R2* value.In this study, R2* values were significantly correlated with age and expression of p53. Further studies are necessary to determine the prognostic value of BOLD-MRI.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng
2017-01-01
The detailed topology of renewable resource bases may have the impact on the optimal power flow of the VSC-HVDC transmission network. To address this issue, this paper develops an optimal power flow with the hybrid VSC-HVDC transmission and active distribution networks to optimally schedule...... the generation output and voltage regulation of both networks, which leads to a non-convex programming model. Furthermore, the non-convex power flow equations are based on the Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) relaxation approach. Thus, the proposed model can be relaxed to a SOCP that can be tractably solved...
Meloni, Antonella; Hezel, Fabian; Positano, Vincenzo; Keilberg, Petra; Pepe, Alessia; Lombardi, Massimo; Niendorf, Thoralf
2014-06-01
Realizing the challenges and opportunities of effective transverse relaxation rate (R2 *) mapping at high and ultrahigh fields, this work examines magnetic field strength (B0 ) dependence and segmental artifact distribution of myocardial R2 * at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T. Healthy subjects were considered. Three short-axis views of the left ventricle were examined. R2 * was calculated for 16 standard myocardial segments. Global and mid-septum R2 * were determined. For each segment, an artifactual factor was estimated as the deviation of segmental from global R2 * value. The global artifactual factor was significantly enlarged at 7.0 T versus 1.5 T (P = 0.010) but not versus 3.0 T. At 7.0 T, the most severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the inferior lateral wall. The mid-septum showed minor artifactual factors at 7.0 T, similar to those at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Mean R2 * increased linearly with the field strength, with larger changes for global heart R2 * values. At 7.0 T, segmental heart R2 * analysis is challenging due to macroscopic susceptibility artifacts induced by the heart-lung interface and the posterior vein. Myocardial R2 * depends linearly on the magnetic field strength. The increased R2 * sensitivity at 7.0 T might offer means for susceptibility-weighted and oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging of the myocardium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Eremin, M V; Savinkov, A V; Duglav, A V; Mukhamedshin, I R; Egorov, A V
2001-01-01
One observed two maximums in the transverse relaxation rate of Cu(2) copper nuclei in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub y at T = 35 K and T = 47 K. Comparison of relaxation rates of sup 6 sup 3 Cu(2) and sup 6 sup 5 Cu(2) isotopes at T = 47 K is indicative of magnetic nature of relaxation. Intensification of fluctuations of the local magnetic fields perpendicular to CuO sub 2 planes at T = 47 K results from the critical fluctuations of the orbital currents. Peak at T 35 K is associated with occurrence of inhomogeneous superconducting phase. The obtained experimental results with regard to the published data enabled to introduce qualitatively new phase diagram of superconducting state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Xuewei; Kong, Li; Cheng, Jingjing; Wu, Lei
2015-01-01
The multi-exponential inversion of a NMR relaxation signal plays a key role in core analysis and logging interpretation in the formation of porous media. To find an efficient metod of inverting high-resolution relaxation time spectra rapidly, this paper studies the effect of inversion which is based on the discretization of the original echo in a time domain by using a simulation model. This paper analyzes the ill-condition of discrete equations on the basis of the NMR inversion model and method, determines the appropriate number of discrete echoes and acquires the optimal distribution of discrete echo points by the Lloyd–Max optimal quantization method, in considering the inverse precision and computational complexity comprehensively. The result shows that this method can effectively improve the efficiency of the relaxation time spectra inversion while guaranteeing inversed accuracy. (paper)
Robust Ellipse Fitting via Half-Quadratic and Semidefinite Relaxation Optimization.
Liang, Junli; Wang, Yunlong; Zeng, Xianju
2015-11-01
Ellipse fitting is widely applied in the fields of computer vision and automatic manufacture. However, the introduced edge point errors (especially outliers) from image edge detection will cause severe performance degradation of the subsequent ellipse fitting procedure. To alleviate the influence of outliers, we develop a robust ellipse fitting method in this paper. The main contributions of this paper are as follows. First, to be robust against the outliers, we introduce the maximum correntropy criterion into the constrained least-square (CLS) ellipse fitting method, and apply the half-quadratic optimization algorithm to solve the nonlinear and nonconvex problem in an alternate manner. Second, to ensure that the obtained solution is related to an ellipse, we introduce a special quadratic equality constraint into the aforementioned CLS model, which results in the nonconvex quadratically constrained quadratic programming problem. Finally, we derive the semidefinite relaxation version of the aforementioned problem in terms of the trace operator and thus determine the ellipse parameters using semidefinite programming. Some simulated and experimental examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed ellipse fitting approach.
Tanaka, Eiichi; Kudo, Hiroyuki
2010-05-21
We have reported a block-iterative algorithm named DRAMA for image reconstruction for emission tomography (Tanaka and Kudo 2003 Phys. Med. Biol. 48 1405-22). DRAMA is a modified version of the row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (RAMLA), in which the relaxation parameter is subset dependent and is changed in such a way that the noise propagation from subsets to the reconstructed image is substantially independent of the access order of the subsets. The algorithm provides fast convergence with a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. The optimal relaxation parameter has been derived assuming a two-dimensional (2D)-PET model, and detailed performance in three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction has not been clear enough. We have developed the new version 'DRAMA-3D', based on the 3D-PET model. The optimal relaxation parameter is a function of the access order of the subsets and the ring difference, and its value is determined by simple formulas from the design parameters of the PET scanner, the operating conditions and the post-smoothing resolution. In this paper, we present the theory of DRAMA-3D, the results of simulation studies on the performance of DRAMA-3D and the comparative studies of the related algorithms. It is shown that DRAMA-3D is robust for various access orders of subsets and is suitable to realize one-pass (single-iteration) reconstruction.
Coating Optimization of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for High T2 relaxivity
Tong, Sheng; Hou, Sijian; Zheng, Zhilan; Zhou, Jun; Bao, Gang
2010-01-01
We describe a new method for coating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) and demonstrate that, by fine-tuning the core size and PEG coating of SPIOs, the T2 relaxivity per-particle can be increased by > 200 fold. With 14 nm core and PEG1000 coating, SPIOs can have T2 relaxivity of 385 s−1mM−1, which is among the highest of all SPIOs reported. In vivo tumor imaging results demonstrated the potential of the SPIOs for clinical applications.
A unified aggregation and relaxation approach for stress-constrained topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Verbart, Alexander; Langelaar, Matthijs; Keulen, Fred van
2017-01-01
design-independent set of constraints. The next step is to perform constraint aggregation over the reformulated local constraints using a lower bound aggregation function. We demonstrate that this approach concurrently aggregates the constraints and relaxes the feasible domain, thereby making singular...
An optimized method for {sup 15}N R{sub 1} relaxation rate measurements in non-deuterated proteins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gairí, Margarida, E-mail: mgairi@rmn.ub.edu [University of Barcelona (CCiTUB), NMR Facility, Scientific and Technological Centers (Spain); Dyachenko, Andrey [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB) (Spain); González, M. Teresa; Feliz, Miguel [University of Barcelona (CCiTUB), NMR Facility, Scientific and Technological Centers (Spain); Pons, Miquel [University of Barcelona, Biomolecular NMR Laboratory and Organic Chemistry Department (Spain); Giralt, Ernest, E-mail: ernest.giralt@irbbarcelona.org [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB) (Spain)
2015-06-15
{sup 15}N longitudinal relaxation rates are extensively used for the characterization of protein dynamics; however, their accurate measurement is hindered by systematic errors. {sup 15}N CSA/{sup 1}H–{sup 15}N dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CC) and amide proton exchange saturation transfer from water protons are the two main sources of systematic errors in the determination of {sup 15}N R{sub 1} rates through {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N HSQC-based experiments. CC is usually suppressed through a train of 180° proton pulses applied during the variable {sup 15}N relaxation period (T), which can perturb water magnetization. Thus CC cancellation is required in such a way as to minimize water saturation effects. Here we examined the level of water saturation during the T period caused by various types of inversion proton pulses to suppress CC: (I) amide-selective IBURP-2; (II) cosine-modulated IBURP-2; (III) Watergate-like blocks; and (IV) non-selective hard. We additionally demonstrate the effect of uncontrolled saturation of aliphatic protons on {sup 15}N R{sub 1} rates. In this paper we present an optimized pulse sequence that takes into account the crucial effect of controlling also the saturation of the aliphatic protons during {sup 15}N R{sub 1} measurements in non-deuterated proteins. We show that using cosine-modulated IBURP-2 pulses spaced 40 ms to cancel CC in this optimized pulse program is the method of choice to minimize systematic errors coming from water and aliphatic protons saturation effects.
Nijhuis, A.; van Lanen, E. P. A.; Rolando, G.
2012-01-01
the distinct difference in mechanical response of the cable during axial contraction for short and long pitches. For short pitches periodic bending in different directions with relatively short wavelength is imposed because of a lack of sufficient lateral restraint of radial pressure. This can lead to high bending strain and eventually buckling. Whereas for cables with long twist pitches, the strands are only able to react as coherent bundles, being tightly supported by the surrounding strands, providing sufficient lateral restraint of radial pressure in combination with enough slippage to avoid single strand bending along detrimental short wavelengths. Experimental evidence of good performance was already provided with the test of the long pitch TFPRO2-OST2, which is still until today, the best ITER-type cable to strand performance ever without any cyclic load (electromagnetic and thermal contraction) degradation. For reduction of the coupling loss, specific choices of the cabling twist sequence are needed to minimize the area of linked strands and bundles that are coupled and form loops with the applied changing magnetic field, instead of simply avoiding longer pitches. In addition we recommend increasing the wrap coverage of the CS conductor from 50% to at least 70%. A larger wrap coverage fraction enhances the overall strand bundle lateral restraint. The long pitch design seems the best solution to optimize the ITER CS conductor within the given restrictions of the present coil design envelope, only allowing marginal changes. The models predict significant improvement against strain sensitivity and substantial decrease of the AC coupling loss in Nb3Sn CICCs, but also for NbTi CICCs minimization of the coupling loss can obviously be achieved. Although the success of long pitches to transverse load degradation was already demonstrated, the prediction of the elegant innovative combination with low coupling loss needs to be validated by a short sample test.
Semi-definite relaxations for optimal control problems with oscillation and concentration effects
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Claeys, M.; Henrion, D.; Kružík, Martin
2017-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 95-117 ISSN 1292-8119 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimal control * impulsive control * semidefinite programming Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.540, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/kruzik-0470207.pdf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masuda Hiroshi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available It is very important to design electrical machineries with high efficiency from the point of view of saving energy. Therefore, topology optimization (TO is occasionally used as a design method for improving the performance of electrical machinery under the reasonable constraints. Because TO can achieve a design with much higher degree of freedom in terms of structure, there is a possibility for deriving the novel structure which would be quite different from the conventional structure. In this paper, topology optimization using sequential linear programming using move limit based on adaptive relaxation is applied to two models. The magnetic shielding, in which there are many local minima, is firstly employed as firstly benchmarking for the performance evaluation among several mathematical programming methods. Secondly, induction heating model is defined in 2-D axisymmetric field. In this model, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetic body is maximized under the constraint on the volume of magnetic body. Furthermore, the influence of the location of the design domain on the solutions is investigated.
Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1971-01-01
The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...
Yang, Baolai; Zhang, Hanwei; Shi, Chen; Tao, Rumao; Su, Rongtao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Xu, Xiaojun; Lu, Qisheng
2018-01-01
We report a high power monolithic ytterbium-doped fiber laser oscillator with an output power of 3.05 kW, which is achieved by simultaneous optimizations of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and transverse mode instability (TMI). The optimizations of the SRS are designed and utilized in the construction of the fiber laser oscillator, while the TMI threshold is optimized with the study of the dependence of TMI threshold on the pump distribution. In the fiber laser oscillator, the TMI threshold is enhanced by ˜30% when the counter-pump scheme is employed instead of the co-pump scheme. By applying bidirectional-pump scheme and appropriately distributing the pump power, the TMI threshold is further enhanced and the monolithic fiber laser oscillator achieves an output power of 3.05 kW with near diffraction limited beam quality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Zhou
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical study is conducted to investigate the stress shadow effects (stress reorientation and change during hydraulic fracturing in a transverse multiple fracture system. A numerical model is used for the numerical study. It is a 3D model and can simulate the fracture operation from injection begin to full closure (fracture contact. Therefore, there is no need to assume the fracture geometry for the investigation of the stress shadow effects (unlike previous studies. In the numerical study, the first and second operations in a fictive transverse multiple fracture system are simulated, meanwhile the stress shadow effects and their influences on the propagation and proppant placement of the second fracture are investigated. According to the results, the following conclusions are discerned: (1 most proppants are located in the lower part of the reservoir, even below the perforation; (2 the stress shadow effects are time-dependent and proppant dominated; (3 the stress shadow effects affect the fracture propagation and the proppant placement of the second fracture, and also the fracture conductivity of the first fracture; (4 the time-dependent stress shadow effects can be divided into four phases, fracture enlargement, closure without proppant contact, closure with proppant contact and full closure; and (5 the superposition effect of the stress shadow in a transverse multiple fracture system exists. According to the conclusions, some optimizations are recommended.
Barone, Vincenzo; Ratcliffe, Philip G.
Introduction. Purpose and status of the Italian Transversity Project / F. Bradamante -- Opening lecture. Transversity / M. Anselmino -- Experimental lectures. Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries from polarized and unpolarized hydrogen targets at HERMES / G. Schnell (for the HERMES Collaboration). Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from COMPASS data / I. Horn (for the COMPASS Collaboration). First measurement of interference fragmentation on a transversely polarized hydrogen target / P. B. van der Nat (for the HERMES Collaboration). Two-hadron asymmetries at the COMPASS experiment / A. Mielech (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Measurements of chiral-odd fragmentation functions at Belle / R. Seidl ... [et al.]. Lambda asymmetries / A. Ferrero (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Transverse spin at PHENIX: results and prospects / C. Aidala (for the PHENIX Collaboration). Transverse spin and RHIC / L. Bland. Studies of transverse spin effects at JLab / H. Avakian ... [et al.] (for the CLAS Collaboration). Neutron transversity at Jefferson Lab / J. P. Chen ... [et al.] (for the Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration). PAX: polarized antiproton experiments / M. Contalbrigo. Single and double spin N-N interactions at GSI / M. Maggiora (for the ASSIA Collaboration). Spin filtering in storage rings / N. N. Nikolaev & F. F. Pavlov -- Theory lectures. Single-spin asymmetries and transversity in QCD / S. J. Brodsky. The relativistic hydrogen atom: a theoretical laboratory for structure functions / X. Artru & K. Benhizia. GPD's and SSA's / M. Burkardt. Time reversal odd distribution functions in chiral models / A. Drago. Soffer bound and transverse spin densities from lattice QCD / M. Diehl ... [et al.]. Single-spin asymmetries and Qiu-Sterman effect(s) / A. Bacchetta. Sivers function: SIDIS data, fits and predictions / M. Anselmino ... [et al.]. Twist-3 effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering / M. Schlegel, K. Goeke & A. Metz. Quark and gluon Sivers functions / I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiyama, Yoshihiro
2011-01-01
A length-N spin chain with the √N(=v)th neighbor interaction is identical to a two-dimensional (d = 2) model under the screw-boundary (SB) condition. The SB condition provides a flexible scheme to construct a d ≥ 2 cluster from an arbitrary number of spins; the numerical diagonalization combined with the SB condition admits a potential applicability to a class of systems intractable with the quantum Monte Carlo method due to the negative-sign problem. However, the simulation results suffer from characteristic finite-size corrections inherent in SB. In order to suppress these corrections, we adjust the screw pitch v(N) so as to minimize the excitation gap for each N. This idea is adapted to the transverse-field Ising model on the triangular lattice with N ≤ 32 spins. As a demonstration, the correlation-length critical exponent ν is analyzed in some detail
Mendoza Mendoza, A; Solano Reina, E
1990-04-01
In this worn we introduce the alterations of the occlusion in the horizontal level or transversal problems, in which lateral crossed bites appear, either with or without a deviation of the medium line, underlying its differential diagnostic and guide lines treatment through several different clinic cases.
Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt
2016-01-01
Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, M.J.; Motaghedi, B.; Robitaille, Y.
1980-01-01
Transverse myelitis is a known complication of radiation treatment for carcinoma of the heat and neck. In a five year period, 1970 to 1975, 120 patients with head and neck cancer received radiation as part of their treatment in this hospital. A review of the records of these patients showed only two cases of myelitis, an incidence of about 2%. This paper reviews the clinical syndrome; treatment and preventive measures are discussed and a survey of the literature is presented
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Shunmugesh
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites are widely used in aerospace industry in lieu of its high strength to weight ratio. This study is an attempt to evaluate the machinability of Bi-Directional Carbon Fiber–Epoxy composite and optimize the process parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and drill tool material. Machining trials were carried using drill bits made of high speed steel, TiN and TiAlN at different cutting speeds and feed rates. Output parameters of thrust force and torque were monitored using Kistler multicomponent dynamometer 9257B and vibrations occurring during machining normal to the work surface were measured by a vibration sensor (Dytran 3055B. Linear regression analysis was carried out by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM, to correlate the input and output parameters in drilling of the composite in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The optimization of process parameters were attempted using Genetic Algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization–Gravitational Search Algorithm (PSO–GSA techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welsch, Dominic Markus
2010-03-10
The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is planned as a major extension to the present facility of the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The HESR will provide antiprotons in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c for the internal target experiment PANDA. The demanding requirements of PANDA in terms of beam quality and luminosity together with a limited production rate of antiprotons call for a long beam life time and a minimum of beam loss. Therefore, an effective closed orbit correction and a sufficiently large dynamic aperture of the HESR are crucial. With this thesis I present my work on both of these topics. The expected misalignments of beam guiding magnets have been estimated and used to simulate the closed orbit in the HESR. A closed orbit correction scheme has been developed for different ion optical settings of the HESR and numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scheme. The proposed closed orbit correction method which uses the orbit response matrix has been benchmarked at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. A chromaticity correction scheme for the HESR consisting of sextupole magnets has been developed to reduce tune spread and thus to minimize the emittance growth caused by betatron resonances. The chromaticity correction scheme has been optimized through dynamic aperture calculations. The estimated field errors of the HESR dipole and quadrupole magnets have been included in the non-linear beam dynamics studies. Investigations concerning their optimization have been carried out. The ion optical settings of the HESR have been improved using dynamic aperture calculations and the technique of frequency map analysis. The related diffusion coefficient was also used to predict long-term stability based on short-term particle tracking. With a reasonable reduction of the quadrupole magnets field errors and a
Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization
S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)
2009-01-01
htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be
Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization
S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)
2008-01-01
htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtao@buaa.edu.cn; Li, Yang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng [School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)
2014-12-15
The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} is achieved with gradiometer arrangement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng
2014-01-01
The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz 1/2 is achieved with gradiometer arrangement
Cornelis, K; Sladen, Jonathan P H; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division
1997-01-01
The aim of these MD's was to set up the transverse feedback for damping in both planes, and to test the charge normalization and gain compensation. The latter is intended to reduce the gain of the feedback for small oscillations in order to improve compatibility with the Q loop. All work was done with 2 x 4 bunches, family A. In the first two MD's the feedback was set up for damping in both planes with charge normalization. In the third, gain compensation was commissioned in the vertical plane with Qv' set to -2. It was found either to increase the level of the m = 0 mode or to leave it unchanged. Under these conditions 6mA total current was accumulated.
Höfle, W
2012-01-01
Plans for the operation of the transverse damper in 2012 at bunch spacings of 50 ns and 25 ns and at increased collision energy will be reviewed. The increased energy and the experience that will be gained at 25 ns are very important to define any upgrades that may be necessary for the high luminosity operation at 7 TeV after LS1. This means that the available parameter space must be probed in 2012 which in particular includes a higher feedback gain in the ramp and with colliding beams. Limits for the feedback gain for the current system will be outlined. The potential benefits of running with higher feedback gain for a better emittance preservation will be stressed and weighed against the operational difficulties and the potential impact of noise in the damper system. A plan for re-commissiong at 50 ns and 25 ns for operation at 4 TeV will be outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joly, Jean-François; Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa
2012-01-01
We present two major optimizations for the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search THAT has been successfully applied to study a number of semiconducting and metallic systems. K-ART is parallelized in a non-trivial way: A master process uses several worker processes to perform independent event searches for possible events, while all bookkeeping and the actual simulation is performed by the master process. Depending on the complexity of the system studied, the parallelization scales well for tens to more than one hundred processes. For dealing with large systems, we present a near order 1 implementation. Techniques such as Verlet lists, cell decomposition and partial force calculations are implemented, and the CPU time per time step scales sublinearly with the number of particles, providing an efficient use of computational resources.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Veverka, Pavel; Kaman, Ondřej; Kačenka, Michal; Herynek, V.; Veverka, Miroslav; Šantavá, Eva; Lukeš, I.; Jirák, Zdeněk
2015-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-11 ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/521; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0807 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : manganese perovskites * manganite * magnetic nanoparticles * magnetic resonance imaging * relaxivity * core –shell particles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2015
Zhao, Yunlong; Feng, Jiangang; Liu, Xue; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Lifen; Shi, Changwei; Huang, Lei; Feng, Xi; Chen, Xiyuan; Xu, Lin; Yan, Mengyu; Zhang, Qingjie; Bai, Xuedong; Wu, Hengan; Mai, Liqiang
2014-08-01
High-energy lithium battery materials based on conversion/alloying reactions have tremendous potential applications in new generation energy storage devices. However, these applications are limited by inherent large volume variations and sluggish kinetics. Here we report a self-adaptive strain-relaxed electrode through crumpling of graphene to serve as high-stretchy protective shells on metal framework, to overcome these limitations. The graphene sheets are self-assembled and deeply crumpled into pinecone-like structure through a contraction-strain-driven crumpling method. The as-prepared electrode exhibits high specific capacity (2,165 mAh g-1), fast charge-discharge rate (20 A g-1) with no capacity fading in 1,000 cycles. This kind of crumpled graphene has self-adaptive behaviour of spontaneous unfolding-folding synchronized with cyclic expansion-contraction volumetric variation of core materials, which can release strain and maintain good electric contact simultaneously. It is expected that such findings will facilitate the applications of crumpled graphene and the self-adaptive materials.
Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Llamas-López, Pedro J; Izquierdo-Rico, M José; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; Matás, Carmen; Gardón, Juan C; García-Vázquez, Francisco A
2017-03-01
Post-cervical (pC) artificial insemination (AI) has been successfully developed for application in multiparous sows, although it has proved problematic in gilts. This study analyzes the use of pC-AI in gilts by two experiments. In the first experiment, the efficiency of pC-AI in gilts was evaluated using a multi-ring multiparous catheter (MpC), which led to 23.1% of the gilts being successfully inseminated. In gilts where insemination was not possible using an MpC, two alternatives were applied before a second attempt at insemination: 1) Vetrabutin Chlorhydrate (VC) was intramuscularly injected in order to relax the cervix; or 2) Warm extender (WE) was deposited in the cervix to modify the cervical muscle dynamics. After the application of these treatments, the success rates achieved with the MpC were 34.2% and 23.8% for VC and WE, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in the reproductive parameters measured [farrowing (%), litter size and fecundity index] between the use of MpC, or the MpC combined with VC or WE, compared with gilts inseminated by cervical AI (control group). In the second experiment, new catheters based on the anatomical characteristics of gilts (GpC) were used, and the rate of successful pC-AI application were compared (experiment 2a): a) MpC: control; b) GpC1: multi-ring catheter of Ø 16 mm and inner cannula of Ø 3.5 mm; c) GpC2: a multi-ring catheter of Ø with an inner cannula of Ø 2.5 mm. The highest rate of successful cannula penetration was reached in the GpC2 group (60.3%) followed by GpC1 (37.0%) and MpC (19.6%) (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the above mentioned reproductive parameters using the three catheters compared with cervical AI method (control group). Moreover, prior cervical AI did not improve subsequent pC-AI application 24 h later (experiment 2b). In conclusion, Vetrabutin Chlorhydrate, warm extender or the new catheters can be considered as useful tools for improving the success
Powell, I
2000-05-01
I describe a practical method for facilitating the construction of a complex optical arrangement that was extremely sensitive to manufacturing defects. I discuss dealing with the actual tolerancing process employed and outline the reverse optimization technique adopted to take the necessary corrective action with regard to the lens to yield the performance specified. The optical design to which the techniques are addressed is that of a high-performance color-corrected scanner lens, capable of resolving 200 line pairs/mm over a 10-mm(2) object.
The effects of some parameters on the calculated 1H NMR relaxation times of cell water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koivula, A.; Suominen, K.; Kiviniitty, K.
1976-01-01
The effect of some parameters on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times is calculated and a comparison between the calculated relaxation times with the results of different measurements is made. (M.S.)
Seo, Hyungseok; Kim, Eugene; Jung, Haesun; Lim, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin Wook; Park, Chul-Kee; Se, Young-Bem; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won; Park, Hee-Pyoung
2017-06-01
OBJECTIVE Mannitol is used intraoperatively to induce brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection. The authors sought to determine the dose of mannitol that provides adequate brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects. METHODS A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive mannitol at 0.25 g/kg (Group A), 0.5 g/kg (Group B), 1.0 g/kg (Group C), and 1.5 g/kg (Group D). The degree of brain relaxation was classified according to a 4-point scale (1, bulging; 2, firm; 3, adequate; and 4, perfectly relaxed) by neurosurgeons; Classes 3 and 4 were considered to indicate satisfactory brain relaxation. The osmolality gap (OG) and serum electrolytes were measured before and after mannitol administration. RESULTS The brain relaxation score showed an increasing trend in patients receiving higher doses of mannitol (p = 0.005). The incidence of satisfactory brain relaxation was higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (67.7% and 64.5% vs 32.2%, p = 0.011 and 0.022, respectively). The incidence of OG greater than 10 mOsm/kg was also higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (100.0% in both groups vs 77.4%, p = 0.011 for both). The incidence of moderate hyponatremia (125 mmol/L ≤ Na + 5.0 mmol/L) was observed in 12.9% of patients in Group D only. CONCLUSIONS The higher doses of mannitol provided better brain relaxation but were associated with more adverse effects. Considering the balance between the benefits and risks of mannitol, the authors suggest the use of 1.0 g/kg of intraoperative mannitol for satisfactory brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02168075 ( clinicaltrials.gov ).
Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti
2016-11-01
Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.
Khlopin, Dmitry
2011-01-01
An infinite-horizon optimal control problem with a free right endpoint is considered. In this paper we proved that Lyapunov stability of the adjoint variable implying the vanishing of the adjoint variable at infinity along optimal solution.
Esclassan, Rémi; Rumerio, Anaïs; Monsarrat, Paul; Combadazou, Jean Claude; Champion, Jean; Destruhaut, Florent; Ghrenassia, Christophe
2017-05-01
The primary aim of this work was to determine the duration of ultra-low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) application necessary to achieve sufficient relaxation of the masticatory muscles. A secondary aim was to analyze the influence of stimulation on muscle relaxation in pathological subjects and determine whether ULF-TENS has a noteworthy impact on muscle relaxation. Sixteen adult subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and muscle pain and a group of four control subjects were included in this study. ULF-TENS was applied, and muscular activities of the masseter, temporal, and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) were recorded for 60 min. Significant relaxation was achieved in the TMD group from 20, 40, and 60 min for the temporal, masseter, and SCM muscles (p TENS application would last 40 min to obtain sufficient muscle relaxation both in patients with masticatory system disorders and healthy subjects, a time constraint that is consistent with everyday clinical practice.
[Autocontrol of muscle relaxation with vecuronium].
Sibilla, C; Zatelli, R; Marchi, M; Zago, M
1990-01-01
The optimal conditions for maintaining desired levels of muscle relaxation with vecuronium are obtained by means of the continuous infusion (I.V.) technique. A frequent correction of the infusion flow is required, since it is impossible to predict the exact amount for the muscle relaxant in single case. In order to overcome such limits the authors propose a very feasible infusion system for the self-control of muscle relaxation; furthermore they positively consider its possible daily clinical application.
... Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...
Spin relaxation in disordered media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzheparov, F S
2011-01-01
A review is given on theoretical grounds and typical experimental appearances of spin dynamics and relaxation in solids containing randomly distributed nuclear and/or electronic spins. Brief content is as follows. Disordered and magnetically diluted systems. General outlines of the spin transport theory. Random walks in disordered systems (RWDS). Observable values in phase spin relaxation, free induction decay (FID). Interrelation of longitudinal and transversal relaxation related to dynamics of occupancies and phases. Occupation number representation for equations of motion. Continuum media approximation and inapplicability of moment expansions. Long-range transitions vs percolation theory. Concentration expansion as a general constructive basis for analytical methods. Scaling properties of propagators. Singular point. Dynamical and kinematical memory in RWDS. Ways of regrouping of concentration expansions. CTRW and semi-phenomenology. Coherent medium approximation for nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities. Combining of memory functions and cumulant expansions for calculation of FID. Path integral representations for RWDS. Numerical simulations of RWDS. Spin dynamics in magnetically diluted systems with low Zeeman and medium low dipole temperatures. Cluster expansions, regularization of dipole interactions and spectral dynamics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij
simulations and analytical theory to describe this effect and created a program for fast, realistic simulation of transverse relaxation in perfused tissues. We performed simulations for gray matter and white matter. The predicted values of the relaxivity are in agreement with the relaxivity found in animal...
Mukhopadhyay, Somparna; Hazra, Lakshminarayan
2015-11-01
Resolution capability of an optical imaging system can be enhanced by reducing the width of the central lobe of the point spread function. Attempts to achieve the same by pupil plane filtering give rise to a concomitant increase in sidelobe intensity. The mutual exclusivity between these two objectives may be considered as a multiobjective optimization problem that does not have a unique solution; rather, a class of trade-off solutions called Pareto optimal solutions may be generated. Pareto fronts in the synthesis of lossless phase-only pupil plane filters to achieve superresolution with prespecified lower limits for the Strehl ratio are explored by using the particle swarm optimization technique.
Spin relaxation of iron in mixed state hemoproteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wajnberg, E.; Kalinowski, H.J.; Bemski, G.; Helman, J.S.
1984-01-01
In pure states hemoproteins the relaxation of iron depends on its spin state. It is found that in both mixed state met-hemoglobin and met-myoglobin, the low and high spin states relax through an Orbach-like process. Also, very short (approx. 1 ns) and temperature independent transverse relaxation times T 2 were estimated. This peculiar behaviour of the relaxation may result from the unusual electronic structure of mixed state hemoproteins that allows thermal equilibrium and interconversion of the spin states. (Author) [pt
Granato, Luigi; Vander Elst, Luce; Henoumont, Celine; Muller, Robert N; Laurent, Sophie
2018-02-01
Thanks to the understanding of the relationships between the residence lifetime τ M of the coordinated water molecules to macrocyclic Gd-complexes and the rotational mobility τ R of these structures, and according to the theory for paramagnetic relaxation, it is now possible to design macromolecular contrast agents with enhanced relaxivities by optimizing these two parameters through ligand structural modification. We succeeded in accelerating the water exchange rate by inducing steric compression around the water binding site, and by removing the amide function from the DOTA-AA ligand [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid mono(p-aminoanilide)] (L) previously designed. This new ligand 10[2(1-oxo-1-p-propylthioureidophenylpropyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodecane-1,4,7-tetraacetic acid (L 1 ) was then covalently conjugated to API [O-(aminopropyl)inulin] to get the complex API-(GdL 1 )x with intent to slow down the rotational correlation time (τ R ) of the macromolecular complex. The evaluation of the longitudinal relaxivity at different magnetic fields and the study of the 17 O-NMR at variable temperature of the low-molecular-weight compound (GdL 1 ) showed a slight decrease of the τ M value (τM310 = 331 ns vs. τM310 = 450 ns for the GdL complex). Consequently to the increase of the size of the API-(GdL 1 )x complex, the rotational correlation time becomes about 360 times longer compared to the monomeric GdL 1 complex (τ R = 33,700 ps), which results in an enhanced proton relaxivity. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.
Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik
2012-01-01
The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....
Wilson, Edmund J N
2006-01-01
This contribution describes the transverse dynamics of particles in a synchrotron. It builds on other contributions to the General Accelerator School for definitions of transport matrices and lattice functions. After a discussion of the conservation laws which govern emittance, the effects of closed orbit distortion and other field errors are treated. A number of practical methods of measuring the transverse behaviour of particles are outlined.
Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G
2006-01-01
The concentration of MRI tracers cannot be measured directly by MRI and is commonly evaluated indirectly using their relaxation effect. This study develops a comprehensive theoretical model to describe the transverse relaxation in perfused tissue caused by intravascular tracers. The model takes...... into account a number of individual compartments. The signal dephasing is simulated in a semianalytical way by embedding Monte Carlo simulations in the framework of analytical theory. This approach yields a tool for fast, realistic simulation of the change in the transverse relaxation. The results indicate...... with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size...
Hydrodynamic relaxations in dissipative particle dynamics
Hansen, J. S.; Greenfield, Michael L.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2018-01-01
This paper studies the dynamics of relaxation phenomena in the standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model [R. D. Groot and P. B. Warren, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)]. Using fluctuating hydrodynamics as the framework of the investigation, we focus on the collective transverse and longitudinal dynamics. It is shown that classical hydrodynamic theory predicts the transverse dynamics at relatively low temperatures very well when compared to simulation data; however, the theory predictions are, on the same length scale, less accurate for higher temperatures. The agreement with hydrodynamics depends on the definition of the viscosity, and here we find that the transverse dynamics are independent of the dissipative and random shear force contributions to the stress. For high temperatures, the spectrum for the longitudinal dynamics is dominated by the Brillouin peak for large length scales and the relaxation is therefore governed by sound wave propagation and is athermal. This contrasts the results at lower temperatures and small length scale, where the thermal process is clearly present in the spectra. The DPD model, at least qualitatively, re-captures the underlying hydrodynamical mechanisms, and quantitative agreement is excellent at intermediate temperatures for the transverse dynamics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weininger, Ulrich; Brath, Ulrika; Modig, Kristofer
2014-01-01
Protein dynamics on the microsecond-millisecond time scales often play a critical role in biological function. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments are powerful approaches for investigating biologically relevant dynamics with site-specific resolution, as shown by a growing number of publications...... on enzyme catalysis, protein folding, ligand binding, and allostery. To date, the majority of studies has probed the backbone amides or side-chain methyl groups, while experiments targeting other sites have been used more sparingly. Aromatic side chains are useful probes of protein dynamics, because...... they are over-represented in protein binding interfaces, have important catalytic roles in enzymes, and form a sizable part of the protein interior. Here we present an off-resonance R 1ρ experiment for measuring microsecond to millisecond conformational exchange of aromatic side chains in selectively (13)C...
Evaluation of the photocathode laser transverse distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saisa-ard, Chaipattana [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand); Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Vashchenko, Grygorii [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)
2016-07-01
Many years experience of electron source developments at the photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) show that the photocathode laser is the one of major tools to produce high brightness electron beams. The transverse distribution of the laser on the photocathode plays a significant role in the high brightness photo injector optimization. However, the imperfections in the laser beam profile according to the deviation from a radially homogeneous profile directly result in transversely distorted charged particle distributions. This includes inhomogeneous core as well as transverse halo which is due to not sharp edges around the core. The laser transverse distribution is measured at PITZ using a virtual cathode:this is a CCD camera located at the position which is optically equivalent to the photocathode position (so called virtual cathode). An algorithm is developed for the evaluation of the experimentally obtained transverse profiles. It fits a flat-top or an inhomogeneous rotational symmetric core with exponentially decaying tails to an experimental distribution. The MATLAB script with implemented algorithm is applied to a set of measured transverse laser distributions. Results of the analysis will be presented.
Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.
2000-09-01
In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artru, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)
2002-07-01
The aim of this introduction, which is far from exhaustive, was to give an overview on the richness of transverse spin quantity and its differences in comparison with helicity. From the experimental point of view, the physics of quark transversity in deep inelastic reaction is still practically unexplored. This situation will certainly change rapidly, with planned experiments at DESY (HERMES), Brookhaven (RHIC) and CERN (COMPAS), but there is a long way before knowing the transversity distribution, {delta}q(x), as precisely as the helicity distribution, {delta}q(x), now. Unless polarized anti-proton beams become feasible, experiments probing quark transversity will rely mainly on 'quark polarimeters', like {lambda}'s or the Collins effect. These polarimeters will have to be calibrated at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The Collins polarimeter will by the way allow the flavor decomposition of {delta}q(x), using mesons of various charging and strangeness. Quark polarimetry is by itself an interesting topic of non-perturbative QCD, and may teach us something about the breaking of chiral symmetry. Let us recall that, if chiral symmetry were unbroken, transversity would be undefined. The transversity physics program is not at all a 'remake' of the helicity one. Helicity and transversity probe rather different aspects of the hadron structure. Differences between {delta}q(x) and {delta}q(x) will reveal non-relativistic effects in the baryon wave function. Also {delta}q(x) does not couples to gluon distributions, thus it is free from anomaly. In that respect it is a more clean probe than {delta}q(x). In fact, the combination of helicity and transversity measurements will perhaps be the most interesting. Polarized parton densities taking only the helicity degree of freedom are almost 'classical'. Quantum aspects of spin correlations, like violation of Bell's inequality, can be found only when varying the spin quantification axis
Transverse oscillation vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bradway, David; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann
2015-01-01
This work presents the development and first results of in vivo transthoracic cardiac imaging using an implementation of Vector Flow Imaging (VFI) via the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method on a phased-array transducer. Optimal selection of the lateral wavelength of the transversely-oscillating r...
Operative Method for Transverse Colon Carcinoma: Transverse Colectomy Versus Extended Colectomy.
Chong, Choon Seng; Huh, Jung Wook; Oh, Bo Young; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong
2016-07-01
The type of surgery performed for primary transverse colon cancer varies based on tumor characteristics and surgeon perspective. The optimal oncological outcome following different surgical options has not been clearly established, and transverse colectomy has shown oncological equivalence only in small cohort studies. Our aim was to compare long-term oncological outcomes after transverse colectomy versus extended resection for transverse colon cancer. This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. All patients treated for transverse colon cancer at the Samsung Medical Center between 1995 and 2013 were included. Oncological outcomes were compared between 2 groups of patients: a transverse colectomy group and an extended colectomy group (which included extended right hemicolectomy and left hemicolectomy). A total of 1066 patients were included, of whom 750 (70.4%) underwent extended right hemicolectomy, 127 (11.9%) underwent transverse colectomy, and 189 (17.7%) underwent left hemicolectomy. According to univariate analysis, surgical approach, histological type, tumor morphology, cancer T and N stage, cancer size, and lymphovascular invasion were significant factors contributing to disease-free survival (DFS). However, as seen in multivariate analysis, only node-positive disease (HR = 2.035 (1.188-3.484)), tumors with ulcerative morphology (HR = 3.643 (1.132-11.725)), and the presence of vascular invasion (HR = 2.569 (1.455-4.538)) were significant factors for DFS. Further analysis with a propensity-matched cohort between the transverse and extended colectomy groups demonstrated no significant differences in DFS and overall survival. This study was limited because it was performed at a single institution and it was retrospective in nature. In terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes, transverse colectomy and extended colectomy did not differ despite a shorter specimen length and
TWITCH PARAMETERS IN TRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL BICEPS BRACHII RESPONSE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boštjan Šimunič
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Assessment of the contractile properties of skeletal muscles is continuing to be an important issue and a difficult task methodologically. Longitudinal direction of skeletal muscle contraction blurs intrinsic muscle belly contractile properties with many factors. This study evaluates and explains contractile properties such as: delay time (Td, contraction time (Tc, half relaxation time (Tr and maximal amplitude (Dm extracted from twitch transversal response and compare them with torque response. In fifteen healthy males (age 23.7 ± 3.4 years isometric twitch transversal and torque responses were simultaneously recorded during graded electrically elicited contractions in the biceps brachii muscle. The amplitude of electrical stimulation was increased in 5 mA steps from a threshold up to a maximal response. The muscles’ belly transversal response was measured by a high precision mechanical displacement sensor while elbow joint torque was calculated from force readings. Results indicate a parabolic relation between the transversal displacement and the torque Dm. A significantly shorter Tc was found in transversal response without being correlated to torque Tc (r = -0.12; > 0.05. A significant correlation was found between torque Tc and the time occurrence of the second peak in the transversal response (r = 0.83; < 0.001. Electrical stimulation amplitude dependant variation of the Tc was notably different in transversal than in torque response. Td was similar at submaximal and maximal responses but larger in transversal at just above threshold contractions. Tr has a similar linear trend in both responses, however, the magnitude and the slope are much larger in the transversal response. We could conclude that different mechanisms affect longitudinal and transversal twitch skeletal muscle deformations. Contractile properties extracted from the transversal response enable alternative insights into skeletal muscle contraction mechanics.
Mechanical relaxation in glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiki, Y.
2004-01-01
The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other
Noninterceptive transverse beam diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Teel, L.E. Jr.; Gilpatrick, J.D.
1981-01-01
The transverse emittance properties of a high-current linear accelerator may be measured by using TV cameras sensitive to the visible radiation emitted following beam interactions with residual gas. This paper describes the TV system being used to measure emittances for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project
Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar
2004-01-01
. When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....
Three-way modelling of NMR relaxation profiles from thawed cod muscle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Guldager, Helle Skov; Jørgensen, Bo Munk
2002-01-01
Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution in cod stored at -20°C or -30°C for up to 12 months and subsequently from 0 to 21 days in modified atmosphere at +2°C. The relaxation profiles were decomposed by parallel factor......, but not the relaxation times, depended on the frozen storage temperature and on the chilled storage period....
Large transverse momentum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1977-09-01
It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references
Transverse tomography and radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leer, J.W.H.
1982-01-01
This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammeltoft, Tine
2008-01-01
In this article, I explore how prenatal screening is imbricated within state agendas, aspirations, and imaginings in contemporary Vietnam. In an effort to develop new ethnographic tropes for understanding the formation called "the state," I argue for a phenomenological take that emphasizes its...... affective and embodied aspects. Seeing the anomalous fetus as a "figure of transversality," as a critical focus for powerful imaginings and desires, I show how state–society relations in Vietnam are suffused by visceral affectivity and moral engagement. In the realm of reproduction, intense sentiments...... of anxiety, dread, desire, ambition, and hope tie together the state and its citizens, animating individual aspirations as well as national population policies....
Relaxation Techniques for Health
... combined with guided imagery and breathing exercises. Self-Hypnosis In self-hypnosis programs, people are taught to produce the relaxation ... have shown that women who were taught self-hypnosis have a decreased need for pain medicine during ...
On convex relaxation of graph isomorphism
Aflalo, Yonathan; Bronstein, Alexander; Kimmel, Ron
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of exact and inexact matching of weighted undirected graphs, in which a bijective correspondence is sought to minimize a quadratic weight disagreement. This computationally challenging problem is often relaxed as a convex quadratic program, in which the space of permutations is replaced by the space of doubly stochastic matrices. However, the applicability of such a relaxation is poorly understood. We define a broad class of friendly graphs characterized by an easily verifiable spectral property. We prove that for friendly graphs, the convex relaxation is guaranteed to find the exact isomorphism or certify its inexistence. This result is further extended to approximately isomorphic graphs, for which we develop an explicit bound on the amount of weight disagreement under which the relaxation is guaranteed to find the globally optimal approximate isomorphism. We also show that in many cases, the graph matching problem can be further harmlessly relaxed to a convex quadratic program with only n separable linear equality constraints, which is substantially more efficient than the standard relaxation involving 2n equality and n2 inequality constraints. Finally, we show that our results are still valid for unfriendly graphs if additional information in the form of seeds or attributes is allowed, with the latter satisfying an easy to verify spectral characteristic. PMID:25713342
Pearce, Charles
2009-01-01
Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.
Transverse section scanning mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doherty, E.J.
1978-01-01
Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)
3D Models of a Transversal Flux Inductor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
POPA Monica
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with 3D numerical models of transverse flux inductor with a flexible electromagnetic configuration developed in Flux3D software. The simplified 3D model is coupled with a simplex optimization algorithm in order to attain a maximum uniformity of the transversal profile of power developed within the metallic sheet. The complex 3D model is used for a thoroughly analysis of device.
Field dependence of the electron spin relaxation in quantum dots.
Calero, Carlos; Chudnovsky, E M; Garanin, D A
2005-10-14
The interaction of the electron spin with local elastic twists due to transverse phonons is studied. The universal dependence of the spin-relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field is obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid. The theory contains no unknown parameters and it can be easily tested in experiment. At high magnetic field it provides a parameter-free lower bound on the electron spin relaxation in quantum dots.
Relaxation in magnetic nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novak, M.A.; Folly, W.S.D.; Sinnecker, J.P.; Soriano, S.
2005-01-01
Nanostructured magnetic materials present a wide range of magnetic relaxation phenomena. One problem in studying nanomagnetic granular materials is the strong dependence of the relaxation with the anisotropy barrier which, even for systems with narrow size distributions, brings difficulties in the analysis of the experimental data. Molecular magnetism, with the chemists' bottom-up approach to build molecular nanostructures, provides this field with some beautiful model systems, well ordered crystals of single molecule magnets, single molecule chains, molecular magnetic multilayers and others novelties to appear. Most of these systems present slow relaxation and the study of these well-characterized nanomaterials may elucidate many features that are difficult to grasp in the non molecular materials
Spin Canting and Magnetic Relaxation Phenomena in Mn0.25Zn0.75Fe2O4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anhøj, T. A.; Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Thomsen, Benjamin
2003-01-01
affected by transverse relaxation at relatively low temperatures. A third group of 13-site ions has negligible canting at low temperatures and these ions are only slightly affected by relaxation below 60 K. At low temperatures the material can be described as a cluster spin glass. Above 60 K part...
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Congestion management utilizing concentric relaxation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Škokljev Ivan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In the market-oriented power system environment, congestion management is a novel term connoting the power system steady state security functions. A large number of transmission transactions are dispatched in the regional day-ahead market and traverse the network adding to the power flow loading of the grid elements. Congestion is defined as a network security limit violation prospective due to transactions. Congestion management is a set of measures aimed at solving the congestion problem. This paper devises the concentric relaxation assisted approach to open access transmission network congestion management. The DC load flow symbolic simulator generates line power transfer functions. Congestion management is a systematic procedure based on linear programming. The DC load flow symbolic simulator generates all constraints and the black-box optimization library function is used to solve the problem of congestion on a sample IEEE RTS power system.
Nonlinear fractional relaxation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use ε-expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when t → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when t → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
In the context of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the term relaxation indicates the process by which the magnetic atomic nuclei reach thermal equilibrium with the chaotic molecular environment. In NMR, this process can be very slow, requiring between a fraction of a second to many minutes, depending on the.
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...
THEORY OF RELAXATION PROCESSES IN FERROMAGNETIC INSULATORS
Contents: Simplified description of ferromagnetic relaxation Detailed treatment of magnons Relaxation frequency calculations Summary of relaxation processes in YIG Summary of experimental results for YIG
Dimension Reduction for Systems with Slow Relaxation
Venkataramani, Shankar C.; Venkataramani, Raman C.; Restrepo, Juan M.
2017-05-01
We develop reduced, stochastic models for high dimensional, dissipative dynamical systems that relax very slowly to equilibrium and can encode long term memory. We present a variety of empirical and first principles approaches for model reduction, and build a mathematical framework for analyzing the reduced models. We introduce the notions of universal and asymptotic filters to characterize `optimal' model reductions for sloppy linear models. We illustrate our methods by applying them to the practically important problem of modeling evaporation in oil spills.
A Comparison of Relaxation Strategies.
Matthews, Doris B.
Some researchers argue that all relaxation techniques produce a single relaxation response while others support a specific-effects hypothesis which suggests that progressive relaxation affects the musculoskeletal system and that guided imagery affects cognitive changes. Autogenics is considered a technique which is both somatic and cognitive. This…
Relaxation from particle production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2016-12-20
We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.
Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Transverse Relaxometry in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder
Gonenc, Atilla; Frazier, Jean A.; Crowley, David J.; Moore, Constance M.
2010-01-01
Objective: Transverse relaxation time (T2) imaging provides the opportunity to examine membrane fluidity, which can affect a number of cellular functions. The objective of the present work was to examine T2 abnormalities in children with unmodified DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorder (BD) in bilateral cingulate-paracingulate (CPC) white matter. Method: A…
Momentum constraint relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marronetti, Pedro
2006-01-01
Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly
Topology Synthesis of Structures Using Parameter Relaxation and Geometric Refinement
Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.
2007-01-01
Typically, structural topology optimization problems undergo relaxation of certain design parameters to allow the existence of intermediate variable optimum topologies. Relaxation permits the use of a variety of gradient-based search techniques and has been shown to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and eliminate mesh dependencies. This Technical Publication (TP) will demonstrate the application of relaxation to a control point discretization of the design workspace for the structural topology optimization process. The control point parameterization with subdivision has been offered as an alternative to the traditional method of discretized finite element design domain. The principle of relaxation demonstrates the increased utility of the control point parameterization. One of the significant results of the relaxation process offered in this TP is that direct manufacturability of the optimized design will be maintained without the need for designer intervention or translation. In addition, it will be shown that relaxation of certain parameters may extend the range of problems that can be addressed; e.g., in permitting limited out-of-plane motion to be included in a path generation problem.
Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua
2007-01-01
We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case
Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models
Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio
2015-07-01
We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.
Transverse thermopherotic MHD Oldroyd-B fluid with Newtonian heating
Mehmood, R.; Rana, S.; Nadeem, S.
2018-03-01
Hydromagnetic transverse flow of an Oldroyd-B type fluid with suspension of nanoparticles and Newtonian heating effects is conferred in this article. Relaxation and Retardation time effects are taken into consideration. Using suitable transformations physical problem is converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations which are tackled numerically via Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration scheme. Illustration of embedded constraints on flow characteristics are extracted through graphs. The physical response of velocity, temperature and concentration are investigated computationally. Momentum boundary layer thickness decreases but local heat and mass flux rises for Deborah number and Hartman number. The results provide interesting insights into certain applicable transport phenomena involving hydromagnetic rheological fluids.
Non-monotonic behaviour in relaxation dynamics of image restoration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozeki, Tomoko; Okada, Masato
2003-01-01
We have investigated the relaxation dynamics of image restoration through a Bayesian approach. The relaxation dynamics is much faster at zero temperature than at the Nishimori temperature where the pixel-wise error rate is minimized in equilibrium. At low temperature, we observed non-monotonic development of the overlap. We suggest that the optimal performance is realized through premature termination in the relaxation processes in the case of the infinite-range model. We also performed Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to clarify the underlying mechanism of non-trivial behaviour at low temperature by checking the local field distributions of each pixel
Variational formulation of relaxed and multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics
Dewar, R. L.; Yoshida, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hudson, S. R.
2015-12-01
> Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.
Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.
Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C
2004-01-01
This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol.
Transverse correlation: An efficient transverse flow estimator - initial results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Henze, Lasse; Kortbek, Jacob
2008-01-01
Color flow mapping has become an important clinical tool, for diagnosing a wide range of vascular diseases. Only the velocity component along the ultrasonic beam is estimated, so to find the actual blood velocity, the beam to flow angle has to be known. Because of the unpredictable nature...... for estimating the transverse velocity component. The method measures the transverse velocity component by estimating the transit time of the blood between two parallel lines beamformed in receive. The method has been investigated using simulations performed with Field II. Using 15 emissions per estimate...
Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse oscillat......Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse...... II. A virtual linear array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...
Tangarife, Walter; Tobioka, Kohsaku; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Volansky, Tomer
2018-02-01
The cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale has been proposed as a mechanism to address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. A field, the relaxion, rolls down its potential and, in doing so, scans the squared mass parameter of the Higgs, relaxing it to a parametrically small value. In this work, we promote the relaxion to an inflaton. We couple it to Abelian gauge bosons, thereby introducing the necessary dissipation mechanism which slows down the field in the last stages. We describe a novel reheating mechanism, which relies on the gauge-boson production leading to strong electro-magnetic fields, and proceeds via the vacuum production of electron-positron pairs through the Schwinger effect. We refer to this mechanism as Schwinger reheating. We discuss the cosmological dynamics of the model and the phenomenological constraints from CMB and other experiments. We find that a cutoff close to the Planck scale may be achieved. In its minimal form, the model does not generate sufficient curvature perturbations and additional ingredients, such as a curvaton field, are needed.
Relaxing music for anxiety control.
Elliott, Dave; Polman, Remco; McGregor, Richard
2011-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of relaxing music for anxiety control. Undergraduate students (N=84) were instructed to imagine themselves in an anxiety producing situation while listening to a selection of 30 music compositions. For each composition, level of relaxation, the factors that either enhanced or detracted from its relaxing potential and the emotional labels attached were assessed. Participants were also asked to state which music components (e.g., tempo, melody) were most conducive to relaxation. Additional information was obtained through the use of a focus group of 6 undergraduate music students. This paper presents details on the characteristics of relaxing-music for anxiety control and emotional labels attached to the relaxing compositions. Furthermore, an importance value has been attached to each of the music components under scrutiny, thus providing an indication of which music components should receive greatest attention when selecting music for anxiety control.
Measuring the relaxation time of the xenon atoms and the rubidium atoms
Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Qi-Yuan; Luo, Hui
2016-11-01
In a nuclear-magnetic-resonance gyroscope (NMRG), the polarization of nuclear spins and the detection of motional information are usually achieved by utilizing the atomic spins of alkali atoms. The parameters of the atomic spins are mainly evaluated by the relaxation time. Relaxation time is very important and can influence signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, start time, and other gyroscope parameters. Therefore, its accurate measurement is critical in the study of NMRG performance. In this study, we evaluate a variety of methods to measure the transverse and longitudinal relaxation times. First we examine the free-induction-decay method, which is the industry standard for measuring spin relaxation time. Second we investigate the improved free-induction-decay, fitting-ratio, and magnetic-resonance-broadening- fitting methods for measuring the transverse relaxation time, and the flipped polarization method for measuring the longitudinal relaxation time. By changing the experimental conditions, we obtain the longitudinal relaxation time using the flipped polarization method under a variety of conditions. Finally, by comparing these measurement methods, we propose the best measurement methods under different conditions.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids.
Hansen, J S
2013-09-01
This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave-vector-independent relaxation is also observed for highly packed systems. The transverse and longitudinal spin modes have, to a good approximation, identical relaxation, indicating that the longitudinal and transverse spin viscosities have same value. The relaxation is also shown to be isomorphic invariant. Finally, the effect of the coupling in the zero frequency and wave-vector limit is quantified by a characteristic length scale; if the system dimension is comparable to this length the coupling must be included into the fluid dynamical description. It is found that the length scale is independent of moment of inertia but dependent on the state point.
Khan, Muhammad Arsalan; Laakso, Hanne; Laidinen, Svetlana; Kettunen, Sanna; Heikura, Tommi; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Liimatainen, Timo
2018-02-01
Magnetic resonance rotating frame relaxation times are an alternative non-contrast agent choice for the diagnosis of chronic myocardial infarct. Fibrosis typically occurs in progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Fibrosis has been imaged in myocardial infarcted tissue using rotating frame relaxation times, which provides the possibility to follow up progressive cardiomyopathy without contrast agents. Mild and severe left ventricular hypertrophy were induced in mice by transverse aortic constriction, and the longitudinal rotating frame relaxation times (T 1ρ ) and relaxation along the fictitious field (T RAFF2 , T RAFF3 ) were measured at 5, 10, 24, 62 and 89 days after transverse aortic constriction in vivo. Myocardial fibrosis was verified using Masson's trichrome staining. Increases in the relative relaxation time differences of T 1ρ , together with T RAFF2 and T RAFF3 , between fibrotic and remote tissues over time were observed. Furthermore, T RAFF2 and T RAFF3 showed higher relaxation times overall in fibrotic tissue than T 1ρ . Relaxation time differences were highly correlated with an excess of histologically verified fibrosis. We found that T RAFF2 and T RAFF3 are more sensitive than T 1ρ to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related tissue changes and can serve as non-invasive diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging markers to follow up the mouse model of progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Smith, J C; Wedell, A B; Kolotylo, C J; Lewis, J E; Byers, K Y; Segin, C M
2000-06-01
ABC Relaxation Theory proposes 15 psychological relaxation-related states (R-States): Sleepiness, Disengagement, Physical Relaxation, Mental Quiet, Rested/Refreshed, At Ease/At Peace, Energized, Aware, Joy, Thankfulness and Love, Prayerfulness, Childlike Innocence, Awe and Wonder, Mystery, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. The present study summarizes the results of 13 separate factor analyses of immediate relaxation-related states, states associated with recalled relaxation activities, relaxation dispositions, and relaxation motivations on a combined sample of 1,904 individuals (group average ages ranged from 28-40 yr.). Four exploratory factor analyses of Smith Relaxation Inventories yielded 15 items that most consistently and exclusively load (generally at least .70) on six replicated factors. These items included happy, joyful, energized, rested, at peace, warm, limp, silent, quiet, dozing, drowsy, prayerful, mystery, distant, and indifferent. Subsequent factor analyses restricted to these items and specifying six factors were performed on 13 different data sets. Each yielded the same six-factor solution: Factor 1: Centered Positive Affect, Factor 2: Sleepiness, Factor 3: Disengagement, Factor 4: Physical Relaxation, Factor 5: Mental Quiet, and Factor 6: Spiritual. Implications for ABC Relaxation Theory are discussed.
Leijssen, Lieve G J; Dinaux, Anne M; Amri, Ramzi; Kunitake, Hiroko; Bordeianou, Liliana G; Berger, David L
2018-03-19
Although extended colectomy is often chosen for patients with transverse colon cancer, the optimal surgical approach for mid-transverse colon cancer has not been established. We identified patients who underwent a transverse (TC) or an extended colectomy (EC) for mid-transverse colon cancer between 2004 and 2014. To adjust for potential selection bias between the groups, a propensity score matching analysis was performed. A total of 103 patients were included, of whom 63% underwent EC (right 47%, left 17%) and 37% TC. EC patients tend to have worse short-term outcomes. Although fewer lymph nodes were harvested after TC, 5-year overall (OS) ad disease-free survival (DFS) was comparable between the groups. When comparing long-term outcomes stage-by-stage, worse OS and DFS were seen in stage-II. All stage-II patients died of a non-cancer-related cause and recurrence occurred in pT4 TC patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy. The propensity-matched cohort demonstrated similar postoperative morbidity, but more laparoscopic procedures in EC. Additionally, TC tumors were correlated with poorer histopathological features and disease recurrence was only seen after TC. Our study underlines the oncological safety of a transverse colectomy for mid-transverse colon cancer. Although TC tumors were associated with poorer histopathological features, survival rates were comparable.
Relaxation and Meditation with Music
ČAPKOVÁ, Jana
2011-01-01
The thesis introduces an importance of a mental hygiene and its chosen methods - relaxation and meditation with music. The theoretical part is focused on a description of the basic relaxation and meditation techniques and curative effects of music. It deals with a music therapy, its meaning, types, methods and history in terms of the importance of music healing relaxation effects on the mental, physical as well as spiritual health. The practical part includes a usage of these methods in pract...
Single transverse mode protein laser
Dogru, Itir Bakis; Min, Kyungtaek; Umar, Muhammad; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Begar, Efe; Conkar, Deniz; Firat Karalar, Elif Nur; Kim, Sunghwan; Nizamoglu, Sedat
2017-12-01
Here, we report a single transverse mode distributed feedback (DFB) protein laser. The gain medium that is composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein in a silk fibroin matrix yields a waveguiding gain layer on a DFB resonator. The thin TiO2 layer on the quartz grating improves optical feedback due to the increased effective refractive index. The protein laser shows a single transverse mode lasing at the wavelength of 520 nm with the threshold level of 92.1 μJ/ mm2.
Relaxation Techniques for Trauma.
Scotland-Coogan, Diane; Davis, Erin
2016-01-01
Physiological symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifest as increased arousal and reactivity seen as anger outburst, irritability, reckless behavior with no concern for consequences, hypervigilance, sleep disturbance, and problems with focus (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). In seeking the most beneficial treatment for PTSD, consideration must be given to the anxiety response. Relaxation techniques are shown to help address the physiological manifestations of prolonged stress. The techniques addressed by the authors in this article include mindfulness, deep breathing, yoga, and meditation. By utilizing these techniques traditional therapies can be complemented. In addition, those who are averse to the traditional evidence-based practices or for those who have tried traditional therapies without success; these alternative interventions may assist in lessening physiological manifestations of PTSD. Future research studies assessing the benefits of these treatment modalities are warranted to provide empirical evidence to support the efficacy of these treatments.
Transverse permeability of woven fabrics
Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko; Loendersloot, Richard; van den Berg, S.
2008-01-01
The transverse permeability is an essential input in describing the consolidation process of CETEX® laminates. A two-dimensional, finite difference based, Stokes flow solver has been developed to determine the mesoscopic permeability of arbitrary fabric structures. The use of a multigrid solver
Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery
Thrampoulidis, Christos
2016-06-24
We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.
Transverse Matching Techniques for the SNS Linac
Jeon Dong Oh; Danilov, Viatcheslav V
2005-01-01
It is crucial to minimize beam loss and machine activation by obtaining optimal transverse matching for a high-intensity linear accelerator such as the Spallation Neutron Source linac. For matching the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL), there are four wire-scanners installed in series in CCL module 1 as proposed by the author.* A series of measurements was conducted to minimize envelope breathing and the results are presented here. As an independent approach, Chu et al is developing an application based on another technique by estimating rms emittance using the wire scanner profile data.** For matching the Medium Energy Beam Transport Line to the DTL, a technique of minimizing rms emittance was used and emittance data show that tail is minimized as well.
Numerical investigation of the transverse instability on the radiation-pressure-driven foil.
Wang, W Q; Yin, Y; Yu, T P; Xu, H; Zou, D B; Shao, F Q
2015-12-01
The development of transverse instability in the radiation-pressure-acceleration dominant laser-foil interaction is numerically examined by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When a plane laser impinges on a foil with modulated surface, the transverse instability is incited, and periodic perturbations of the proton density develop. The growth rate of the transverse instability is numerically diagnosed. It is found that the linear growth of the transverse instability lasts only a few laser periods, then the instability gets saturated. In order to optimize the modulation wavelength of the target, a method of information entropy is put forward to describe the chaos degree of the transverse instability. With appropriate modulation, the transverse instability shows a low chaos degree, and a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam is produced.
Biomolecules: Fluctuations and relaxations
Parak, F.; Ostermann, A.; Gassmann, A.; Scherk, C.; Chong, S.-H.; Kidera, A.; Go, N.
1999-10-01
The normal-mode refinement of X-ray crystallographic data opened a new possibility to analyze the mean-square displacements in a protein molecule. A comparison of the X-ray structure of myoglobin at several temperatures with Mössbauer data is performed. In the low-temperature regime below 180 K the iron mean-square displacements obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy are in good agreement with a normal-mode analysis. The X-ray mean-square displacements at the position of the iron, after the motion originated from the external degrees of freedom are subtracted, have practically the same temperature dependence as those from Mössbauer spectroscopy. The difference between the X-ray mean-square displacements and those predicted by normal-mode analysis measures the distribution of molecules into conformational substates. Above 180 K the Mössbauer effect indicates fluctuations between conformational substates. The relaxation from a Fe(III) conformation to a Fe(II) conformation is shown for superoxide dismutase of Propionibacterium shermanii.
Introduction to Transverse Beam Dynamics
Holzer, B.J.
2014-01-01
In this chapter we give an introduction to the transverse dynamics of the particles in a synchrotron or storage ring. The emphasis is more on qualitative understanding rather than on mathematical correctness, and a number of simulations are used to demonstrate the physical behaviour of the particles. Starting from the basic principles of how to design the geometry of the ring, we review the transverse motion of the particles, motivate the equation of motion, and show the solutions for typical storage ring elements. Following the usual treatment in the literature, we present a second way to describe the particle beam, using the concept of the emittance of the particle ensemble and the beta function, which reflects the overall focusing properties of the ring. The adiabatic shrinking due to Liouville's theorem is discussed as well as dispersive effects in the most simple case.
Transversal Lines of the Debates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yolanda Onghena
1998-12-01
Full Text Available The Transversal Lines of the Debates gathers for publication the presentations of the scholars invited to the seminar. In the papers, Yolanda Onghena observes that the evolution from the cultural to the inter-cultural travels along four axes: the relations between cultureand society; the processes of change within identity-based dynamics; the representations of the Other; and, interculturality. Throughout the presentations and subsequent debates, whenever the different participants referred to aspects of the cultural identity problematic--”angst”, “obsession”, “deficit”, manipulation”, and others, these same participants in the Transversal Lines of the Debates also showed that, in certain areas, an optimistic viewpoint is not out of the question.
TRANSVERSALITY AND INTERDISCIPLINARY DISCUSSION IN ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2010-07-19
Jul 19, 2010 ... e o lo g ic a l S tu d ie s http://www.hts.org.za. HTS. Original Research. A rtic le #. 9. 1. 0. (page number not for citation purposes). TRANSVERSALITY ... mentorship. An interview with a mentor and mentee was used as a local, real narrative in the process. In the final section, the author reflected upon his own ...
Relaxed states with plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avinash, K.; Taylor, J.B.
1991-01-01
In the theory of relaxation, a turbulent plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Attempts have been made by introducing a number of different constraints, to obtain relaxed states with plasma flow. It is shown that these alternative constraints depend on two self-helicities, one for ions, and one for electrons. However, whereas there are strong arguments for the effective invariance of the original magnetic-helicity, these arguments do not apply to the self-helicities. Consequently the existence of relaxed states with flow remains in doubt. (author)
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, S. N.
2005-03-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
Transversals in non-discrete groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The concept of 'topological right transversal' is introduced to study right transversals in topological groups. Given any right quasigroup S with a Tychonoff topol- ogy T , it is proved that there exists a Hausdorff topological group in which S can be embedded algebraically and topologically as a right transversal of a ...
Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: A study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belagola D Sathyanarayana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. Aims: We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. Results: One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80% predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%. Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39% and others included transverse nasal line (28%, strip (28%, ridge (4% and loop (1%. Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Conclusions: Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.
Transversity of quarks in a nucleon
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon's properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (inﬁnite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd ...
Convex Relaxation of Power Dispatch for Voltage Stability Improvement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard; Blanke, Mogens; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur
2015-01-01
dispatch is obtainable with enhancedmargins for voltage stability using a semidefinite relaxation ofthe optimal power flow problem, and that this problem canbe formulated as semidefinite program with a quasi-convexobjective. Numerical tests are performed on the IEEE-30 busand BPA systems. The feasibility...
Relaxation of the excited -(2-hydroxy benzylidene) aniline ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The geometry optimizations and the subsequent frequency calculations of the excited singlet electronic states of the various tautomeric forms of SA molecule were performed with the CIS level of theory. A detail theoretical investigation on the relaxation dynamics of the SA molecule has been presented. Possible explanation ...
Relaxation Pathways in Metallic Glasses
Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf
2017-11-01
At temperatures below the glass transition temperature, physical properties of metallic glasses, such as density, viscosity, electrical resistivity or enthalpy, slowly evolve with time. This is the process of physical aging that occurs among all types of glasses and leads to structural changes at the microscopic level. Even though the relaxation pathways are ruled by thermodynamics as the glass attempts to re-attain thermodynamic equilibrium, they are steered by sluggish kinetics at the microscopic level. Understanding the structural and dynamic pathways of the relaxing glassy state is still one of the grand challenges in materials physics. We review some of the recent experimental advances made in understanding the nature of the relaxation phenomenon in metallic glasses and its implications to the macroscopic and microscopic properties changes of the relaxing glass.
Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasnoperov E.P.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.
Relaxed states of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kucinski, M.Y.; Okano, V.
1993-01-01
The relaxed states of tokamak plasmas are studied. It is assumed that the plasma relaxes to a quasi-steady state which is characterized by a minimum entropy production rate, compatible with a number of prescribed conditions and pressure balance. A poloidal current arises naturally due to the anisotropic resistivity. The minimum entropy production theory is applied, assuming the pressure equilibrium as fundamental constraint on the final state. (L.C.J.A.)
Kargina, Yu. V.; Gongalsky, M. B.; Perepukhov, A. M.; Gippius, A. A.; Minnekhanov, A. A.; Zvereva, E. A.; Maximychev, A. V.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.
2018-03-01
Porous and nonporous silicon (Si) nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by ball-milling of electrochemically etched porous Si layers and crystalline Si wafers were studied as potential agents for enhancement of the proton spin relaxation in aqueous media. While nonporous Si NPs did not significantly influence the spin relaxation, the porous ones resulted in strong shortening of the transverse relaxation times. In order to investigate an effect of the electron spin density in porous Si NPs on the proton spin relaxation, we use thermal annealing of the NPs in vacuum or in air. The transverse relaxation rate of about 0.5 l/(g s) was achieved for microporous Si NPs, which were thermally annealing in vacuum to obtain the electron spin density of the order of 1017 g-1. The transverse relaxation rate was found to be almost proportional to the concentration of porous Si NPs in the range from 0.1 to 20 g/l. The obtained results are discussed in view of possible biomedical applications of Si NPs as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.
Relaxation processes in Aeolian transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Selmani Houssem
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate experimentally the relaxation process toward the equilibrium regime of saltation transport in the context of spatial inhomogeneous conditions. The relaxation length associated to this process is an important length in aeolian transport. This length stands for the distance needed for the particle flux to adapt to a change in flow conditions or in the boundary conditions at the bed. Predicting the value of this length under given conditions of transport remains an open and important issue. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to document the influence of the upstream particle flux and wind speed on the relaxation process toward the saturated transport state. In the absence of upstream particle flux, data show that the relaxation length is independent of the wind strength (except close to the threshold of transport. In contrast, in the case of a finite upstream flux, the relaxation length exhibits a clear increase with increasing air flow velocity. Moreover, in the latter the relaxation is clearly non-monotonic and presents an overshoot.
Compositional relaxed concurrency.
Batty, Mark
2017-10-13
There is a broad design space for concurrent computer processors: they can be optimized for low power, low latency or high throughput. This freedom to tune each processor design to its niche has led to an increasing diversity of machines, from powerful pocketable devices to those responsible for complex and critical tasks, such as car guidance systems. Given this context, academic concurrency research sounds notes of both caution and optimism. Caution because recent work has uncovered flaws in the way we explain the subtle memory behaviour of concurrent systems: specifications have been shown to be incorrect, leading to bugs throughout the many layers of the system. And optimism because our tools and methods for verifying the correctness of concurrent code-although built above an idealized model of concurrency-are becoming more mature. This paper looks at the way we specify the memory behaviour of concurrent systems and suggests a new direction. Currently, there is a siloed approach, with each processor and programming language specified separately in an incomparable way. But this does not match the structure of our programs, which may use multiple processors and languages together. Instead we propose a compositional approach, where program components carry with them a description of the sort of concurrency they rely on, and there is a mechanism for composing these. This will support not only components written for the multiple varied processors found in a modern system but also those that use idealized models of concurrency, providing a sound footing for mature verification techniques.This article is part of the themed issue 'Verified trustworthy software systems'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Noninterceptive transverse-beam measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Mottershead, C.T.
1981-01-01
Totally noninterceptive techniques for accurate measurement of transverse beam distributions are required for high-current continuous wave (cw) linacs, such as the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator. Sensors responding to visible radiation from beam interactions with residual gas and computer algorithms reconstructing spatial and phase space distributions have been implemented. This paper reports on early measurements of the beam from the injector of the prototype FMIT facility at Los Alamos. The first section indicates hardware setup and performance whereas the second section describes the data-processing software. The third section outlines the resultant measurements and further developments are discussed in the fourth section
Entropy and transverse section reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gullberg, G.T.
1976-01-01
A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections
Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect
Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan
2018-04-01
With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.
Relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods
Kang, Yimin; Fulton, Scott R.
1993-01-01
Two relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods are presented for elliptic equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The first scheme is a pointwise-preconditioned Richardson relaxation scheme and the second is a line relaxation scheme. The line relaxation scheme provides an efficient and relatively simple approach for solving two-dimensional spectral equations. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods are given.
NMR relaxation in systems with magnetic nanoparticles: a temperature study.
Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M; Hejasee, Rola H; Qadri, Shahnaz; Haik, Yousef
2014-03-01
To measure and model nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation enhancement due to the presence of gadolinium (Gd)-substituted Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) at different temperatures. Relaxation rates were measured at 1.5 T using fast spin echo (FSE) sequences in samples of agarose gel doped with uncoated and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated Mn0.5 Zn0.5 Gd0.02 Fe1.98 O4 nanoparticles over the temperature range 8-58°C. Physical characterization of the MNPs synthesized using chemical coprecipitation included scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and magnetometry. Relaxivity (in s(-1) mM(-1) Fe) for the uncoated and coated particles, respectively, increased as follows: from 2.5 to 3.2 and 0.4 to 0.7 for T1, while for T2 it increased from 162.3 to 253.7 and 59.7 to 82.2 over the temperature range 8-58°C. T2 data were fitted to the echo limited motional regime using one fitting parameter that reflects the degree of agglomeration of particles into a cluster. This parameter was found to increase linearly with temperature and was larger for the PEG-coated particles than the uncoated ones. The increase of 1/T2 with temperature is modeled successfully using echo limited motional regime where both diffusion of the protons and nanoparticle cluster size increase with temperature. Both transverse and longitudinal relaxation efficiencies are reduced by PEG coating at all temperatures. If prediction of relaxation rates under different particle concentrations and operating temperatures is possible then the use of MNP in temperature monitoring and hyperthermia applications may be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sinko, Robert; Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Keten, Sinan
2018-01-01
The Pickett effect describes the excess non-additive strain developed during drying of a nanoporous solid material under creep. One explanation for its origins, developed using micromechanical models, is the progressive relaxation of internally developed microprestress. However, these models have not explicitly considered the effects of this microprestress on nanoscale energy barriers that govern the relative motion and displacement between nanopore walls during deformation. Here, we evaluate the nanoscale effects of transverse microprestresses on the drying creep behaviour of a nanoscale slit pore using coarse-grained molecular dynamics. We find that the underlying energy barrier depends exponentially on the transverse microprestress, which is attributed to changes in the effective viscosity and degree of nanoconfinement of molecules in the water interlayer. Specifically, as the transverse microprestress is relaxed (i.e. its magnitude decreases), the activation energy barrier is reduced, thereby leading to an acceleration of the creep behaviour and a stronger Pickett effect. Based on our simulation results, we introduce a new microprestress-dependent energy term into our existing Arrhenius model, which describes the relative displacement of pore walls as a function of the underlying activation energy barriers. Our findings further verify the existing micromechanical theories for the origin of the Pickett effect and establish a quantitative relationship between the transverse microprestress and the intensity of the Pickett effect.
Experimental investigation of transverse flow estimation using transverse oscillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2003-01-01
Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the blood velocity component parallel to the ultrasound beam. Introducing a laterally oscillating field gives signals from which the transverse velocity component can be estimated using 2:1 parallel receive beamformers. To yield the performance...... perpendicular to the ultrasound beam. The velocity profile of the blood is parabolic, and the speed of the blood in the center of the vessel is 1.1 m/s. An extended autocorrelation algorithm is used for velocity estimation for 310 trials, each containing 32 beamformed signals. The velocity can be estimated.......0% and the relative mean standard deviation is found to be 9.8%. With the Compuflow 1000 programmable flow pump a color flow mode image is produced of the experimental setup for a parabolic flow. Also the flow of the human femoralis is reproduced and it is found that the characteristics of the flow can be estimated....
Muonium spin exchange as a Poisson process: magnetic field dependence in transverse fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senba, Masayoshi; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC
1993-01-01
The muonium spin exchange has been investigated as a function of transverse magnetic field strength, where the Poisson nature of collisions is exploited to simplify the calculation. In intermediate fields where the so-called two-frequency muonium signal is observed, the muonium relaxation due to spin exchange is 1.5 times faster than in low fields. In even higher fields, the observed relaxation rate drops back to the low field value. Since the relaxation rate due to a chemical reaction is field independent, such a distinct field dependence in spin exchange can be used in distinguishing experimentally spin exchange from chemical reactions. The time evolution of the muon spin polarization in the presence of muonium spin exchange has been expressed in a simple analytical closed form. (author)
Transverse Anderson Localization in Disordered Glass Optical Fibers: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arash Mafi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Disordered optical fibers show novel waveguiding properties that can be used for various device applications, such as beam-multiplexed optical communications and endoscopic image transport. The strong transverse scattering from the transversely disordered optical fibers results in transversely confined beams that can freely propagate in the longitudinal direction, similar to conventional optical fibers, with the advantage that any point in the cross section of the fiber can be used for beam transport. For beam multiplexing and imaging applications, it is highly desirable to make the localized beam radius as small as possible. This requires large refractive index differences between the materials that define the random features in the disordered fiber. Here, disordered glass-air fibers are briefly reviewed, where randomly placed airholes in a glass matrix provide the sufficiently large refractive index difference of 0.5 for strong random transverse scattering. The main future challenge for the fabrication of an optimally disordered glass-air fibers is to increase the fill-fraction of airholes to nearly 50% for maximum beam confinement.
A Critical Characteristic in the Transverse Galloping Pattern.
Wei, Xiaohui; Long, Yongjun; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang
2015-01-01
Transverse gallop is a common gait used by a large number of quadrupeds. This paper employs the simplified dimensionless quadrupedal model to discuss the underlying mechanism of the transverse galloping pattern. The model is studied at different running speeds and different values of leg stiffness, respectively. If the horizontal running speed reaches up to a critical value at a fixed leg stiffness, or if the leg stiffness reaches up to a critical value at a fixed horizontal speed, a key property would emerge which greatly reduces the overall mechanical forces of the dynamic system in a proper range of initial pitch angular velocities. Besides, for each horizontal speed, there is an optimal stiffness of legs that can reduce both the mechanical loads and the metabolic cost of transport. Furthermore, different body proportions and landing distance lags of a pair of legs are studied in the transverse gallop. We find that quadrupeds with longer length of legs compared with the length of the body are more suitable to employ the transverse galloping pattern, and the landing distance lag of a pair of legs could reduce the cost of transport and the locomotion frequency.
Relaxation process of coherent transients in the presence of an adjacent strongly driven transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Xiaomin; Yang Lijun; Li Xiaoli; Zhang Lianshui; Han Li; Guo Qinglin; Fu Guangsheng
2007-01-01
Coherent transient occurs when a two-level transition is subjected to pulsed laser excitation. The relaxation process of coherent transient depends on both the longitudinal and transverse relaxation parameters of the two-level transition, which is related to the population and coherence decay rates. In this paper we study relaxation process of a new type coherent transients observed by applying a pulsed laser excitation to a two-level transition in the presence of a second strong continuous-wave (cw) coherent field coupling one of the two levels to a third level, that is, in a three-level double-resonance configuration. The relaxation process of coherent transients is studied as a function of relaxation parameters of both the two-level transition excited by the pulsed laser field and the transition coupled by the cw laser field. It is shown that by involving a third level with coherent field the relaxation process of coherent transients of a two-level transition can be modified. Our study illustrates a new way of controlling relaxation process of coherent transients in a two-level transition by a second coherent laser and this has important implication for quantum information storage and quantum computing
Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Multi-spin systems
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2017-08-01
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissues, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have previously developed a rigorous EMOR relaxation theory for dipole-coupled two-spin and three-spin systems. Here, we extend the stochastic Liouville theory to four-spin systems and use these exact results as a guide for constructing an approximate multi-spin theory, valid for spin systems of arbitrary size. This so-called generalized stochastic Redfield equation (GSRE) theory includes the effects of longitudinal-transverse cross-mode relaxation, which gives rise to an inverted step in the relaxation dispersion profile, and coherent spin mode transfer among solid-like spins, which may be regarded as generalized spin diffusion. The GSRE theory is compared to an existing theory, based on the extended Solomon equations, which does not incorporate these phenomena. Relaxation dispersion profiles are computed from the GSRE theory for systems of up to 16 protons, taken from protein crystal structures. These profiles span the range from the motional narrowing limit, where the coherent mode transfer plays a major role, to the ultra-slow motion limit, where the zero-field rate is closely related to the strong-collision limit of the dipolar relaxation rate. Although a quantitative analysis of experimental data is beyond the scope of this work, it is clear from the magnitude of the predicted relaxation rate and the shape of the relaxation dispersion profile that the dipolar EMOR mechanism is the principal cause of water-1H low-field longitudinal relaxation in aqueous systems of immobilized macromolecules, including soft biological tissues. The relaxation theory developed here therefore provides a basis for molecular-level interpretation of endogenous soft
Relaxation to the state of molecular hydrodynamics in the generalized hydrodynamics of liquids
Markiv, B.; Omelyan, I.; Tokarchuk, M.
2010-10-01
The problem of relaxation of a nonequilibrium state to the state of molecular hydrodynamics is considered for a classical system of interacting particles using the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. The wave-vector and frequency dependencies of the dynamical structure factor and momentum-momentum transverse correlation function are investigated on the basis of the appropriate generalized transport equations. Comparison with the results of molecular hydrodynamics and molecular-dynamics simulations is given and the characteristic time intervals of the studied relaxation processes are determined.
2016-01-01
Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829
Transverse section radionuclide scanning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.
1976-01-01
This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures
Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.
1997-01-01
We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.
Psychomotricity and Relaxation in Psychiatry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janete Maximiano
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The author pretends to present with this article, the therapeutic contributions of Psychomotricity and Relaxation in Mental Health context, making only reference to adults intervention. A brief description of the body, as a biopsychosocial unity, is found in the introduction, which is followed by the explanation of conceptual and interventional models in Clinical Psychomotricity. The author makes reference to psychotherapeutic values of relaxation, giving some examples of techniques and exposing a clinical case. Finally, the author briefly describes her recent experience of Psychomotor intervention in Psychiatric Service of Hospital Fernando Fonseca.
Relaxation Oscillation and Canard Explosion
Krupa, M.; Szmolyan, P.
2001-08-01
We give a geometric analysis of relaxation oscillations and canard cycles in singularly perturbed planar vector fields. The transition from small Hopf-type cycles to large relaxation cycles, which occurs in an exponentially thin parameter interval, is described as a perturbation of a family of singular cycles. The results are obtained by means of two blow-up transformations combined with standard tools of dynamical systems theory. The efficient use of various charts is emphasized. The results are applied to the van der Pol equation.
Longitudinal and transverse wake potentials in SLAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.; Wilson, P.
1980-01-01
In a machine with short bunches of high peak currents, such as the SLAC collider, one needs to know the longitudinal wake potential, for the higher mode losses, and the transverse wake potential, since, for bunches passing slightly off axis, the induced transverse forces will tend to cause beam break up. The longitudinal and transverse wakes of the SLAC structure presented here, were calculated by computer using the modal method, and including an analytic extension for higher modes. (Auth.)
Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.
Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D
2010-03-01
Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse
Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.
1977-05-01
The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given
Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)
2017-05-15
We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)
Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.
1997-01-01
The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)
Tensions relaxation in Zircaloy-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuniberti, A.M.; Picasso, A.C.
1990-01-01
Traction and stress relaxation studies were performed on polycrystalline Zry-4 at room temperature. The effect of loading velocity on the plastic behaviour of the material is discussed, analysing log σ vs. log dε/dt at different deformation levels. The contribution introduced by the testing machine was taken into account in data evaluation. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Stochastic and Chaotic Relaxation Oscillations
Grasman, J.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.
1988-01-01
For relaxation oscillators stochastic and chaotic dynamics are investigated. The effect of random perturbations upon the period is computed. For an extended system with additional state variables chaotic behavior can be expected. As an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is changed into a
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism
Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.
2011-06-01
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
Relaxation experiments with synchrotron radiation
Leupold, O; Bernhard, A; Gerdau, E; Jaschke, J; Ruter, HD; Shvydko, Y; Alp, EE; Hession, P; Hu, M; Sturhahn, W; Sutter, J; Toellner, T; Chumakov, AI; Metge, J; Ruffer, R
1998-01-01
Relaxation phenomena show up in standard energy domain Mossbauer spectra via line broadening. The evaluation of such spectra is in most cases done by adopting the stochastic theory mainly developed in the 60s and 70s. Due to the time structure and the polarization of the synchrotron radiation
Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.
2015-04-02
A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.
Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind
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Tomography of the electron beam transverse phase space at PITZ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asova, Galina
2013-09-01
The operation of a Free Elector Laser, FEL, requires high energy, high peak current electron beams with small transverse emittance. In the contemporary FELs, the electron beam is passed through a periodic magnetic structure - an undulator - which modifies the straight beam trajectory into a sinusoidal one, where FEL light is generated at each bend. According to the energy, the transverse emittance and the peak current of the beam and the parameters of the undulator, FEL radiation with wavelength in the range of nano- to micrometers can be generated. Studies and development of FELs are done all over the world. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, and the international European X-ray FEL, XFEL, in Hamburg, Germany, are two leading projects of the Deutsches Elektronen SYnchrotron, DESY. Part of the research program on FELs in DESY is realized in Zeuthen within the project Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen, PITZ. PITZ is an international collaboration including Germany, Russia, Italy, France, Bulgaria, Thailand, United Kingdom. The Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, INRNE, at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences participates from bulgarian side. PITZ studies and optimizes the photo-injectors for FLASH and the XFEL. The research program emphasizes on detailed measurements of the transverse phase-space density distribution. Until 2010 the single slit scan technique has been used to measure the beam transverse distributions. At the end of 2010 a module for tomographic diagnostics has been installed which extends the possibilities of PITZ to measure simultaneously the two transverse planes of a single micropulse with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The difficult conditions of low emittance for high bunch charge and low energy make the operation of the module challenging. This thesis presents the design considerations for the tomography module, a number of reconstruction algorithms and their applicability to limited data sets, the influence
Tomography of the electron beam transverse phase space at PITZ
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asova, Galina
2013-09-15
The operation of a Free Elector Laser, FEL, requires high energy, high peak current electron beams with small transverse emittance. In the contemporary FELs, the electron beam is passed through a periodic magnetic structure - an undulator - which modifies the straight beam trajectory into a sinusoidal one, where FEL light is generated at each bend. According to the energy, the transverse emittance and the peak current of the beam and the parameters of the undulator, FEL radiation with wavelength in the range of nano- to micrometers can be generated. Studies and development of FELs are done all over the world. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, and the international European X-ray FEL, XFEL, in Hamburg, Germany, are two leading projects of the Deutsches Elektronen SYnchrotron, DESY. Part of the research program on FELs in DESY is realized in Zeuthen within the project Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen, PITZ. PITZ is an international collaboration including Germany, Russia, Italy, France, Bulgaria, Thailand, United Kingdom. The Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, INRNE, at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences participates from bulgarian side. PITZ studies and optimizes the photo-injectors for FLASH and the XFEL. The research program emphasizes on detailed measurements of the transverse phase-space density distribution. Until 2010 the single slit scan technique has been used to measure the beam transverse distributions. At the end of 2010 a module for tomographic diagnostics has been installed which extends the possibilities of PITZ to measure simultaneously the two transverse planes of a single micropulse with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The difficult conditions of low emittance for high bunch charge and low energy make the operation of the module challenging. This thesis presents the design considerations for the tomography module, a number of reconstruction algorithms and their applicability to limited data sets, the influence
Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga
2016-01-01
Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...
Evolution of the helicity and transversity Transverse-Momentum-Dependent parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB; Bacchetta, Alessandro [INFN-PAVIA
2013-07-01
We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.
Rogers, T.C.; Mulders, P.J.G.
2010-01-01
It has by now been established that standard QCD factorization using transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions fails in hadroproduction of nearly back-to-back hadrons with high transverse momentum. The essential problem is that gauge-invariant transverse momentum dependent parton
Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We assume that the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles measured in final state are contributed by a few energy sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an ...
Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
These transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions are of significance for the analysis of azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized hadrons. In this context we also ...
Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront
Boer, Daniel
In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p (T) broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large
Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Collaboration [2] describes correlations of the intrinsic quark transverse momen- tum and the transverse nucleon ..... These results are in agreement with the large Nc predictions [41], Bag. Model results reported in [42], ..... work is supported by a grant from the US Department of Energy under contract. DE-FG02-07ER41460.
Anaesthetic considerations in patients with transverse myelitis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Transverse myelitis is an acute or subacute inflammatory disorder involving the spinal cord. Clinical signs are due to the involvement of the ascending and descending tracts in the transverse plane of the spinal cord. The most common cause is autoimmune. These patients may present with various clinical findings with ...
MRI in acute transverse myelopathy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holtaas, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden)); Basibueyuek, N. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden)); Fredriksson, K. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden))
1993-03-01
The MRI examinations of seven patients with acute transverse myelopathy (ATM) were analysed. The patients were examined 2-5 times during the course of their disease with short and long TR/TE spin-echo sequences in the sagittal projection. A previous history of autoimmune disorder and/or signs of infection at the onset of ATM were present in all cases. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed local synthesis of immunoglobulin in the nervours system in three cases and signs of infectious myelitis in one. During the acute phase four patients had local enlargement of the cord and all had increased signal on long TR/TE sequences. The outcome was grave in the majority of patients and there seemed to be a correlation between the degree of cord enlargement, persistence of increased signal intensity and limited recovery. Atrophy and remaining high signal intensity were noted on late MRI patients with poor outcome. In one patient with probable anterior spinal artery occlusion, cavitation of the cord was seen. (orig.)
Transverse spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS
Parsamyan, Bakur
2011-01-01
In semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target eight target transverse spin-dependent azimuthal modulations are allowed. In the QCD parton model half of these asymmetries can be interpreted within the leading order approach and the other four are twist-three contributions. The first two leading twist asymmetries extracted by HERMES and COMPASS experiments are related: one to the transversity distribution and the Collins effect, the other to the Sivers distribution function. These results triggered a lot of interest in the past few years and allowed the first extractions of the transversity and the Sivers distribution functions of nucleon. The remaining six asymmetries were obtained by the COMPASS experiment using a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized deuteron and proton targets. Here we review preliminary results from COMPASS proton data of 2007.
Scheufele, P M
2000-04-01
The present experiment examined relaxation using different experimental conditions to test whether the effects of individual elements of relaxation could be measured, whether specific effects were revealed, or whether relaxation resulted from a generalized "relaxation response." Sixty-seven normal, male volunteers were exposed to a stress manipulation and then to one of two relaxation (Progressive Relaxation, Music) or control (Attention Control, Silence) conditions. Measurements of attention, relaxation, and stress responses were obtained during each phase of the experiment. All four groups exhibited similar performance on behavioral measures of attention that suggested a reduction in physiological arousal following their relaxation or control condition, as well as a decreased heart rate. Progressive Relaxation, however, resulted in the greatest effects on behavioral and self-report measures of relaxation, suggesting that cognitive cues provided by stress management techniques contribute to relaxation.
Delta Relaxation Enhanced Magnetic Resonance
Alford, Jamu K.
Generally speaking, targeted molecular imaging has always been difficult to perform with magnetic resonance. The difficulty does not arise with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique or equipment itself, but rather with the targeted contrast agents, which the method requires. Also referred to as activatable contrast agents, or MRI probes, targeted contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that will selectively bind to a particular biological (target) molecule. They are used to highlight a certain tissue or the difference between healthy and diseased tissue. Unfortunately, nearly all MRI probes are non-specific, causing localized increases in MR image intensity in both the unbound and target-bound states. Therefore, brightening in a conventional MRI image, following probe injection, does not positively indicate the presence of the target molecule. Herein, a novel method known as delta relaxation enhanced magnetic resonance (dreMR, pronounced "dreamer") is presented that utilizes variable magnetic field technology to produce image contrast related to the dependence of the sample's longitudinal relaxation rates upon the strength of the main magnetic field of the MRI scanner. Since only bound contrast agent shows significant magnetic field dependence, it is an indicator of the bound probe, which is in turn a marker for the target molecule. This work details the development of the dreMR method, focusing on the specialized hardware necessary to provide a clinical, static-field MRI the ability to modulate its main magnetic field throughout an MRI sequence. All modifications were performed in such a manner that the host MRI system was not degraded or permanently modified in any way. The three parts of this technology are: the insertable electromagnet, the power supply system and the control system. The insertable electromagnet modifies the magnetic field, the power system drives the electromagnet, and the control system generates the magnetic field waveform envelope and
Time evolution during and after finite-time quantum quenches in the transverse-field Ising chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatjana Puskarov, Dirk Schuricht
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We study the time evolution in the transverse-field Ising chain subject to quantum quenches of finite duration, ie, a continuous change in the transverse magnetic field over a finite time. Specifically, we consider the dynamics of the total energy, one- and two-point correlation functions and Loschmidt echo during and after the quench as well as their stationary behaviour at late times. We investigate how different quench protocols affect the dynamics and identify universal properties of the relaxation.
Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which ...
Scaling behavior of quantum critical relaxation dynamics of a system in a heat bath
Yin, Shuai; Lo, Chung-Yu; Chen, Pochung
2016-05-01
We study the scaling behavior of the relaxation dynamics to thermal equilibrium when a quantum system is near the quantum critical point. In particular, we investigate systems whose relaxation dynamics is described by a Lindblad master equation. We find that the universal scaling behavior not only appears in the equilibrium stage at the long-time limit but also manifests in the nonequilibrium relaxation process. While the critical behavior is dictated by the low-lying energy levels of the Hamiltonian, the dissipative part in the Lindblad equation also plays important roles in two aspects: First, the dissipative part makes the high-energy levels decay fast, after which the universal behavior controlled by the low-lying modes emerges. Second, the dissipation rate gives rise to a time scale that affects the scaling behavior. We confirm our theory by solving the Lindblad equation for the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model.
A post-processing method for multiexponential spin-spin relaxation analysis of MRI signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gensanne, D [Laboratoire de Chimie Bioinorganique Medicale, Imagerie therapeutique et diagnostique, CNRS FR 2599, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Josse, G [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Evaluation sur la Peau et les Epitheliums de Revetement, Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, 2, rue Viguerie, BP 3071 31025 Toulouse Cedex 3 (France); Lagarde, J M [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Evaluation sur la Peau et les Epitheliums de Revetement, Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, 2, rue Viguerie, BP 3071 31025 Toulouse Cedex 3 (France); Vincensini, D [Laboratoire de Chimie Bioinorganique Medicale, Imagerie therapeutique et diagnostique, CNRS FR 2599, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)
2005-08-21
Quantitative MR imaging is a potential tool for tissue characterization; in particular, proton density and proton relaxation times can be derived from MR signal analysis. However, MR image noise affects the accuracy of measurements and the number of tissue parameters that can be reliably estimated. Filtering can be used to limit image noise; however this reduces spatial resolution. In this work we studied, using both simulations and experiments, a filter called a 'selective blurring filter'. Compared to other classical filters, this filter achieves the best compromise between spatial resolution and noise reduction. The filter was specifically used to reliably determine the bi-component transverse relaxation of protons in adipose tissue. Long and short relaxation times and the relative proton fraction of each component were obtained with a degree of uncertainty of less than 10% and an accuracy of 95%.
Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.
Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu
2018-04-01
Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.
Hites, Lacey S.; Lundervold, Duane A.
2013-01-01
Forty-four individuals, 18-47 (MN 21.8, SD 5.63) years of age, took part in a study examining the magnitude and direction of the relationship between self-report and direct observation measures of relaxation and mindfulness. The Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), a valid direct observation measure of relaxation, was used to assess relaxed behavior…
Design Considerations of Permanent Magnet Transverse Flux Machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen
2011-01-01
Permanent magnet transverse flux machine (PMTFM) is well known for its high torque density and is interested in various direct-drive applications. Due to its complicated 3-D flux components, design and design optimization of a PMTFM is more difficult and time consuming than for radial flux...... electrical machines. This paper addresses two important design considerations for PMTFM—the influence of permanent magnet leakage flux, which plays an important role in the determination of machine output torque, and the leakage inductance. A new simple method to provide a quick estimation of the armature...
Resilience: a transversal occupational skill for current organizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María del Rosario Piñeros-Botero
2013-12-01
some studies related to deal the resilience from the transverse occupational skills and the MCclelland approach TO KNOW TO BE AND TO KNOW TO DO, as a structural base for behavior and performance of people. Finally we propose an organizational resilience model that presents its functionality and categorization of profiles in occupational and individual skills that allow encouraging cultural and organizational behavior by means of optimization strategies to current organizations. The term organizations, is going to be used to talk about an industry or enterprise of any kind or financial sector.
Directional Transverse Oscillation Vector Flow Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2017-01-01
A method for estimating vector velocities using transverse oscillation (TO) combined with directional beamforming is presented. In Directional Transverse Oscillation (DTO) a normal focused field is emitted and the received signals are beamformed in the lateral direction transverse to the ultrasound...... beam to increase the amount of data for vector velocity estimation. The approach is self-calibrating as the lateral oscillation period is estimated from the directional signal through a Fourier transform to yield quantitative velocity results over a large range of depths. The approach was extensively...
Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch
2002-01-01
Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode
Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffner-Bielich, J.
2002-01-01
Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)
Sandpile model for relaxation in complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vazquez, A.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Brouers, F.
1997-10-01
The relaxation in complex systems is, in general, nonexponential. After an initial rapid decay the system relaxes slowly following a long time tail. In the present paper a sandpile moderation of the relaxation in complex systems is analysed. Complexity is introduced by a process of avalanches in the Bethe lattice and a feedback mechanism which leads to slower decay with increasing time. In this way, some features of relaxation in complex systems: long time tails relaxation, aging, and fractal distribution of characteristic times, are obtained by simple computer simulations. (author)
The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.
Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina
2013-01-01
This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bryk, Taras [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, UA-79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 S. Bandera Street, UA-79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Ruocco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 5 Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Center for Life Nano Science @Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 295 Viale Regina Elena, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Scopigno, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 5 Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185 Roma (Italy); IPCF-CNR, c/o Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 5 Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Seitsonen, Ari P. [Département de Chimie, Université de Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Département de Chimie, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)
2015-09-14
Unlike phonons in crystals, the collective excitations in liquids cannot be treated as propagation of harmonic displacements of atoms around stable local energy minima. The viscoelasticity of liquids, reflected in transition from the adiabatic to elastic high-frequency speed of sound and in absence of the long-wavelength transverse excitations, results in dispersions of longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) collective excitations essentially different from the typical phonon ones. Practically, nothing is known about the effect of high pressure on the dispersion of collective excitations in liquids, which causes strong changes in liquid structure. Here dispersions of L and T collective excitations in liquid Li in the range of pressures up to 186 GPa were studied by ab initio simulations. Two methodologies for dispersion calculations were used: direct estimation from the peak positions of the L/T current spectral functions and simulation-based calculations of wavenumber-dependent collective eigenmodes. It is found that at ambient pressure, the longitudinal and transverse dynamics are well separated, while at high pressures, the transverse current spectral functions, density of vibrational states, and dispersions of collective excitations yield evidence of two types of propagating modes that contribute strongly to transverse dynamics. Emergence of the unusually high-frequency transverse modes gives evidence of the breakdown of a regular viscoelastic theory of transverse dynamics, which is based on coupling of a single transverse propagating mode with shear relaxation. The explanation of the observed high-frequency shift above the viscoelastic value is given by the presence of another branch of collective excitations. With the pressure increasing, coupling between the two types of collective excitations is rationalized within a proposed extended viscoelastic model of transverse dynamics.
Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1975-01-01
The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions
Transverse steering of two-component beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murin, B.P.; Bondarev, B.U.; Durkin, A.P.; Lomize, L.G.; Soloviev, L.Yu.; Fedotov, A.P.
Coherent transverse oscillations are considered which occur during simultaneous acceleration of proton and H - beams due to arbitrary displacements in elements of the focusing channel. To suppress these oscillations, a beam adjustment station is proposed, in which each quadrupole lens of two doublets is provided with a special dipole component of the magnetic field. These steering elements, together with the beam transverse position monitors, permit steering the transverse position of beams of opposite signs in both transverse planes. The number of steering stations needed is chosen, and some algorithms for control are discussed. It is shown that some of the control algorithms will permit not only the suppression of coherent oscillations, but a decrease in the radius and emittance of the beam
Elliptic flow coefficients from transverse momentum conservation
Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang
2018-01-01
We calculate the k -particle (k =2 ,4 ,6 ,8 ) azimuthal cumulants resulting from the conservation of transverse momentum. We find that c2{k } >0 and, depending on the transverse momenta, c2{k } can reach substantial values even for a relatively large number of particles. The impact of our results on the understanding of the onset of collectivity in small systems is emphasized.
Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the geo......Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...
Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
Relaxing technical regulations under the Landings Obligation – effects on the discard ratio
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Lars O.; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Qvist Eliasen, Søren
of these constraints. To investigate the effects of the existing TR, some fishers were relaxed from TR during the trial and could freely choose and develop alternative gears, aiming to optimize annual catch value, while reducing discards. The study included 14 demersal fishing vessels, operating in the North Sea...... relaxing technical rules led to major improvements in fishing patterns. But gear changes did not contribute much in fisheries where initial discards rates were already low...
Bansal, Shyam Sunder; Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar
2010-11-01
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the enthalpy relaxation behavior of valdecoxib (VLB) and etoricoxib (ETB) and their binary dispersions to derive relaxation constants and to understand their molecular mobilities. Solid dispersions of VLB and ETB were prepared with 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) concentrations of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in situ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Enthalpy relaxation studies were carried out with isothermal storage periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, 16, and 24 hours at 40°C and 0% relative humidity (RH). PVP increased the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and decreased the enthalpy relaxation. Significant differences between two drugs were observed with respect to their relaxation behavior which may be due to differences in intermolecular interactions as predicted by Couchman-Karasz equation and molecular mobility. Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was found to be inadequate in describing complex molecular relaxations in binary dispersions. The enthalpy relaxation behavior of VLB and ETB was found to be significantly different. PVP stabilized VLB significantly; however, its effect on ETB was negligible. The extent of enthalpy relaxation was found to correlate with hydrogen bonding tendency of the drug molecules. The outcome can help in rational designing of amorphous systems with optimal performance.
Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals
Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen
2018-01-01
Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.
Transverse structure of the QCD string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Harvey B.
2010-01-01
The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.
A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena
2002-01-01
This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...
Compaction and relaxation of biofilms
Valladares Linares, R.
2015-06-18
Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more
Relaxation laryngoplasty (thyroplasty tipe III)
Jiménez, Luis Humberto; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Barreto, Tatiana; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio
2011-01-01
Relaxation laryngoplasty is a surgical procedure that is indicated in mutational falsetto that does not respond well to voice therapy. By shortening the vocal cords, the fundamental frequency diminishes and gains a more male voice.We present the case of a male patient, with mutational dysphonia characterized with inadequate tone elevation in relation to its gender. We describe the surgical technique and its outcome. La tiroplastia de relajación está indicada en pacientes con alteraciones d...
Transverse signal decay under the weak field approximation: Theory and validation.
Berman, Avery J L; Pike, G Bruce
2017-12-01
To derive an expression for the transverse signal time course from systems in the motional narrowing regime, such as water diffusing in blood. This was validated in silico and experimentally with ex vivo blood samples. A closed-form solution (CFS) for transverse signal decay under any train of refocusing pulses was derived using the weak field approximation. The CFS was validated via simulations of water molecules diffusing in the presence of spherical perturbers, with a range of sizes and under various pulse sequences. The CFS was compared with more conventional fits assuming monoexponential decay, including chemical exchange, using ex vivo blood Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill data. From simulations, the CFS was shown to be valid in the motional narrowing regime and partially into the intermediate dephasing regime, with increased accuracy with increasing Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill refocusing rate. In theoretical calculations of the CFS, fitting for the transverse relaxation rate (R 2 ) gave excellent agreement with the weak field approximation expression for R 2 for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences, but diverged for free induction decay. These same results were confirmed in the ex vivo analysis. Transverse signal decay in the motional narrowing regime can be accurately described analytically. This theory has applications in areas such as tissue iron imaging, relaxometry of blood, and contrast agent imaging. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.
2004-01-01
The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices
Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shu, F.H.
1978-01-01
We reexamine the foundations of Lynden-Bell's statistical mechanical discussion of violent relaxation in collisionless stellar systems. We argue that Lynden-Bell's formulation in terms of a continuum description introduces unnecessary complications, and we consider a more conventional formulation in terms of particles. We then find the exclusion principle discovered by Lynden-Bell to be quantitatively important only at phase densities where two-body encounters are no longer negligible. Since the edynamical basis for the exclusion principle vanishes in such cases anyway, Lynden-Bell statistics always reduces in practice to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics when applied to stellar systems. Lynden-Bell also found the equilibrium distribution function generally to be a sum of Maxwellians with velocity dispersions dependent on the phase density at star formation. We show that this difficulty vanishes in the particulate description for an encounterless stellar system as long as stars of different masses are initially well mixed in phase space. Our methods also demonstrate the equivalence between Gibbs's formalism which uses the microcanonical ensemble and Boltzmann's formalism which uses a coarse-grained continuum description. In addition, we clarify the concept of irreversible behavior on a macroscopic scale for an encounterless stellar system. Finally, we comment on the use of unusual macroscopic constraints to simulate the effects of incomplete relaxation
Intermolecular nuclear relaxation in paramagnetic solutions: from free radicals to rare earths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belorizky, E. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Lab. de Spectrometrie Physique, CNRS-UMR 5588, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Fries, P.H.; Rast, S. [CEA Grenoble, Laboratoire de Reconnaissance ionique, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique UMR 5046, Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, 38 (France)
2001-11-01
The principles of the intermolecular relaxation of a nuclear spin by its fluctuating magnetic dipolar interactions with the electronic spins of the paramagnetic surrounding species in solution are briefly recalled. It is shown that a very high dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of solvent protons is obtained by saturating allowed transitions of free radicals with a hyperfine structure, and that this effect can be used in efficient Earth field magnetometers. Recent work on trivalent lanthanide Ln{sup 3+} aqua complexes in heavy water solutions is discussed, including paramagnetic shift and relaxation rate measurements of the {sup 1}H NMR lines of probe solutes. This allows a determination of the effective electronic magnetic moments of the various Ln{sup 3+} ions in these complexes, and an estimation of their longitudinal and transverse electronic relaxation times T{sub 1e} and T{sub 2e}. Particular attention is given to Gd(III) hydrated chelates which can serve as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The full experimental electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of these complexes can be interpreted within the Redfield relaxation theory. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to explore situations beyond the validity of the Redfield approximation. For each Gd(III) complex, the EPR study leads to an accurate prediction of T{sub 1e}, which can be also derived from an independent relaxation dispersion study of the protons of the probe solutes. (authors)
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2015-08-26
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.
Proton NMR relaxation of hydrated insulin powder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanches, R.; Donoso, J.P.; Mascarenhas, S.; Panepucci, H.C.
1985-01-01
Water proton nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements were obtained for hydrated insulin powder as a function of the water content. For samples containing enough water to complete the hydration shell, the data for the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times are consistent with a model in which water molecules exist in two phases, one exhibiting restricted motion and identified with water of hydration and another identified as free water with motions similar to ordinary water. For samples containing only water of hydration, a model for the spin-spin relaxation time is discussed, in which the water molecules relaxation is described in terms for four relaxation times. Estimates are obtained for these relaxation times, in good agreement with the experimental data. (Author) [pt
Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marsh, Derek
2016-01-01
Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin......-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...... the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI-dependent....
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; 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Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; 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Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; 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Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Walker, Matthew; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua
2013-04-02
In this paper, a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) is presented in events with two opposite-sign isolated leptons in the final state, accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy. An artificial neural network is employed to discriminate possible SUSY signals from standard model background. The analysis uses a data sample collected with the CMS detector during the 2011 LHC run, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at the center of mass energy of 7 TeV. Compared to other CMS analyses, this one uses relaxed criteria on missing transverse energy (missing ET > 40 GeV) and total hadronic transverse energy (HT > 120 GeV), thus probing different regions of parameter space. Agreement is found between standard model expectation and observation, yielding limits in the context of the constrained mininal supersymmetric standard model and on a set of simplified models.
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2016-02-28
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. We have embarked on a systematic program to develop, from the stochastic Liouville equation, a general and rigorous theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole coupling strengths, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we present a general theoretical framework applicable to spin systems of arbitrary size with symmetric or asymmetric exchange. So far, the dipolar EMOR theory is only available for a two-spin system with symmetric exchange. Asymmetric exchange, when the spin system is fragmented by the exchange, introduces new and unexpected phenomena. Notably, the anisotropic dipole couplings of non-exchanging spins break the axial symmetry in spin Liouville space, thereby opening up new relaxation channels in the locally anisotropic sites, including longitudinal-transverse cross relaxation. Such cross-mode relaxation operates only at low fields; at higher fields it becomes nonsecular, leading to an unusual inverted relaxation dispersion that splits the extreme-narrowing regime into two sub-regimes. The general dipolar EMOR theory is illustrated here by a detailed analysis of the asymmetric two-spin case, for which we present relaxation dispersion profiles over a wide range of conditions as well as analytical results for integral relaxation rates and time-dependent spin modes in the zero-field and motional-narrowing regimes. The general theoretical framework presented here will enable a quantitative analysis of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation in model systems with immobilized macromolecules and, ultimately, will provide a rigorous link between relaxation-based magnetic resonance image contrast and molecular parameters.
Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.
2012-01-01
The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....
Relaxation dynamics of a single DNA molecule
Goshen, E.; Zhao, W. Z.; Carmon, G.; Rosen, S.; Granek, R.; Feingold, M.
2005-06-01
The relaxation of a single DNA molecule is studied. The experimental system consists of optical tweezers and a micron-sized bead that is tethered to the bottom of the sample by a single double-stranded DNA molecule. The bead slows down the DNA relaxation from a strongly stretched configuration such that it is passing through stretched equilibrium states. This allows for a theoretical description of the relaxation trajectory, which is in good agreement with experiment.
Relaxation schemes for the shallow water equations
Delis, A. I.; Katsaounis, Th.
2003-03-01
We present a class of first and second order in space and time relaxation schemes for the shallow water (SW) equations. A new approach of incorporating the geometrical source term in the relaxation model is also presented. The schemes are based on classical relaxation models combined with Runge-Kutta time stepping mechanisms. Numerical results are presented for several benchmark test problems with or without the source term present.
Technological patterns of preventive relaxation of workings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaufman, L.L.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Zel' vyanskii, M.Sh. (Donetskaya Proektnaya Kontora (USSR))
1991-09-01
Presents stress relaxation patterns of workings. The patterns are used at horizon layouts and panel development of mine-take in stone inclines, boundary entries, mine drainage galleries and main galleries. The stress relaxation variants are: stress relaxing longwalls with complete mining with two or three winning galleries, longwalls worked by long pillars on the strike, and longwalls worked with advance mining on the strike. The individual variants differ by the ventilation system adopted.
Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhu, Ming
2017-12-01
The existing molecular relaxation models based on both parallel relaxation theory and series relaxation theory cannot extract the contributions of gas compositions to acoustic relaxation absorption in mixtures. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to predict acoustic relaxation absorption and clarify composition relaxation contributions based on the rate-determining energy transfer processes in molecular relaxation in excitable gases. By combining parallel and series relaxation theory, the proposed model suggests that the vibration-translation process of the lowest vibrational mode in each composition provides the primary deexcitation path of the relaxation energy, and the rate-determining vibration-vibration processes between the lowest mode and others dominate the coupling energy transfer between different modes. Thus, each gas composition contributes directly one single relaxation process to the molecular relaxation in mixture, which can be illustrated by the decomposed acoustic relaxation absorption spectrum of the single relaxation process. The proposed model is validated by simulation results in good agreement with experimental data such as N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 and their mixtures.
Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs framework. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very...... flat scalar potential directions along which the relaxation mechanism can be implemented. This fact translates into wider regions of applicability of the relaxation mechanism when compared to the Standard Model Higgs case. Our results show that, if the electroweak scale is not fundamental...... but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism....
van Rongen, I; Damhuis, R A M; van der Hoeven, J A B; Plaisier, P W
2013-01-01
Cancer of the transverse colon is rare and postoperative mortality tends to be high. Standard surgical treatment involves either extended hemicolectomy or transverse colectomy, depending on the location of the tumour. The aim of the present study was to compare postoperative mortality and five-year survival between these types of surgery. For this observational study, data on patients with a tumour of the transverse colon, treated by open resection in the Dordrecht Hospital from 1989 through 2003, were derived from the database of the regional cancer registry. Information on type of resection, tumour stage, complications, postoperative mortality (30-day) and survival was abstracted from the medical files. Patients with multi-organ surgery, (sub)total colectomy or stage IV disease were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total series of 103 patients. Transverse colectomy comprised one third of operations, predominantly involving partial resections. Postoperative mortality was 6% (2/34) after transverse colectomy and 7% (5/69) after extended hemicolectomy. Five-year survival was slightly higher for the hemicolectomy group (61% versus 50%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.34). Our results confirm the high postoperative risk after surgery for cancer of the transverse colon and show that this risk does not depend on the type of surgery. Considering the satisfactory results after partial transverse colectomy, segmental resections may be considered as an option for the treatment of localised tumours of the transverse colon.
NMR relaxation studies with MnDPDP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Southon, T.E.; Grant, D.; Bjoernerud, A.; Moen, O.M.; Spilling, B.; Martinsen, I.; Refsum, H.
1997-01-01
Purpose: Our studies were designed to compare the efficacy of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan) as a tissue-specific MR agent with that of manganese chloride (MnCl 2 ), to compare the efficacy of different doses and rates of administration of MnDPDP, and to collect the data needed for predicting optimum pulse sequences. Material and Methods: The dose response for the relaxation rates R1 and R2 at 0.47 T, and the manganese (Mn) concentrations in rat liver and in the liver, pancreas, heart and adrenals of pigs was determined for both MnDPDP and MnCl 2 administered i.v. Computer simulations were carried out to model the effects of different tissue Mn concentrations and TR on signal intensities and contrast-to-noise ratios. Results: In rat liver and pig organs both compounds produced a positive dose-response in R1 and tissue Mn concentration, and only small or no response in R2. The Mn concentration in rat liver was positively correlated with R1, regardless of the form in which Mn was given, or the rate of administration. Optimal imaging parametes are therefore expected to be different pre- and post-MnDPDP administration. (orig./AJ)
Gillani, N B; Smith, J C
2001-06-01
This study is an attempt to rigorously map the psychological effects of Zen meditation among experienced practitioners. Fifty-nine Zen meditators with at least six years of experience practiced an hour of traditional Zazen seated meditation. A control group of 24 college students spent 60 min silently reading popular magazines. Before relaxation, all participants took the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (SRSI), the Smith Relaxation Dispositions/Motivations Inventory (SRD/MI), and the Smith Relaxation Beliefs Inventory (SRBI). After practice, participants again took the SRSI. Analyses revealed that meditators are less likely to believe in God, more likely to believe in Inner Wisdom, and more likely to display the relaxation dispositions Mental Quiet, Mental Relaxation, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. Pre- and postsession analyses revealed that meditators showed greater increments in the relaxation states Mental Quiet, Love and Thankfulness, and Prayerfulness, as well as reduced Worry. Results support Smith's ABC Relaxation Theory.
Pair plasma relaxation time scales.
Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V
2010-04-01
By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.
Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus
2003-01-01
Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...
Local hysteresis in relaxation oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alstroem, P.; Christiansen, B.; Levinsen, M.T.
1988-01-01
Relaxation oscillations or 'integrate and fire' phenomena are very commonly found in nature. When modulated by an external force a global hysteresis connected with chaos is often encountered. Besides this kind of hysteresis a local form is found in some systems. We describe briefly the difference and the circumstances under which to observe local hysteresis. A specific system treated in detail is the Fohlmeister model, originally derived to describe a neuronal encoder. In the limit of small damping an analytical solution is obtained. Furthermore, we derive an upper limit to the hysteresis. The results are compared to numerical calculations on the full system and agree quite well. In contrast to e.g. the driven damped pendulum equation the hysteresis is limited in size as compared to the phase-locked region. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balandin, V.; Decking, W.; Golubeva, N.
2014-09-01
We show that if in the particle beam there are linear correlations between energy of particles and their transverse positions and momenta (linear beam dispersions), then the transverse projected emittances always can be reduced by letting the beam to pass through magnetostatic system with specially chosen nonzero lattice dispersions. The maximum possible reduction of the transverse projected emittances occurs when all beam dispersions are zeroed, and the values of the lattice dispersions required for that are completely defined by the values of the beam dispersions and the beam rms energy spread and are independent from any other second-order central beam moments. Besides that, we prove that, alternatively, one can also use the lattice dispersions to remove linear correlations between longitudinal positions of particles and their transverse coordinates (linear beam tilts), but in this situation solution for the lattice dispersions is nonunique and the reduction of the transverse projected emittances is not guaranteed.
Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity
Mekhfi, Mustapha
2011-01-01
We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.
Transversely Compressed- and Restrained Shear Joints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Christian Skodborg
2013-01-01
Anchorage of FRP strengthening systems where the deformation perpendicular to the FRP material is restrained or a compressive force is applied on the strengthening, seems to provide ductility, increased utilization of the FRP and failure modes which can be controlled through the anchorage method....... This paper presents theoretical model which can predict the response of transversely compressed and restrained single- and double lap shear joints. The interface material model is based on a cohesive law in the shear-slip plane with a descending branch and a uniform frictional stress added due...... to the friction in the crack, emanating from the transverse pressure or restraint. The theoretical model is compared with experimental results from transversely compressed single- and double shear joints. Also theoretical predictions of a mechanical integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage load capacity are carried out...
Associated transverse energy in hadronic jet production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchesini, G.; Webber, B.R.
1988-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the ''pedestal height'' in hadronic jet production, i.e., the mean transverse energy per unit of rapidity accompanying a high-transverse-energy jet. We find that perturbative QCD, supplemented by a Monte Carlo estimate of higher-order corrections and a soft underlying event structure similar to that of minimum-bias collisions, can account for the observed pedestal height and its dependence on jet transverse energy. We propose a way of separating the hard pedestal contribution from that of the underlying event by measuring the quantity , which is one-half the absolute difference of the pedestal heights on the two sides of the jet. This quantity is dominated by the hard QCD component, whereas = - is dominated by the soft underlying event. We also discuss the differential distribution of pedestal height and the charged multiplicity in the pedestal
Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications
Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.
2016-09-01
Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.
Partonic transverse momenta in non-relativistic hyper-central quark potential models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diakonos, F.K.; Kaplis, N.K.; Maintas, X.N.
2009-01-01
We investigate the impact of three-body forces on the transverse-momentum distribution of partons inside the proton. This is achieved by considering the three-body problem in a class of hyper-central quark potential models. Solving the corresponding Schroedinger equation, we determine the quark wave function in the proton and with appropriate transformations and projections we find the transverse-momentum distribution of a single quark. In each case the parameters of the quark potentials are adjusted in order to sufficiently describe observable properties of the proton. Using a factorization ansatz, we incorporate the obtained transverse-momentum distribution in a perturbative QCD scheme for the calculation of the cross-section for prompt photon production in pp collisions. A large set of experimental data is fitted using as a single free parameter the mean partonic transverse momentum. The dependence of left angle k T right angle on the collision characteristics (initial energy and transverse momentum of the final photon) is much smoother when compared with similar results found in the literature using a Gaussian distribution for the partonic transverse momenta. Within the considered class of hyper-central quark potentials the one with the weaker dependence on the hyper-radius is preferred for the description of the data since it leads to the smoothest mean partonic transverse-momentum profile. We have repeated all the calculations using a two-body potential of the same form as the optimal (within the considered class) hyper-central potential in order to check if the presence of three-body forces is supported by the experimental data. Our analysis indicates that three-body forces influence significantly the form of the parton transverse-momentum distribution and consequently lead to an improved description of the considered data. (orig.)
Kurauskas, Vilius; Weber, Emmanuelle; Hessel, Audrey; Ayala, Isabel; Marion, Dominique; Schanda, Paul
2016-01-01
Transverse relaxation rate measurements in MAS solid-state NMR provide information about molecular motions occurring on nanoseconds-to-milliseconds (ns-ms) time scales. The measurement of heteronuclear (13C, 15N) relaxation rate constants in the presence of a spin-lock radio-frequency field (R1ρ relaxation) provides access to such motions, and an increasing number of studies involving R1ρ relaxation in proteins has been reported. However, two factors that influence the observed relaxation rate constants have so far been neglected, namely (i) the role of CSA/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR), and (ii) the impact of fast proton spin flips (i.e. proton spin diffusion and relaxation). We show that CSA/D CCR in R1ρ experiments is measurable, and that this cross-correlated relaxation rate constant depends on ns-ms motions, and can thus itself provide insight into dynamics. We find that proton spin-diffusion attenuates this cross-correlated relaxation, due to its decoupling effect on the doublet components. For measurements of dynamics, the use of R1ρ rate constants has practical advantages over the use of CCR rates, and the present manuscript reveals factors that have so far been disregarded and which are important for accurate measurements and interpretation. PMID:27500976
Inclusive eta production at large transverse momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donaldson, G.J.; Gordon, H.A.; Lai, K.; Stumer, I.; Barnes, A.V.; Mellema, D.J.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Walker, R.L.; Dahl, O.; Johnson, R.; Ogawa, A.; Pripstein, M.; Shannon, S.
1978-01-01
We have measured the ratio of inclusive production of eta to π 0 at transverse momenta above 1.5 GeV/c. Results are presented for various meson and proton beams with momenta of 100, 200, and 300 GeV/c incident upon a hydrogen target. The eta/π 0 production ratio is found to be independent of incident beam momentum and of the transverse and longitudinal momenta of production. The ratio for pion- and proton-induced reactions is 0.44 +- 0.05; for kaons, it is 0.74 +- 0.12
Transverse posterior element fractures associated with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, M.S.
1989-01-01
Six examples of a previously undescribed class of transverse vertebral element fractures are presented. These fractures differ from Chance and Smith fractures and their variants in the following respects: (1) the etiology is torsion and not flexion; (2) there is neither distraction of posterior ring fragments nor posterior ligament tears; (3) in contrast to Chance and Smith fractures, extension of the fracture into the vertebral body is absent or minimal; (4) the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra is avulsed at its base with a vertical fracture, not split horizontally. These fractures occur in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae in normal or compromised areas of the spine. (orig.)
Results on large transverse momentum phenomena
Büsser, F W; Blumenfeld, B; Camilleri, L L; Cool, R L; Di Lella, L; Gladding, G; Lederman, Leon Max; Litt, L; Placci, A; Pope, B G; Segler, S L; Smith, A M; Yoh, J K; Zavattini, E
1973-01-01
Preliminary results of an experiment on large transverse momentum phenomena performed at the CERN-ISR at centre-of-mass energies of 52.7 and 44.8 GeV are presented. The topics studied were the inclusive reaction p+p to pi /sup 0/+'anything', where the pi /sup 0/ was emitted around 90 degrees in the centre- of-mass system, ( pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/) correlations, and the charged multiplicity associated with large transverse momentum pi /sup 0/'s. In addition, results of a search for electrons and electron pairs are included. (4 refs).
[The transversality and health promotion schools].
Gavidia Catalán, V
2001-01-01
The following article shows the evolution of the schools contribution to the Health Education of children and young people. Moving on from the traditional concept of health, today, Health Education has a general and global meaning, which encompasses all of the physical, psychological and social aspects of health. These aspects define the characteristics of the "Healthy School". The need to broach the "transversal subject" offers schools the possibility of developing "transversality" in the Health Education. Finally, the concept of promoting health defines, together with the other subjects, that which we understand by "the heath promotion schools", which attempts to progress the full integration of schools in the society in which they are located.
Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L
2012-04-28
between the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation and the structural α-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors.
Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth
1994-01-01
The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particle...
Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley
1998-01-01
The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with tem...
Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf
2010-01-01
We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t...
Lifshitz quasinormal modes and relaxation from holography
Sybesma, Watse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369283074; Vandoren, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830739
2015-01-01
We obtain relaxation times for field theories with Lifshitz scaling and with holographic duals Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity theories. This is done by computing quasinormal modes of a bulk scalar field in the presence of Lifshitz black branes. We determine the relation between relaxation time and
Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 299 302. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation. Α. Mangalam* & V. Krishan†, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala,. Bangalore 560 034, India. *e mail: mangalam @ iiap. ernet. in. † e mail: vinod@iiap.ernet.in. Abstract. We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to ...
Relaxation dynamics following transition of solvated electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnett, R.B.; Landman, U.; Nitzan, A.
1989-01-01
Relaxation dynamics following an electronic transition of an excess solvated electron in clusters and in bulk water is studied using an adiabatic simulation method. In this method the solvent evolves classically and the electron is constrained to a specified state. The coupling between the solvent and the excess electron is evaluated via the quantum expectation value of the electron--water molecule interaction potential. The relaxation following excitation (or deexcitation) is characterized by two time scales: (i) a very fast (/similar to/20--30 fs) one associated with molecular rotations in the first solvation shell about the electron, and (ii) a slower stage (/similar to/200 fs), which is of the order of the longitudinal dielectric relaxation time. The fast relaxation stage exhibits an isotope effect. The spectroscopical consequences of the relaxation dynamics are discussed
Enthalpy relaxation and annealing effect in polystyrene.
Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa
2013-07-01
The effects of thermal history on the enthalpy relaxation in polystyrene are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature dependence of the specific heat in the liquid and the glassy states, that of relaxation time, and the exponent of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function are determined by measurements of the thermal response against sinusoidal temperature variation. A phenomenological model equation previously proposed to interpret the memory effect in the frozen state is applied to the enthalpy relaxation and the evolution of entropy under a given thermal history is calculated. The annealing below the glass transition temperature produces two effects on enthalpy relaxation: the decay of excess entropy with annealing time in the early stage of annealing and the increase in relaxation time due to physical aging in the later stage. The crossover of these effects is reflected in the variation of temperature of the maximum specific heat observed in the heating process after annealing and cooling.
Stress and Relaxation in Relation to Personality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harish Kumar Sharma
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Relaxation plays a significant role in facing stress. The aim of the present study is to see whether personality patterns determine an individual’s ability to relax. As a reaction to stress, coping is the best way to handle stress, which requires rational and conscious thinking. Does this ability to relax anyway facilitate coping reactions? A study was conducted on 100 college students. Results revealed that extraverts relax easily than introverts. In addition, if intelligence level is average or above average, relaxation does play a role in facilitating coping reactions. It suggests that in designing techniques of stress management, the personality and intelligence level must be taken into consideration to make techniques effective.
Ogneva, I V; Maximova, M V; Larina, I M
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to determine the transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton and the cytoskeletal protein desmin content in the left ventricle cardiomyocytes, fibers of the mouse soleus and tibialis anterior muscle after a 30-day space flight on board the "BION-M1" biosatellite (Russia, 2013). The dissection was made after 13-16.5 h after landing. The transversal stiffness was measured in relaxed and calcium activated state by, atomic force microscopy. The desmin content was estimated by western blotting, and the expression level of desmin-coding gene was detected using real-time PCR. The results indicate that, the transversal stiffness of the left ventricle cardiomyocytes and fibers of the soleus muscle in relaxed and activated states did not differ from the control. The transversal stiffness of the tibialis muscle fibers in relaxed and activated state was increased in the mice group after space flight. At the same time, in all types of studied tissues the desmin content and the expression level of desmin-coding gene did not differ from the control level.
Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....
Longitudinal Evaluation of Foetal Transverse Lie using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Erah
, lower segment fibroids in 2.7%, and ectopic kidney in 0.7%. In conclusion, transverse lie detected early in pregnancy is transient, and majority would convert to a longitudinal lie at term. Potential predisposing factors highlighted above ...
Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In contrast to some of the earlier studies, calculations are performed retaining the full lossy character of the metal. In the limit of vanishing losses, we present analytical results for the extraordinary spin for both the coupled modes. The results can have direct implications for enhancing the elusive transverse spin exploiting the ...
Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an exponential form. The modelling results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data at high energies.
Sex Education as a Transversal Subject
Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.
2015-01-01
Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…
Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(SSAs) in hard scattering processes when transverse momentum scales are on the order of quarks in hadrons, ... are of particular interest as they emerge from the colour gauge invariant definition of the quark-gluon-quark ..... For n ≥ 3, there are enough powers of l+ to eliminate this divergence. f(p2) is a covariant Gaussian ...
TRANSVERSE COLON POUCH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective Urinary diversion after pelvic irradiation is challenging. The use of irradiated bowel is mostly complicated and unsuccessful. Therefore, the use of an exclusively non-irradiated bowel segment, such as the transverse colon, is a good alternative in such situation. Patients and Methods Twenty-nine female patients ...
Transversals in non-discrete groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4 ... Given any right quasigroup with a Tychonoff topology , it is proved that there exists a Hausdorff topological group in which can be embedded algebraically and topologically as a right transversal of a subgroup (not necessarily closeed).
Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Samyobrata Mukherjee
2017-07-25
Jul 25, 2017 ... spline interpolation from the data of Johnson and Christy. [31]. But first, we have to deal with normalization in order to make our comparisons of the transverse spin for different wavelengths and metal film thicknesses d meaningful. We normalize the power flow into the sys- tem at x = 0 to unity. ∫ ∞. −∞.
Transverse Ising model with multi-impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Xuchu; Yang, Zhihua
2015-01-01
We study the transverse Ising spin model with spin-1 impurities under the exact solution. We develop a universal method to deal with the multi-impurity problem by introducing a displacement quantity in the wave function and get a recursive formula to simplify the calculation of the partition function. This allows us to rigorously determine the impurity effects for a specific distribution of impurity in the thermodynamic limit. The low temperature behaviors are governed by the interplay between host and impurity excitations, and the quantum critical fluctuations around the critical point of the transverse Ising model are tuned by the transverse field and the concentration of impurity. However the impurity effects are limited, which depends on the host–impurity exchange interaction and the coupling strength of impurities. - Highlights: • A universal method is proposed to exactly resolve the transverse Ising model with many impurities. • The phase diagram of the ground state is obtained for different impurity concentrations. • The thermodynamic properties can be determined rigorously by a recursive formula in the thermodynamic limit
Transversals in non-discrete groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1963). [7] Lal R, Transversals in groups, J. Alg. 181 (1996) 70–81. [8] Lal R and Shukla R P, Perfectly stable subgroups of finite groups, Comm. Alg. 24(2). (1996) 643–657. [9] Lal R and Shukla R P, A characterization of Tarski monsters, ...
Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Samyobrata Mukherjee
2017-07-25
Jul 25, 2017 ... Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons. SAMYOBRATA MUKHERJEE1, A V GOPAL2 and S DUTTA GUPTA1,∗. 1School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, India. 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of ...
EFFECT OF CHANNEL BENDS ON TRANSVERSE MIXING
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
2017-06-05
Jun 5, 2017 ... dy, where d is the flow depth, was found to vary laterally in all cross-sections. As the spiral motion due to the second bend develops it displaces the residual spiral motion from the first bend towards the outer bend causing it to decay completely around the middle of this bend. Transverse Tracer Distribution.
Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.
2017-12-01
Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.
Injection optimization in a heavy-ion synchrotron using genetic algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appel, S., E-mail: s.appel@gsi.de [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Petrov, F. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2017-04-21
The control of the beam loss induced dynamic pressure is one of the most challenging problems for synchrotrons operated with high intensity beams of intermediate charge state ions. This loss-induced vacuum degradation and associated life-time reduction is one of the key intensity limiting factors. Beam loss during Multi-Turn Injection (MTI) can trigger the pressure bump instability. An optimized injection can relax the dynamic vacuum problem, but is also crucial to fill the available machine acceptance. A numerical model has been developed to describe the intensity limitation due to loss-induced vacuum degradation. In order to optimize the multi-turn injection for given initial losses, a genetic algorithm based optimization has been performed. For the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI the optimization resulted in a significant improvement of MTI performance and subsequent transmission for intense beams. A range of suitable injector brilliances for given initial loss could be defined. This information is crucial for the layout of the injector upgrade for FAIR. The effect of transverse space charge force on MTI has been included in the optimization studies.
Phased-array vector velocity estimation using transverse oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl, Michael Johannes; Marcher, Jønne; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2012-01-01
A method for estimating the 2-D vector velocity of blood using a phased-array transducer is presented. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method. The purposes of this work are to expand the TO method to a phased-array geometry and to broaden the potential clinical applicabil......A method for estimating the 2-D vector velocity of blood using a phased-array transducer is presented. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method. The purposes of this work are to expand the TO method to a phased-array geometry and to broaden the potential clinical...... of the TO method using a phased-array transducer for vector velocity estimation is evaluated through simulation and flow-rig measurements are acquired using an experimental scanner. The vast number of calculations needed to perform flow simulations makes the optimization of the TO fields a cumbersome process......, but with a poorer performance compared with a 128-element transducer. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the TO method is suitable for use in conjunction with a phased-array transducer, and that 2-D vector velocity estimation is possible down to a depth of 15 cm....
[A case of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the transverse colon].
Kusakabe, Jiro; Miki, Akira; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Uryuhara, Kenji; Hashida, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Masaki; Kaihara, Satoshi; Hosotani, Ryo; Yamashita, Daisuke
2014-11-01
A 7 1-year-old man presented to our hospital with constipation and abdominal pain. Computed tomography of the abdomen and colonoscopy revealed advanced cancer of the transverse colon. The biopsy specimen indicated a highly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent extended right hemicolectomy with regional lymph node dissection. Pathological examination showed a neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) with concurrent adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon and regional lymph node metastases of the NEC and adenocarcinoma. The histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) in accordance with the 2010 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Digestive System. Liver and lung metastases were identified 8 months after the surgery. We administered chemotherapy including 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX) plus bevacizumab, with limited therapeutic effect, as the disease progressed despite treatment. The patient chose best supportive care 13 months after the surgery. Several studies have reported that most patients with adenoendocrine cell carcinoma, including MANEC, experience relapse within 1 year after surgery, and few patients remain disease-free for long periods after surgery. The optimal strategy for the management of MANEC is variable owing to its rarity; only 2 cases of MANEC in the colon, including the present case, have been reported in Japan. It is thus important to gather more evidence on this disease and its management.
Sedative and muscle relaxant activities of diterpenoids from Phlomidoschema parviflorum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdur Rauf
Full Text Available Abstract Phlomidoschema parviflorum (Benth. Vved. (Basionym: Stachys parviflora Benth. Lamiaceae, have significance medicinal importance as it is used in number of health disorders including diarrhea, fever, sore mouth and throat, internal bleeding, weaknesses of the liver and heart genital tumors, sclerosis of the spleen, inflammatory tumors and cancerous ulcers. The present contribution deals with the sedative and muscle relaxant like effects of diterpenoids trivially named stachysrosane and stachysrosane, isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of P. parviflorum. Both compounds (at 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, i.p were assessed for their in vivo sedative and muscle relaxant activity in open field and inclined plane test, respectively. The geometries of both compounds were optimized with density functional theory. The molecular docking of both compounds were performed with receptor gamma aminobutyric acid. Both compounds showed marked activity in a dose dependent manner. The docking studies showed that both compounds interact strongly with important residues in receptor gamma aminobutyric acid. The reported data demonstrate that both compounds exhibited significant sedative and muscle relaxant-like effects in animal models, which opens a door for novel therapeutic applications.
{sup 15}N relaxation study of the cold shock protein CspB at various solvent viscosities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeeb, Markus; Jacob, Maik H. [Universitaet Bayreuth, Laboratorium fuer Biochemie (Germany); Schindler, Thomas [Hoffmann LaRoche AG (Switzerland); Balbach, Jochen [Universitaet Bayreuth, Laboratorium fuer Biochemie (Germany)], E-mail: jochen.balbach@uni-bayreuth.de
2003-11-15
For a detailed NMR study of the dynamics of the cold shock protein CspB from Bacillus subtilis, we determined {sup 15}N transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effects at different solvent viscosities. Up to a relative viscosity of 2, which is equivalent to 27% ethylene glycol (EG), the overall correlation time follows the linear Stokes-Einstein equation. At a relative viscosity of 6 (70% EG) the correlation time deviates from linearity by 30%, indicating that CspB tumbles at a higher rate as expected from the solvent viscosity probably due to a preferential binding of water molecules at the protein surface. The corresponding hydrodynamic radii, determined by NMR diffusion experiments, show no variation with viscosity. The amplitudes of intramolecular motions on a sub-nanosecond time scale revealed by an extended Lipari-Szabo analysis were mainly independent of the solvent viscosity. The lower limit of the NMR 'observation window' for the internal correlation time shifts above 0.5 ns at 70% EG, which is directly reflected in the experimentally derived internal correlation times. Chemical exchange contributions to the transverse relaxation rates derived from the Lipari-Szabo approach coincide with the experimentally determined values from the transverse {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N dipolar/{sup 15}N chemical shift anisotropy relaxation interference. These contributions originate from fast protein folding reactions on a millisecond timescale, which get retarded at increased solvent viscosities.
Pohjola, Teemu; Schoeller, Herbert
2000-12-01
In this work, we study the spin dynamics of Mn12-acetate molecules in the regime of thermally assisted tunneling. In particular, we describe the system in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field. Similar to recent experiments, the relaxation time/rate is found to display a series of resonances; their Lorentzian shape is found to stem from the tunneling. The dynamic susceptibility χ(ω) is calculated starting from the microscopic Hamiltonian and the resonant structure manifests itself also in χ(ω). Similar to recent results reported on another molecular magnet, Fe8, we find oscillations of the relaxation rate as a function of the transverse magnetic field when the field is directed along a hard axis of the molecules. This phenomenon is attributed to the interference of the geometrical or Berry phase. We propose susceptibility experiments to be carried out for strong transverse magnetic fields to study these oscillations and for a better resolution of the sharp satellite peaks in the relaxation rates.
Scaling of magnetic relaxation in Mn-12: a distribution of tunnel splittings
Sarachik, Myriam P.
2002-03-01
In magnetic fields applied parallel to the anisotropy axis, the relaxation of the magnetization of Mn_12-acetate measured for different sweep rates collapses onto a single scaled curve.(K. M. Mertes, Y. Suzuki, M. P. Sarachik, Y. Paltiel, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, E. M. Rumberger, and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 227205 (2001). The form of the scaling(E. M. Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 187203 (2001).) implies that the dominant symmetry-breaking process responsible for tunneling is a locally varying second-order transverse anisotropy, forbidden by tetragonal symmetry in the perfect crystal, which gives rise to a broad distribution of tunnel splittings in a real crystal of Mn_12-acetate. Different forms applied to even and odd-numbered steps provide a clear distinction between even resonances (associated with crystal anisotropy) and odd resonances (which require a transverse magnetic field).
Fast evaluation of protein dynamics from deficient 15N relaxation data
Jaremko, Łukasz
2018-03-28
Simple and convenient method of protein dynamics evaluation from the insufficient experimental N relaxation data is presented basing on the ratios, products, and differences of longitudinal and transverse N relaxation rates obtained at a single magnetic field. Firstly, the proposed approach allows evaluating overall tumbling correlation time (nanosecond time scale). Next, local parameters of the model-free approach characterizing local mobility of backbone amide N–H vectors on two different time scales, S and R, can be elucidated. The generalized order parameter, S, describes motions on the time scale faster than the overall tumbling correlation time (pico- to nanoseconds), while the chemical exchange term, R, identifies processes slower than the overall tumbling correlation time (micro- to milliseconds). Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of data handling are thoroughly discussed.
Transverse Periodic Beam Loading Effects in a Storage Ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, J.R.; Byrd, J.M.
2009-01-01
Uneven beam fill patterns in storage rings, such as gaps in the fill patterns, leads to periodic, or transient loading of the modes of the RF cavities. We show that an analogous effect can occur in the loading of a dipole cavity mode when the beam passes off the electrical center of the cavity mode. Although this effect is small, it results in a variation of the transverse offset of the beam along the bunch train. For ultralow emittance beams, such as optimized third generation light sources and damping rings, this effect results in a larger projected emittance of the beam compared with the single bunch emittance. The effect is particularly strong for the case when a strong dipole mode has been purposely added to the ring, such as a deflecting, or 'crab' cavity. We derive an approximate analytic solution for the variation of the beam-induced deflecting voltage along the bunch train.
Microlens Array Laser Transverse Shaping Technique for Photoemission Electron Source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ha, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH) (Korea, Republic of); Qiang, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Gai, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Power, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wisniewski, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Edstrom, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ruan, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Santucci, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2016-09-06
A common issue encountered in photoemission electron sources used in electron accelerators is distortion of the laser spot due to non ideal conditions at all stages of the amplification. Such a laser spot at the cathode may produce asymmetric charged beams that will result in degradation of the beam quality due to space charge at early stages of acceleration and fail to optimally utilize the cathode surface. In this note we study the possibility of using microlens arrays to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity of the drive laser pulse on UV photocathodes at both Fermilab Accelerator Science \\& Technology (FAST) facility and Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). In particular, we discuss the experimental characterization of the homogeneity and periodic patterned formation at the photocathode. Finally, we compare the experimental results with the paraxial analysis, ray tracing and wavefront propagation software.
Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Estimation using a Phased Array Transducer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marcher, Jønne; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Seerup, Gert
2012-01-01
greater than 100 mm. Tests at depths of 72 mm and 82 mm with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s, showed a relative mean bias ~Bvx that varied from 0 % and to 21 % and a relative mean standard deviation ~vx that varied from 18 % and to 51 %. The investigation showed an increasing bias with respect to depth, which......The Transverse Oscillation method has shown its commercial feasibility, providing the user with 2D velocity information. Todays implementation on commercial ultrasound platforms only support linear array transducers and are limited in depth. Extending the implementation to a phased array transducer...... leaves room for optimization. Despite the bias, the method has shown to work and produce reliable results, and 2D velocity estimates are provided within the entire color-box down to a depth of more than 100 mm making vector velocity imaging possible in the entire heart....
Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lund, Steven M.; Wootton, Christopher J.; Lee, Edward P.
2009-01-01
Transverse centroid oscillations are analyzed for a beam in a solenoid transport lattice. Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable 'alignment functions' and 'bending functions' that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by both mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on the properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering, and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields, respectively. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid oscillations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.
Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media
Stovas, A.
2013-09-09
The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Relaxation of the Shallow Acceptor Center Magnetic Moment in a Highly Doped Silicon
Mamedov, T N; Herlach, D; Gorelkin, V N; Gritsaj, K I; Duginov, V N; Kormann, O; Major, J V; Stoikov, A V; Zimmermann, U
2001-01-01
Results on the temperature dependence of the residual polarization of negative muons in crystalline silicon with germanium, boron and phosphorus impurities are presented. The measurements were carried out in a magnetic field of 0.1 T transverse to the direction of the muon spin in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. It is found that in a silicon sample with a high concentration of germanium impurity (9\\cdot 10^{19} cm^{-3}), as in the samples of n- and p-type silicon with impurity concentrations up to \\sim 10^{17} cm^{-3}, the relaxation rate \
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konrat, Robert; Tollinger, Martin
1999-01-01
A novel NMR experiment comprising adiabatic fast passage techniques for the measurement of heteronuclear self-relaxation rates in fully 15N-enriched proteins is described. Heteronuclear self-relaxation is monitored by performing adiabatic fast passage (AFP) experiments at variable adiabaticity (e.g., variation of RF spin-lock field intensity). The experiment encompasses gradient- selection and sensitivity-enhancement. It is shown that transverse relaxation rates derived with this method are in good agreement with the ones measured by the classical Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. An application of this method to the study of the carboxyl-terminal LIM domain of quail cysteine and glycine-rich protein qCRP2(LIM2) is presented
Automated measurement of nuclear relaxation times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geist, A.G.; Mazitov, R.K.
1989-01-01
The authors describe a method for determination of nuclear relaxation times T 1 and T 2 that is based on the linear relationship between these times and the areas bounded by the relaxation curves. A circuit for automated measurement of time T 1 using a B3-35 microcalculator is presented. They have used the described method for a number of years to measure the relaxation times of various nuclei in solutions - in particular, those of 7 Li and 133 Cs in aqueous solutions. The method has proven to be highly effective and accurate and has greatly reduced the measurement time, especially in the case of long T 1
Relaxation time in disordered molecular systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rocha, Rodrigo P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis-SC (Brazil); Freire, José A., E-mail: jfreire@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)
2015-05-28
Relaxation time is the typical time it takes for a closed physical system to attain thermal equilibrium. The equilibrium is brought about by the action of a thermal reservoir inducing changes in the system micro-states. The relaxation time is intuitively expected to increase with system disorder. We derive a simple analytical expression for this dependence in the context of electronic equilibration in an amorphous molecular system model. We find that the disorder dramatically enhances the relaxation time but does not affect its independence of the nature of the initial state.
Relaxation processes connected with electron localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper reviews a series of recent theoretical papers worked out in the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Lodz. Poland. These papers are mainly devoted to various relaxation processes connected with electron localization in irradiated disordered media as well as to the construction of the models of trapped or solvated electron. The models reviewed in this paper (the first part of the review) concern: (1) electron trap relaxation via electron tunnelling followed by molecular reorientation: (2) molecular structure of alcohol-hydrocarbon mixtures and electron localization in these matrices: (3) the glass relaxation effect on trapped electron reactions. (author)
Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.
2000-01-01
Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...
Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels
Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.
1986-05-01
Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.
Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids
Chudnovsky, Eugene
2006-03-01
Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).
[A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].
Park, J S
1992-01-01
Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151
Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A
1998-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...
Effects of Transverse Baffle Design on Reducing Liquid Sloshing in Partially Filled Tank Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue-lian Zheng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Longitudinal liquid sloshing in partially filled clear-bore tanks causes extensive degradation of tankers braking performance. To reduce the negative effect of longitudinal liquid sloshing on tankers, three kinds of transverse baffles were designed, namely, the conventional baffle, the circular baffle, and the staggered baffle. Each kind of baffle took several forms to investigate the impact of baffle installation angle, the sizes of holes pierced on the baffle, and their arrangement on the antisloshing effect. FLUENT software was used to simulate liquid sloshing in tanks equipped with different kinds of transverse baffles and subject to constant braking deceleration. A time-series analysis of the forces act on tank walls and transverse baffles was carried out. It was drawn that the baffle shape and its installation angle have great impact on the antisloshing effect of baffles. The study on the antisloshing effect of different transverse baffles is of great significance for tank vehicle driving and braking safety, as well as for the design of optimal transverse baffles.
High Transverse Energy Proton - Nuclear Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rice, James Allen [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
1983-06-01
A study of high transverse energy events resulting from 400 GeV protons scattering from targets of hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead has been performed with the E609 apparatus at Fermilab. Wire chambers and a highly segmented calorimeter detect secondary particles. The use of efficient jet collecting triggers and of a beam jet calorimeter have been originally applied to nuclear target studies in this thesis. $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling with hydrogen deviations is observed for $E_T$ and planarity. The data provide evidence that $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling results from multiple scattering.Evidence for hadron jets is seen with a large solid angle calorimeter for all the targets when triggers requiring two high $E_T$ single particles are employed. Jet cross-sections for nuclei are approximately determined herein. Jet event angular distributions possibly indicate that low and high transverse energy particles in jets from nuclei may result, in part, from different types of interactions.
Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...
Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2009-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the transverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure
Transverse Instability of a Rectangular Bunch
Balbekov, Valeri
2005-01-01
Some results of theoretical investigations of transverse dipole instability of a rectangular bunch are reported in this paper. Such a form is characteristic of the bunch in a rectangular potential wall which is created by a barrier-shaped acceleration field. Similar regime is a major one for accumulating and cooling of antiproton beams in the Fermilab Recycler Ring. In this case, the known theory of transverse instability of a bunched beam is inapplicable directly both because of "unusual" form of phase trajectories and strong dependence of synchrotron frequency on energy. A series of equations, adequately describing the instability is derived in the paper. Exact analytical solution is obtained for space charge dominated impedance, and some approximate methods are proposed for arbitrary impedance. The theory is applied to the Fermilab Recycler Ring including a numerical simulation.
Spectral Velocity Estimation in the Transverse Direction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2013-01-01
A method for estimating the velocity spectrum for a fully transverse flow at a beam-to-flow angle of 90is described. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method, where an oscillation across the ultrasound beam is made during receive processing. A fourth-order estimator based...... on the correlation of the received signal is derived. A Fourier transform of the correlation signal yields the velocity spectrum. Performing the estimation for short data segments gives the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, and it also works for a beam-to-flow angle of 90...... estimation scheme can reliably find the spectrum at 90, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with the SARUS experimental scanner and a BK 8820e convex array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark). A CompuFlow 1000 (Shelley Automation, Inc, Toronto, Canada...
MEASUREMENT OF TRANSVERSE ECHOES IN RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FISCHER, W.; SATOGATA, T.; TOMAS, R.
2005-01-01
Beam echoes are a very sensitive method to measure diffusion, and longitudinal echo measurements were performed in a number of machines. In RHIC, for the first time, a transverse beam echo was observed after applying a dipole kick followed by a quadrupole .kick. After application of the dipole kick, the dipole moment decohered completely due to lattice nonlinearities. When a quadrupole kick is applied at time τ after the dipole kick, the beam re-cohered at time 2τ thus showing an echo response. We describe the experimental setup and measurement results. In the measurements the dipole and quadrupole kick amplitudes, amplitude dependent tune shift, and the time between dipole and quadrupole kick were varied. In addition, measurements were taken with gold bunches of different intensities. These should exhibit different transverse diffusion rates due to intra-beam scattering
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome presenting as transverse myelitis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javvid M Dandroo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant. APS can occur either as a primary disorder or secondary to a connective tissue disease, most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most prominent clinical manifestations of APS, and includes arterial and venous thrombotic events, psychiatric features, and a variety of other nonthrombotic neurological syndromes. Although the mechanism of neurological involvement in patients with APS is thought to be thrombotic in origin and endothelial dysfunction associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. APS presenting as acute transverse myelitis is very rarely seen with a prevalence rate of 1%. We are describing a foreigner female presenting as acute transverse myelitis which on evaluation proved to be APS induced. So far, very few cases have been reported in literature with APS as etiology.
Nonlinear theory of transverse beam echoes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Tanaji; Li, Yuan Shen
2017-10-04
Transverse beam echoes can be excited with a single dipole kick followed by a single quadrupole kick. They have been used to measure diffusion in hadron beams and have other diagnostic capabilities. Here we develop theories of the transverse echo nonlinear in both the dipole and quadrupole kick strengths. The theories predict the maximum echo amplitudes and the optimum strength parameters. We find that the echo amplitude increases with smaller beam emittance and the asymptotic echo amplitude can exceed half the initial dipole kick amplitude. We show that multiple echoes can be observed provided the dipole kick is large enough. The spectrum of the echo pulse can be used to determine the nonlinear detuning parameter with small amplitude dipole kicks. Simulations are performed to check the theoretical predictions. In the useful ranges of dipole and quadrupole strengths, they are shown to be in reasonable agreement.
Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab
2011-07-01
Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.
An improved Lagrangian relaxation and dual ascent approach to facility location problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jörnsten, Kurt; Klose, Andreas
2016-01-01
in finding an optimal solution to a mixed integer program than a “solver” applied to the initial MIP formulation, provided that “small” optimal multiplier values can be found in a few iterations. Recently, a simplification of the semi-Lagrangian relaxation scheme has been suggested in the literature...... not be reduced to the same extent as in the case of ordinary semi-Lagrangian relaxation. Hence, an effective method for optimizing the Lagrangian dual function is of utmost importance for obtaining a computational advantage from the simplified Lagrangian dual function. In this paper, we suggest a new dual ascent...... method for optimizing both the semi-Lagrangian dual function as well as its simplified form for the case of a generic discrete facility location problem and apply the method to the uncapacitated facility location problem. Our computational results show that the method generally only requires a very few...
Modified Halfspace-Relaxation Projection Methods for Solving the Split Feasibility Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents modified halfspace-relaxation projection (HRP methods for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP. Incorporating with the techniques of identifying the optimal step length with positive lower bounds, the new methods improve the efficiencies of the HRP method (Qu and Xiu (2008. Some numerical results are reported to verify the computational preference.
The LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) Performance Specification
Boussard, Daniel; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division
1997-01-01
The appended document specifies the performance of the transverse damper (ADT) for the LHC. As Annex 1 of the Addendum No.1 to the Protocol of April 18, 1997; it forms part of the 1992 co-operation agreement between CERN and JINR (Dubna, Russia) concerning its participation in the LHC project. The current text is a reprint of the original version. Changes that have been agreed upon are inserted as footnotes.
Sasakian manifolds with purely transversal Bach tensor
Ghosh, Amalendu; Sharma, Ramesh
2017-10-01
We show that a (2n + 1)-dimensional Sasakian manifold (M, g) with a purely transversal Bach tensor has constant scalar curvature ≥2 n (2 n +1 ) , equality holding if and only if (M, g) is Einstein. For dimension 3, M is locally isometric to the unit sphere S3. For dimension 5, if in addition (M, g) is complete, then it has positive Ricci curvature and is compact with finite fundamental group π1(M).
Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.
1984-01-01
The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage one have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. It is only concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be given in the next paper. (Author) [pt
Transversally Lipschitz Harmonic Functions are Lipschitz
Ravisankar, Sivaguru
2012-01-01
Let \\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^n be a bounded domain with C^\\infty boundary. We show that a harmonic function in \\Omega that is Lipschitz along a family of curves transversal to b\\Omega is Lipschitz in \\Omega. The space of Lipschitz functions we consider is defined using the notion of a majorant which is a certain generalization of the power functions t^\\alpha, 0
Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoddart, H.F.
1982-01-01
A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus comprises a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array that surrounds a scan field of interest. Each collimator is moveable relative to its adjacent collimator. Means are provided for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field
Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf
2010-01-01
We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... excellent agreement for the Likhtman-McLeish theory using the double reptation approximation for constraint release, if we remove the contribution of high-frequency modes to contour length fluctuations of the primitive chain....
The Irreversible Thermodynamics of Chemical Relaxation.
Schelly, Z. A.
1980-01-01
Discusses the thermodynamics of relaxation methods, considering (1) mode of perturbation of chemical equilibria, (2) enforced change of the concentrations, and (3) chemical contributions to equations of state. (CS)
Can Transabdominal Sonography Predict Pelvic Relaxation?
Atoosa Adibi; Mahtab Zargham
2009-01-01
Introduction: Pelvic relaxation and cystocele is a common problem in middle to old age women. Transabdominal ultrasound (TAS) is a noninvasive, available routine procedure in many situations. We evaluated whether TAS can predict pelvic relaxation or not. "nMaterials and Methods: In a cross sectional case- control study one hundred women 30 years or older were enrolled into the study. An expert female urologist examined the cases for the presence of signs and the grading of pelvic relaxat...
Dynamics of helicity transport and Taylor relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Malkov, M.
2003-01-01
A simple model of the dynamics of Taylor relaxation is derived using symmetry principles alone. No statistical closure approximations are invoked or detailed plasma model properties assumed. Notably, the model predicts several classes of nondiffusive helicity transport phenomena, including traveling nonlinear waves and superdiffusive turbulent pulses. A universal expression for the scaling of the effective magnetic Reynolds number of a system undergoing Taylor relaxation is derived. Some basic properties of intermittency in helicity transport are examined
Lagrange relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
1989-01-01
The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods......The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods...
Relaxation and hypnosis in pediatric dental patients.
Peretz, B
1996-01-01
Relaxation and hypnosis are methods which, may solve the problem of extreme dental anxiety, when all other methods, behavioral or pharmacological may not be used. A simple definition of hypnosis is suggestion and repetition. Suggestion is the process whereby an individual accepts a proposition put to him by another, without having the slightest logical reason for doing so. Relaxation is one method of inducing hypnosis. A case of using hypnosis on an 11-year-old boy is described.
Control of dipolar relaxation in external fields
Pasquiou, B.; Bismut, G.; Beaufils, Q.; Crubellier, A.; Maréchal, E.; Pedri, P.; Vernac, L.; Gorceix, O.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.
2010-04-01
We study dipolar relaxation in both ultracold thermal and Bose-condensed Cr atom gases. We show three different ways to control dipolar relaxation, making use of either a static magnetic field, an oscillatory magnetic field, or an optical lattice to reduce the dimensionality of the gas from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D). Although dipolar relaxation generally increases as a function of a static magnetic-field intensity, we find a range of nonzero magnetic-field intensities where dipolar relaxation is strongly reduced. We use this resonant reduction to accurately determine the S=6 scattering length of Cr atoms: a6=103±4a0. We compare this new measurement to another new determination of a6, which we perform by analyzing the precise spectroscopy of a Feshbach resonance in d-wave collisions, yielding a6=102.5±0.4a0. These two measurements provide, by far, the most precise determination of a6 to date. We then show that, although dipolar interactions are long-range interactions, dipolar relaxation only involves the incoming partial wave l=0 for large enough magnetic-field intensities, which has interesting consequences on the stability of dipolar Fermi gases. We then study ultracold Cr gases in a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice resulting in a collection of independent 2D gases. We show that dipolar relaxation is modified when the atoms collide in reduced dimensionality at low magnetic-field intensities, and that the corresponding dipolar relaxation rate parameter is reduced by a factor up to 7 compared to the 3D case. Finally, we study dipolar relaxation in the presence of rf oscillating magnetic fields, and we show that both the output channel energy and the transition amplitude can be controlled by means of the rf frequency and Rabi frequency.
Levitation and guidance force relaxations of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO superconductors
Abdioglu, M.; Ozturk, K.; Kabaer, M.; Ekici, M.
2018-01-01
The stable levitation and guidance forces at higher force levels are important parameters for technological applicability of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) in Maglev and Flywheel energy storage systems. In this study, we have investigated the levitation and guidance force relaxation of both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs for different (HTS)-permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) arrangements in different cooling heights (CH). The measured saturated force values of Halbach PMG arrangements are bigger than the maximum force values of other PMGs. It is determined that the normalized magnetic levitation force (MLF) and normalized guidance force (GF) relaxation rate values decrease while the relaxation rates increase with increasing magnetic pole number and the effective external magnetic field area for both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO. Also it can be said that the force stability at the higher force value of Halbach PMG arrangement indicates that the relaxation quality of Halbach PMG is better than that of the others. Additionally, it can be said that both the MLF and GF relaxation qualities of the multi-seeded YBCOs are better than that of the single-seeded ones. This magnetic force and relaxation results of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs are useful to optimize the loading capacity and lateral reliability of HTS Maglev and similar magnetic bearing systems.
Prediction of stress relaxation under multiaxial stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandstroem, R.; Malen, K.; Otterberg, R.
1981-01-01
Computations have been made of the relaxation of residual stresses in a thick walled tube under conditions corresponding to commercial stress relief heat treatment of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel A533B. The distribution of residual stresses which were introduced was peaked around a given radius in the tube. The relax- ation of the equivalent stresses followed almost exactly a uniaxial behavior. The relaxation rate of the hydrostatic stress was of about the same order or slower than that of the equivalent stress. The time dependence of the hydrostatic stress was mainly controlled by the initial magnitude of hydrostatic stress whereas the degree of the constraint and thereby the boundary conditions at the tube walls had only a small influence. The relaxation rate decreased with increasing initial magnitude of the hydrostatic stress. The computed relaxation behaviour under multiaxial stress could be rationalized in terms of a developed model. This model was also suc- cessfully applied to Gott's measurements on stress relaxation during stress relief heat treatment of a welded joint between 130 mm thick plates of A533B where the stress state was highly triaxial. (Authors)
Fast relaxational motions in polycarbonate glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saviot, L.; Duval, E.; Jal, J.F.; Dianoux, A.J.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Inelastic neutron scattering from amorphous bis-phenol A polycarbonate was observed as a function of temperature from 15 K to 390 K (Tg = 420 K). The deduced mean square displacement and the vibrational density of states show that relaxational motions exist down to a temperature of 80 K. The relaxational scattering function, S(Q,t), can be described by two different regimes of relaxation: (1) a Debye-like process, with a characteristic time close to 1 ps, which is very weakly thermally activated; (2) a much slower process, which is thermally activated. The contribution of the fastest relaxation is related to the dynamical hole volume measured by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, as already observed for the poly(methyl methacrylate) glass [1]. The dependence of the momentum transfer will be considered in order to obtain informations on the localization or diffusivity of the oberved different relaxations. This study of relaxation in a polymeric glass will be compared with a previous work [2]. (author)
Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.
Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P
2017-10-04
We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.
Rindler fluid with weak momentum relaxation
Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Zhang, Yun-Long
2018-01-01
We realize the weak momentum relaxation in Rindler fluid, which lives on the time-like cutoff surface in an accelerating frame of flat spacetime. The translational invariance is broken by massless scalar fields with weak strength. Both of the Ward identity and the momentum relaxation rate of Rindler fluid are obtained, with higher order correction in terms of the strength of momentum relaxation. The Rindler fluid with momentum relaxation could also be approached through the near horizon limit of cutoff AdS fluid with momentum relaxation, which lives on a finite time-like cutoff surface in Anti-de Sitter(AdS) spacetime, and further could be connected with the holographic conformal fluid living on AdS boundary at infinity. Thus, in the holographic Wilson renormalization group flow of the fluid/gravity correspondence with momentum relaxation, the Rindler fluid can be considered as the Infrared Radiation(IR) fixed point, and the holographic conformal fluid plays the role of the ultraviolet(UV) fixed point.
Transverse electron beam diagnostics at REGAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayesteh, Shima
2014-12-01
The use of high-intensity electron and X-ray pulsed sources allows for the direct observation of atomic motions as they occur. While the production of such high coherent, brilliant, short X-ray pulses requires large-scale and costly accelerator facilities, it is feasible to employ a high-intensity source of electrons by exploiting a more compact design. The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) facility is a small linear accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, equipped with a photocathode radio frequency (RF) gun that produces relativistic ultra-short (<100 fs), low charge (<1 pC) electron bunches of high coherence. By means of time-resolved diffraction experiments, such an electron source can probe ultrafast laser-induced atomic structural changes that occur with a temporal resolution of ∝100 fs. A comprehensive characterization of the electron beam, for every pulse, is of fundamental importance to study the atomic motions with the desired resolution and quality. This thesis reports on the transversal diagnostics of the electron beam with an emphasis on a scintillator-based beam profile monitor. The diagnostics is capable of evaluating the beam parameters such as charge, energy, energy spread and transverse profile, at very low charges and on a shot-to-shot basis. A full characterization of the scintillator's emission, the optical setup and the detector (camera) of the profile monitor is presented, from which an absolute charge calibration of the system is derived. The profile monitor is specially developed to accommodate more applications, such as dark current suppression, overlapping the electron probe and the laser pump within 1 ns accuracy, as well as charge and transverse emittance measurements. For the determination of the transverse emittance two techniques were applied. The first one introduces a new method that exploits a diffraction pattern to measure the emittance, while the second one is based on a version of the Pepper-pot technique. A
SpectrRelax: An application for Mössbauer spectra modeling and fitting
Matsnev, M. E.; Rusakov, V. S.
2012-10-01
The SpectrRelax application was created for analysis and fitting of absorption and emission Mossbauer spectra of isotopes with 1/2 ↔ 3/2 transitions. Available models include a single Pseudo-Voigt line, doublet, and a sextet, a number of relaxation models, and a distribution of hyperfine/relaxation parameters of any model. SpectRelax can evaluate user supplied analytical expressions of model parameters and their error estimates. Complex parameter constraints or even new models can be implemented by setting parameter values to analytical expressions. Optimal model parameters search is performed using a maximum likelihood criterion in a Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) algorithm. In the search process, a matrix of linear correlation coefficients between model parameters is calculated along with the error estimates, which allows better understanding of the optimized results. Partial derivatives of the model functions are evaluated using a "dual numbers" algorithm, which provides exact derivatives values at any point and improves the L-M method convergence. SpectrRelax runs under Windows operating systems by Microsoft. The application has a modern graphical user interface with extensive model editing and preview capabilities.
Transport Mean Free Path for Magneto-Transverse Light Diffusion
Lacoste, D.; van Tiggelen, B. A.
1998-01-01
We derive an expression for the transport mean free path $\\ell^*_\\perp$ associated with magneto-transverse light diffusion for a random collection of Faraday-active Mie scatterers. This expression relates the magneto-transverse diffusion in multiple scattering directly to the magneto-transverse scattering of a single scatterer.
Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bressan, A.
1996-07-01
This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)
Evaluation of Transverse Lie at Term by Ultrasonography | Oyinloye ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Context: Transverse lie at term may have adverse consequences on both the mother and the foetus. Evaluating transverse lie at term by ultrasonography may reduce these adverse consequences and improve both the maternal and fetal outcome. Objectives: To determine predisposing factors to persistent transverse lie at ...
A Comparative Evaluation of Three Relaxation Training Procedures.
Brandon, Jeffrey E.
Comparison was made between the effectiveness of three relaxation training procedures: (1) Behavioral Relaxation Training, which consisted of training in relaxing specific parts of the body and controlling breathing; (2) Meditation (based on Benson's procedure for eliciting the relaxation response); and (3) Seashore Sounds "Attention Focusing,"…
Molecular potentials and relaxation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karo, A.M.
1981-01-01
The use of empirical pseudopotentials, in evaluating interatomic potentials, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for obtaining highly accurate potential curves and permits the modeling of core-valence correlation, and the inclusion of relativistic effects when these are significant. As an example, recent calculations of the chi 1 Σ + and a 3 Σ + states of LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH and the chi 2 Σ + states of their anions are discussed. Pseudopotentials, including core polarization terms, have been used to replace the core electrons, and this has been coupled with the development of compact, highly-optimized basis sets for the corresponding one- and two-electron atoms. Comparisons of the neutral potential curves with experiment and other ab initio calculations show good agreement (within 1000 cm -1 over most of the potential curves) with the difference curves being considerably more accurate
Managing Consistency Anomalies in Distributed Integrated Databases with Relaxed ACID Properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frank, Lars; Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus
2014-01-01
has to be optimized. Therefore, we will in this paper use so called relaxed ACID properties across different locations. The objective of designing relaxed ACID properties across different database locations is that the users can trust the data they use even if the distributed database temporarily...... distributed consistency property. We will also illustrate how to use the countermeasures against the consistency anomalies in ERP systems integrated with heterogeneous E-commerce systems and the databases of mobile salesman ERP modules. The methods described in this paper may be used in so called CAP...
Generating catalogs of transverse matching solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swain, G.; Busch, P.; Burns, M.
1989-01-01
Programs such as TRANSPORT or TRACE can find transverse beam matching solutions one at a time when given appropriate starting conditions. In the present work, an algorithm is described which rapidly finds a catalog of approximate transverse beam matching solutions. For a given initial beam, the algorithm finds the gradients of four quadrupole magnets such as to get four Twiss parameters (alpha and beta for horizontal and vertical planes) which are close to a set of desired values at the exit of a constant-energy beam line with no horizontal-vertical cross coupling and no space charge. The beam line may contain bending elements with edge corrections and other elements for which the r matrixes are known. The algorithm transforms the entrance and exit beam specifications to waist specifications, and uses the properties of waist-to-waist transport to reduce the problem from a four dimensional search to a two dimensional search. At the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator, transverse matching is important in the low-energy transport lines (0.75 MeV), where beams from the H + , H/sup /minus//, and polarized H/sup /minus// sources must be tailored for injection into the drift-tube linac; and in the transition region (100 MeV), where the beam from the drift-tube linac is injected into the side-coupled linac. Space charge has significant effects in the low-energy transport, but it is still valuable to get no-space-charge matching solutions as a starting point for solutions with space charge. 2 refs
Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajjan, Mohammed
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias
2007-01-01
objective function values are calculated by treating a sequence of continuous but non-convex relaxations of the original mixed-integer problem. The main effect of using this approach lies in the fact that these relaxed problems can be equivalently reformulated as convex problems and, thus, can be solved...... to global optimality. In addition, these convex problems can be further relaxed to quadratic programs for which very efficient numerical solution procedures exist. By exploiting this special problem structure, much larger problem instances can be solved to global optimality compared to similar mixed...
A Survey for Transverse Nasal Groove
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K Pavithran
1989-01-01
Full Text Available Out of 3000 consecutive subjects surveyed for the typical lesion of transverse nasal groove, 180 were found to have the characteristic lesions. In LU patients, the floor of the groove was studded with patulous hair follicles, greasy sale and black comedones. The age of the patients varied from 16 to 45 years, the majority belonged to the 20 to 30 age group. Family occurrence of the groove was noted ′in only 7.Seboffhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor and acne vulgaris were the commonly associated diseases.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and transverse sinus stenoses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skyrman, Simon; Fytagoridis, Anders; Andresen, Morten
2013-01-01
An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and bilateral transverse sinus stenoses (TSS), after presenting with papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of >60 cm H2O. MRI showed bilateral TSS believed to be asso...... was inserted since the patient had improved with CSF diversion. MRI verified reopening of the venous sinuses after shunt placement, and the patient remains asymptomatic with no signs of relapse after 3 years of follow-up....
Transverse entanglement migration in Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K. W.; Torres, J. P.; Eberly, J. H.
2007-01-01
We show that, although the amount of mutual entanglement of photons propagating in free space is fixed, the type of correlations between the photons that determine the entanglement can dramatically change during propagation. We show that this amounts to a migration of entanglement in Hilbert space, rather than real space. For the case of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the migration of entanglement in transverse coordinates takes place from modulus to phase of the biphoton state and back again. We propose an experiment to observe this migration in Hilbert space and to determine the full entanglement
Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)
2015-03-26
We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.
Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum
Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department
2017-01-01
Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.
Asymmetrical transverse structures in nonlinear interferometers
Romanov, O G
2003-01-01
The work presents a novel type of optical instability, which leads to the spontaneous formation of a stationary or pulsating asymmetrical structure in the problem of interaction between two counterpropagating waves in a ring cavity with Kerr-like nonlinearity. Linear stability analysis of interferometer transmission stationary states enabled: (1) to mark out typical bifurcations for this system: self- and cross-modulational instabilities, (2) to determine the range of parameters for which the symmetry breaking of transverse structures and complex temporal behaviour of the light field could be observed. The predictions of linear stability analysis have been verified with numerical modelling of coupled-modes equations.
Transversity GPD in photo- and electroproduction of two vectormesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enberg, Rikard; Pire, Bernard; Szymanowski, Lech
2006-01-17
The chiral-odd generalized parton distribution (GPD), or transversity GPD, of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the photo- or electroproduction of two vector mesons on a polarized nucleon target, {gamma}{sup (*)}N {yields} {rho}{sub 1}{rho}{sub 2}N', where {rho}{sub 1} is produced at large transverse momentum, {rho}{sub 2} is transversely polarized, and the mesons are separated by a large rapidity gap. We predict the cross section for this process for both transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2} production. To this end we propose a model for the transversity GPDH{sub T}(x,{zeta},t), and give an estimate of the relative sizes of the transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2}cross sections. We show that a dedicated experiment at high energy should be able to measure the transversity content of the proton.
MR imaging of alar and transverse atlantal ligament injuries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Echigoya, Naoki; Harata, Seiko; Ueyama, Kazumasa (Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine); Nakano, Keisuke
1992-06-01
Autopsy findings of ligaments of the upper cervical spine were compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Ligaments were clearly shown as hypointensity on T1-weighted images and proton density images. Transverse images were useful in diagnosing alar and transverse atlantal ligament injuries. When there is a bilateral difference in the alar ligaments, ruptured ligament is suspected. Transverse ligament rupture was shown on interrupted hypointensity and as hyperintensity. MRI was capable of diagnosing alar ligament rupture in 8 of 11 patients, and transverse ligament rupture in all 3 patients. In 2 patients having Jefferson's fracture and injuried atlanoaxial subluxation encountered in the clinical practice, transverse ligament rupture was similarly observed as that in autopsy cases on MR images. Hyperintensity in the transverse ligament rupture area was seen even one year after injury. Injured transverse ligament was seen as swollen hyperintensity on sagittal images; and the hyperintensity was gradually decreased with the process of healing. (N.K.).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan DOBROTĂ
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The role of processing by machining is to generate surfaces that have to meet the requirements imposed by the designer through the execution drawing of the piece. The study aims to analyze how the functional geometry of the tool evolves when lathing with a transverse advance. The technological process of lathing with transverse advance is realized with a variable machining speed, and this also causes a variation of the functional geomtry of the tool. Thus, in the paper was established the optimal construction geometry of a lathe knife that can be used for lathing a piece of a certain diameter. Under these conditions, a correlation was established between the values of the geometrical constructive parameters of the knife used for the transverse lathing and the diameter of the workpiece which can be processed in optimal conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlüter, Steffen [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Berg, Steffen [Shell Global Solutions International B.V., Rijswijk Netherlands; Li, Tianyi [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Vogel, Hans-Jörg [Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle Germany; Wildenschild, Dorthe [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA
2017-06-01
The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, and relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.
Energy relaxation between low lying tunnel split spin-states of the single molecule magnet Ni4
de Loubens, G.; Chaves-O'Flynn, G. D.; Kent, A. D.; Ramsey, C.; Del Barco, E.; Beedle, C.; Hendrickson, D. N.
2007-03-01
We have developed integrated magnetic sensors to study quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in single molecule magnet (SMMs) single crystals. These sensors incorporate a microstrip resonator (30 GHz) and a micro-Hall effect magnetometer. They have been used to investigate the relaxation rates between the 2 lowest lying tunnel split spin-states of the SMM Ni4 (S=4). EPR spectroscopy at 30 GHz and 0.4 K and concurrent magnetization measurements of several Ni4 single crystals are presented. EPR enables measurement of the energy splitting between the 2 lowest lying superposition states as a function of the longitudinal and transverse fields. The energy relaxation rate is determined in two ways. First, in cw microwave experiments the change in spin-population together with the microwave absorption directly gives the relaxation time from energy conservation in steady-state. Second, direct time-resolved measurements of the magnetization with pulsed microwave radiation have been performed. The relaxation time is found to vary by several orders of magnitude in different crystals, from a few seconds down to smaller than 100 μs. We discuss this and the form of the relaxation found for different crystals and pulse conditions.
Smolensky, Eric D; Park, Hee-Yun E; Zhou, Yue; Rolla, Gabriele A; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Botta, Mauro; Pierre, Valérie C
2013-06-14
The magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles govern their relaxivities and efficacy as contrast agents for MRI. These properties are in turn determined by their composition, size and morphology. Herein we present a systematic study of the effect of particle size and shape of magnetite nanocrystals synthesized by thermal decompositions of iron salts on both their magnetism and their longitudinal and transverse relaxivities, r 1 and r 2 , respectively. Faceted nanoparticles demonstrate superior magnetism and relaxivities than spherical nanoparticles of similar size. For faceted nanoparticles, but not for spherical ones, r 1 and r 2 further increase with increasing particle size up to a size of 18 nm. This observation is in accordance with increasing saturation magnetization for nanoparticles increasing in size up to 12 nm, above which a plateau is observed. The NMRD (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Dispersion) profiles of MIONs (Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles) display an increase in longitudinal relaxivity with decreasing magnetic field strength with a plateau below 1 MHz. The transverse relaxivity shows no dependence on the magnetic field strength between 20 MHz and 500 MHz. These observations translate to phantom MR images: in T 1 -weighted SWIFT (SWeep imaging with Fourier Transform) images MIONs have a positive contrast with little dependence on particle size, whereas in T 2 -weighted gradient-echo images MIONs create a negative contrast which increases in magnitude with increasing particle size. Altogether, these results will enable the development of particulate MRI contrast agents with enhanced efficacy for biomedical and clinical applications.
Scalar top study: Detector optimization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
November 2007 physics pp. 921–926. Scalar top study: Detector optimization. C MILSTÉNE1 and A SOPCZAK2,∗. 1Fermi National Laboratory, Batavia, Il-60510, USA ... A vertex detector concept of the linear collider flavour identification (LCFI) collaboration .... A minimal transverse momentum cut, pt > 5 GeV, is applied.
Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.
Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A
2004-01-01
Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to
Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.
2011-01-01
We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry A N (t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of A N observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a 1 -Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a 1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a 1 p cross section. We replace the Regge a 1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1 + S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of A N are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.
Transverse Field Effect in Fluxgate Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V
1997-01-01
A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non-linearity......A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non......-linearity are made with a spectrum analyser, measuring the higher harmonics of an applied sinusoidal field. For a sensor with a permalloy ringcore of 1" in diameter the deviation from linearity is measured to about 15 nTp-p in the earth's field and the measurements are shown to fit well the calculations. Further......, the measurements and the calculations are also compared with a calibration model of the fluxgate sensor onboard the "MAGSAT" satellite. The later has a deviation from linearity of about 50 nTp-p but shows basically the same form of non-linearity as the measurements....
Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations
Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.
2018-01-01
We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.
Slow relaxation of rapidly rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hod, Shahar
2008-01-01
We study analytically the relaxation phase of perturbed, rapidly rotating black holes. In particular, we derive a simple formula for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes. The formula is expressed in terms of the black hole physical parameters: ω=mΩ-i2πT BH (n+(1/2)), where T BH and Ω are the temperature and angular velocity of the black hole, and m is the azimuthal harmonic index of a corotating equatorial mode. This formula implies that the relaxation period τ∼1/ω of the black hole becomes extremely long as the extremal limit T BH →0 is approached. The analytically derived formula is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the black hole resonances. We use our results to demonstrate analytically the fact that near-extremal Kerr black holes saturate the recently proposed universal relaxation bound.
Relaxation oscillation logic in Josephson junction circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fulton, T.A.
1981-01-01
A dc powered, self-resetting Josephson junction logic circuit relying on relaxation oscillations is described. A pair of Josephson junction gates are connected in series, a first shunt is connected in parallel with one of the gates, and a second shunt is connected in parallel with the series combination of gates. The resistance of the shunts and the dc bias current bias the gates so that they are capable of undergoing relaxation oscillations. The first shunt forms an output line whereas the second shunt forms a control loop. The bias current is applied to the gates so that, in the quiescent state, the gate in parallel with the second shunt is at V O, and the other gate is undergoing relaxation oscillations. By controlling the state of the first gate with the current in the output loop of another identical circuit, the invert function is performed
Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator
Mosad, Ahmed G.
2013-09-01
This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.
Electron relaxation properties of Ar magnetron plasmas
Xinjing, CAI; Xinxin, WANG; Xiaobing, ZOU
2018-03-01
An understanding of electron relaxation properties in plasmas is of importance in the application of magnetrons. An improved multi-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation is employed to study electron transport and relaxation properties in plasmas. Elastic, inelastic and nonconservative collisions between electrons and neutral particles are considered. The expressions for the transport coefficients are obtained using the expansion coefficients and the collision operator term. Numerical solutions of the matrix equations for the expansion coefficients are also investigated. Benchmark calculations of the Reid model are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the improved multi-term approximation. It is shown that the two-term approximation is generally not accurate enough and the magnetic fields can reduce the anisotropy of the velocity distribution function. The electron relaxation properties of Ar plasmas in magnetrons for various magnetic fields are studied. It is demonstrated that the energy parameters change more slowly than the momentum parameters.
Asymptotic representation of relaxation oscillations in lasers
Grigorieva, Elena V
2017-01-01
In this book we analyze relaxation oscillations in models of lasers with nonlinear elements controlling light dynamics. The models are based on rate equations taking into account periodic modulation of parameters, optoelectronic delayed feedback, mutual coupling between lasers, intermodal interaction and other factors. With the aim to study relaxation oscillations we present the special asymptotic method of integration for ordinary differential equations and differential-difference equations. As a result, they are reduced to discrete maps. Analyzing the maps we describe analytically such nonlinear phenomena in lasers as multistability of large-amplitude relaxation cycles, bifurcations of cycles, controlled switching of regimes, phase synchronization in an ensemble of coupled systems and others. The book can be fruitful for students and technicians in nonlinear laser dynamics and in differential equations.
Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems
Ngai, K L
2011-01-01
Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...
Relaxation of the magnetization in magnetic molecules
Carretta, S.; Bianchi, A.; Liviotti, E.; Santini, P.; Amoretti, G.
2006-04-01
Several mechanisms characterize the relaxation dynamics in magnetic molecules. We investigate two of them, spin-lattice coupling and incoherent quantum tunneling. The effect of the phonon heat bath is studied by analyzing the exponential time decay of the autocorrelation of the magnetization. We show that in ferromagnetic (Cu6) and antiferromagnetic (Fe6) molecular rings this decay is characterized by a single characteristic time. At very low temperature, relaxation through incoherent quantum tunneling may occur in nanomagnets such as Fe8 or Ni4. The mixing between levels with different values of the total spin (S mixing) greatly influences this mechanism. In particular, we demonstrate that a fourth-order anisotropy term O44, required to interpret experimental electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation data in Ni4, naturally arises when S mixing is considered in calculations.
Relaxation drinks and their use in adolescents.
Stacy, Sylvie
2011-12-01
A new class of beverages called relaxation drinks advertises calming effects and an easy way to wind down when life gets stressful. This article examines these drinks in the context of their use in adolescents. A review of the literature relevant to relaxation drinks and their functional ingredients was conducted. The beverages contain ingredients such as melatonin, valerian, kava, tryptophan, and other products traditionally thought to play a role in sleep, sedation, or neurocognitive function. Studies of the efficacy and safety of these supplements are limited and many have significant methodological limitations. Despite appropriate warnings placed on the labels of relaxation drinks, marketing is cleverly designed to appeal to young consumers and often evokes the experiences produced by alcohol and drug use. Although moderate consumption of these beverages by healthy individuals is likely safe, an objective reduction in stress is improbable and associated adverse effects are possible.
Jung, Kyung Uk; Park, Yoonah; Lee, Kang Young; Sohn, Seung-Kook
2015-06-01
Robot-assisted surgery for colon cancer has been reported in many studies, most of which worked on right and/or sigmoid colectomy. The aim of this study was to report our experience of robotic transverse colectomy with an intracorporeal anastomosis, provide details of the surgical technique, and present the theoretical benefits of the procedure. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of robotic surgery for colorectal cancer performed by a single surgeon between May 2007 and February 2011. Out of 162 consecutive cases, we identified three robotic transverse colectomies, using a hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomosis. Two males and one female underwent transverse colectomies for malignant or premalignant disease. The mean docking time, time spent using the robot, and total operative time were 5, 268, and 307 min, respectively. There were no conversions to open or conventional laparoscopic technique. The mean length of specimen and number of lymph nodes retrieved were 14.1 cm and 6.7, respectively. One patient suffered from a wound seroma and recovered with conservative management. The mean hospital stay was 8.7 days. After a median follow-up of 72 months, there were no local or systemic recurrences. Robotic transverse colectomy seems to be a safe and feasible technique. It may minimize the necessity of mobilizing both colonic flexures, with facilitated intracorporeal hand-sewn anastomosis. However, further prospective studies with a larger number of patients are required to draw firm conclusions.
Single transverse-spin asymmetry in high transverse momentum pion production in pp collisions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, Christoforos; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Vogelsang, Werner
2006-01-01
We study the single-spin (left-right) asymmetry in single-inclusive pion production in hadronic scattering. This asymmetry is power-suppressed in the transverse momentum of the produced pion and can be analyzed in terms of twist-three parton correlation functions in the proton. We present new...
Predicting the effect of relaxation during frequency-selective adiabatic pulses
Pfaff, Annalise R.; McKee, Cailyn E.; Woelk, Klaus
2017-11-01
Adiabatic half and full passages are invaluable for achieving uniform, B1-insensitive excitation or inversion of macroscopic magnetization across a well-defined range of NMR frequencies. To accomplish narrow frequency ranges with adiabatic pulses (computer-calculated data with experimental results demonstrates that, in non-viscous, small-molecule fluids, it is possible to model magnetization and relaxation by considering standard T1 and T2 relaxation in the traditional rotating frame. The proposed model is aimed at performance optimizations of applications in which these pulses are employed. It differs from previous reports which focused on short high-power adiabatic pulses and relaxation that is governed by dipole-dipole interactions, cross polarization, or chemical exchange.
Abrupt relaxation in high-spin molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.-R.; Cheng, T.C.
2000-01-01
Mean-field model suggests that the rate of resonant quantum tunneling in high-spin molecules is not only field-dependent but also time-dependent. The relaxation-assisted resonant tunneling in high-spin molecules produces an abrupt magnetization change during relaxation. When the applied field is very close to the resonant field, a time-dependent interaction field gradually shifts the energies of different collective spin states, and magnetization tunneling is observed as two energies of the spin states coincide
Spin transport and relaxation in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.
2012-01-01
We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for
[Musical relaxation therapy on the cerebral arteriosclerosis].
Tang, X; Yang, F; Zhuang, H
1997-01-01
The transcranial Doppler and psychological measurement methods were used to evaluate the effect of musical relaxation therapy on the cerebral arteriosclerosis. The results showed that the musical relaxation therapy could improve the cerebral blood flow (physiological), offset the Type A behavior and eliminate the emotional disturbance (psychological), and that its effect was better than that of the control patients. The mechanism of the effect may be related to the 1/f sound wave (physical), abdominal respiration with long expiration and involuntary inspiration (physiological) and the hinting effects of the inducing phrases (psychological).
Point defect relaxation volumes for copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, K.M.
1979-11-01
The methods used for the determination of point defect relaxation volumes are discussed and it is shown that a previous interatomic potential derived for copper is inaccurate and results obtained using it are invalid. A new interatomic potential has been produced for copper and a computer simulation of point and planar defects carried out. A vacancy relaxation volume of -0.33 atomic volumes has been found with interstitial values in the range 1.7 to 2.0 atomic volumes. It is shown that these values in current theories of irradiation induced swelling lead to an anomalously high value for dislocation bias compared with that determined experimentally. (author)
Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke
2003-01-01
We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide
Magnetic Relaxation Detector for Microbead Labels
Liu, Paul Peng; Skucha, Karl; Duan, Yida; Megens, Mischa; Kim, Jungkyu; Izyumin, Igor I.; Gambini, Simone; Boser, Bernhard
2014-01-01
A compact and robust magnetic label detector for biomedical assays is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS. Detection relies on the magnetic relaxation signature of a microbead label for improved tolerance to environmental variations and relaxed dynamic range requirement, eliminating the need for baseline calibration and reference sensors. The device includes embedded electromagnets to eliminate external magnets and reduce power dissipation. Correlated double sampling combined with offset servo loops and magnetic field modulation, suppresses the detector offset to sub-μT. Single 4.5-μm magnetic beads are detected in 16 ms with a probability of error <0.1%. PMID:25308988
Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spies, G.O.; Li, J.
1991-08-01
The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)
Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation.
Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C
2013-06-01
The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity.
Molecular potentials and relaxation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karo, A.M.
1981-01-01
The use of empirical pseudopotentials, in evaluating interatomic potentials, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for obtaining highly accurate potential curves and permits the modeling of core-valence correlation, and the inclusion of relativistic effects when these are significant. Recent calculations of the X 1 Σ + and a 3 Σ + states of LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH and the X 2 Σ + states of their anions are discussed. Pseudopotentials, including core polarization terms, have been used to replace the core electrons, and this has been coupled with the development of compact, higly-optimized basis sets for the corresponding one- and two-electron atoms. Comparisons of the neutral potential curves with experiment and other ab initio calculations show good agreement (within 1000 cm -1 over most of the potential curves) with the difference curves being considerably more accurate. In the method of computer molecular dynamics, the force acting on each particle is the resultant of all interactions with other atoms in the neighborhood and is obtained as the derivative of an effective many-body potential. Exploiting the pseudopotential approach, in obtaining the appropriate potentials may be very fruitful in the future. In the molecular dynamics example considered here, the conventional sum-of-pairwise-interatomic-potentials (SPP) approximation is used with the potentials derived either from experimental spectroscopic data or from Hartree-Fock calculations. The problem is the collisional de-excitation of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen at an Fe surface. The calculations have been carried out for an initial vibrotational state v = 8, J = 1 and a translational temperature corresponding to a gas temperature of 500 0 K. Different angles of approach and different initial random impact points on the surface have been selected. For any given collision with the wall, the molecule may pick up or lose vibrotatonal and translational energy
Relaxation effect of stilbene azobenzene derivatives on their holographic properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saharov, D; Ozols, A; Kokars, V; Kampars, V; Mezinskis, G; Maleckis, A; Pludons, A; Jansone, M [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry, Azenes 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)
2007-12-15
The material relaxation effect on holographic properties of stilbene azobenzene derivatives in the form of glassy films has been experimentally studied. Holographic grating recording with the period of 2 {mu}m was made by a He-Ne laser at 633 nm in the self-diffraction mode. The readout was made simultaneously in order to follow the fast self-diffraction efficiency changes. The existence of the optimal material storage time (6-51 day) is established enabling the most efficient recording. Material relaxation amplitude and the holographic recording efficiency increased when the chromophore concentration was increased, especially above the threshold of about 70 mass %. It is also found that 633 nm recording due to the modulation of refraction and absorption indices is accompanied by the formation of surface relief grating. The conclusion is made that holographic recording in stilbene azobenzene derivatives at 633 nm is due to the chromophore reorientation by linearly polarized light possibly including trans-cis-trans transformations.
Characterization of Chemical Exchange Using Relaxation Dispersion of Hyperpolarized Nuclear Spins.
Liu, Mengxiao; Kim, Yaewon; Hilty, Christian
2017-09-05
Chemical exchange phenomena are ubiquitous in macromolecules, which undergo conformational change or ligand complexation. NMR relaxation dispersion (RD) spectroscopy based on a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence is widely applied to identify the exchange and measure the lifetime of intermediate states on the millisecond time scale. Advances in hyperpolarization methods improve the applicability of NMR spectroscopy when rapid acquisitions or low concentrations are required, through an increase in signal strength by several orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of chemical exchange from a single aliquot of a ligand hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Transverse relaxation rates are measured simultaneously at different pulsing delays by dual-channel 19 F NMR spectroscopy. This two-point measurement is shown to allow the determination of the exchange term in the relaxation rate expression. For the ligand 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene-1-carboximidamide binding to the protein trypsin, the exchange term is found to be equal within error limits in neutral and acidic environments from D-DNP NMR spectroscopy, corresponding to a pre-equilibrium of trypsin deprotonation. This finding illustrates the capability for determination of binding mechanisms using D-DNP RD. Taking advantage of hyperpolarization, the ligand concentration in the exchange measurements can reach on the order of tens of μM and protein concentration can be below 1 μM, i.e., conditions typically accessible in drug discovery.
Mitchell, J; Chandrasekera, T C; Johns, M L; Gladden, L F; Fordham, E J
2010-02-01
It is known that internal magnetic field gradients in porous materials, caused by susceptibility differences at the solid-fluid interfaces, alter the observed effective Nuclear Magnetic Resonance transverse relaxation times T2,eff. The internal gradients scale with the strength of the static background magnetic field B0. Here, we acquire data at various magnitudes of B0 to observe the influence of internal gradients on T2-T2 exchange measurements; the theory discussed and observations made are applicable to any T2-T2 analysis of heterogeneous materials. At high magnetic field strengths, it is possible to observe diffusive exchange between regions of local internal gradient extrema within individual pores. Therefore, the observed exchange pathways are not associated with pore-to-pore exchange. Understanding the significance of internal gradients in transverse relaxation measurements is critical to interpreting these results. We present the example of water in porous sandstone rock and offer a guideline to determine whether an observed T2,eff relaxation time distribution reflects the pore size distribution for a given susceptibility contrast (magnetic field strength) and spin echo separation. More generally, we confirm that for porous materials T1 provides a better indication of the pore size distribution than T2,eff at high magnetic field strengths (B0>1 T), and demonstrate the data analysis necessary to validate pore size interpretations of T2,eff measurements.
Huynh, Tan Vu; Messinger, Robert J.; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Fayon, Franck; Bouchet, Renaud; Deschamps, Michaël
2017-10-01
The intrinsic ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based block copolymer electrolytes is often assumed to be identical to the conductivity of the PEO homopolymer. Here, we use high-field 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements to probe lithium ion dynamics over nanosecond and millisecond time scales in PEO and polystyrene (PS)-b-PEO-b-PS electrolytes containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. Variable-temperature longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) 7Li NMR relaxation rates were acquired at three magnetic field strengths and quantitatively analyzed for the first time at such fields, enabling us to distinguish two characteristic time scales that describe fluctuations of the 7Li nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. Fast lithium motions [up to O (ns)] are essentially identical between the two polymer electrolytes, including sub-nanosecond vibrations and local fluctuations of the coordination polyhedra between lithium and nearby oxygen atoms. However, lithium dynamics over longer time scales [O (10 ns) and greater] are slower in the block copolymer compared to the homopolymer, as manifested experimentally by their different transverse 7Li NMR relaxation rates. Restricted dynamics and altered thermodynamic behavior of PEO chains anchored near PS domains likely explain these results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Ke-Sheng; Wang Shu; Zhu Ming; Ding Yi; Hu Yi
2013-01-01
Decoupling the complicated vibrational—vibrational (V—V) coupling of a multimode vibrational relaxation remains a challenge for analyzing the sound relaxational absorption in multi-component gas mixtures. In our previous work [Acta Phys. Sin. 61 174301 (2012)], an analytical model to predict the sound absorption from vibrational relaxation in a gas medium is proposed. In this paper, we develop the model to decouple the V—V coupled energy to each vibrational—translational deexcitation path, and analyze how the multimode relaxations form the peaks of sound absorption spectra in gas mixtures. We prove that a multimode relaxation is the sum of its decoupled single-relaxation processes, and only the decoupled process with a significant isochoric-molar-heat can be observed as an absorption peak. The decoupling model clarifies the essential processes behind the peaks in spectra arising from the multimode relaxations in multi-component gas mixtures. The simulation validates the proposed decoupling model. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myint, Wazo; Ishima, Rieko
2009-01-01
In the analysis of the constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CT-CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiment, chemical exchange parameters, such as rate of exchange and population of the exchanging species, are typically optimized using equations that predict experimental relaxation rates recorded as a function of effective field strength. In this process, the effect of chemical exchange during the CPMG pulses is typically assumed to be the same as during the free-precession. This approximation may introduce systematic errors into the analysis of data because the number of CPMG pulses is incremented during the constant-time relaxation period, and the total pulse duration therefore varies as a function of the effective field strength. In order to estimate the size of such errors, we simulate the time-dependence of magnetization during the entire constant time period, explicitly taking into account the effect of the CPMG pulses on the spin relaxation rate. We show that in general the difference in the relaxation dispersion profile calculated using a practical pulse width from that calculated using an extremely short pulse width is small, but under certain circumstances can exceed 1 s -1 . The difference increases significantly when CPMG pulses are miscalibrated
Nonmaxwell relaxation in disordered media: Physical mechanisms and fractional relaxation equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhincheev, V.E.
2004-12-01
The problem of charge relaxation in disordered systems has been solved. It is shown, that due to the inhomogeneity of the medium the charge relaxation has a non-Maxwell character. The two physical mechanisms of a such behavior have been founded. The first one is connected with the 'fractality' of conducting ways. The second mechanism of nonexponential non-Maxwell behavior is connected with the frequency dispersion of effective conductivity of heterogeneous medium, initially consisting of conducting phases without dispersion. The new generalized relaxation equations in the form of fractional temporal integro-differential equations are deduced. (author)
Transversal expansion study in the Landau hydrodynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pottag, F.W.
1984-01-01
The system of equations in the frame of Landau's hydrodynamical model for multiparticle production at high energies is studied. Taking as a first approximation the one-dimensional exact due to Khalatnikov, and a special set of curvilinear coordinates, the radial part is separated from the longitudinal one in the equations of motion, and a system of partial differential equations (non-linear, hyperbolic) is obtained for the radial part. These equations are solved numerically by the method of caracteristics. The hydrodynamical variables are obtained over all the three-dimensional-flow region as well as its variation with the mass of the initially expanding system. Both, the transverse rapidity distribution of the fluid and the inclusive particle distribution at 90 0 in the center of mass system, are calculated. The last one is compared with recent experimental data. (author) [pt
Potentials for transverse trace-free tensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conboye, Rory; Murchadha, Niall Ó
2014-01-01
In constructing and understanding initial conditions in the 3 + 1 formalism for numerical relativity, the transverse and trace-free (TT) part of the extrinsic curvature plays a key role. We know that TT tensors possess two degrees of freedom per space point. However, finding an expression for a TT tensor depending on only two scalar functions is a non-trivial task. Assuming either axial or translational symmetry, expressions depending on two scalar potentials alone are derived here for all TT tensors in flat 3-space. In a more general spatial slice, only one of these potentials is found, the same potential given in (Baker and Puzio 1999 Phys. Rev. D 59 044030) and (Dain 2001 Phys. Rev. D 64 124002), with the remaining equations reduced to a partial differential equation, depending on boundary conditions for a solution. As an exercise, we also derive the potentials which give the Bowen-York curvature tensor in flat space. (paper)
Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions
Bonvini, Marco; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2009-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the trasverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure.
PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.
2005-01-01
The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design
The transverse damper system for RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, J.; Claus, J.; Raka, E.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Shea, T.J.
1991-01-01
If the beam is injected with errors x c , x' c (or y c , y' c ) with respect to the closed orbit or disturbed by transverse instabilities, it will execute coherent oscillations and will be diluted in betatron phase space within a time interval of about 1/Δν turns, even if it is properly matched to the focusing characteristics of the lattice, unless there is an effective damper system to prevent this. Here Δν is the tune spread in the beam. Such a damper will not prevent dilution due to mismatches. Without such a damper the emittance of the beam will ultimately develop to a properly centered matched ellipse with an area ε in phase space that is larger than that of the injected one ε 0 which is also matched but off-centered by x c and x' c
Transverse Momentum Correlations in Hadronic Z decays
Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1997-01-01
Using data obtained with the ALEPH detector at the Z resonance, a measure based on transverse momentum is shown to exhibit a correlation between the two halves of a hadronic event which cannot be explained by energy-momentum conservation, flavour conservation, the imposition of an event axis or imperfect event reconstruction. Two possible explanations based on Monte Carlo models are examined: a) ARIADNE, with the correlation forming early in the parton shower and with the transition from partons to hadrons playing only a minor part; b) JETSET, with the correlation forming at the fragmentation stage. A correlation technique based on a jet cluster analysis is used to make a comparison of the models with the data. It is concluded that both non-perturbative and perturbative effects make important contributions to the observed correlation.
A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation
Stovas, A.
2012-05-09
The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Transversal Dirac families in Riemannian foliations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glazebrook, J.F.; Kamber, F.W.
1991-01-01
We describe a family of differential operators parametrized by the transversal vector potentials of a Riemannian foliation relative to the Clifford algebra of the foliation. This family is non-elliptic but in certain ways behaves like a standard Dirac family in the absolute case as a result of its elliptic-like regularity properties. The analytic and topological indices of this family are defined as elements of K-theory in the parameter space. We indicate how the cohomology of the parameter space is described via suitable maps to Fredholm operators. We outline the proof of a theorem of Vafa-Witten type on uniform bounds for the eigenvalues of this family using a spectral flow argument. A determinant operator is also defined with the appropriate zeta function regularization dependent on the codimension of the foliation. With respect to a generalized coupled Dirac-Yang-Mills system, we indicate how chiral anomalies are located relative to the foliation. (orig.)
PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade
Weber, Jonah; Chin, Michael; Doolittle, Lawrence
2005-01-01
The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx® ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.
Transverse Beam Profile Measurements Using Optical Methods
Peters, A; Weiss, A; Bank, A
2001-01-01
Two different systems are currently under development at GSI's heavy ion facility to measure transverse beam profiles using optical emitters. At the GSI-LINAC for energies up to 15 MeV/u residual gas fluorescence is investigated for pulsed high current beams. The fluorescence of N2 is monitored by an image intensified CCD camera. For all ion species with energies above 50 MeV/u slowly extracted from the synchrotron SIS a classical viewing screen system is used. Three different target materials have been investigated and their behavior concerning efficiency, saturation and timing performance is evaluated. Both systems (will) use CCD cameras with a digital read out using the IEEE 1394 standard.
Transverse magnetization and giant magnetoimpedance in amorphous ribbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orue, I.; Garcia-Arribas, A.; Saad, A.; Cos, D. de; Barandiaran, J.M.
2005-01-01
In the classical approach giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) is driven by the transverse permeability of the sample, as excited by the current flowing through it. Transverse permeability is usually taken as a constant, while detailed magnetization processes are important for the interpretation of GMI data. In most cases the transverse permeability (or magnetization) is only guessed by looking at the longitudinal magnetization curve and direct determinations of such parameter are scarce in the literature. In this work we report on the operation of a simple setup which provides the transverse magnetization of amorphous ribbons as a function of the current intensity flowing through it, by means of the magnetooptical kerr effect (MOKE). The system has been tested on low magnetostriction amorphous ribbons of very soft character with both longitudinal and transverse anisotropy. The transverse magnetization as a function of both the current and a DC longitudinal field applied, was compared with magneto impedance measurements
Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.
2011-09-01
During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performances of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.
Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Joris; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie
2011-01-01
During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performances of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.
(39) K and (23) Na relaxation times and MRI of rat head at 21.1 T.
Nagel, Armin M; Umathum, Reiner; Rösler, Manuela B; Ladd, Mark E; Litvak, Ilya; Gor'kov, Peter L; Brey, William W; Schepkin, Victor D
2016-06-01
At ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (B0 ≥ 7.0 T), potassium ((39) K) MRI might evolve into an interesting tool for biomedical research. However, (39) K MRI is still challenging because of the low NMR sensitivity and short relaxation times. In this work, we demonstrated the feasibility of (39) K MRI at 21.1 T, determined in vivo relaxation times of the rat head at 21.1 T, and compared (39) K and sodium ((23) Na) relaxation times of model solutions containing different agarose gel concentrations at 7.0 and 21.1 T. (39) K relaxation times were markedly shorter than those of (23) Na. Compared with the lower field strength, (39) K relaxation times were up to 1.9- (T1 ), 1.4- (T2S ) and 1.9-fold (T2L ) longer at 21.1 T. The increase in the (23) Na relaxation times was less pronounced (up to 1.2-fold). Mono-exponential fits of the (39) K longitudinal relaxation time at 21.1 T revealed T1 = 14.2 ± 0.1 ms for the healthy rat head. The (39) K transverse relaxation times were 1.8 ± 0.2 ms and 14.3 ± 0.3 ms for the short (T2S ) and long (T2L ) components, respectively. (23) Na relaxation times were markedly longer (T1 = 41.6 ± 0.4 ms; T2S = 4.9 ± 0.2 ms; T2L = 33.2 ± 0.2 ms). (39) K MRI of the healthy rat head could be performed with a nominal spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3) within an acquisition time of 75 min. The increase in the relaxation times with magnetic field strength is beneficial for (23) Na and (39) K MRI at ultrahigh magnetic field strength. Our results demonstrate that (39) K MRI at 21.1 T enables acceptable image quality for preclinical research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Optimization Via Open System Quantum Annealing
2016-01-07
be solved by a quantum evolution from a strong transverse field to a spin glass Hamiltonian (also known as quantum annealing or QA). We have...reduced to Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO), which can be solved by a quantum evolution from a strong transverse field to a spin...Excellence grant for Education , Research and Engineering: The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and
PKU-RBRC Workshop on Transverse Spin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avakian,H.; Bunce, G.; Yuan, F.
2008-06-30
Understanding the structure of the nucleon is a fundamental question in subatomic physics, and it has been under intensive investigation for the last several years. Modern research focuses in particular on the spin structure of the nucleon. Experimental and theoretical investigations worldwide over the last few decades have established that, contrary to nave quark model expectations, quarks carry only about 30% of the totd spin of the proton. The origin of the remaining spin is the key question in current hadronic physics and also the major driving forces for the current and future experiments, such as RHIC and CEBAF in US, JPARC in Japan, COMPASS at CERN in Europe, FAIR at GSI in Germany. Among these studies, the transverse-spin physics develops actively and rapidly in the last few years. Recent studies reveal that transverse-spin physics is closely related to many fundamental properties of the QCD dynamics such as the factorization, the non-trivial universality of the parton distribution and fragmentation functions. It was very timely to bring together the theorists and experimentalists in this field at this workshop to review and discuss the latest developments and future perspective in hadronic spin physics. This workshop was very success iu many aspects. First of all, it attracted almost every expert working in this field. We had more than eighty participants in total, among them 27 came from the US institutes, 13 from Europe, 3 from Korea, and 2 from Japan. The rest participants came from local institutes in China. Second, we arranged plenty physics presentations, and the program covers all recent progresses made in the last few years. In total, we had 47 physics presentations, and two round table discussions. The discussion sessions were especially very useful and very much appreciated by all participants. In addition, we also scheduled plenty time for discussion in each presentation, and the living discussions impressed and benefited all participants.
Formability Studies on Transverse Tailor Welded Blanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhaskar, V. Vijay; Narasimhan, K.
2005-01-01
Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) technology is one of the several approaches that have been used to reduce the weight of the automobile body. TWBs are made up of two or more blanks having different/same properties (geometry, material etc.) prior to forming. The formability of these blanks depends on material and geometric parameters like strength ratio and thickness ratio. The study of these blanks can be classified on the basis of the weld orientation chosen viz. transverse weld or longitudinal weld with respect to the major straining direction.This paper studies the formability issues related to transverse TWB by FE simulation. The formability is assessed by analyzing tensile and Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests. The weld region is assumed to be a line in all the simulations. While modeling the tensile test, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are monitored, and in LDH testing, pole height and maximum load (in near plane strain condition) are monitored. LDH testing shows that as thickness ratio increases, the load bearing capacity and the pole height decreases. There is a contribution from both the thicker and the thinner blank to the overall deforming volume. Failure location analysis shows that there is an abrupt change in the location of the failure from punch nose region to weld line region as the thickness ratio reaches a critical magnitude (1.08).The study of material properties shows that as the yield strength ratio (S ratio) and strain hardening exponent ratio (N ratio) between the blanks increases, the maximum load which the blank can sustain without failure (UTS) increases. This becomes constant and comparable to that of single sheet at higher N and S ratios
Formability Studies on Transverse Tailor Welded Blanks
Bhaskar, V. Vijay; Narasimhan, K.
2005-08-01
Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) technology is one of the several approaches that have been used to reduce the weight of the automobile body. TWBs are made up of two or more blanks having different/same properties (geometry, material etc.) prior to forming. The formability of these blanks depends on material and geometric parameters like strength ratio and thickness ratio. The study of these blanks can be classified on the basis of the weld orientation chosen viz. transverse weld or longitudinal weld with respect to the major straining direction. This paper studies the formability issues related to transverse TWB by FE simulation. The formability is assessed by analyzing tensile and Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests. The weld region is assumed to be a line in all the simulations. While modeling the tensile test, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are monitored, and in LDH testing, pole height and maximum load (in near plane strain condition) are monitored. LDH testing shows that as thickness ratio increases, the load bearing capacity and the pole height decreases. There is a contribution from both the thicker and the thinner blank to the overall deforming volume. Failure location analysis shows that there is an abrupt change in the location of the failure from punch nose region to weld line region as the thickness ratio reaches a critical magnitude (1.08). The study of material properties shows that as the yield strength ratio (S ratio) and strain hardening exponent ratio (N ratio) between the blanks increases, the maximum load which the blank can sustain without failure (UTS) increases. This becomes constant and comparable to that of single sheet at higher N and S ratios.
Relaxation in superconductors with large normal defects
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Jirsa, Miloš; Petrenko, Pavlo
2005-01-01
Roč. 18, - (2005), s. 200-205 ISSN 0953-2048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : bulk high-T c superconductor s * relaxation * mesoscopic particles * vortex pinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.896, year: 2005
Relaxivity of liposomal paramagnetic MRI contrast agents
Strijkers, G. J.; Mulder, W. J. M.; van Heeswijk, R. B.; Frederik, P. M.; Bomans, P.; Magusin, P. C. M. M.; Nicolay, K.
2005-01-01
Paramagnetic liposomes, spherical particles formed by a lipid bilayer, are able to accommodate a high payload of Gd-containing lipid and therefore can serve as a highly potent magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent. In this paper the relaxation properties of paramagnetic liposomes were studied as
Shallow basins on Mercury: Evidence of relaxation?
Mohit, P. Surdas; Johnson, Catherine L.; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.
2009-08-01
Stereo-derived topographic models have shown that the impact basins Beethoven and Tolstoj on Mercury are shallow for their size, with depths of 2.5 and 2 (± 0.7) km, respectively, while Caloris basin has been estimated to be 9 (± 3) km deep on the basis of photoclinometric measurements. We evaluate the depths of Beethoven and Tolstoj in the context of comparable basins on other planets and smaller craters on Mercury, using data from Mariner 10 and the first flyby of the MESSENGER spacecraft. We consider three scenarios that might explain the anomalous depths of these basins: (1) volcanic infilling, (2) complete crustal excavation, and (3) viscoelastic relaxation. None of these can be ruled out, but the fill scenario would imply a thick lithosphere early in Mercury's history and the crustal-excavation scenario a pre-impact crustal thickness of 15-55 km, depending on the density of the crust, in the area of Beethoven and Tolstoj. The potential for viscous relaxation of Beethoven, Tolstoj, and Caloris is explored with a viscoelastic model. Results show that relaxation of these basins could occur at plausible heat flux values for a range of crustal thicknesses. However, the amplitude of current topographic relief points to a crustal thickness of at least 60 km under this hypothesis. Relaxation of Caloris may have occurred if the floor is underlain by crust at least 20 km thick. We discuss future observations by MESSENGER that should distinguish among these scenarios.
MAGNETIC RELAXATION IN RARE EARTH DOPED GARNET.
in resonance measurements by the constant low temperature linewidth due to two magnon scattering. In contrast, the PPI relaxation rate is independent...of two magnon scattering. The 4.5K doublet may well be related to a near crossing of energy levels which probably causes the anomalous low temperature peaks in delta H and resonance field observed by Dillon. (Author)
Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010
Lettus, Dodi
2010-01-01
One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…
Relaxation of coupled nuclear spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenigsberger, E.
1985-05-01
The subject of the present work is the relaxation behaviour of scalarly coupled spin-1/2 systems. In the theoretical part the semiclassical Redfield equations are used. Dipolar (D), Chemical Shift Anisotropy (CSA) and Random Field (RF) interactions are considered as relaxation mechanisms. Cross correlations of dipolar interactions of different nuclei pairs and those between the D and the CSA mechanisms are important. The model of anisotropic molecular rotational relaxation and the extreme narrowing approximation are used to obtain the spectral density functions. The longitudinal relaxation data are analyzed into normal modes following Werbelow and Grant. The time evolution of normal modes is derived for the AX system with D-CSA cross terms. In the experimental part the hypothesis of dimerization in the cinnamic acid and the methyl cinnamate - AMX systems with DD cross terms - is corroborated by T 1 -time measurements and a calculation of the diffusion constants. In pentachlorobenzene - an AX system - taking into account of D-CSA cross terms enables the complete determination of movements anosotropy and the determination of the sign of the indirect coupling constant 1 Jsub(CH). (G.Q.)
Dynamical relaxation in 2HDM models
Lalak, Zygmunt; Markiewicz, Adam
2018-03-01
Dynamical relaxation provides an interesting solution to the hierarchy problem in face of the missing signatures of any new physics in recent experiments. Through a dynamical process taking place in the inflationary phase of the Universe it manages to achieve a small electroweak scale without introducing new states observable in current experiments. Appropriate approximation makes it possible to derive an explicit formula for the final vevs in the double-scanning scenario extended to a model with two Higgs doublets (2HDM). Analysis of the relaxation in the 2HDM confirms that in a general case it is impossible to keep vevs of both scalars small, unless fine-tuning is present or additional symmetries are cast upon the Lagrangian. Within the slightly constrained variant of the 2HDM, where odd powers of the fields’ expectation values are not present (which can be easily enforced by requiring that the doublets have different gauge transformations or by imposing a global symmetry) it is shown that the difference between the vevs of two scalars tends to be proportional to the cutoff. The analysis of the relaxation in 2HDM indicates that in a general case the relaxation would be stopped by the first doublet that gains a vev, with the other one remaining vevless with a mass of the order of the cutoff. This happens to conform with the inert doublet model.
Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yue, Yuanzheng
2015-01-01
scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...
Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil
1998-01-01
time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....
Quantization of N=2 relaxed hypermultiplet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahmen, H.D.; Marculescu, S.
1986-01-01
The gauge-fixing conditions for N=2 relaxed hypermultiplet coupled to an N=2 Yang Mills superfield are presented. They allow for the quantization in N=2 superspace. One-loop propagators and Faddeev-Popov terms are explicitly computed. (orig.)
Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report
Beattriz Vaz Pereira Casagrande; Danielle Oliveira de Sousa; Adriana Kamilly Leitão Pitman Machado; Carolina Ribeiro Mainardi; Carolina Barros Kahwage
2018-01-01
Title: Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report.: The zika virus belongs to the family flaviviridae, and is transmitted by the arthropod Aedes aegypt. Its major importance is related to the several debilitating neurological manifestations associated with it, such as transverse myelitis. Case: The authors report a case of transverse myelitis in a patient with a previous diagnosis of Zika virus infection. After the image exams and serology, the diagnosis was ...
Transverse mode coupling instability for leptons in the CERN SPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linnecar, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.N. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
1996-08-01
The intensity of leptons accelerated in the SPS machine is limited by a vertical transverse instability. The results of measurements of the thresholds for this transverse instability are compared with theoretical predictions for different broad band impedance models of the SPS. The threshold intensities found for the transverse instability and the position of the losses in the cycle enable the parameters of the broadband resonant impedance to be specified. (author)
Transverse colon cancer with Krukenberg tumor : A case report
東門, 敦子; 松原, 洋孝; 下地, 英明; 伊佐, 勉; 濱安, 俊吾; 仲地, 厚; 宮里, 浩; 白石, 祐之; 武藤, 良弘; Tomon, Atsuko; Matsubara, Hirotaka; Shimoji, Hideaki; Isa, Tsutomu; Nakachi, Atsushi; Miyazato, Hiroshi
1999-01-01
A case of Krukenberg tumor in a 30-year-old woman with transverse colon cancer is reported herein. The patient was found to have bilateral ovarian tumors and abnormal elevation of serum CEA at a community hospital. Subsequently, she was referred to the University Hospital for further work. Diagnostic examinations including US, CT and colonoscopy demonstrated transverse colon cancer and bilateral ovarian tumors. Exploratory laparotomy showed the growth of transverse colon cancer over the perit...
Curative resection of transverse colon cancer via minilaparotomy.
Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Tohru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Haga, Norihiro
2011-01-01
Minilaparotomy has been reported to be a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopically assisted surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of minilaparotomy for the resection of transverse colon cancer, which has generally been considered difficult to resect laparoscopically. Patients for whom curative resection was attempted for transverse colon cancer (n = 21) or sigmoid colon cancer (n = 81) via minilaparotomy (skin incision, transverse colon cancer as well as those with sigmoid colon cancer.
Ziv, Naomi; Rotem, Tomer; Arnon, Zahi; Haimov, Iris
2008-01-01
A large percentage of older people suffer from chronic insomnia, affecting many aspects of life quality and well-being. Although insomnia is most often treated with medication, a growing number of studies demonstrate the efficiency of various relaxation techniques. The present study had three aims: first, to compare two relaxation techniques--music relaxation and progressive muscular relaxation--on various objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine the effect of these techniques on anxiety and depression; and finally, to explore possible relationships between the efficiency of both techniques and personality variables. Fifteen older adults took part in the study. Following one week of base-line measurements of sleep quality, participants followed one week of music relaxation and one week of progressive muscular relaxation before going to sleep. Order of relaxation techniques was controlled. Results show music relaxation was more efficient in improving sleep. Sleep efficiency was higher after music relaxation than after progressive muscular relaxation. Moreover, anxiety was lower after music relaxation. Progressive muscular relaxation was related to deterioration of sleep quality on subjective measures. Beyond differences between the relaxation techniques, extraverts seemed to benefit more from both music and progressive muscular relaxation. The advantage of non-pharmacological means to treat insomnia, and the importance of taking individual differences into account are discussed.
Electron spin-lattice relaxation in fractals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shrivastava, K.N.
1986-08-01
We have developed the theory of the spin-fracton interaction for paramagnetic ions in fractal structures. The interaction is exponentially damped by the self-similarity length of the fractal and by the range dimensionality d Φ . The relaxation time of the spin due to the absorption and emission of the fracton has been calculated for a general dimensionality called the Raman dimensionality d R , which for the fractons differs from the Hausdorff (fractal) dimensionality, D, as well as from the Euclidean dimensionality, d. The exponent of the energy level separation in the relaxation rate varies with d R d Φ /D. We have calculated the spin relaxation rate due to a new type of Raman process in which one fracton is absorbed to affect a spin transition from one electronic level to another and later another fracton is emitted along with a spin transition such that the difference in the energies of the two fractons is equal to the electronic energy level separation. The temperature and the dimensionality dependence of such a process has been found in several approximations. In one of the approximations where the van Vleck relaxation rate for a spin in a crystal is known to vary with temperature as T 9 , our calculated variation for fractals turns out to be T 6.6 , whereas the experimental value for Fe 3+ in frozen solutions of myoglobin azide is T 6.3 . Since we used d R =4/3 and the fracton range dimensionality d Φ =D/1.8, we expect to measure the dimensionalities of the problem by measuring the temperature dependence of the relaxation times. We have also calculated the shift of the paramagnetic resonance transition for a spin in a fractal for general dimensionalities. (author)
Relaxation calorimetry at very low temperatures for systems with internal relaxation
Matsumoto, Yosuke; Nakatsuji, Satoru
2018-03-01
We present the detailed introduction of our relaxation calorimetry designed for tiny samples down to very low temperatures of 0.03 K. In particular, we discuss how to analyze the data that are modified by an internal thermal relaxation in the sample or in the sample stage of the specific heat cell. We demonstrate that the correct heat capacity is obtained even when the relaxation curve has a triple exponential decay, rather than a double exponential decay which has usually been discussed. As an example, we discuss the measurements performed for α-YbAlB4 in a magnetic field of 5 T, where we found the triple exponential decay due to a thermal relaxation between electron and nuclear contributions at relatively high temperature well above 0.1 K. Our modified analysis provides the best solution in such a case.
Tsai, Sing-Ling
2004-12-01
The long-term effect of an audio-visual relaxation training (RT) treatment involving deep breathing, exercise, muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and meditation was compared with routine nursing care for reducing anxiety, improving sleep, and promoting relaxation in Chinese adults with cardiac disease. This research was a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest study. A convenience sample of 100 cardiology patients (41 treatment, 59 control) admitted to one large medical center hospital in the Republic of China (ROC) was studied for 1 year. The hypothesized relationships were supported. RT significantly (p anxiety, sleep, and relaxation in the treatment group as compared to the control group. It appears audio-visual RT might be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for adult cardiac patients. However, considerable further work using stronger research designs is needed to determine the most appropriate instructional methods and the factors that contribute to long-term consistent practice of RT with Chinese populations.
Improvement of Digital Filter for the FNAL Booster Transverse Dampers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zolkin, Timofey [Fermilab; Eddy, N. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab
2013-09-26
Fermilab Booster has two transverse dampers which independently suppress beam instabilities in the horizontal and vertical planes. A suppression of the common mode signal is achieved by digital notch filter which is based on subtracting beam positions for two consecutive turns. Such system operates well if the orbit position changes sufficiently slow. Unfortunately it is not the case for FNAL Booster where the entire accelerating cycle consists of about 20000 turns, and successful transition crossing requires the orbit drifts up to about 10 μm/turn, resulting in excessive power, power amplifier saturation and loss of stability. To suppress this effect we suggest an improvement of the digital filter which can take into account fast orbit changes by using bunch positions of a few previous turns. To take into account the orbit change up toN-th order polynomial in time the system requires (N + 3) turns of “prehistory”. In the case of sufficiently small gain the damping rate and the optimal digital filter coefficients are obtained analytically. Numerical simulations verify analytical theory for the small gain and predict a system performance with gain increase.
Elastoplastic properties of transversely isotropic sintered metal fiber sheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, T.F. [School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Chen, C.Q., E-mail: chencq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Z.C. [School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis of Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2016-04-26
Sintering of layered metal fiber sheets produces a structured, tunable, paper-like material that holds promise for thermal and biomaterial applications. Particularly promising for these areas is a material system synthesized by the sequential-overlap method, which produces a networked, transversely isotropic open cell porous material. Engineering application of these materials has been limited due in part to uncertainty about their mechanical responses. Here, we present a comprehensive structural and mechanical characterization of these materials, and define a modeling framework suitable for engineering design. X-ray tomography revealed a layered structure with an isotropic fiber distribution within each layer. In-plane uniaxial compression and tension tests revealed a linear dependence of Young's modulus and yield strength upon relative fiber density. Out-of-plane tests, however, revealed much lower Young's modulus and strength, with quartic and cubic dependence upon relative density, respectively. Fiber fracture was the dominant mode of failure for tension within the “in-plane” directions of the fiber layers, and fiber decohesion was the dominant mode of failure for tension applied in the “out-of-plane” direction, normal to the layers. Models based upon dispersions of beams predicted both in-plane and out-of-plane elastoplastic properties as a function of the relative density of fibers. These models provide a foundation for mechanical design with and optimization of these materials for a broad range of potential applications.
Augmentation of the transverse acetabular ligament in canine caudoventral hip luxation.
Venzin, C; Montavon, P M
2007-01-01
Open surgical fixation was performed on four hip joints in three dogs who were suffering from caudoventral hip luxations for which closed reduction had previously failed. Stabilization of the joint was achieved with a ventral coxofemoral approach, which augmented the function of the transverse acetabular ligament using a sling implant through a bone tunnel (n = 1), a sling implant around two pelvic screws (n = 1), or an internal fixator plate (n = 2). Transverse acetabular ligament augmentation resulted in successful joint stabilization in all cases, and should be considered for the surgical reduction of caudoventral hip luxations in dogs. The use of an internal fixator plate, while preserving soft-tissue blood supply and resulting in minimal to no long-term arthritic changes, may provide an optimal outcome.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S.; Thisted, Ebbe; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S.
2012-01-01
Objective: The objective was to investigate T 2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T 2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T 2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T 2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T 2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and T 2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T 2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T 2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1 H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T 2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T 2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.
Vibrational energy relaxation in water-acetonitrile mixtures
Cringus, D; Yeremenko, S; Pshenichnikov, MS; Wiersma, DA; Kobayashi, T; Okada, T; Kobayashi, T; Nelson, KA; DeSilvestri, S
2005-01-01
IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.
Distribution function in the description of relaxation phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brecht, M.; Klösgen, B.; Reichle, C.
1999-01-01
The experimental results obtained in the field of dielectric spectroscopy are often insufficiently explained under the assumption of a homogeneously relaxing dipole system represented by one distinct correlation time. Even in cases where several dipole mobilities exhibit a dielectric relaxation...
Vibrational energy relaxation in water-acetonitrile mixtures
Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.
2004-01-01
IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.
[Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].
gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K
2012-01-01
A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.
Effects of Stress and Relaxation on Time Perception
2003-01-01
1998). Common relaxation methods include progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, imaging, autogenic training (self- hypnosis ), listening to 14 music...2001). Menstrual and circadian rythms in time perception in healthy women and women with premenstrual syndrome. Neuroscience Research, 41(4), 339
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Xuerui; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Fupan; Wang, Junfeng; Zhang, Wenlong; Lou, Liren; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guanzhong, E-mail: gzwang@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale, and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China)
2014-04-15
We investigated the influence of spins on surface of nanodiamonds (NDs) to the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) and transverse relaxation time (T{sub 2}) of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in ND. A spherical model of the NDs was suggested to account for the experimental results of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}, and the density of surface spins was roughly estimated based on the statistical analysis of experimental results of 72 NDs containing a single NV center. For NDs studied here, the T{sub 1} of NV center inside is highly dependent to the surface spins of the NDs. However, for the T{sub 2} of NV center, intrinsic contributions must be much pronounced than that by surface spins. In other words, T{sub 1} of an NV center in NDs is more sensitive to the change of the surface spin density than T{sub 2}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuerui Song
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We investigated the influence of spins on surface of nanodiamonds (NDs to the longitudinal relaxation time (T1 and transverse relaxation time (T2 of nitrogen vacancy (NV centers in ND. A spherical model of the NDs was suggested to account for the experimental results of T1 and T2, and the density of surface spins was roughly estimated based on the statistical analysis of experimental results of 72 NDs containing a single NV center. For NDs studied here, the T1 of NV center inside is highly dependent to the surface spins of the NDs. However, for the T2 of NV center, intrinsic contributions must be much pronounced than that by surface spins. In other words, T1 of an NV center in NDs is more sensitive to the change of the surface spin density than T2.
Structural Relaxation in Fe78Nb2B20 Amorphous Alloy Studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kansy, J.; Hanc, A.; Rasek, J.; Haneczok, G.; Pajak, L.; Stoklosa, Z.; Kwapulinski, P.
2011-01-01
It was shown that soft magnetic properties of Fe 78 Nb 2 B 20 amorphous alloy can be significantly improved by applying 1-h annealing at temperature 623 K (permeability increases even about 8 times). The Moessbauer Spectroscopy technique indicated that the optimized microstructure (corresponding to the maximum magnetic permeability) is free of iron nanograins and should be attributed to annealing out of free volume and a reduction of internal stresses i.e. to the relaxed amorphous phase. (authors)
Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints
Hilaire , Thibault
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...
Feedback controlled dephasing and population relaxation in a two-level system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jin
2009-01-01
This Letter presents the maximum achievable stability and purity that can be obtained in a two-level system with both dephasing and population relaxation processes by using homodyne-mediated feedback control. An analytic formula giving the optimal amplitudes of the driving and feedback for the steady-state is also presented. Experimental examples are used to show the importance of controlling the dephasing process.
Relating inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, D.M.
1975-01-01
Inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum are related by a local application of the correspondence principle of Bjorken and Kogut. The recent predictions for the inclusive process by Escobar are thus compared with wide angle exclusive data. The inclusive photoproduction of (rho 0 +ω) at large transverse momentum is discussed. (Auth.)
On the number of isomorphism classes of transversals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 3 ... Group torsion; right loop; normalized right transversal. Abstract. In this paper we prove that there does not exist a subgroup of a finite group such that the number of isomorphism classes of normalized right transversals of in is four.
Transverse momentum spectra of the produced hadrons at SPS ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-30
Apr 30, 2014 ... The successive collisions in the nuclear reaction lead to gain in transverse momentum, as the nucleons propagate in the nucleus following a random walk pattern. The average transverse rapidity shift per collision is determined from the nucleon–nucleus collision data. Using this information, we obtain ...
Transverse lie in labor: A study from Kaduna, Northern Nigeria ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Results: During the period there were 16633 deliveries and 30 women with transversely lying fetuses, giving an incidence of 1 in 554 deliveries. Forty percent of the cases were neglected transverse lies. The para 4 and above group had the highest incidence of 2.69/1000. Northern minorities ethnic group had the highest ...
Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India. Khayingshing ... Keywords. Himalayan Frontal Thrust; outer Kumaun Himalaya; transverse structure; folded mountain front.
The influence of gluteus maximus on transverse plane tibial rotation
Preece, S.J.; Graham-Smith, P.; Nester, C.J.; Howard, D.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Herrington, L.; Bowker, P.
There is a common clinical belief that transverse plane tibial rotation is controlled by the rearfoot. Although distal structures may influence the motion of the tibia, transverse plane tibial rotation could be determined by the proximal hip musculature. Cadaver studies have identified gluteus
Some anatomical and morphometric observations in the transverse ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A hundred and two atlases obtained from the Osteology Department of National Museums of Kenya were observed for presence, shape and variations of the transverse foramen. Accessory transverse foramina were noted, as well as missing foramina. Anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the foramina were taken ...
Operational characteristics and power scaling of a transverse flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Transverse flow transversely excited (TFTE) CO2 lasers are easily scalable to multi- kilowatt level. The laser power can be scaled up by increasing the volumetric gas flow and discharge volume. It was observed in a TFTE CW CO2 laser having single row of pins as an anode and tubular cathode that the laser ...
Measurement of the transverse emittance for the NSC Pelletron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriques, G.; Mandal, A.; Chopra, S.; Joshi, R.; Datta, S.K.; Roy, A.
1998-01-01
The knowledge of the emittance (transverse and longitudinal) of the NSC pelletron is essential for matching the acceptance of the LINAC which is to be installed to augment the pelletron beam energies. The transverse emittance of NSC pelletron has been measured by employing a focussing element and a down-stream beam profile monitor
Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at small transverse momentum
Bacchetta, A.; Diehl, M.; Goeke, K.; Metz, A.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Schlegel, M.
2007-01-01
We study the cross section for one-particle inclusive deep inelastic scattering off the nucleon for low transverse momentum of the detected hadron. We decompose the cross section in terms of structure functions and calculate them at tree level in terms of transverse-momentum-dependent parton
Joint transverse momentum and threshold resummation beyond NLL
Lustermans, G.; Waalewijn, W.J.; Zeune, L.
2016-01-01
To describe the transverse momentum spectrum of heavy color-singlet production, the joint resummation of threshold and transverse momentum logarithms is investigated. We obtain factorization theorems for various kinematic regimes valid to all orders in the strong coupling, using Soft-Collinear
Contact mechanics and friction for transversely isotropic viscoelastic materials
Mokhtari, Milad; Schipper, Dirk J.; Vleugels, N.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Yoshimoto, S.; Hashimoto, H.
2015-01-01
Transversely isotropic materials are an unique group of materials whose properties are the same along two of the principal axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. Various natural and artificial materials behave effectively as transversely isotropic elastic solids. Several materials can be classified
Fermions in light front transverse lattice quantum chromodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We brieﬂy describe motivations for studying transverse lattice QCD. Presence of constraint equation for fermion ﬁeld on the light front allows different methods to put fermions on a transverse lattice. We summarize our numerical investigation of two approaches using (a) forward and backward derivatives and (b) symmetric ...
Time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reister, D.B.
1991-01-01
This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of arcs of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduced concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
2007-01-01
are stretched exponential character of dielectric relaxation, power-law power spectral density, and anomalous dependence of ac conduction coefficient on frequency. We propose a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation in which the relaxations are described by a stretched exponential decay function...
46 CFR 46.10-1 - Relaxation from regulations.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relaxation from regulations. 46.10-1 Section 46.10-1... PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-1 Relaxation from regulations. (a) New passenger vessels making... engaged in foreign voyages by sea may be permitted relaxation from the requirements of this part if, in...
The Efficacy of Relaxation Training in Treating Anxiety
Francesco, Pagnini; Mauro, Manzoni Gian; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Enrico, Molinari
2009-01-01
This paper provides a review of scientific literature about relaxation training and its effects on anxiety. Research investigating progressive relaxation, meditation, applied relaxation and autogenic training were considered. All these methods proved to be effective in reducing anxiety in all kind of samples, affected or not by physical or…
Oscillatory relaxation of the Ag(110) surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuk, Y.; Feldman, L.C.
1984-01-01
The relaxation of the Ag(110) surface was studied by high-energy ion scattering. We find the first-layer spacing contracted by (7.8 +- 2.5)% and the second-layer spacing increased by (4.3 +- 2.5)%. The sensitivity of these results to assumptions of surface vibrations is explored. It is shown that the nearest-neighbor spacing at the surface (i.e., the spacing between the first and third layers) is contracted by (3.5 +- 0.5)%, and this result is almost independent of the surface Debye temperature. The results are consistent with the body of data indicating large, multilayer relaxation in (110)fcc surfaces
Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.
Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M
2008-08-01
We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.
Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.
1998-05-01
The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.
Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-04-15
We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.
Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR
Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.
2017-03-21
NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.
Creep and relaxation behavior of Inconel-617
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osthoff, W.; Ennis, P.J.; Nickel, H.; Schuster, H.
1984-01-01
The static and dynamic creep behavior of Inconel alloy 617 has been determined in constant load creep tests, relaxation tests, and stress reduction tests in the temperature range 1023 to 1273 K. The results have been interpreted using the internal stress concept: The dependence of the internal stress on the applied stress and test temperature was determined. In a few experiments, the influence of cold deformation prior to the creep test on the magnitude of the internal stress was also investigated. It was found that the experimentally observed relaxation behavior could be more satisfactorily described using the Norton creep equation modified by incorporation of the internal stress than by the conventional Norton creep equation
Transverse mode coupling instability of colliding beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. White
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In high brightness circular colliders, coherent and incoherent beam dynamics are dominated by beam-beam interactions. It is generally assumed that the incoherent tune spread introduced by the beam-beam interactions is sufficiently large to cure any instabilities originating from impedance. However, as the two counterrotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes and therefore modify the coherent beam dynamics and stability conditions. In this case, coherent beam-beam effects and impedance cannot be treated independently and their interplay should be taken into account in any realistic attempt to study the beam stability of colliding beams. Due to the complexity of these physics processes, numerical simulations become an important tool for the analysis of this system. Two approaches are proposed in this paper: a fully self-consistent multiparticle tracking including particle-in-cell Poisson solver for the beam-beam interactions and a linearized model taking into account finite bunch length effects. To ensure the validity of the results a detailed benchmarking of these models was performed. It will be shown that under certain conditions coherent beam-beam dipole modes can couple with higher order headtail modes and lead to strong instabilities with characteristics similar to the classical transverse mode coupling instability originating from impedance alone. Possible cures for this instability are explored both for single bunch and multibunch interactions. Simulation results and experimental evidences of the existence of this instability at the LHC will be presented for the specific case of offset collisions.
Transverse stability in multibunch mode for CLIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guignard, G.
1993-01-01
In order to reach the desired luminosity with 250 GeV per beam, multibunch operation (limited to 4 bunches, say) might have to be considered in the CERN linear collider (CLIC). One limitation comes from the coupling of the bunch motion with the long-range transverse wake fields that may induce beam breakup. These wake fields have therefore to be controlled, and means of reducing their effects on the beam are discussed in a companion paper. One possibility consists in detuning the dipole modes in the cells to obtain decoherent contributions and hence reduce the field amplitude at the downstream bunch location. The important question is to know below which value this amplitude must be limited to prevent intolerable beam breakup. In a first attempt at estimating this threshold for CLIC two approaches are considered, i.e. the criterion developed at SLAC and based on the convergence of the multibunch-motion solution, and numerical simulations of two-bunch motion in a focusing lattice
The Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Fetuses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Aderval Aragão
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of 27.6±4.14 weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (P≥0.05. However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (P≤0.05. Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament.
Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.
1979-01-01
' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K p and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs
TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF SYSTEMS OF CORONAL LOOPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.
2009-01-01
We study the collective kinklike normal modes of a system of several cylindrical loops using the T-matrix theory. Loops that have similar kink frequencies oscillate collectively with a frequency which is slightly different from that of the individual kink mode. On the other hand, if the kink frequency of a loop is different from that of the others, it oscillates individually with its own frequency. Since the individual kink frequency depends on the loop density but not on its radius for typical 1 MK coronal loops, a coupling between kink oscillations of neighboring loops takes place when they have similar densities. The relevance of these results in the interpretation of the oscillations studied by Schrijver and Brown in 2000 and Verwichte et al. in 2004, in which transverse collective loop oscillations seem to be detected, is discussed. In the first case, two loops oscillating in antiphase are observed; interpreting this motion as a collective kink mode suggests that their densities are roughly equal. In the second case, there are almost three groups of tubes that oscillate with similar periods, and therefore their dynamics can be collective, which again seems to indicate that the loops of each group share a similar density. All the other loops seem to oscillate individually and their densities can be different from the rest.
The LHC Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instability
Mounet, Nicolas; Métral, Elias
In this thesis, the problem of the transverse coupled-bunch instabilities created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-coupling impedance, that can possibly limit the machine operation, is addressed thanks to several new theories and tools. A rather complete vision of the problem is proposed here, going from the calculation of the impedances and wake functions of individual machine elements, to the beam dynamics study. Firstly, new results are obtained in the theory of the beam-coupling impedance for an axisymmetric two-dimensional structure, generalizing Zotter's theories, and a new general theory is derived for the impedance of an infinite flat two-dimensional structure. Then, a new approach has been found to compute the wake functions from such analytically obtained beam-coupling impedances, over-coming limitations that could be met with standard discrete Fourier transform procedures. Those results are then used to obtain an impedance and wake function model of the LHC, based on the (resistive-) wall im...
Classical Ising chain in transverse field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuccoli, A.; Taiti, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.
2007-01-01
The spin 12 Ising chain in transverse field is considered the prototypical system for quantum phase transitions. However, very little is apparently known in literature about its classical counterpart, not to be confused with the standard classical Ising model: while the latter is constructed from classical discrete variables, the model we consider is a chain of classical vectors of modulus 1, interacting via an Ising-like Hamiltonian. When an uniform field is applied perpendicular to the exchange interaction, both the quantum model and its classical counterpart get to be characterized by a critical field separating a ferromagnetically ordered state of minimal energy from a paramagnetic one. The properties of the classical model, and especially the behaviour of the correlation length, are investigated at low temperature around the critical field and compared with those of the quantum model, in order to single out the role played by quantum and classical fluctuations at finite temperature; the possibility to experimentally observe peculiar quantum critical effects in Ising spin chains is discussed
Modeling Transverse Chemotaxis in Porous Media
Porter, M. L.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.; Wood, B. D.
2009-12-01
The movement of microorganisms toward a chemical attractant (chemotaxis) has been shown to aid in subsurface contaminant degradation and enhanced oil recovery. However, chemotaxis is inherently a pore scale process that must be upscaled to arrive at continuum scale models for field applications. In this work, the method of volume averaging is used to upscale the microscale chemotactic microbial transport equations in order to obtain the corresponding macroscale models for the mass balance of bacteria and the chemical attractant to which they respond. As a first approach, cellular growth/death and consumption of the attractant by chemical reaction are assumed to be negligible with respect to convective and diffusive transport mechanisms. Two effective medium coefficients are introduced in the model, namely a total motility tensor and a total velocity vector. Under certain conditions, it is shown that the coefficients can differ considerably from the values corresponding to non-chemotactic transport. The model is validated by comparing the predicted transverse motility coefficients and concentration profiles to those measured within an engineered porous medium. For the concentration profiles, we introduced a lag that accounts for the difference between the arrival time of the microorganisms and the their chemotactic response to the attractant.