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Sample records for transporting transmembrane protein

  1. Vitamin A transport and the transmembrane pore in the cell-surface receptor for plasma retinol binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhong

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids play diverse and crucial functions from embryogenesis to adulthood and are used as therapeutic agents in human medicine for eye and skin diseases, infections and cancer. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP is the principal and specific vitamin A carrier in the blood and binds vitamin A at 1:1 ratio. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. STRA6 null mice have severely depleted vitamin A reserves for vision and consequently have vision loss, even under vitamin A sufficient conditions. STRA6 null humans have a wide range of severe pathological phenotypes in many organs including the eye, brain, heart and lung. Known membrane transport mechanisms involve transmembrane pores that regulate the transport of the substrate (e.g., the gating of ion channels. STRA6 represents a new type of membrane receptor. How this receptor interacts with its transport substrate vitamin A and the functions of its nine transmembrane domains are still completely unknown. These questions are critical to understanding the molecular basis of STRA6's activities and its regulation. We employ acute chemical modification to introduce chemical side chains to STRA6 in a site-specific manner. We found that modifications with specific chemicals at specific positions in or near the transmembrane domains of this receptor can almost completely suppress its vitamin A transport activity. These experiments provide the first evidence for the existence of a transmembrane pore, analogous to the pore of ion channels, for this new type of cell-surface receptor.

  2. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ∼400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known α-helical bundle and β-barrel structures. Numerous 'exotic' transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community.

  3. Role of protein dynamics in transmembrane receptor signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2018-01-01

    Cells are dependent on transmembrane receptors to communicate and transform chemical and physical signals into intracellular responses. Because receptors transport 'information', conformational changes and protein dynamics play a key mechanistic role. We here review examples where experiment...... to function. Because the receptors function in a heterogeneous environment and need to be able to switch between distinct functional states, they may be particularly sensitive to small perturbations that complicate studies linking dynamics to function....

  4. Hidden markov model for the prediction of transmembrane proteins using MATLAB.

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    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Shanker, Sudhanshu; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Sinha, Dhiraj; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2011-01-01

    Since membranous proteins play a key role in drug targeting therefore transmembrane proteins prediction is active and challenging area of biological sciences. Location based prediction of transmembrane proteins are significant for functional annotation of protein sequences. Hidden markov model based method was widely applied for transmembrane topology prediction. Here we have presented a revised and a better understanding model than an existing one for transmembrane protein prediction. Scripting on MATLAB was built and compiled for parameter estimation of model and applied this model on amino acid sequence to know the transmembrane and its adjacent locations. Estimated model of transmembrane topology was based on TMHMM model architecture. Only 7 super states are defined in the given dataset, which were converted to 96 states on the basis of their length in sequence. Accuracy of the prediction of model was observed about 74 %, is a good enough in the area of transmembrane topology prediction. Therefore we have concluded the hidden markov model plays crucial role in transmembrane helices prediction on MATLAB platform and it could also be useful for drug discovery strategy. The database is available for free at bioinfonavneet@gmail.comvinaysingh@bhu.ac.in.

  5. Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transport.

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    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Kirchner, Henriette; Lundell, Leonidas S; Zelenin, Pavel V; Zierath, Juleen R; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2017-07-15

    Small transmembrane proteins such as FXYDs, which interact with Na + ,K + -ATPase, and the micropeptides that interact with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase play fundamental roles in regulation of ion transport in vertebrates. Uncertain evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships among these regulators of ion transport have led to inconsistencies in their classification across vertebrate species, thus hampering comparative studies of their functions. We discovered the first FXYD homologue in sea lamprey, a basal jawless vertebrate, which suggests small transmembrane regulators of ion transport emerged early in the vertebrate lineage. We also identified 13 gene subfamilies of FXYDs and propose a revised, phylogeny-based FXYD classification that is consistent across vertebrate species. These findings provide an improved framework for investigating physiological and pathophysiological functions of small transmembrane regulators of ion transport. Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na + ,K + -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin and DWORF, which regulate the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) and bony

  6. Membrane shape modulates transmembrane protein distribution.

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    Aimon, Sophie; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Berthaud, Alice; Pinot, Mathieu; Toombes, Gilman E S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-01-27

    Although membrane shape varies greatly throughout the cell, the contribution of membrane curvature to transmembrane protein targeting is unknown because of the numerous sorting mechanisms that take place concurrently in cells. To isolate the effect of membrane shape, we used cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing either the potassium channel KvAP or the water channel AQP0 to form membrane nanotubes with controlled radii. Whereas the AQP0 concentrations in flat and curved membranes were indistinguishable, KvAP was enriched in the tubes, with greater enrichment in more highly curved membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that both proteins could freely diffuse through the neck between the tube and GUV, and the effect of each protein on membrane shape and stiffness was characterized using a thermodynamic sorting model. This study establishes the importance of membrane shape for targeting transmembrane proteins and provides a method for determining the effective shape and flexibility of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Topology of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 protein.

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    Labay, Valentina; Weichert, Rachel M; Makishima, Tomoko; Griffith, Andrew J

    2010-10-05

    Mutations of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss in humans and mice. TMC1 is the founding member of a family of genes encoding proteins of unknown function that are predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains. The goal of our study was to define the topology of mouse TMC1 expressed heterologously in tissue culture cells. TMC1 was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane of five tissue culture cell lines that we tested. We used anti-TMC1 and anti-HA antibodies to probe the topologic orientation of three native epitopes and seven HA epitope tags along full-length TMC1 after selective or complete permeabilization of transfected cells with digitonin or Triton X-100, respectively. TMC1 was present within the ER as an integral membrane protein containing six transmembrane domains and cytosolic N- and C-termini. There is a large cytoplasmic loop, between the fourth and fifth transmembrane domains, with two highly conserved hydrophobic regions that might associate with or penetrate, but do not span, the plasma membrane. Our study is the first to demonstrate that TMC1 is a transmembrane protein. The topologic organization revealed by this study shares some features with that of the shaker-TRP superfamily of ion channels.

  8. Water Transport Mediated by Other Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyue; Wang, Hongkai; Yang, Baoxue

    2017-01-01

    Water transport through membrane is so intricate that there are still some debates. (Aquaporins) AQPs are entirely accepted to allow water transmembrane movement depending on osmotic gradient. Cotransporters and uniporters , however, are also concerned in water homeotatsis. Urea transporter B (UT-B) has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to AQP1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR ) was initially thought as a water channel but now not believed to transport water directly. By cotranporters, water is transported by water osmosis coupling with substrates, which explains how water is transported across the isolated small intestine. This chapter provides information about water transport mediated by other membrane proteins except AQPs .

  9. Structure and Mechanism of Proton Transport Through the Transmembrane Tetrameric M2 Protein Bundle of the Influenza A Virus

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    R Acharya; V Carnevale; G Fiorin; B Levine; A Polishchuk; V Balannick; I Samish; R Lamb; L Pinto; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The M2 proton channel from influenza A virus is an essential protein that mediates transport of protons across the viral envelope. This protein has a single transmembrane helix, which tetramerizes into the active channel. At the heart of the conduction mechanism is the exchange of protons between the His37 imidazole moieties of M2 and waters confined to the M2 bundle interior. Protons are conducted as the total charge of the four His37 side chains passes through 2{sup +} and 3{sup +} with a pK{sub a} near 6. A 1.65 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the transmembrane protein (residues 25-46), crystallized at pH 6.5, reveals a pore that is lined by alternating layers of sidechains and well-ordered water clusters, which offer a pathway for proton conduction. The His37 residues form a box-like structure, bounded on either side by water clusters with well-ordered oxygen atoms at close distance. The conformation of the protein, which is intermediate between structures previously solved at higher and lower pH, suggests a mechanism by which conformational changes might facilitate asymmetric diffusion through the channel in the presence of a proton gradient. Moreover, protons diffusing through the channel need not be localized to a single His37 imidazole, but instead may be delocalized over the entire His-box and associated water clusters. Thus, the new crystal structure provides a possible unification of the discrete site versus continuum conduction models.

  10. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

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    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Correlation of Aquaporins and Transmembrane Solute Transporters Revealed by Genome-Wide Analysis in Developing Maize Leaf

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    Xun Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are multifunctional membrane channels that facilitate the transmembrane transport of water and solutes. When transmembrane mineral nutrient transporters exhibit the same expression patterns as aquaporins under diverse temporal and physiological conditions, there is a greater probability that they interact. In this study, genome-wide temporal profiling of transcripts analysis and coexpression network-based approaches are used to examine the significant specificity correlation of aquaporins and transmembrane solute transporters in developing maize leaf. The results indicate that specific maize aquaporins are related to specific transmembrane solute transporters. The analysis demonstrates a systems-level correlation between aquaporins, nutrient transporters, and the homeostasis of mineral nutrients in developing maize leaf. Our results provide a resource for further studies into the physiological function of these aquaporins.

  12. In Vitro Analysis of Metabolite Transport Proteins.

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    Roell, Marc-Sven; Kuhnert, Franziska; Zamani-Nour, Shirin; Weber, Andreas P M

    2017-01-01

    The photorespiratory cycle is distributed over four cellular compartments, the chloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Shuttling of photorespiratory intermediates between these compartments is essential to maintain the function of photorespiration. Specific transport proteins mediate the transport across biological membranes and represent important components of the cellular metabolism. Although significant progress was made in the last years on identifying and characterizing new transport proteins, the overall picture of intracellular metabolite transporters is still rather incomplete. The photorespiratory cycle requires at least 25 transmembrane transport steps; however to date only plastidic glycolate/glycerate transporter and the accessory 2-oxoglutarate/malate and glutamate/malate transporters as well as the mitochondrial transporter BOU1 have been identified. The characterization of transport proteins and defining their substrates and kinetics are still major challenges.Here we present a detailed set of protocols for the in vitro characterization of transport proteins. We provide protocols for the isolation of recombinant transport protein expressed in E. coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the extraction of total leaf membrane protein for in vitro analysis of transporter proteins. Further we explain the process of reconstituting transport proteins in artificial lipid vesicles and elucidate the details of transport assays.

  13. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

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    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Transmembrane transporter expression regulated by the glucosylceramide pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans.

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    Singh, Arpita; Rella, Antonella; Schwacke, John; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Luberto, Chiara; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2015-11-16

    The sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and factors involved in the fungal GlcCer pathways were shown earlier to be an integral part of fungal virulence, especially in fungal replication at 37 °C, in neutral/alkaline pH and 5 % CO2 environments (e.g. alveolar spaces). Two mutants, ∆gcs 1 lacking glucosylceramide synthase 1 gene (GCS1) which catalyzes the formation of sphingolipid GlcCer from the C9-methyl ceramide and ∆smt1 lacking sphingolipid C9 methyltransferase gene (SMT1), which adds a methyl group to position nine of the sphingosine backbone of ceramide, of this pathway were attenuated in virulence and have a growth defect at the above-mentioned conditions. These mutants with either no or structurally modified GlcCer located on the cell-membrane have reduced membrane rigidity, which may have altered not only the physical location of membrane proteins but also their expression, as the pathogen's mode of adaptation to changing need. Importantly, pathogens are known to adapt themselves to the changing host environments by altering their patterns of gene expression. By transcriptional analysis of gene expression, we identified six genes whose expression was changed from their wild-type counterpart grown in the same conditions, i.e. they became either down regulated or up regulated in these two mutants. The microarray data was validated by real-time PCR, which confirmed their fold change in gene expression. All the six genes we identified, viz siderochrome-iron transporter (CNAG_02083), monosaccharide transporter (CNAG_05340), glucose transporter (CNAG_03772), membrane protein (CNAG_03912), membrane transport protein (CNAG_00539), and sugar transporter (CNAG_06963), are membrane-localized and have significantly altered gene expression levels. Therefore, we hypothesize that these genes function either independently or in tandem with a structurally modified cell wall/plasma membrane resulting from the modifications of the GlcCer pathway and thus possibly

  15. Incorporation of transmembrane hydroxide transport into the chemiosmotic theory.

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    de Grey, A D

    1999-10-01

    A cornerstone of textbook bioenergetics is that oxidative ATP synthesis in mitochondria requires, in normal conditions of internal and external pH, a potential difference (delta psi) of well over 100 mV between the aqueous compartments that the energy-transducing membrane separates. Measurements of delta psi inferred from diffusion of membrane-permeant ions confirm this, but those using microelectrodes consistently find no such delta psi--a result ostensibly irreconcilable with the chemiosmotic theory. Transmembrane hydroxide transport necessarily accompanies mitochondrial ATP synthesis, due to the action of several carrier proteins; this nullifies some of the proton transport by the respiratory chain. Here, it is proposed that these carriers' structure causes the path of this "lost" proton flow to include a component perpendicular to the membrane but within the aqueous phases, so maintaining a steady-state proton-motive force between the water at each membrane surface and in the adjacent bulk medium. The conflicting measurements of delta psi are shown to be consistent with the response of this system to its chemical environment.

  16. System and methods for predicting transmembrane domains in membrane proteins and mining the genome for recognizing G-protein coupled receptors

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    Trabanino, Rene J; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E; Goddard, William A; Floriano, Wely

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides computer-implemented methods and apparatus implementing a hierarchical protocol using multiscale molecular dynamics and molecular modeling methods to predict the presence of transmembrane regions in proteins, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR), and protein structural models generated according to the protocol. The protocol features a coarse grain sampling method, such as hydrophobicity analysis, to provide a fast and accurate procedure for predicting transmembrane regions. Methods and apparatus of the invention are useful to screen protein or polynucleotide databases for encoded proteins with transmembrane regions, such as GPCRs.

  17. Structural elucidation of transmembrane domain zero (TMD0) of EcdL: A multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein revealed by atomistic simulation.

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    Bera, Krishnendu; Rani, Priyanka; Kishor, Gaurav; Agarwal, Shikha; Kumar, Antresh; Singh, Durg Vijay

    2017-09-20

    ATP-Binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an extensive role in the translocation of diverse sets of biologically important molecules across membrane. EchnocandinB (antifungal) and EcdL protein of Aspergillus rugulosus are encoded by the same cluster of genes. Co-expression of EcdL and echinocandinB reflects tightly linked biological functions. EcdL belongs to Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) subfamily of ABC transporters with an extra transmembrane domain zero (TMD0). Complete structure of MRP subfamily comprising of TMD0 domain, at atomic resolution is not known. We hypothesized that the transportation of echonocandinB is mediated via EcdL protein. Henceforth, it is pertinent to know the topological arrangement of TMD0, with other domains of protein and its possible role in transportation of echinocandinB. Absence of effective template for TMD0 domain lead us to model by I-TASSER, further structure has been refined by multiple template modelling using homologous templates of remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2, NBD2). The modelled structure has been validated for packing, folding and stereochemical properties. MD simulation for 0.1 μs has been carried out in the biphasic environment for refinement of modelled protein. Non-redundant structures have been excavated by clustering of MD trajectory. The structural alignment of modelled structure has shown Z-score -37.9; 31.6, 31.5 with RMSD; 2.4, 4.2, 4.8 with ABC transporters; PDB ID 4F4C, 4M1 M, 4M2T, respectively, reflecting the correctness of structure. EchinocandinB has been docked to the modelled as well as to the clustered structures, which reveals interaction of echinocandinB with TMD0 and other TM helices in the translocation path build of TMDs.

  18. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein

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    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C.; Leslie Dutton, P.; Discher, Bohdana M.

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics — the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  19. Transmembrane START domain proteins: in silico identification, characterization and expression analysis under stress conditions in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

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    Satheesh, Viswanathan; Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tejkumar; Kumar, Vajinder; Jain, Pradeep K; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bhat, Shripad R; Srinivasan, R

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory related transfer (StART) proteins that are involved in transport of lipid molecules, play a myriad of functions in insects, mammals and plants. These proteins consist of a modular START domain of approximately 200 amino acids which binds and transfers the lipids. In the present study we have performed a genome-wide search for all START domain proteins in chickpea. The search identified 36 chickpea genes belonging to the START domain family. Through a phylogenetic tree reconstructed with Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean START proteins, we were able to identify four transmembrane START (TM-START) proteins in chickpea. These four proteins are homologous to the highly conserved mammalian phosphatidylcholine transfer proteins. Multiple sequence alignment of all the transmembrane containing START proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean revealed that the amino acid residues to which phosphatidylcholine binds in mammals, is also conserved in all these plant species, implying an important functional role and a very similar mode of action of all these proteins across dicots and monocots. This study characterizes a few of the not so well studied transmembrane START superfamily genes that may be involved in stress signaling. Expression analysis in various tissues showed that these genes are predominantly expressed in flowers and roots of chickpea. Three of the chickpea TM-START genes showed induced expression in response to drought, salt, wound and heat stress, suggesting their role in stress response.

  20. Expression and regulation of transmembrane transporters in healthy intestine and gastrointestinal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hruz, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Transmembrane transporters mediate energy dependent or independent translocation of drugs, potentially toxic compounds, and of various endogenous substrates such as bile acids and bilirubin across membranes. In this thesis the focus is on two classes of transporters, the ATPbinding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate ATP dependent transport and the solute carriers (SLC) which use electrochemical gradients for their transport. The transporters are expressed on membranes o...

  1. Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) Protein 2

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    Gross, David A.; Snapp, Erik L.; Silver, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2) belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9)AAA) in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9)AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation. PMID:20520733

  2. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

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    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  3. Transmembrane Domain Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Impair Expression and Transport Activity of ABC Transporter ABCG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjostedt, N.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Kidron, H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the function and expression of nine naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G406R, F431L, S441N, P480L, F489L, M515R, L525R, A528T and T542A) that are predicted to reside in the transmembrane regions of the ABC transporter ABCG2. METHODS: The transport activity of the

  4. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

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    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  5. Transmembrane Signaling Proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    Virtually all metazoan cells contain at least one and usually several types of transmembrane proteoglycans. These are varied in protein structure and type of polysaccharide, but the total number of vertebrate genes encoding transmembrane proteoglycan core proteins is less than 10. Some core prote...... proteins, including those of the syndecans, always possess covalently coupled glycosaminoglycans; others do not. Syndecan has a long evolutionary history, as it is present in invertebrates, but many other transmembrane proteoglycans are vertebrate inventions. The variety of proteins...... proteins has been obtained in mouse knockout experiments. Here some of the latest developments in the field are examined in hopes of stimulating further interest in this fascinating group of molecules. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 26...

  6. Substrate-modulated unwinding of transmembrane helices in the NSS transporter LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Patrick S; Gotfryd, Kamil; Cuendet, Michel A; Leth-Espensen, Katrine Z; Gether, Ulrik; Loland, Claus J; Rand, Kasper D

    2018-05-01

    LeuT, a prokaryotic member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family, is an established structural model for mammalian NSS counterparts. We investigate the substrate translocation mechanism of LeuT by measuring the solution-phase structural dynamics of the transporter in distinct functional states by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Our HDX-MS data pinpoint LeuT segments involved in substrate transport and reveal for the first time a comprehensive and detailed view of the dynamics associated with transition of the transporter between outward- and inward-facing configurations in a Na + - and K + -dependent manner. The results suggest that partial unwinding of transmembrane helices 1/5/6/7 drives LeuT from a substrate-bound, outward-facing occluded conformation toward an inward-facing open state. These hitherto unknown, large-scale conformational changes in functionally important transmembrane segments, observed for LeuT in detergent-solubilized form and when embedded in a native-like phospholipid bilayer, could be of physiological relevance for the translocation process.

  7. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  8. Transmembrane molecular transport during versus after extremely large, nanosecond electric pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C

    2011-08-19

    Recently there has been intense and growing interest in the non-thermal biological effects of nanosecond electric pulses, particularly apoptosis induction. These effects have been hypothesized to result from the widespread creation of small, lipidic pores in the plasma and organelle membranes of cells (supra-electroporation) and, more specifically, ionic and molecular transport through these pores. Here we show that transport occurs overwhelmingly after pulsing. First, we show that the electrical drift distance for typical charged solutes during nanosecond pulses (up to 100 ns), even those with very large magnitudes (up to 10 MV/m), ranges from only a fraction of the membrane thickness (5 nm) to several membrane thicknesses. This is much smaller than the diameter of a typical cell (∼16 μm), which implies that molecular drift transport during nanosecond pulses is necessarily minimal. This implication is not dependent on assumptions about pore density or the molecular flux through pores. Second, we show that molecular transport resulting from post-pulse diffusion through minimum-size pores is orders of magnitude larger than electrical drift-driven transport during nanosecond pulses. While field-assisted charge entry and the magnitude of flux favor transport during nanosecond pulses, these effects are too small to overcome the orders of magnitude more time available for post-pulse transport. Therefore, the basic conclusion that essentially all transmembrane molecular transport occurs post-pulse holds across the plausible range of relevant parameters. Our analysis shows that a primary direct consequence of nanosecond electric pulses is the creation (or maintenance) of large populations of small pores in cell membranes that govern post-pulse transmembrane transport of small ions and molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MutHTP: Mutations in Human Transmembrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Kulandaisamy; S, Binny Priya; R, Sakthivel; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana; Bizin, Ilya; Hönigschmid, Peter; Frishman, Dmitrij; Gromiha, M Michael

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a novel database, MutHTP, which contains information on 183395 disease-associated and 17827 neutral mutations in human transmembrane proteins. For each mutation site MutHTP provides a description of its location with respect to the membrane protein topology, structural environment (if available) and functional features. Comprehensive visualization, search, display and download options are available. The database is publicly available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/MutHTP/. The website is implemented using HTML, PHP and javascript and supports recent versions of all major browsers, such as Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikder, K. U.; Stone, K. A.; Kumar, P. B. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that mic......We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find...... that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC....

  11. Identification of MarvelD3 as a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of the occludin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balda Maria S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight junctions are an intercellular adhesion complex of epithelial and endothelial cells, and form a paracellular barrier that restricts the diffusion of solutes on the basis of size and charge. Tight junctions are formed by multiprotein complexes containing cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. How these components work together to form functional tight junctions is still not well understood and will require a complete understanding of the molecular composition of the junction. Results Here we identify a new transmembrane component of tight junctions: MarvelD3, a four-span transmembrane protein. Its predicted transmembrane helices form a Marvel (MAL and related proteins for vesicle traffic and membrane link domain, a structural motif originally discovered in proteins involved in membrane apposition and fusion events, such as the tight junction proteins occludin and tricellulin. In mammals, MarvelD3 is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms. Both isoforms exhibit a broad tissue distribution and are expressed by different types of epithelial as well as endothelial cells. MarvelD3 co-localises with occludin at tight junctions in intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. RNA interference experiments in Caco-2 cells indicate that normal MarvelD3 expression is not required for the formation of functional tight junctions but depletion results in monolayers with increased transepithelial electrical resistance. Conclusions Our data indicate that MarvelD3 is a third member of the tight junction-associated occludin family of transmembrane proteins. Similar to occludin, normal expression of MarvelD3 is not essential for the formation of functional tight junctions. However, MarvelD3 functions as a determinant of epithelial paracellular permeability properties.

  12. Solitary BioY Proteins Mediate Biotin Transport into Recombinant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Kirsch, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters form a large group of vitamin uptake systems in prokaryotes. They are composed of highly diverse, substrate-specific, transmembrane proteins (S units), a ubiquitous transmembrane protein (T unit), and homo- or hetero-oligomeric ABC ATPases. Biotin transporters represent a special case of ECF-type systems. The majority of the biotin-specific S units (BioY) is known or predicted to interact with T units and ABC ATPases. About one-third of BioY proteins, however, are encoded in organisms lacking any recognizable T unit. This finding raises the question of whether these BioYs function as transporters in a solitary state, a feature ascribed to certain BioYs in the past. To address this question in living cells, an Escherichia coli K-12 derivative deficient in biotin synthesis and devoid of its endogenous high-affinity biotin transporter was constructed as a reference strain. This organism is particularly suited for this purpose because components of ECF transporters do not naturally occur in E. coli K-12. The double mutant was viable in media containing either high levels of biotin or a precursor of the downstream biosynthetic path. Importantly, it was nonviable on trace levels of biotin. Eight solitary bioY genes of proteobacterial origin were individually expressed in the reference strain. Each of the BioYs conferred biotin uptake activity on the recombinants, which was inferred from uptake assays with [3H]biotin and growth of the cells on trace levels of biotin. The results underscore that solitary BioY transports biotin across the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:23836870

  13. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén González Montoro

    Full Text Available Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs, characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called "Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain" (DHHC-CRD. There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether.Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as

  14. Lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein 5 (LAPTM5 is a molecular partner of CD1e.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Angénieux

    Full Text Available The CD1e protein participates in the presentation of lipid antigens in dendritic cells. Its transmembrane precursor is transported to lysosomes where it is cleaved into an active soluble form. In the presence of bafilomycin, which inhibits vacuolar ATPase and consequently the acidification of endosomal compartments, CD1e associates with a 27 kD protein. In this work, we identified this molecular partner as LAPTM5. The latter protein and CD1e colocalize in trans-Golgi and late endosomal compartments. The quantity of LAPTM5/CD1e complexes increases when the cells are treated with bafilomycin, probably due to the protection of LAPTM5 from lysosomal proteases. Moreover, we could demonstrate that LAPTM5/CD1e association occurs under physiological conditions. Although LAPTM5 was previously shown to act as a platform recruiting ubiquitin ligases and facilitating the transport of receptors to lysosomes, we found no evidence that LATPM5 controls either CD1e ubiquitination or the generation of soluble lysosomal CD1e proteins. Notwithstanding these last observations, the interaction of LAPTM5 with CD1e and their colocalization in antigen processing compartments both suggest that LAPTM5 might influence the role of CD1e in the presentation of lipid antigens.

  15. Transmembrane protein diffusion in gel-supported dual-leaflet membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Ying; Hill, Reghan J

    2014-11-18

    Tools to measure transmembrane-protein diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes have advanced in recent decades, providing a need for predictive theoretical models that account for interleaflet leaflet friction on tracer mobility. Here we address the fully three-dimensional flows driven by a (nonprotruding) transmembrane protein embedded in a dual-leaflet membrane that is supported above and below by soft porous supports (e.g., hydrogel or extracellular matrix), each of which has a prescribed permeability and solvent viscosity. For asymmetric configurations, i.e., supports with contrasting permeability, as realized for cells in contact with hydrogel scaffolds or culture media, the diffusion coefficient can reflect interleaflet friction. Reasonable approximations, for sufficiently large tracers on low-permeability supports, are furnished by a recent phenomenological theory from the literature. Interpreting literature data, albeit for hard-supported membranes, provides a theoretical basis for the phenomenological Stokes drag law as well as strengthening assertions that nonhydrodynamic interactions are important in supported bilayer systems, possibly leading to overestimates of the membrane/leaflet viscosity. Our theory provides a theoretical foundation for future experimental studies of tracer diffusion in gel-supported membranes.

  16. Intramolecular cross-linking in a bacterial homolog of mammalian SLC6 neurotransmitter transporters suggests an evolutionary conserved role of transmembrane segments 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kniazeff, Julie; Loland, Claus Juul; Goldberg, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA and glycine is tightly controlled by plasma membrane transporters belonging to the SLC6 gene family. A very large number of putative transport proteins with a remarkable homology to the SLC6...... proximity between TM 7 and 8 in the tertiary structure of TnaT as previously suggested for the mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, the inhibition of uptake upon cross-linking the two cysteines provides indirect support for a conserved conformational role of these transmembrane domains in the transport...

  17. TMFoldWeb: a web server for predicting transmembrane protein fold class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2015-09-17

    Here we present TMFoldWeb, the web server implementation of TMFoldRec, a transmembrane protein fold recognition algorithm. TMFoldRec uses statistical potentials and utilizes topology filtering and a gapless threading algorithm. It ranks template structures and selects the most likely candidates and estimates the reliability of the obtained lowest energy model. The statistical potential was developed in a maximum likelihood framework on a representative set of the PDBTM database. According to the benchmark test the performance of TMFoldRec is about 77 % in correctly predicting fold class for a given transmembrane protein sequence. An intuitive web interface has been developed for the recently published TMFoldRec algorithm. The query sequence goes through a pipeline of topology prediction and a systematic sequence to structure alignment (threading). Resulting templates are ordered by energy and reliability values and are colored according to their significance level. Besides the graphical interface, a programmatic access is available as well, via a direct interface for developers or for submitting genome-wide data sets. The TMFoldWeb web server is unique and currently the only web server that is able to predict the fold class of transmembrane proteins while assigning reliability scores for the prediction. This method is prepared for genome-wide analysis with its easy-to-use interface, informative result page and programmatic access. Considering the info-communication evolution in the last few years, the developed web server, as well as the molecule viewer, is responsive and fully compatible with the prevalent tablets and mobile devices.

  18. Specificity of the second binding protein of the peptide ABC-transporter (Dpp) of Lactococcus lactis IL1403

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, Y; Toldra, F; Renault, P; Poolman, B

    2003-01-01

    The genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 revealed the presence of a putative peptide-binding protein-dependent ABC-transporter (Dpp). The genes for two peptide-binding proteins (dppA and dppP) precede the membrane components, which include two transmembrane protein genes (dppB and dppC) and

  19. MemBrain: An Easy-to-Use Online Webserver for Transmembrane Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Yang, Jing; Xiao, Feng; Yang, Yang; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2018-03-01

    Membrane proteins are an important kind of proteins embedded in the membranes of cells and play crucial roles in living organisms, such as ion channels, transporters, receptors. Because it is difficult to determinate the membrane protein's structure by wet-lab experiments, accurate and fast amino acid sequence-based computational methods are highly desired. In this paper, we report an online prediction tool called MemBrain, whose input is the amino acid sequence. MemBrain consists of specialized modules for predicting transmembrane helices, residue-residue contacts and relative accessible surface area of α-helical membrane proteins. MemBrain achieves a prediction accuracy of 97.9% of A TMH, 87.1% of A P, 3.2 ± 3.0 of N-score, 3.1 ± 2.8 of C-score. MemBrain-Contact obtains 62%/64.1% prediction accuracy on training and independent dataset on top L/5 contact prediction, respectively. And MemBrain-Rasa achieves Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.733 and its mean absolute error of 13.593. These prediction results provide valuable hints for revealing the structure and function of membrane proteins. MemBrain web server is free for academic use and available at www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/MemBrain/. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Hsp70 facilitates trans-membrane transport of bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins into the cytosol of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Katharina; Schmid, Johannes; Beck, Matthias; Hägele, Marlen; Hohwieler, Meike; Hauff, Patricia; Ückert, Anna Katharina; Anastasia, Anna; Fauler, Michael; Jank, Thomas; Aktories, Klaus; Popoff, Michel R; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia; Kleger, Alexander; Müller, Martin; Frick, Manfred; Barth, Holger

    2017-06-02

    Binary enterotoxins Clostridium (C.) botulinum C2 toxin, C. perfringens iota toxin and C. difficile toxin CDT are composed of a transport (B) and a separate non-linked enzyme (A) component. Their B-components mediate endocytic uptake into mammalian cells and subsequently transport of the A-components from acidic endosomes into the cytosol, where the latter ADP-ribosylate G-actin resulting in cell rounding and cell death causing clinical symptoms. Protein folding enzymes, including Hsp90 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases facilitate transport of the A-components across endosomal membranes. Here, we identified Hsp70 as a novel host cell factor specifically interacting with A-components of C2, iota and CDT toxins to facilitate their transport into the cell cytosol. Pharmacological Hsp70-inhibition specifically prevented pH-dependent trans-membrane transport of A-components into the cytosol thereby protecting living cells and stem cell-derived human miniguts from intoxication. Thus, Hsp70-inhibition might lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat diseases associated with bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins.

  1. Modeling the Structure of SARS 3a Transmembrane Protein Using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modeling the structure of SARS 3a Transmembrane protein using a ... for the implicit membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. ... The coordinates during the simulation were saved every 500 steps, and were used for analysis. ... the pair list for calculation of nonbonded interactions being updated after every 10 steps.

  2. Plant virus cell-to-cell movement is not dependent on the transmembrane disposition of its movement protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Luis; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Cruz, Antonio; Pallás, Vicente; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Mingarro, Ismael

    2009-06-01

    The cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses depends on one or more virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs). Some MPs are integral membrane proteins that interact with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, but a detailed understanding of the interaction between MPs and biological membranes has been lacking. The cell-to-cell movement of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is facilitated by a single MP of the 30K superfamily. Here, using a myriad of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that the PNRSV MP contains only one hydrophobic region (HR) that interacts with the membrane interface, as opposed to being a transmembrane protein. We also show that a proline residue located in the middle of the HR constrains the structural conformation of this region at the membrane interface, and its replacement precludes virus movement.

  3. Obif, a Transmembrane Protein, Is Required for Bone Mineralization and Spermatogenesis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Mizuhashi

    Full Text Available Various kinds of transmembrane and secreted proteins play pivotal roles in development through cell-cell communication. We previously reported that Obif (Osteoblast induction factor, Tmem119, encoding a single transmembrane protein, is expressed in differentiating osteoblasts, and that Obif-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced bone volume in the femur. In the current study, we characterized the Obif protein and further investigated the biological phenotypes of a variety of tissues in Obif-/- mice.First, we found that O-glycosylation of the Obif protein occurs at serine residue 36 in the Obif extracellular domain. Next, we observed that Obif-/- mice exhibit bone dysplasia in association with significantly increased osteoid volume per osteoid surface (OV/OS and osteoid maturation time (Omt, and significantly decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR and bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS. In addition, we observed that Obif-/- mice show a significant decrease in testis weight as well as in sperm number. By histological analysis, we found that Obif is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testis and that spermatogenesis is halted at the round spermatid stage in the Obif-/- testis that lacks sperm. However, the number of litters fathered by male mice was slightly reduced in Obif-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, although this was not statistically significant.Our results, taken together with previous observations, indicate that Obif is a type Ia transmembrane protein whose N-terminal region is O-glycosylated. In addition, we found that Obif is required for normal bone mineralization and late testicular differentiation in vivo. These findings suggest that Obif plays essential roles in the development of multiple tissues.

  4. Obif, a Transmembrane Protein, Is Required for Bone Mineralization and Spermatogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhashi, Koji; Chaya, Taro; Kanamoto, Takashi; Omori, Yoshihiro; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of transmembrane and secreted proteins play pivotal roles in development through cell-cell communication. We previously reported that Obif (Osteoblast induction factor, Tmem119), encoding a single transmembrane protein, is expressed in differentiating osteoblasts, and that Obif-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced bone volume in the femur. In the current study, we characterized the Obif protein and further investigated the biological phenotypes of a variety of tissues in Obif-/- mice. First, we found that O-glycosylation of the Obif protein occurs at serine residue 36 in the Obif extracellular domain. Next, we observed that Obif-/- mice exhibit bone dysplasia in association with significantly increased osteoid volume per osteoid surface (OV/OS) and osteoid maturation time (Omt), and significantly decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS). In addition, we observed that Obif-/- mice show a significant decrease in testis weight as well as in sperm number. By histological analysis, we found that Obif is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testis and that spermatogenesis is halted at the round spermatid stage in the Obif-/- testis that lacks sperm. However, the number of litters fathered by male mice was slightly reduced in Obif-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, although this was not statistically significant. Our results, taken together with previous observations, indicate that Obif is a type Ia transmembrane protein whose N-terminal region is O-glycosylated. In addition, we found that Obif is required for normal bone mineralization and late testicular differentiation in vivo. These findings suggest that Obif plays essential roles in the development of multiple tissues.

  5. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Gout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFTR gene is unique within the ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein family, predominantly of transporters, by coding a chloride channel. The gating mechanism of ABC proteins has been characterized by the ATP Switch model in terms cycles of dimer formation and dissociation linked to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. It would be of interest to assess the extent that Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, a functional channel, fits the ATP Switch model for ABC transporters. Additional transporter mechanisms, namely those of Pgp and HlyB, are discussed for perspective. Literature search of databases selected key references in comparing and contrasting the gating mechanism. CFTR is a functional chloride channel facilitating transmembrane anion flow down electrochemical gradients. A dysfunctional CFTR protein results in cystic fibrosis, a fatal pleiotropic disease currently managed symptomatically. Understanding the gating mechanism will help target drug development aimed at alleviating and curing the disease.

  6. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  7. Characterization of the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of Japanese encephalitis virus precursor membrane (prM protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Suh-Chin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The interaction between prM and E proteins in flavivirus-infected cells is a major driving force for the assembly of flavivirus particles. We used site-directed mutagenesis to study the potential role of the transmembrane domains of the prM proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in prM-E heterodimerization as well as subviral particle formation. Alanine insertion scanning mutagenesis within the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of JEV prM protein affected the prM-E heterodimerization; its specificity was confirmed by replacing the two glycines of the GXXXG motif with alanine, leucine and valine. The GXXXG motif was found to be conserved in the JEV serocomplex viruses but not other flavivirus groups. These mutants with alanine inserted in the two prM transmembrane segments all impaired subviral particle formation in cell cultures. The prM transmembrane domains of JEV may play importation roles in prM-E heterodimerization and viral particle assembly.

  8. Artificial Diels–Alderase based on the transmembrane protein FhuA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Osseili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(I and copper(II complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVFtev. Copper(I was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels–Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product.

  9. Nanoporous microbead supported bilayers: stability, physical characterization, and incorporation of functional transmembrane proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, Susan Marie; Cox, Jason M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Barrick, Todd A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Flores, Adrean (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of functional transmembrane proteins into supported bilayer-based biomimetic systems presents a significant challenge for biophysics. Among the various methods for producing supported bilayers, liposomal fusion offers a versatile method for the introduction of membrane proteins into supported bilayers on a variety of substrates. In this study, the properties of protein containing unilamellar phosphocholine lipid bilayers on nanoporous silica microspheres are investigated. The effects of the silica substrate, pore structure, and the substrate curvature on the stability of the membrane and the functionality of the membrane protein are determined. Supported bilayers on porous silica microspheres show a significant increase in surface area on surfaces with structures in excess of 10 nm as well as an overall decrease in stability resulting from increasing pore size and curvature. Comparison of the liposomal and detergent-mediated introduction of purified bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and the human type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) are investigated focusing on the resulting protein function, diffusion, orientation, and incorporation efficiency. In both cases, functional proteins are observed; however, the reconstitution efficiency and orientation selectivity are significantly enhanced through detergent-mediated protein reconstitution. The results of these experiments provide a basis for bulk ionic and fluorescent dye-based compartmentalization assays as well as single-molecule optical and single-channel electrochemical interrogation of transmembrane proteins in a biomimetic platform.

  10. Electrochemical platform for the detection of transmembrane proteins reconstituted into liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacek, J.; Zatloukalová, M.; Geletičová, J.; Kubala, M.; Modriansky, M.; Fekete, Ladislav; Mašek, J.; Hubatka, F.; Turánek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 8 (2016), s. 4548-4556 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : detection * transmembrane proteins * liposomes * electrochemistry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  11. NMR studies of transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, E.C.; Bubb, W.A.; Kuchel, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electron transport systems exist in the plasma membranes of all cells. These systems appear to play a role in cell growth and proliferation, intracellular signalling, hormone responses, apoptotic events, cell defence and perhaps most importantly they enable the cell to respond to changes in the redox state of both the intra- and extracellular environments. Previously, 13 C NMR has been used to study transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes, specifically the reduction of extracellular 13 C-ferricyanide. NMR is a particularly useful tool for studying such systems as changes in the metabolic state of the cell can be observed concomitantly with extracellular reductase activity. We investigated the oxidation of extracellular NADH by human erythrocytes using 1 H and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Recent results for glucose-starved human erythrocytes indicate that, under these conditions, extracellular NADH can be oxidised at the plasma membrane with the electron transfer across the membrane resulting in reduction of intracellular NAD + . The activity is inhibited by known trans-plasma membrane electron transport inhibitors (capsaicin and atebrin) and is unaffected by inhibition of the erythrocyte Band 3 anion transporter. These results suggest that electron import from extracellular NADH allows the cell to re-establish a reducing environment after the normal redox balance is disturbed

  12. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  13. Biologically Complex Planar Cell Plasma Membranes Supported on Polyelectrolyte Cushions Enhance Transmembrane Protein Mobility and Retain Native Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Liang; Ober, Christopher K; Daniel, Susan

    2018-01-23

    Reconstituted supported lipid bilayers (SLB) are widely used as in vitro cell-surface models because they are compatible with a variety of surface-based analytical techniques. However, one of the challenges of using SLBs as a model of the cell surface is the limited complexity in membrane composition, including the incorporation of transmembrane proteins and lipid diversity that may impact the activity of those proteins. Additionally, it is challenging to preserve the transmembrane protein native orientation, function, and mobility in SLBs. Here, we leverage the interaction between cell plasma membrane vesicles and polyelectrolyte brushes to create planar bilayers from cell plasma membrane vesicles that have budded from the cell surface. This approach promotes the direct incorporation of membrane proteins and other species into the planar bilayer without using detergent or reconstitution and preserves membrane constituents. Furthermore, the structure of the polyelectrolyte brush serves as a cushion between the planar bilayer and rigid supporting surface, limiting the interaction of the cytosolic domains of membrane proteins with this surface. Single particle tracking was used to analyze the motion of GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins (GPI-YFP) and neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors (P2X2-neon) and shows that this platform retains over 75% mobility of multipass transmembrane proteins in its native membrane environment. An enzyme accessibility assay confirmed that the protein orientation is preserved and results in the extracellular domain facing toward the bulk phase and the cytosolic side facing the support. Because the platform presented here retains the complexity of the cell plasma membrane and preserves protein orientation and mobility, it is a better representative mimic of native cell surfaces, which may find many applications in biological assays aimed at understanding cell membrane phenomena.

  14. Control of phospholipid flip-flop by transmembrane peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Masanori; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Endo, Hitoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phospholipid flip-flop in transmembrane peptide-containing vesicles was investigated. ► Peptides that contained polar residues in the center of the transmembrane region promoted phospholipid flip-flop. ► A bioinformatics approach revealed the presence of polar residues in the transmembrane region of ER membrane proteins. ► Polar residues in ER membrane proteins possibly provide flippase-like activity. - Abstract: We designed three types of transmembrane model peptides whose sequence originates from a frequently used model peptide KALP23, and we investigated their effects on phospholipid flip-flop. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and a dithionite fluorescent quenching assay demonstrated that TMP-L, which has a fully hydrophobic transmembrane region, did not enhance phospholipid flip-flop, whereas TMP-K and TMP-E, which have Lys and Glu, respectively, in the center of their transmembrane regions, enhanced phospholipid flip-flop. Introduction of polar residues in the membrane-spanning helices is considered to produce a locally polar region and enable the lipid head group to interact with the polar side-chain inside the bilayers, thereby reducing the activation energy for the flip-flop. A bioinformatics approach revealed that acidic and basic residues account for 4.5% of the central region of the transmembrane domain in human ER membrane proteins. Therefore, polar residues in ER membrane proteins are considered to provide flippase-like activity

  15. Mutations of C19orf12, coding for a transmembrane glycine zipper containing mitochondrial protein, cause mis-localization of the protein, inability to respond to oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial Ca2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eVenco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in C19orf12 have been identified in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA, a clinical entity characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. By using western blot analysis with specific antibody and confocal studies, we showed that wild-type C19orf12 protein was not exclusively present in mitochondria, but also in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER and MAM (Mitochondria Associated Membrane, while mutant C19orf12 variants presented a different localization. Moreover, after induction of oxidative stress, a GFP-tagged C19orf12 wild-type protein was able to relocate to the cytosol. On the contrary, mutant isoforms were not able to respond to oxidative stress. High mitochondrial calcium concentration and increased H2O2 induced apoptosis were found in fibroblasts derived from one patient as compared to controls.C19orf12 protein is a 17kDa mitochondrial membrane-associated protein whose function is still unknown. Our in silico investigation suggests that, the glycine zipper motifs of C19orf12 form helical regions spanning the membrane. The N- and C-terminal regions with respect to the transmembrane portion, on the contrary, are predicted to rearrange in a structural domain, which is homologues to the N-terminal regulatory domain of the magnesium transporter MgtE, suggesting that C19orf12 may act as a regulatory protein for human MgtE transporters. The mutations here described affect respectively one glycine residue of the glycine zipper motifs, which are involved in dimerization of transmembrane helices and predicted to impair the correct localization of the protein into the membranes, and one residue present in the regulatory domain, which is important for protein-protein interaction.

  16. Rupturing Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles to Form Micron-sized Supported Cell Plasma Membranes with Native Transmembrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chieh; Tanady, Kevin; Huang, Ling-Ting; Chao, Ling

    2017-11-09

    Being able to directly obtain micron-sized cell blebs, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), with native membrane proteins and deposit them on a planar support to form supported plasma membranes could allow the membrane proteins to be studied by various surface analytical tools in native-like bilayer environments. However, GPMVs do not easily rupture on conventional supports because of their high protein and cholesterol contents. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of using compression generated by the air-water interface to efficiently rupture GPMVs to form micron-sized supported membranes with native plasma membrane proteins. We demonstrated that not only lipid but also a native transmembrane protein in HeLa cells, Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), is mobile in the supported membrane platform. This convenient method for generating micron-sized supported membrane patches with mobile native transmembrane proteins could not only facilitate the study of membrane proteins by surface analytical tools, but could also enable us to use native membrane proteins for bio-sensing applications.

  17. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Md. Kabir Uddin; Stone, Kyle A.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Laradji, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. PMID:25106608

  18. Computational Approaches for Revealing the Structure of Membrane Transporters: Case Study on Bilitranslocase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Venko

    Full Text Available The structural and functional details of transmembrane proteins are vastly underexplored, mostly due to experimental difficulties regarding their solubility and stability. Currently, the majority of transmembrane protein structures are still unknown and this present a huge experimental and computational challenge. Nowadays, thanks to X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy over 3000 structures of membrane proteins have been solved, among them only a few hundred unique ones. Due to the vast biological and pharmaceutical interest in the elucidation of the structure and the functional mechanisms of transmembrane proteins, several computational methods have been developed to overcome the experimental gap. If combined with experimental data the computational information enables rapid, low cost and successful predictions of the molecular structure of unsolved proteins. The reliability of the predictions depends on the availability and accuracy of experimental data associated with structural information. In this review, the following methods are proposed for in silico structure elucidation: sequence-dependent predictions of transmembrane regions, predictions of transmembrane helix–helix interactions, helix arrangements in membrane models, and testing their stability with molecular dynamics simulations. We also demonstrate the usage of the computational methods listed above by proposing a model for the molecular structure of the transmembrane protein bilitranslocase. Bilitranslocase is bilirubin membrane transporter, which shares similar tissue distribution and functional properties with some of the members of the Organic Anion Transporter family and is the only member classified in the Bilirubin Transporter Family. Regarding its unique properties, bilitranslocase is a potentially interesting drug target. Keywords: Membrane proteins, Bilitranslocase, 3D protein structure, Transmembrane region predictors, Helix–helix interactions

  19. Deorphanizing the human transmembrane genome: A landscape of uncharacterized membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has fueled the last decade of work to functionally characterize genome content. An important subset of genes encodes membrane proteins, which are the targets of many drugs. They reside in lipid bilayers, restricting their endogenous activity to a relatively specialized biochemical environment. Without a reference phenotype, the application of systematic screens to profile candidate membrane proteins is not immediately possible. Bioinformatics has begun to show its effectiveness in focusing the functional characterization of orphan proteins of a particular functional class, such as channels or receptors. Here we discuss integration of experimental and bioinformatics approaches for characterizing the orphan membrane proteome. By analyzing the human genome, a landscape reference for the human transmembrane genome is provided.

  20. A portable lipid bilayer system for environmental sensing with a transmembrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Kawano

    Full Text Available This paper describes a portable measurement system for current signals of an ion channel that is composed of a planar lipid bilayer. A stable and reproducible lipid bilayer is formed in outdoor environments by using a droplet contact method with a micropipette. Using this system, we demonstrated that the single-channel recording of a transmembrane protein (alpha-hemolysin was achieved in the field at a high-altitude (∼3623 m. This system would be broadly applicable for obtaining environmental measurements using membrane proteins as a highly sensitive sensor.

  1. Structure and Mechanism of the S Component of a Bacterial ECF Transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Zhang; J Wang; Y Shi

    2011-12-31

    The energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters, responsible for vitamin uptake in prokaryotes, are a unique family of membrane transporters. Each ECF transporter contains a membrane-embedded, substrate-binding protein (known as the S component), an energy-coupling module that comprises two ATP-binding proteins (known as the A and A' components) and a transmembrane protein (known as the T component). The structure and transport mechanism of the ECF family remain unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of RibU, the S component of the ECF-type riboflavin transporter from Staphylococcus aureus at 3.6-{angstrom} resolution. RibU contains six transmembrane segments, adopts a previously unreported transporter fold and contains a riboflavin molecule bound to the L1 loop and the periplasmic portion of transmembrane segments 4-6. Structural analysis reveals the essential ligand-binding residues, identifies the putative transport path and, with sequence alignment, uncovers conserved structural features and suggests potential mechanisms of action among the ECF transporters.

  2. Large-scale identification of membrane proteins based on analysis of trypsin-protected transmembrane segments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, O.; Man, Petr; Kádek, Alan; Hausner, Jiří; Sklenář, A.; Harant, K.; Novák, Petr; Scigelová, M.; Wofferndin, G.; Petrák, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, SI (2016), s. 15-22 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Integral membrane proteins * CNBr * Transmembrane Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  3. SCIMP, a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in major histocompatibility complex class II signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Peter; Vonková, Ivana; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Hrdinka, Matouš; Kucová, Markéta; Skopcová, Tereza; Otáhal, Pavel; Angelisová, Pavla; Hořejší, Václav; Yeung, M.; Weiss, A.; Brdička, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 22 (2011), s. 4550-4562 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : SCIMP * transmembrane adaptor protein * MHC II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.527, year: 2011

  4. Structural Basis for a Ribofuranosyl Binding Protein: Insights into the Furanose Specific Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaria, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Kumaran, D.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) are members of one of the largest protein superfamilies, with representatives in all extant phyla. These integral membrane proteins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to carry out certain biological processes, including translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. Typically, such transport systems in bacteria consist of an ATP binding component, a transmembrane permease, and a periplasmic receptor or binding protein. Soluble proteins found in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria serve as the primary receptors for transport of many compounds, such as sugars, small peptides, and some ions. Ligand binding activates these periplasmic components, permitting recognition by the membrane spanning domain, which supports for transport and, in some cases, chemotaxis. Transport and chemotaxis processes appear to be independent of one another, and a few mutants of bifunctional periplasmic components reveal the absence of one or the other function. Previously published high-resolution X-ray structures of various periplasmic ligand binding proteins include Arabinose binding protein (ABP), Allose binding protein (ALBP), Glucose-galactose binding protein (GBP) and Ribose binding protein (RBP). Each of these proteins consists of two structurally similar domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region, with ligand buried between the domains. Upon ligand binding and release, various conformational changes have been observed. For RBP, open (apo) and closed (ligand bound) conformations have been reported and so for MBP. The closed/active form of the protein interacts with the integral membrane component of the system in both transport and chemotaxis. Herein, we report 1.9{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the R{sub f}BP periplasmic component of an ABC-type sugar transport system from Hahella chejuensis (UniProt Id Q2S7D2) bound to

  5. Incorporating deep learning with convolutional neural networks and position specific scoring matrices for identifying electron transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Ho, Quang-Thai; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2017-09-05

    In several years, deep learning is a modern machine learning technique using in a variety of fields with state-of-the-art performance. Therefore, utilization of deep learning to enhance performance is also an important solution for current bioinformatics field. In this study, we try to use deep learning via convolutional neural networks and position specific scoring matrices to identify electron transport proteins, which is an important molecular function in transmembrane proteins. Our deep learning method can approach a precise model for identifying of electron transport proteins with achieved sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 94.4%, and accuracy of 92.3%, with MCC of 0.71 for independent dataset. The proposed technique can serve as a powerful tool for identifying electron transport proteins and can help biologists understand the function of the electron transport proteins. Moreover, this study provides a basis for further research that can enrich a field of applying deep learning in bioinformatics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Transmembrane Protein-Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spijker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many biological cellular processes occur at the micro- or millisecond time scale. With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. Coarse graining (CG can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in such a system, and reduce the computational complexity. In this paper the first version of a coarse grained model for transmembrane proteins is presented. This model differs from other coarse grained protein models due to the introduction of a novel angle potential as well as a hydrogen bonding potential. These new potentials are used to stabilize the backbone. The model has been validated by investigating the adaptation of the hydrophobic mismatch induced by the insertion of WALP-peptides into a lipid membrane, showing that the first step in the adaptation is an increase in the membrane thickness, followed by a tilting of the peptide.

  7. Structural basis of transport function in major facilitator superfamily protein from Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Trichothecenes are the sesquiterpenes secreted by Trichoderma spp. residing in the rhizosphere. These compounds have been reported to act as plant growth promoters and bio-control agents. The structural knowledge for the transporter proteins of their efflux remained limited. In this study, three-dimensional structure of Thmfs1 protein, a trichothecene transporter from Trichoderma harzianum, was homology modelled and further Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were used to decipher its mechanism. Fourteen transmembrane helices of Thmfs1 protein are observed contributing to an inward-open conformation. The transport channel and ligand binding sites in Thmfs1 are identified based on heuristic, iterative algorithm and structural alignment with homologous proteins. MD simulations were performed to reveal the differential structural behaviour occurring in the ligand free and ligand bound forms. We found that two discrete trichothecene binding sites are located on either side of the central transport tunnel running from the cytoplasmic side to the extracellular side across the Thmfs1 protein. Detailed analysis of the MD trajectories showed an alternative access mechanism between N and C-terminal domains contributing to its function. These results also demonstrate that the transport of trichodermin occurs via hopping mechanism in which the substrate molecule jumps from one binding site to another lining the transport tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ABC transporter Cdr1p harbors charged residues in the intracellular loop and nucleotide-binding domain critical for protein trafficking and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Banerjee, Atanu; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-08-01

    The ABC transporter Cdr1 protein of Candida albicans, which plays a major role in antifungal resistance, has two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The 12 transmembrane helices of TMDs that are interconnected by extracellular and intracellular loops (ICLs) mainly harbor substrate recognition sites where drugs bind while cytoplasmic NBDs hydrolyze ATP which powers drug efflux. The coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport requires proper communication between NBDs and TMDs typically accomplished by ICLs. This study examines the role of cytoplasmic ICLs of Cdr1p by rationally predicting the critical residues on the basis of their interatomic distances. Among nine pairs that fall within a proximity of trafficking. These results point to a new role for ICL/NBD interacting residues in PDR ABC transporters in protein folding and trafficking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Brucella Intracellular Life Relies on the Transmembrane Protein CD98 Heavy Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keriel, Anne; Botella, Eric; Estrach, Soline; Bragagnolo, Gabriel; Vergunst, Annette C; Feral, Chloe C; O'Callaghan, David

    2015-06-01

    Brucella are intracellular bacterial pathogens that use a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to escape host defenses and create a niche in which they can multiply. Although the importance of Brucella T4SS is clear, little is known about its interactions with host cell structures. In this study, we identified the eukaryotic protein CD98hc as a partner for Brucella T4SS subunit VirB2. This transmembrane glycoprotein is involved in amino acid transport, modulation of integrin signaling, and cell-to-cell fusion. Knockdown of CD98hc expression in HeLa cells demonstrated that it is essential for Brucella infection. Using knockout dermal fibroblasts, we confirmed its role for Brucella but found that it is not required for Salmonella infection. CD98hc transiently accumulates around the bacteria during the early phases of infection and is required for both optimal bacterial uptake and intracellular multiplication of Brucella. These results provide new insights into the complex interplay between Brucella and its host. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Differential expression of a novel seven transmembrane domain protein in epididymal fat from aged and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Egan, J M; Rodgers, B D; Bernier, M; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C

    1999-06-01

    To identify novel seven transmembrane domain proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we used PCR to amplify 3T3-L1 adipocyte complementary DNA (cDNA) with primers homologous to the N- and C-termini of pancreatic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. We screened a cDNA library prepared from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a 500-bp cDNA PCR product probe. Herein describes the isolation and characterization of a 1.6-kb cDNA clone that encodes a novel 298-amino acid protein that we termed TPRA40 (transmembrane domain protein of 40 kDa regulated in adipocytes). TPRA40 has seven putative transmembrane domains and shows little homology with the known GLP-1 receptor or with other G protein-coupled receptors. The levels of TPRA40 mRNA and protein were higher in 3T3-L1 adipocytes than in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. TPRA40 is present in a number of mouse and human tissues. Interestingly, TPRA40 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 2- to 3-fold in epididymal fat of 24-month-old mice vs. young controls as well as in db/db and ob/ob mice vs. nondiabetic control littermates. No difference in TPRA40 mRNA levels was observed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, liver, or kidney. Furthermore, no difference in TPRA40 expression was detected in brown fat of ob/ob mice when compared with age-matched controls. Taken together, these data suggest that TPRA40 represents a novel membrane-associated protein whose expression in white adipose tissue is altered with aging and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Transmembrane adaptor proteins in the high-affinity IgE receptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr; Hálová, Ivana; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráberová, Lubica

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, 11.1. (2012), s. 95 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : IgE receptor * LAT/LAT1 * LAX * NTAL/Lab/LAT2 * PAG/Cbp * mast cells * plasma membrane * transmembrane adaptor proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. Transmembrane amyloid-related proteins in CSF as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada eLopez-Font

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing search for new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, reasonable candidates are the secretase enzymes involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, as well as the large proteolytic cleavage fragments sAPPα and sAPPβ. The enzymatic activities of some of these secretases, such as BACE1 and TACE, have been investigated as potential AD biomarkers, and it has been assumed that these activities present in human CSF result from the soluble truncated forms of the membrane-bound enzymes. However, we and others recently identified soluble forms of BACE1 and APP in CSF containing the intracellular domains, as well as the multi-pass transmembrane presenilin-1 (PS1 and other subunits of γ-secretase. We also review recent findings that suggest that most of these soluble transmembrane proteins could display self-association properties based on hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions leading to the formation of heteromeric complexes. The oligomerization state of these potential new biomarkers needs to be taken into consideration for assessing their real potential as CSF biomarkers for AD by adequate molecular tools.

  13. The Impact of the ‘Austrian’ Mutation of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Transmembrane Helix is Communicated to the Hinge Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzer, Walter; Scharnagl, Christina; Leurs, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane helix of the amyloid precursor protein is subject to proteolytic cleavages by γ-secretase at different sites resulting in Aβ peptides of different length and toxicity. A number of point mutations within this transmembrane helix alter the cleavage pattern thus enhancing production...... destabilizes amide hydrogen bonds in the hinge which connects dimerization and cleavage regions. Weaker intrahelical hydrogen bonds at the hinge may enhance helix bending and thereby affect recognition of the transmembrane substrate by the enzyme and/or presentation of its cleavage sites to the catalytic cleft....

  14. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Deen, M; de Vries, EGE; Timens, W; Scheper, RJ; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette ( ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein ( P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 ( MRP1) and

  15. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  16. Defining the transmembrane helix of M2 protein from influenza A by molecular dynamics simulations in a lipid bilayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, LR; Tieleman, DP; Sansom, MSP

    Integral membrane proteins containing at least one transmembrane (TM) alpha-helix are believed to account for between 20% and 30% of most genomes. There are several algorithms that accurately predict the number and position of TM helices within,a membrane protein sequence. However, these methods

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Shinkai, Akeo; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Singh, Tej P.; Kaur, Punit; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2008-01-01

    The putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from T. maritima was cloned, overproduced, purified and crystallized. A complete MAD diffraction data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are ATP hydrolysis-dependent transmembrane transporters. Here, the overproduction, purification and crystallization of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from Thermotoga maritima are reported. The protein was crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6 4 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.49, c = 106.96 Å, γ = 120.0°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the calculated V M is 2.84 Å 3 Da −1 , which corresponds to a solvent content of 56.6%. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected to 2.3 Å resolution from SeMet-substituted TM0222 crystals. Data sets were collected on the BL38B1 beamline at SPring-8, Japan

  18. A monocyte chemotaxis inhibiting factor in serum of HIV infected men shares epitopes with the HIV transmembrane protein gp41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes that gp41, the transmembranous envelope protein of HIV, is able to inhibit monocyte chemotaxis (measured as FMLP-induced polarization). To study the presence of such immunosuppressive HIV env proteins in the circulation of HIV-infected men, fractions were prepared from serum

  19. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/41n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vaquer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology

  20. Transmembrane-sequence-dependent overexpression and secretion of glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Wasserbauer, E; Aversa, G; Jungbauer, A

    2001-02-01

    Protein expression using the secretory pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to high amounts of overexpressed and secreted proteins in culture supernatants in a short period of time. These post-translational modified expression products can be purified up to >90% in a single step. The overexpression and secretion of the transmembrane glycoprotein signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) was studied. SLAM belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and its engagement results in T-cell expansion and INF-gamma production. The molecule is composed of an extracellular, a single-span transmembrane and a cytoplasmatic domain. The extracellular part may be relevant for stimulation studies in vitro since SLAM is a high-affinity self-ligand. Therefore several fragments of this region have been expressed as Flag-fusions in S. cerevisiae: a full-length fragment containing the transmembrane region and the autologous signal sequence, another without the transmembrane region, and two fragments without the autologous signal sequence with and without the transmembrane region. By molecular cloning, the different deletion mutants of the cDNA encoding the full-length construct have been inserted in a yeast episomal plasmid. Upstream of the cDNA, the alpha-leader sequence of a yeast mating pheromone has been cloned to direct the fusion proteins into the secretory protein maturation pathway. All four fragments were expressed but yield, location, and maturation were highly influenced by the transmembrane domain and the autologous signal sequence. Only the fragment without autologous signal sequence and transmembrane domain could be efficiently secreted. High-mannose glycosylation was analyzed by lectin mapping and digestion with specific glycosidases. After enzyme treatment, a single band product with the theoretical size could be detected and identified as SLAM by a specific monoclonal antibody. The fusion protein concentration in the supernatant was 30 microg/ml. The

  1. Molecular Simulations of Sequence-Specific Association of Transmembrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxastakis, Manolis; Prakash, Anupam; Janosi, Lorant

    2011-03-01

    Association of membrane proteins is central in material and information flow across the cellular membranes. Amino-acid sequence and the membrane environment are two critical factors controlling association, however, quantitative knowledge on such contributions is limited. In this work, we study the dimerization of helices in lipid bilayers using extensive parallel Monte Carlo simulations with recently developed algorithms. The dimerization of Glycophorin A is examined employing a coarse-grain model that retains a level of amino-acid specificity, in three different phospholipid bilayers. Association is driven by a balance of protein-protein and lipid-induced interactions with the latter playing a major role at short separations. Following a different approach, the effect of amino-acid sequence is studied using the four transmembrane domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor family in identical lipid environments. Detailed characterization of dimer formation and estimates of the free energy of association reveal that these helices present significant affinity to self-associate with certain dimers forming non-specific interfaces.

  2. Corruption of host seven-transmembrane proteins by pathogenic microbes: a common theme in animals and plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panstruga, Ralph; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Human diseases like AIDS, malaria, and pneumonia are caused by pathogens that corrupt host chemokine G-protein coupled receptors for molecular docking. Comparatively, little is known about plant host factors that are required for pathogenesis and that may serve as receptors for the entry of pathogenic microbes. Here, we review potential analogies between human chemokine receptors and the plant seven-transmembrane MLO protein, a candidate serving a dual role as docking molecule and defence modulator for the phytopathogenic powdery mildew fungus.

  3. Biological amine transport in chromaffin ghosts. Coupling to the transmembrane proton and potential gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R G; Pfister, D; Carty, S E; Scarpa, A

    1979-11-10

    The effect of the transmembrane proton gradient (delta pH) and potential gradient (delta psi) upon the rate and extent of amine accumulation was investigated in chromaffin ghosts. The chromaffin ghosts were formed by hypo-osmotic lysis of isolated bovine chromaffin granules and extensive dialysis in order to remove intragranular binding components and dissipate the endogenous electrochemical gradients. Upon ATP addition to suspensions of chromaffin ghosts, a transmembrane proton gradient alone, a transmembrane gradient alone, or both, could be established, depending upon the compositions of the media in which the ghosts were formed and resuspended. When chloride was present in the medium, addition of ATP resulted in the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient, acidic inside of 1 pH unit (measured by [14C]methylamine distribution), and no transmembrane potential (measured by [14C]-thiocyanate distribution). When ATP was added to chromaffin ghosts suspended in a medium in which chloride was substituted by isethionate, a transmembrane potential, inside positive, of 45 mV and no transmembrane proton gradient, was measured. In each medium, the addition of agents known to affect proton or potential gradients, respectively, exerted a predictable mechanism of action. Accumulation of [14C]epinephrine or [14C]5-hydroxytryptamine was over 1 order of magnitude greater in the presence of the transmembrane proton gradient or the transmembrane potential than in the absence of any gradient and, moreover, was related to the magnitude of the proton or potential gradient in a dose-dependent manner. When ghosts were added to a medium containing chloride and isethionate, both a delta pH and delta psi could be generated upon addition of ATP. In this preparation, the maximal rate of amine accumulation was observed. The results indicate that amine accumulation into chromaffin ghosts can occur in the presence of either a transmembrane proton gradient, or a transmembrane potential

  4. Short length transmembrane domains having voluminous exoplasmic halves determine retention of Type II membrane proteins in the Golgi complex

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Trenchi, Alejandra; Gonzalez Montoro, Ayelén; Valdez, Javier Esteban; Maccioni, Hugo Jose Fernando

    2017-01-01

    It is still unclear why some proteins that travel along the secretory pathway are retained in the Golgi complex whereas others make their way to the plasma membrane. Recent bioinformatic analyses on a large number of single-spanning membrane proteins support the hypothesis that specific features of the transmembrane domain (TMD) are relevant to the sorting of these proteins to particular organelles. Here we experimentally test this hypothesis for Golgi and plasma membrane proteins. Using the ...

  5. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  6. Urea transporter proteins as targets for small-molecule diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-02-01

    Conventional diuretics such as furosemide and thiazides target salt transporters in kidney tubules, but urea transporters (UTs) have emerged as alternative targets. UTs are a family of transmembrane channels expressed in a variety of mammalian tissues, in particular the kidney. UT knockout mice and humans with UT mutations exhibit reduced maximal urinary osmolality, demonstrating that UTs are necessary for the concentration of urine. Small-molecule screening has identified potent and selective inhibitors of UT-A, the UT protein expressed in renal tubule epithelial cells, and UT-B, the UT protein expressed in vasa recta endothelial cells. Data from UT knockout mice and from rodents administered UT inhibitors support the diuretic action of UT inhibition. The kidney-specific expression of UT-A1, together with high selectivity of the small-molecule inhibitors, means that off-target effects of such small-molecule drugs should be minimal. This Review summarizes the structure, expression and function of UTs, and looks at the evidence supporting the validity of UTs as targets for the development of salt-sparing diuretics with a unique mechanism of action. UT-targeted inhibitors may be useful alone or in combination with conventional diuretics for therapy of various oedemas and hyponatraemias, potentially including those refractory to treatment with current diuretics.

  7. Accelerated SDS depletion from proteins by transmembrane electrophoresis: Impacts of Joule heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterlander, Nicole; Doucette, Alan Austin

    2018-02-08

    SDS plays a key role in proteomics workflows, including protein extraction, solubilization and mass-based separations (e.g. SDS-PAGE, GELFrEE). However, SDS interferes with mass spectrometry and so it must be removed prior to analysis. We recently introduced an electrophoretic platform, termed transmembrane electrophoresis (TME), enabling extensive depletion of SDS from proteins in solution with exceptional protein yields. However, our prior TME runs required 1 h to complete, being limited by Joule heating which causes protein aggregation at higher operating currents. Here, we demonstrate effective strategies to maintain lower TME sample temperatures, permitting accelerated SDS depletion. Among these strategies, the use of a magnetic stir bar to continuously agitate a model protein system (BSA) allows SDS to be depleted below 100 ppm (>98% removal) within 10 min of TME operations, while maintaining exceptional protein recovery (>95%). Moreover, these modifications allow TME to operate without any user intervention, improving throughput and robustness of the approach. Through fits of our time-course SDS depletion curves to an exponential model, we calculate SDS depletion half-lives as low as 1.2 min. This promising electrophoretic platform should provide proteomics researchers with an effective purification strategy to enable MS characterization of SDS-containing proteins. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Pyridoxal phosphate as a probe of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins: Application to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, B.; Martinez-Carrion, M.

    1989-01-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to specifically label the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins with the aldehyde pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP). Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AcChR) vesicles were loaded with [ 3 H]pyridoxine 5-phosphate ([ 3 H]PNP) and pyridoxine-5-phosphate oxidase, followed by intravesicular enzymatic oxidation of [ 3 H]PNP at 37 degree C in the presence of externally added cytochrome c as a scavenger of possible leaking PLP product. The four receptor subunits were labeled whether the reaction was carried out on the internal surface or separately designed to mark the external one. On the other hand, the relative pyridoxylation of the subunits differed in both cases, reflecting differences in accessible lysyl residues in each side of the membrane. Even though there are no large differences in the total lysine content among the subunits and there are two copies of the α-subunit, internal surface labeling by PLP was greatest for the highest molecular weight (δ) subunit, reinforcing the concept that the four receptor subunits are transmembranous and may protrude into the cytoplasmic face in a fashion that is proportional to their subunit molecular weight. Yet, the labeling data do not fit well to any of the models proposed for AcChR subunit folding. The method described can be used for selective labeling of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins in sealed membrane vesicles

  9. Ligand-Receptor Interaction-Mediated Transmembrane Transport of Dendrimer-like Soft Nanoparticles: Mechanisms and Complicated Diffusive Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junshi; Chen, Pengyu; Dong, Bojun; Huang, Zihan; Zhao, Kongyin; Yan, Li-Tang

    2016-05-09

    Nearly all nanomedical applications of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles rely on the functionality of attached ligands. Understanding how the ligands interact with the receptors in cell membrane and its further effect on the cellular uptake of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles is thereby a key issue for their better application in nanomedicine. However, the essential mechanism and detailed kinetics for the ligand-receptor interaction-mediated transmembrane transport of such unconventional nanoparticles remain poorly elucidated. Here, using coarse-grained simulations, we present the very first study of molecular mechanism and kinetics behaviors for the transmembrane transport of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles conjugated with ligands. A phase diagram of interaction states is constructed through examining ligand densities and membrane tensions that allows us to identify novel endocytosis mechanisms featured by the direct wrapping and the penetration-extraction vesiculation. The results provide an in-depth insight into the diffusivity of receptors and dendrimer in the membrane plane and demonstrate how the ligand density influences receptor diffusion and uptake kinetics. It is interesting to find that the ligand-conjugated dendrimers present superdiffusive behaviors on a membrane, which is revealed to be driven by the random fluctuation dynamics of the membrane. The findings facilitate our understanding of some recent experimental observations and could establish fundamental principles for the future development of such important nanomaterials for widespread nanomedical applications.

  10. Membrane porters of ATP-binding cassette transport systems are polyphyletic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Dukarevich, Maxim; Sun, Eric I; Yen, Ming Ren; Saier, Milton H

    2009-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily consists of both importers and exporters. These transporters have, by tradition, been classified according to the ATP hydrolyzing constituents, which are monophyletic. The evolutionary origins of the transmembrane porter proteins/domains are not known. Using five distinct computer programs, we here provide convincing statistical data suggesting that the transmembrane domains of ABC exporters are polyphyletic, having arisen at least three times independently. ABC1 porters arose by intragenic triplication of a primordial two-transmembrane segment (TMS)-encoding genetic element, yielding six TMS proteins. ABC2 porters arose by intragenic duplication of a dissimilar primordial three-TMS-encoding genetic element, yielding a distinctive protein family, nonhomologous to the ABC1 proteins. ABC3 porters arose by duplication of a primordial four-TMS-encoding genetic element, yielding either eight- or 10-TMS proteins. We assign each of 48 of the 50 currently recognized families of ABC exporters to one of the three evolutionarily distinct ABC types. Currently available high-resolution structural data for ABC porters are fully consistent with our findings. These results provide guides for future structural and mechanistic studies of these important transport systems.

  11. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  12. Glycine Perturbs Local and Global Conformational Flexibility of a Transmembrane Helix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högel, Philipp; Götz, Alexander; Kuhne, Felix

    2018-01-01

    Flexible transmembrane helices frequently support the conformational transitions between different functional states of membrane proteins. While proline is well known to distort and destabilize transmembrane helices, the role of glycine is still debated. Here, we systematically investigated the e...

  13. Metal transport across biomembranes: emerging models for a distinct chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, José M; Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2012-04-20

    Transition metals are essential components of important biomolecules, and their homeostasis is central to many life processes. Transmembrane transporters are key elements controlling the distribution of metals in various compartments. However, due to their chemical properties, transition elements require transporters with different structural-functional characteristics from those of alkali and alkali earth ions. Emerging structural information and functional studies have revealed distinctive features of metal transport. Among these are the relevance of multifaceted events involving metal transfer among participating proteins, the importance of coordination geometry at transmembrane transport sites, and the presence of the largely irreversible steps associated with vectorial transport. Here, we discuss how these characteristics shape novel transition metal ion transport models.

  14. Transportomics: screening for substrates of ABC transporters in body fluids using vesicular transport assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumpochova, P; Sapthu, S.; Brouwers, J.F.H.M.; de Haas, M.; de Vos, R.; Borst, P.; van de Wetering, K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode the largest family of transmembrane proteins. ABC transporters translocate a wide variety of substrates across membranes, but their physiological function is often incompletely understood. We describe a new method to study the substrate spectrum

  15. Different transport behaviors of NH4 (+) and NH3 in transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Fan, Jianfen; Xu, Jian; Weng, Peipei; Lin, Huifang

    2016-10-01

    Two water-filled transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotubes (CPNTs) of 8×cyclo-(WL)n=4,5/POPE were chosen to investigate the dependences of the transport properties of the positive NH4 (+) and neutral NH3 on the channel radius. Molecular dynamic simulations revealed that molecular charge, size, ability to form H-bonds and channel radius all significantly influence the behaviors of NH4 (+) and NH3 in a CPNT. Higher electrostatic interactions, more H-bonds, and water-bridges were found in the NH4 (+) system, resulting in NH4 (+) meeting higher energy barriers, while NH3 can enter, exit and permeate the channels effortlessly. This work sheds a first light on the differences between the mechanisms of NH4 (+) and NH3 moving in a CPNT at an atomic level. Graphical Abstract Snapshot of the simulation system of NH4 (+)_octa-CPNT with an NH4 (+) initially positioned at one mouth of the tube, PMF profiles for single NH4 (+) ion and NH3 molecule moving through water-filled transmembrane CPNTs of 8×cyclo-(WL)n=4,5/POPE and sketch graphs of the possible H-bond forms of NH3 and NH4 (+) with the neighboring water.

  16. Identification and functional comparison of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled BILF1 receptors in recently discovered nonhuman primate lymphocryptoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Fares, Suzan; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H

    2015-01-01

    Coevolution of herpesviruses with their respective host has resulted in a delicate balance between virus-encoded immune evasion mechanisms and host antiviral immunity. BILF1 encoded by human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a 7-transmembrane (7TM) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with multiple immuno...

  17. Multidrug transporters from bacteria to man : similarities in structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Konings, WN

    Organisms ranging from bacteria to man possess transmembrane transporters which confer resistance to toxic corn pounds. Underlining their biological significance, prokaryotic and eukaryotic multidrug transport proteins are very similar in structure and function. Therefore, a study of the factors

  18. In silico characterization of boron transporter (BOR1 protein sequences in Poaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B is essential for the plant growth and development, and its primary function is connected with formation of the cell wall. Moreover, boron toxicity is a shared problem in semiarid and arid regions. In this study, boron transporter protein (BOR1 sequences from some Poaceae species (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare, Zea mays, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa subsp. japonica, Oryza sativa subsp. indica, Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Physicochemical analyses revealed that most of BOR1 proteins were basic character and had generally aliphatic amino acids. Analysis of the domains showed that transmembrane domains were identified constantly and three motifs were detected with 50 amino acids length. Also, the motif SPNPWEPGSYDHWTVAKDMFNVPPAYIFGAFIPATMVAGLYYFDHSVASQ was found most frequently with 25 repeats. The phylogenetic tree showed divergence into two main clusters. B. distachyon species were clustered separately. Finally, this study contributes to the new BOR1 protein characterization in grasses and create scientific base for in silico analysis in future.

  19. Ameloblast modulation and transport of Cl-, Na+, and K+ during amelogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Lyaruu, D.; Jalali, R.; Medina, J.F.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; DenBesten, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblasts express transmembrane proteins for transport of mineral ions and regulation of pH in the enamel space. Two major transporters recently identified in ameloblasts are the Na+K+-dependent calcium transporter NCKX4 and the Na+-dependent HPO42- (Pi) cotransporter NaPi-2b. To regulate pH,

  20. Purification and crystallization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Ford, Robert C; Riordan, John R

    2004-09-10

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein that is mutated in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Here we report the purification and first crystallization of wild-type human CFTR. Functional characterization of the material showed it to be highly active. Electron crystallography of negatively stained two-dimensional crystals of CFTR has revealed the overall architecture of this channel for two different conformational states. These show a strong structural homology to two conformational states of another eukaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, however, both conformational states can be observed in the presence of a nucleotide, which may be related to the role of CFTR as an ion channel rather than a transporter. The hypothesis that the two conformations could represent the "open" and "closed" states of the channel is considered.

  1. Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other. Scope of review This review aims to identify common mechanistic features...... in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters. Major conclusions Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit. Further......, despite differences in overall architecture, both appear to operate by an alternating access mechanism and during transport they might allow access of phospholipids to the internal part of the transmembrane domain. The latter feature is obvious for ABC transporters, but phospholipids and other hydrophobic...

  2. [Application of Brownian dynamics to the description of transmembrane ion flow as exemplified by the chloride channel of glycine receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronovskiĭ, S E; Nartsissov, Ia R

    2009-01-01

    Using the Brownian dynamics of the movement of hydrated ion in a viscous water solution, a mathematical model has been built, which describes the transport of charged particles through a single protein pore in a lipid membrane. The dependences of transmembrane ion currents on ion concentrations in solution have been obtained. It was shown that, if the geometry of a membrane pore is identical to that of the inner part of the glycine receptor channel and there is no ion selectivity, then the values of both chloride and sodium currents are not greater than 0.5 pA at the physiological concentrations of these ions. If local charge heterogeneity caused by charged amino acid residues of transmembrane protein segments is included into the model calculations, the chloride current increases to about 3.7 pA, which exceeds more than seven times the value for sodium ions under the conditions of the complex channel geometry in the range of physiological concentrations of ions in the solution. The model takes changes in the density of charge distribution both inside the channel and near the protein surface into account. The alteration of pore geometry can be also considered as a parameter at the researcher's option. Thus, the model appears as an effective tool for the description of transmembrane currents for other types of membrane channels.

  3. Maize plasma membrane aquaporin ZmPIP2;5, but not ZmPIP1;2, facilitates transmembrane diffusion of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Gerd P; Heinen, Robert B; Berny, Marie C; Chaumont, François

    2014-01-01

    Plant aquaporins play important roles in transmembrane water transport processes, but some also facilitate the diffusion of other small uncharged solutes ranging from gases to metalloids. Recent evidence suggests that the transmembrane movement of hydrogen peroxide, an intra- and intercellular multifunctional signaling and defense compound, can be regulated by aquaporins. We addressed the question whether maize aquaporins belonging to the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily facilitate hydrogen peroxide diffusion using heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We showed that ZmPIP proteins belonging to the PIP1 and PIP2 groups were significantly expressed in yeast cells only after codon optimization of their cDNA. In accordance with previous localization studies in oocytes and plants, ZmPIP1;2 was mainly retained in intracellular membranes, while ZmPIP2;5 was localized to the plasma membrane. However, upon co-expression with ZmPIP2;5, ZmPIP1;2 was re-localized to the plasma membrane. Using a non-functional plasma membrane-localized ZmPIP2;5 mutant to deliver ZmPIP1;2 to the plasma membrane, we demonstrated that, in contrast to wild type ZmPIP2;5, ZmPIP1;2 was not permeable to hydrogen peroxide. Our study further highlighted the fact that, when using the yeast system, which is widely employed to study substrates for plant aquaporins and other transporters, although positive transport assay results allow direct conclusions to be drawn regarding solute permeability, negative results require additional control experiments to show that the protein is expressed and localized correctly before concluding on the lack of transport activity. © 2013.

  4. Excitatory amino acid transporters as potential drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the uptake of (S)-glutamate (Glu) from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating the glutamatergic neurotransmitter signal. Today five subtypes have been identified. Except for EAAT2, their individual...

  5. Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2011-01-01

    CLC proteins transport Cl− ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl− ion channels, while others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl− ions and H+ with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 Å resolution. Cytoplasmic CBS domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl−/H+ exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters. PMID:20929736

  6. An ankyrin-like protein with transmembrane domains is specifically lost after oncogenic transformation of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemar, D; Schenker, T; Trueb, B

    1999-03-12

    We have identified a novel transformation-sensitive mRNA, which is present in cultured fibroblasts but is lacking in SV40 transformed cells as well as in many mesenchymal tumor cell lines. The corresponding gene is located on human chromosome 8 in band 8q13. The open reading frame of the mRNA encodes a protein of 1119 amino acids forming two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain consists of 18 repeats that are related to the cytoskeletal protein ankyrin. The C-terminal domain contains six putative transmembrane segments that resemble many ion channels. This overall structure is reminiscent of TRP-like proteins that function as store-operated calcium channels. The novel protein with an Mr of 130 kDa is expressed at a very low level in human fibroblasts and at a moderate level in liposarcoma cells. Overexpression in eukaryotic cells appears to interfere with normal growth, suggesting that it might play a direct or indirect role in signal transduction and growth control.

  7. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  8. PROTEOTRONICS: The emerging science of protein-based electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pousset, Jeremy; Reggiani, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Protein-mediated charge transport is of relevant importance in the design of protein based electronics and in attaining an adequate level of understanding of protein functioning. This is particularly true for the case of transmembrane proteins, like those pertaining to the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are involved in a broad range of biological processes like catalysis, substance transport, etc., thus being the target of a large number of clinically used drugs. This paper briefly reviews a variety of experiments devoted to investigate charge transport in proteins and present a unified theoretical model able to relate macroscopic experimental results with the conformations of the amino acids backbone of the single protein. (paper)

  9. Transmembrane helical interactions in the CFTR channel pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Das

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR gene affect CFTR protein biogenesis or its function as a chloride channel, resulting in dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the lung, pancreas and other organs in cystic fibrosis (CF. Development of pharmaceutical strategies to treat CF requires understanding of the mechanisms underlying channel function. However, incomplete 3D structural information on the unique ABC ion channel, CFTR, hinders elucidation of its functional mechanism and correction of cystic fibrosis causing mutants. Several CFTR homology models have been developed using bacterial ABC transporters as templates but these have low sequence similarity to CFTR and are not ion channels. Here, we refine an earlier model in an outward (OWF and develop an inward (IWF facing model employing an integrated experimental-molecular dynamics simulation (200 ns approach. Our IWF structure agrees well with a recently solved cryo-EM structure of a CFTR IWF state. We utilize cysteine cross-linking to verify positions and orientations of residues within trans-membrane helices (TMHs of the OWF conformation and to reconstruct a physiologically relevant pore structure. Comparison of pore profiles of the two conformations reveal a radius sufficient to permit passage of hydrated Cl- ions in the OWF but not the IWF model. To identify structural determinants that distinguish the two conformations and possible rearrangements of TMHs within them responsible for channel gating, we perform cross-linking by bifunctional reagents of multiple predicted pairs of cysteines in TMH 6 and 12 and 6 and 9. To determine whether the effects of cross-linking on gating observed are the result of switching of the channel from open to close state, we also treat the same residue pairs with monofunctional reagents in separate experiments. Both types of reagents prevent ion currents indicating that pore blockage is primarily responsible.

  10. Basigin (CD147), a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein with various binding partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Basigin, also called CD147 or EMMPRIN, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Basigin has isoforms; the common form (basigin or basigin-2) has two immunoglobulin domains, and the extended form (basigin-1) has three. Basigin is the receptor for cyclophilins, S100A9 and platelet glycoprotein VI, whereas basigin-1 serves as the receptor for the rod-derived cone viability factor. Basigin tightly associates with monocarboxylate transporters and is essential for their cell surface translocation and activities. In the same membrane plane, basigin also associates with other proteins including GLUT1, CD44 and CD98. The carbohydrate portion of basigin is recognized by lectins, such as galectin-3 and E-selectin. These molecular recognitions form the basis for the role of basigin in the transport of nutrients, migration of inflammatory leukocytes and induction of matrix metalloproteinases. Basigin is important in vision, spermatogenesis and other physiological phenomena, and plays significant roles in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including cancer. Basigin is also the receptor for an invasive protein RH5, which is present in malaria parasites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society.

  11. The stability of the three transmembrane and the four transmembrane human vitamin K epoxide reductase models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2016-04-01

    The three transmembrane and the four transmembrane helix models are suggested for human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). In this study, we investigate the stability of the human three transmembrane/four transmembrane VKOR models by employing a coarse-grained normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. Based on the analysis of the mobility of each transmembrane domain, we suggest that the three transmembrane human VKOR model is more stable than the four transmembrane human VKOR model.

  12. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  13. Structure of a Eukaryotic CLC Transporter Defines an Intermediate State in the Transport Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl - ) ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl - ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl - ions and protons (H + ) with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Cytoplasmic cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion-transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate residue changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl - /H + exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters.

  14. The PTK7-Related Transmembrane Proteins Off-track and Off-track 2 Are Co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 Required for Male Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Linnemannstöns, Karen; Ripp, Caroline; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-recept...

  15. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  16. Identification of mitochondrial carriers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by transport assay of reconstituted recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Ferdinando; Agrimi, Gennaro; Blanco, Emanuela; Castegna, Alessandra; Di Noia, Maria A; Iacobazzi, Vito; Lasorsa, Francesco M; Marobbio, Carlo M T; Palmieri, Luigi; Scarcia, Pasquale; Todisco, Simona; Vozza, Angelo; Walker, John

    2006-01-01

    The inner membranes of mitochondria contain a family of carrier proteins that are responsible for the transport in and out of the mitochondrial matrix of substrates, products, co-factors and biosynthetic precursors that are essential for the function and activities of the organelle. This family of proteins is characterized by containing three tandem homologous sequence repeats of approximately 100 amino acids, each folded into two transmembrane alpha-helices linked by an extensive polar loop. Each repeat contains a characteristic conserved sequence. These features have been used to determine the extent of the family in genome sequences. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 34 members of the family. The identity of five of them was known before the determination of the genome sequence, but the functions of the remaining family members were not. This review describes how the functions of 15 of these previously unknown transport proteins have been determined by a strategy that consists of expressing the genes in Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reconstituting the gene products into liposomes and establishing their functions by transport assay. Genetic and biochemical evidence as well as phylogenetic considerations have guided the choice of substrates that were tested in the transport assays. The physiological roles of these carriers have been verified by genetic experiments. Various pieces of evidence point to the functions of six additional members of the family, but these proposals await confirmation by transport assay. The sequences of many of the newly identified yeast carriers have been used to characterize orthologs in other species, and in man five diseases are presently known to be caused by defects in specific mitochondrial carrier genes. The roles of eight yeast mitochondrial carriers remain to be established.

  17. Rab9-dependent retrograde transport and endosomal sorting of the endopeptidase furin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The endopeptidase furin and the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 are membrane proteins that recycle between the TGN and plasma membrane. TGN38 is transported by a retromer-dependent pathway from early endosomes to the TGN, whereas the intracellular transport of furin is poorly defined. Here we have identified the itinerary and transport requirements of furin. Using internalisation assays, we show that furin transits the early and late endosomes en route to the TGN. The GTPase Rab9 and the TGN golgin GCC185, components of the late endosome-to-TGN pathway, were required for efficient TGN retrieval of furin. By contrast, TGN38 trafficking was independent of Rab9 and GCC185. To identify the sorting signals for the early endosome-to-TGN pathway, the trafficking of furin–TGN38 chimeras was investigated. The diversion of furin from the Rab9-dependent late-endosome-to-TGN pathway to the retromer-dependent early-endosome-to-TGN pathway required both the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of TGN38. We present evidence to suggest that the length of the transmembrane domain is a contributing factor in endosomal sorting. Overall, these data show that furin uses the Rab9-dependent pathway from late endosomes and that retrograde transport directly from early endosomes is dependent on both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21693586

  18. Proline transport by brush-border membrane vesicles of lobster antennal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, R.D.; Wong, R.K.; Huse, S.M.; Reshkin, S.J.; Ahearn, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Purified brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of lobster antennal gland labyrinth and bladder were separately formed by a magnesium precipitation technique. L-[3H]proline uptake was stimulated by a transmembrane NaCl gradient [outside (o) greater than inside (i)] to a greater extent in BBMV from labyrinth than those from the bladder. Detailed study of the labyrinth proline-transport processes revealed a specific dependence on NaCl, with negligible stimulatory effects by NaSCN, Na-gluconate, or KCl. A transmembrane proton gradient (o greater than i) was without stimulatory effect on proline transport. A transmembrane potential difference alone, in the presence of equilibrated NaCl and L-[3H]proline, led to net influx of the labeled amino acid, suggesting that the uptake process was electrogenic and capable of bringing about the net transfer of positive charge to the vesicle interior. Although a transmembrane Na gradient alone, in the presence of equilibrated Cl and L-[3H]proline, was able to bring about the net influx of the amino acid, a transmembrane Cl gradient alone under Na- and L-[3H]proline-equilibrated conditions was not, suggesting that only the Na gradient could energize the carrier process through cotransport, while the anion served an essential activating role. Proline influx by these vesicles occurred by the combination of at least one saturable Michaelis-Menten carrier system (apparent Kt = 0.37 mM; apparent JM = 1.19 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1) and apparent diffusion (P = 0.33 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1.mM-1). Static head analysis of the transport process suggested a cotransport stoichiometry of 2 Na:1 proline with essential activation by Cl ion

  19. Benzoate transport in Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Purohit, Hemant; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-07-03

    Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif LADRXGRKX in loop 2, while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices. benF and catA encode benzoate specific porin, OprD and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Biochemical studies suggest that benzoate was transported by an inducible and active process. Inhibition (90%-100%) in the presence of dinitrophenol suggests that the energy for the transport process is derived from the proton motive force. The maximum rate of benzoate transport was 484 pmole min-1 mg-1 cells with an affinity constant, Kmof 4.5 μM. Transcriptional analysis of the benzoate and glucose-grown cells showed inducible expression of benF, benK and benE, suggesting that besides outer membrane porin, both inner membrane transporters probably contribute for the benzoate transport in P. putida strain CSV86. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PheVI:09 (Phe6.44) as a sliding microswitch in seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Holst, Birgitte; Frimurer, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    In seven-transmembrane (7TM), G protein-coupled receptors, highly conserved residues function as microswitches, which alternate between different conformations and interaction partners in an extended allosteric interface between the transmembrane segments performing the large scale conformational......-V into a tight pocket generated by five hydrophobic residues protruding from TM-III and TM-V. Of these, the residue in position III:16 (3.40) (often an Ile or Val) appears to function as a barrier or gate for the transition between inactive and active conformation. Mutational analysis showed that PheVI:09...... an aromatic microswitch that stabilizes the active, outward tilted conformation of TM-VI relative to TM-III by sliding into a tight hydrophobic pocket between TM-III and TM-V and that the hydrophobic residue in position III:16 constitutes a gate for this transition....

  1. TMDIM: an improved algorithm for the structure prediction of transmembrane domains of bitopic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Han; Ng, Marcus C. K.; Jusoh, Siti Azma; Tai, Hio Kuan; Siu, Shirley W. I.

    2017-09-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins are the most important drug targets in rational drug development. However, solving the experimental structures of these proteins remains difficult, therefore computational methods to accurately and efficiently predict the structures are in great demand. We present an improved structure prediction method TMDIM based on Park et al. (Proteins 57:577-585, 2004) for predicting bitopic transmembrane protein dimers. Three major algorithmic improvements are introduction of the packing type classification, the multiple-condition decoy filtering, and the cluster-based candidate selection. In a test of predicting nine known bitopic dimers, approximately 78% of our predictions achieved a successful fit (RMSD PHP, MySQL and Apache, with all major browsers supported.

  2. Structural fragment clustering reveals novel structural and functional motifs in α-helical transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev Boris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of an organism's genome encodes for membrane proteins. Membrane proteins are important for many cellular processes, and several diseases can be linked to mutations in them. With the tremendous growth of sequence data, there is an increasing need to reliably identify membrane proteins from sequence, to functionally annotate them, and to correctly predict their topology. Results We introduce a technique called structural fragment clustering, which learns sequential motifs from 3D structural fragments. From over 500,000 fragments, we obtain 213 statistically significant, non-redundant, and novel motifs that are highly specific to α-helical transmembrane proteins. From these 213 motifs, 58 of them were assigned to function and checked in the scientific literature for a biological assessment. Seventy percent of the motifs are found in co-factor, ligand, and ion binding sites, 30% at protein interaction interfaces, and 12% bind specific lipids such as glycerol or cardiolipins. The vast majority of motifs (94% appear across evolutionarily unrelated families, highlighting the modularity of functional design in membrane proteins. We describe three novel motifs in detail: (1 a dimer interface motif found in voltage-gated chloride channels, (2 a proton transfer motif found in heme-copper oxidases, and (3 a convergently evolved interface helix motif found in an aspartate symporter, a serine protease, and cytochrome b. Conclusions Our findings suggest that functional modules exist in membrane proteins, and that they occur in completely different evolutionary contexts and cover different binding sites. Structural fragment clustering allows us to link sequence motifs to function through clusters of structural fragments. The sequence motifs can be applied to identify and characterize membrane proteins in novel genomes.

  3. Activation gating kinetics of GIRK channels are mediated by cytoplasmic residues adjacent to transmembrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadja, Rona; Reuveny, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK/Kir3.x) are involved in neurotransmission-mediated reduction of excitability. The gating mechanism following G protein activation of these channels likely proceeds from movement of inner transmembrane helices to allow K(+) ions movement through the pore of the channel. There is limited understanding of how the binding of G-protein betagamma subunits to cytoplasmic regions of the channel transduces the signal to the transmembrane regions. In this study, we examined the molecular basis that governs the activation kinetics of these channels, using a chimeric approach. We identified two regions as being important in determining the kinetics of activation. One region is the bottom of the outer transmembrane helix (TM1) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent (the slide helix); and the second region is the bottom of the inner transmembrane helix (TM2) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent. Interestingly, both of these regions are sufficient in mediating the kinetics of fast activation gating. This result suggests that there is a cooperative movement of either one of these domains to allow fast and efficient activation gating of GIRK channels.

  4. Proteomic and Functional Analyses of the Virion Transmembrane Proteome of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancsok, Catherine; Peñaranda, M Michelle D; Raj, V Stalin; Leroy, Baptiste; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Boutier, Maxime; Gao, Yuan; Wilkie, Gavin S; Suárez, Nicolás M; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillet, Laurent; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain F C

    2017-11-01

    Virion transmembrane proteins (VTPs) mediate key functions in the herpesvirus infectious cycle. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. The present study was devoted to CyHV-3 VTPs. Using mass spectrometry approaches, we identified 16 VTPs of the CyHV-3 FL strain. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that eight of these proteins are essential for viral growth in vitro (open reading frame 32 [ORF32], ORF59, ORF81, ORF83, ORF99, ORF106, ORF115, and ORF131), and eight are nonessential (ORF25, ORF64, ORF65, ORF108, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, and ORF149). Among the nonessential proteins, deletion of ORF25, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, or ORF149 affects viral replication in vitro , and deletion of ORF25, ORF64, ORF108, ORF132, or ORF149 impacts plaque size. Lack of ORF148 or ORF25 causes attenuation in vivo to a minor or major extent, respectively. The safety and efficacy of a virus lacking ORF25 were compared to those of a previously described vaccine candidate deleted for ORF56 and ORF57 (Δ56-57). Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that the ORF25 deleted virus infects fish through skin infection and then spreads to internal organs as reported previously for the wild-type parental virus and the Δ56-57 virus. However, compared to the parental wild-type virus, the replication of the ORF25-deleted virus was reduced in intensity and duration to levels similar to those observed for the Δ56-57 virus. Vaccination of fish with a virus lacking ORF25 was safe but had low efficacy at the doses tested. This characterization of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3 provides a firm basis for further research on alloherpesvirus VTPs. IMPORTANCE Virion transmembrane proteins play key roles in the biology of herpesviruses. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses and the causative agent of major economic losses in common and koi carp worldwide. In this study of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3, the

  5. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R F; Linke, K; Teichert, H; Ehrmann, M A

    2008-01-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property

  6. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, R F; Linke, K; Teichert, H; Ehrmann, M A [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Technische Mikrobiologie, Weihenstephaner Steig 16, 85350 Freising (Germany)], E-mail: rudi.vogel@wzw.tum.de

    2008-07-15

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  7. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of transmembrane transport of chemical components in Chinese herbs and the function of platycodin D in a biological membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Yang

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The Martini force field was successfully applied to the study of the interaction between herbal compounds and a biological membrane. By combining the dynamics equilibrium morphology, the distribution of drugs inside and outside the biomembrane, and the interaction sites of drugs on the DPPC bilayer, factors influencing transmembrane transport of drugs were elucidated and the function of platycodin D in a biological membrane was reproduced.

  9. Synthesis of a designed transmembrane protein by thioether ligation of solubilised segments : Nα-haloacetylated peptides survived resin cleavage using TFA with EDT as scavenger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englebretsen, D.R; Choma, C.T.; Robillard, G.T.

    1998-01-01

    Nα-haloacetylated peptides made by Fmoc solid phase synthesis survived cleavage when EDT was used as a cleavage component. Two segments of a desgned transmembrane protein, one bromoacetylated, the other containing a cysteine, and each bearing a "solubilising tail" peptide, were synthesised by Fmoc

  10. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  11. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems.

  12. Generation and Nuclear Translocation of Sumoylated Transmembrane Fragment of Cell Adhesion Molecule L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, David; Wolters-Eisfeld, Gerrit; Joshi, Gunjan; Djogo, Nevena; Jakovcevski, Igor; Schachner, Melitta; Kleene, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The functions of the cell adhesion molecule L1 in the developing and adult nervous system are triggered by homophilic and heterophilic interactions that stimulate signal transductions that activate cellular responses. Here, we show that stimulation of signaling by function-triggering L1 antibodies or L1-Fc leads to serine protease-dependent cleavage of full-length L1 at the plasma membrane and generation of a sumoylated transmembrane 70-kDa fragment comprising the intracellular and transmembrane domains and part of the extracellular domain. The 70-kDa transmembrane fragment is transported from the plasma membrane to a late endosomal compartment, released from endosomal membranes into the cytoplasm, and transferred from there into the nucleus by a pathway that depends on importin and chromatin-modifying protein 1. Mutation of the sumoylation site at Lys1172 or of the nuclear localization signal at Lys1147 abolished L1-stimulated generation or nuclear import of the 70-kDa fragment, respectively. Nuclear import of the 70-kDa fragment may activate cellular responses in parallel or in association with phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. Alterations in the levels of the 70-kDa fragment during development and in the adult after spinal cord injury or in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease suggest that this fragment is functionally implicated in development, regeneration, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis, and possibly synaptic plasticity in the mature nervous system. PMID:22431726

  13. 15N and 31P solid-state NMR study of transmembrane domain alignment of M2 protein of influenza A virus in hydrated cylindrical lipid bilayers confined to anodic aluminum oxide nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Hu, Jun; Gor'kov, Peter L; Brey, William W; Cross, Timothy A; Ruuge, Andres; Smirnov, Alex I

    2005-04-01

    This communication reports the first example of a high resolution solid-state 15N 2D PISEMA NMR spectrum of a transmembrane peptide aligned using hydrated cylindrical lipid bilayers formed inside nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. The transmembrane domain SSDPLVVA(A-15N)SIIGILHLILWILDRL of M2 protein from influenza A virus was reconstituted in hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine bilayers that were macroscopically aligned by a conventional micro slide glass support or by the AAO nanoporous substrate. 15N and 31P NMR spectra demonstrate that both the phospholipids and the protein transmembrane domain are uniformly aligned in the nanopores. Importantly, nanoporous AAO substrates may offer several advantages for membrane protein alignment in solid-state NMR studies compared to conventional methods. Specifically, higher thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide is expected to suppress thermal gradients associated with inhomogeneous radio frequency heating. Another important advantage of the nanoporous AAO substrate is its excellent accessibility to the bilayer surface for exposure to solute molecules. Such high accessibility achieved through the substrate nanochannel network could facilitate a wide range of structure-function studies of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR.

  14. Postnatal Deletion of Fat Storage-inducing Transmembrane Protein 2 (FIT2/FITM2) Causes Lethal Enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Tan, Bryan C; Seow, Colin; Ong, Wei-Yi; Lim, Yen Ching; Sun, Lei; Ghosh, Sujoy; Silver, David L

    2015-10-16

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are phylogenetically conserved cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids within a phospholipid monolayer. LDs compartmentalize lipids and may help to prevent cellular damage caused by their excess or bioactive forms. FIT2 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that has previously been implicated in LD formation in mammalian cells and tissue. Recent data indicate that FIT2 plays an essential role in fat storage in an in vivo constitutive adipose FIT2 knock-out mouse model, but the physiological effects of postnatal whole body FIT2 depletion have never been studied. Here, we show that tamoxifen-induced FIT2 deletion using a whole body ROSA26CreER(T2)-driven FIT2 knock-out (iF2KO) mouse model leads to lethal intestinal pathology, including villus blunting and death of intestinal crypts, and loss of lipid absorption. iF2KO mice lose weight and die within 2 weeks after the first tamoxifen dose. At the cellular level, LDs failed to form in iF2KO enterocytes after acute oil challenge and instead accumulated within the ER. Intestinal bile acid transporters were transcriptionally dysregulated in iF2KO mice, leading to the buildup of bile acids within enterocytes. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential role in regulating intestinal health and survival postnatally. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Cloning and characterization of SCART1, a novel scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type I transmembrane molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Grønlund, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a novel murine transmembrane molecule, mSCART1 belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide chain of 989 amino acids, organized as a type I transmembrane protein that contains eight extracellular SRCR domains followed...

  16. Interaction of protein C inhibitor with the type II transmembrane serine protease enteropeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Prohaska

    Full Text Available The serine protease inhibitor protein C inhibitor (PCI is expressed in many human tissues and exhibits broad protease reactivity. PCI binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids, which modulate its inhibitory activity. Enteropeptidase (EP is a type II transmembrane serine protease mainly found on the brush border membrane of epithelial cells in the duodenum, where it activates trypsinogen to initiate the digestion of food proteins. Some active EP is also present in duodenal fluid and has been made responsible for causing pancreatitis in case of duodeno-pancreatic reflux. Together with its substrate trypsinogen, EP is furthermore present in the epidermis and in some cancer cells. In this report, we show that PCI inhibited EP with an apparent 2nd order rate constant of 4.48 × 10(4 M(-1 s(-1. Low molecular weight (LMWH and unfractionated heparin (UFH slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of PCI. The SI (stoichiometry of inhibition value for the inhibition of EP by PCI was 10.8 in the absence and 17.9 in the presence of UFH (10 U/ml. By inhibiting trypsin, chymotrypsin, and additionally EP, PCI might play a role in the protection of the pancreas from autodigestion. Furthermore the interaction of PCI with EP may influence the regulation of epithelial differentiation.

  17. Elastic strain and twist analysis of protein structural data and allostery of the transmembrane channel KcsA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael R.; Leibler, Stanislas

    2018-05-01

    The abundance of available static protein structural data makes the more effective analysis and interpretation of this data a valuable tool to supplement the experimental study of protein mechanics. Structural displacements can be difficult to analyze and interpret. Previously, we showed that strains provide a more natural and interpretable representation of protein deformations, revealing mechanical coupling between spatially distinct sites of allosteric proteins. Here, we demonstrate that other transformations of displacements yield additional insights. We calculate the divergence and curl of deformations of the transmembrane channel KcsA. Additionally, we introduce quantities analogous to bend, splay, and twist deformation energies of nematic liquid crystals. These transformations enable the decomposition of displacements into different modes of deformation, helping to characterize the type of deformation a protein undergoes. We apply these calculations to study the filter and gating regions of KcsA. We observe a continuous path of rotational deformations physically coupling these two regions, and, we propose, underlying the allosteric interaction between these regions. Bend, splay, and twist distinguish KcsA gate opening, filter opening, and filter-gate coupling, respectively. In general, physically meaningful representations of deformations (like strain, curl, bend, splay, and twist) can make testable predictions and yield insights into protein mechanics, augmenting experimental methods and more fully exploiting available structural data.

  18. Structure and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Morales

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Mutations in the CFTR gene may result in a defective processing of its protein and alter the function and regulation of this channel. Mutations are associated with different symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bile duct obstruction, infertility in males, high sweat Cl-, intestinal obstruction, nasal polyp formation, chronic sinusitis, mucus dehydration, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus lung infection, responsible for 90% of the mortality of CF patients. The gene responsible for the cellular defect in CF was cloned in 1989 and its protein product CFTR is activated by an increase of intracellular cAMP. The CFTR contains two membrane domains, each with six transmembrane domain segments, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, and a cytoplasmic domain. In this review we discuss the studies that have correlated the role of each CFTR domain in the protein function as a chloride channel and as a regulator of the outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs.

  19. Ligand-mediated negative regulation of a chimeric transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, D M; Sap, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-01-01

    CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), is required for TCR signaling. Multiple CD45 isoforms, differing in the extracellular domain, are expressed in a tissue- and activation-specific manner, suggesting an important function for this domain. We report that a chimeric protein...... that ligand-mediated regulation of receptor-PTPases may have mechanistic similarities with receptor tyrosine kinases....

  20. PrP Knockout Cells Expressing Transmembrane PrP Resist Prion Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen E; Hughson, Andrew; Vascellari, Sarah; Priola, Suzette A; Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Baron, Gerald S

    2017-01-15

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C ) influences PrP C misfolding into the disease-associated isoform, PrP res , as well as prion propagation and infectivity. GPI proteins are found in cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane regions called rafts. Exchanging the GPI anchor for a nonraft transmembrane sequence redirects PrP C away from rafts. Previous studies showed that nonraft transmembrane PrP C variants resist conversion to PrP res when transfected into scrapie-infected N2a neuroblastoma cells, likely due to segregation of transmembrane PrP C and GPI-anchored PrP res in distinct membrane environments. Thus, it remained unclear whether transmembrane PrP C might convert to PrP res if seeded by an exogenous source of PrP res not associated with host cell rafts and without the potential influence of endogenous expression of GPI-anchored PrP C To further explore these questions, constructs containing either a C-terminal wild-type GPI anchor signal sequence or a nonraft transmembrane sequence containing a flexible linker were expressed in a cell line derived from PrP knockout hippocampal neurons, NpL2. NpL2 cells have physiological similarities to primary neurons, representing a novel and advantageous model for studying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infection. Cells were infected with inocula from multiple prion strains and in different biochemical states (i.e., membrane bound as in brain microsomes from wild-type mice or purified GPI-anchorless amyloid fibrils). Only GPI-anchored PrP C supported persistent PrP res propagation. Our data provide strong evidence that in cell culture GPI anchor-directed membrane association of PrP C is required for persistent PrP res propagation, implicating raft microdomains as a location for conversion. Mechanisms of prion propagation, and what makes them transmissible, are poorly understood. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C

  1. Plant Virus Cell-to-Cell Movement Is Not Dependent on the Transmembrane Disposition of Its Movement Protein▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Luis; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A.; Cruz, Antonio; Pallás, Vicente; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Mingarro, Ismael

    2009-01-01

    The cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses depends on one or more virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs). Some MPs are integral membrane proteins that interact with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, but a detailed understanding of the interaction between MPs and biological membranes has been lacking. The cell-to-cell movement of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is facilitated by a single MP of the 30K superfamily. Here, using a myriad of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that the PNRSV MP contains only one hydrophobic region (HR) that interacts with the membrane interface, as opposed to being a transmembrane protein. We also show that a proline residue located in the middle of the HR constrains the structural conformation of this region at the membrane interface, and its replacement precludes virus movement. PMID:19321624

  2. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins of the innate immune response act as membrane organizers by influencing clathrin and v-ATPase localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Yin Shen; Roundy, Kirstin M; Weis, Janis J; Weis, John H

    2012-12-01

    The innate response interferon-inducible transmembrane (Ifitm) proteins have been characterized as influencing proliferation, signaling complexes and restricting virus infections. Treatment of cells lacking these proteins (IfitmDel) with IFN-β resulted in the loss of clathrin from membrane compartments and the inhibition of clathrin-mediated phagocytosis, suggesting a molecular interaction between clathrin and Ifitm proteins. The pH of endosomes of IfitmDel cells, with or without IFN activation, was neutralized, suggesting the function of the vacular ATPase proton pumps in such cells was compromised. Co-immunoprecipitation of Ifitm3 with Atp6v0b demonstrated a direct interaction between the Ifitm proteins and the v-ATPase. These data suggest that the Ifitm proteins help stabilize v-ATPase complexes in cellular membranes which, in turn, facilitates the appropriate subcellular localization of clathrin.

  3. Lysosomal-associated Transmembrane Protein 4B (LAPTM4B) Decreases Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) Production in Human Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, Caroline; Liénart, Stéphanie; Dedobbeleer, Olivier; Stockis, Julie; Gauthy, Emilie; Coulie, Pierre G; Lucas, Sophie

    2015-08-14

    Production of active TGF-β1 is one mechanism by which human regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress immune responses. This production is regulated by glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), a transmembrane protein present on stimulated Tregs but not on other T lymphocytes (Th and CTLs). GARP forms disulfide bonds with proTGF-β1, favors its cleavage into latent inactive TGF-β1, induces the secretion and surface presentation of GARP·latent TGF-β1 complexes, and is required for activation of the cytokine in Tregs. We explored whether additional Treg-specific protein(s) associated with GARP·TGF-β1 complexes regulate TGF-β1 production in Tregs. We searched for such proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay, using GARP as a bait to screen a human Treg cDNA library. We identified lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein 4B (LAPTM4B), which interacts with GARP in mammalian cells and is expressed at higher levels in Tregs than in Th cells. LAPTM4B decreases cleavage of proTGF-β1, secretion of soluble latent TGF-β1, and surface presentation of GARP·TGF-β1 complexes by Tregs but does not contribute to TGF-β1 activation. Therefore, LAPTM4B binds to GARP and is a negative regulator of TGF-β1 production in human Tregs. It may play a role in the control of immune responses by decreasing Treg immunosuppression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Abc1: a new ABC transporter from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Davis, K; Nielsen, O

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated the abc1 gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sequence analysis suggests that the Abc1 protein is a member of the ABC superfamily of transporters and is composed of two structurally homologous halves, each consisting of a hydrophobic region of six transmembrane...

  5. Determination of Six Transmembrane Protein of Prostate 2 Gene Expression and Intracellular Localization in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora İrer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between the RNA and protein expression profile of six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2 gene and androgen and the intracellular localization of STAMP2. Materials and Methods: RNA and protein were obtained from androgen treated lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP cells, untreated LNCaP cells, DU145 cells with no androgen receptor, and STAMP2 transfected COS-7 cells. The expression profile of STAMP2 gene and the effect of androgenes on the expression was shown in RNA and protein levels by using Northern and Western blotting methods. In addition, intracellular localization of the naturally synthesized STAMP2 protein and the transfected STAMP2 protein in COS-7 cells after androgen administration in both LNCaP cells was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found that the RNA and protein expression of STAMP2 gene in LNCaP cells are regulated by androgenes, the power of expression is increased with the duration of androgen treatment and there is no STAMP2 expression in DU145 cells which has no androgen receptor. As a result of the immunofluorescence microscopy study we observed that STAMP2 protein was localized at golgi complex and cell membrane. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have demonstrated that STAMP2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the prostate cancer and in the androgen-dependent androgen-independent staging of prostate cancer. In addition, STAMP2 protein, which is localized in the intracellular golgi complex and cell membrane, may be a new target molecule for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  7. Prediction of FAD binding sites in electron transport proteins according to efficient radial basis function networks and significant amino acid pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2016-07-30

    Cellular respiration is a catabolic pathway for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is the most efficient process through which cells harvest energy from consumed food. When cells undergo cellular respiration, they require a pathway to keep and transfer electrons (i.e., the electron transport chain). Due to oxidation-reduction reactions, the electron transport chain produces a transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. In case protons flow back through this membrane, this mechanical energy is converted into chemical energy by ATP synthase. The convert process is involved in producing ATP which provides energy in a lot of cellular processes. In the electron transport chain process, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is one of the most vital molecules for carrying and transferring electrons. Therefore, predicting FAD binding sites in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. We used an independent data set to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, which had an accuracy of 69.84 %. We compared the performance of the proposed method in analyzing two newly discovered electron transport protein sequences with that of the general FAD binding predictor presented by Mishra and Raghava and determined that the accuracy of the proposed method improved by 9-45 % and its Matthew's correlation coefficient was 0.14-0.5. Furthermore, the proposed method enabled reducing the number of false positives significantly and can provide useful information for biologists. We developed a method that is based on PSSM profiles and SAAPs for identifying FAD binding sites in newly discovered electron transport protein sequences. This approach achieved a significant improvement after we added SAAPs to PSSM features to analyze FAD binding proteins in the electron transport chain. The proposed method can serve as an effective tool for predicting FAD binding sites in electron

  8. Bilirubin Decreases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Tosevska, Anela; Heiß, Elke H; Ladurner, Angela; Mölzer, Christine; Wallner, Marlies; Bulmer, Andrew; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-04-28

    Mild but chronically elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin is associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate whether unconjugated bilirubin influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, as a potential mechanism for the altered circulating lipoprotein concentrations observed in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages was assessed using plasma obtained from normo- and hyperbilirubinemic (Gilbert syndrome) humans (n=60 per group) or (heterozygote/homozygote Gunn) rats (n=20 per group) as an acceptor. Hyperbilirubinemic plasma from patients with Gilbert syndrome and Gunn rats induced significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared with normobilirubinemic plasma. Unconjugated bilirubin (3-17.1 μmol/L) exogenously added to plasma- or apolipoprotein A1-supplemented media also decreased macrophage cholesterol efflux in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also showed reduced protein expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transmembrane cholesterol transporter involved in apolipoprotein A1-mediated cholesterol efflux, in THP-1 macrophages treated with unconjugated bilirubin and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bilirubin accelerates the degradation rate of the ABCA1 protein in THP-1 macrophages. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is decreased in the presence of plasma obtained from humans and rats with mild hyperbilirubinemia. A direct effect of unconjugated bilirubin on cholesterol efflux was demonstrated and is associated with decreased ABCA1 protein expression. These data improve our knowledge concerning bilirubin's impact on cholesterol transport and represent an important advancement in our understanding of bilirubin's role in cardiovascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  9. Legionella pneumophila secretes a mitochondrial carrier protein during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dolezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitochondrial Carrier Family (MCF is a signature group of integral membrane proteins that transport metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes. MCF proteins are characterized by six transmembrane segments that assemble to form a highly-selective channel for metabolite transport. We discovered a novel MCF member, termed Legionellanucleotide carrier Protein (LncP, encoded in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. LncP was secreted via the bacterial Dot/Icm type IV secretion system into macrophages and assembled in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In a yeast cellular system, LncP induced a dominant-negative phenotype that was rescued by deleting an endogenous ATP carrier. Substrate transport studies on purified LncP reconstituted in liposomes revealed that it catalyzes unidirectional transport and exchange of ATP transport across membranes, thereby supporting a role for LncP as an ATP transporter. A hidden Markov model revealed further MCF proteins in the intracellular pathogens, Legionella longbeachae and Neorickettsia sennetsu, thereby challenging the notion that MCF proteins exist exclusively in eukaryotic organisms.

  10. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  11. A novel Usher protein network at the periciliary reloading point between molecular transport machineries in vertebrate photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerker, Tina; van Wijk, Erwin; Overlack, Nora; Kersten, Ferry F J; McGee, Joann; Goldmann, Tobias; Sehn, Elisabeth; Roepman, Ronald; Walsh, Edward J; Kremer, Hannie; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The human Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of combined deaf-blindness. USH is genetically heterogeneous with at least 12 chromosomal loci assigned to three clinical types, USH1-3. Although these USH types exhibit similar phenotypes in human, the corresponding gene products belong to very different protein classes and families. The scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C) was shown to integrate all identified USH1 and USH2 molecules into protein networks. Here, we analyzed a protein network organized in the absence of harmonin by the scaffold proteins SANS (USH1G) and whirlin (USH2D). Immunoelectron microscopic analyses disclosed the colocalization of all network components in the apical inner segment collar and the ciliary apparatus of mammalian photoreceptor cells. In this complex, whirlin and SANS directly interact. Furthermore, SANS provides a linkage to the microtubule transport machinery, whereas whirlin may anchor USH2A isoform b and VLGR1b (very large G-protein coupled receptor 1b) via binding to their cytodomains at specific membrane domains. The long ectodomains of both transmembrane proteins extend into the gap between the adjacent membranes of the connecting cilium and the apical inner segment. Analyses of Vlgr1/del7TM mice revealed the ectodomain of VLGR1b as a component of fibrous links present in this gap. Comparative analyses of mouse and Xenopus photoreceptors demonstrated that this USH protein network is also part of the periciliary ridge complex in Xenopus. Since this structural specialization in amphibian photoreceptor cells defines a specialized membrane domain for docking and fusion of transport vesicles, we suggest a prominent role of the USH proteins in cargo shipment.

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Exploits Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Proteins To Facilitate Morphogenesis of the Virion Assembly Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Maorong; Xuan, Baoqin; Shan, Jiaoyu; Pan, Deng; Sun, Yamei; Shan, Zhao; Zhang, Jinping; Yu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have been identified to be key effector molecules in the host type I interferon defense system. The invasion of host cells by a large range of RNA viruses is inhibited by IFITMs during the entry step. However, the roles of IFITMs in DNA virus infections have not been studied in detail. In this study, we report that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a large human DNA virus, exploits IFITMs to facilitate the formation of the virion assembly compartment (vAC) during infection of human fibroblasts. We found that IFITMs were expressed constitutively in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells). HCMV infection inhibited IFITM protein accumulation in the later stages of infection. Overexpression of an IFITM protein in MRC5 cells slightly enhanced HCMV production and knockdown of IFITMs by RNA interference reduced the virus titer by about 100-fold on day 8 postinfection, according to the findings of a virus yield assay at a low multiplicity of infection. Virus gene expression and DNA synthesis were not affected, but the typical round structure of the vAC was not formed after the suppression of IFITMs, thereby resulting in defective virion assembly and the production of less infectious virion particles. Interestingly, the replication of herpes simplex virus, a human herpesvirus that is closely related to HCMV, was not affected by the suppression of IFITMs in MRC5 cells. These results indicate that IFITMs are involved in a specific pathway required for HCMV replication. IMPORTANCE HCMV is known to repurpose the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) viperin and tetherin to facilitate its replication. Our results expand the range of ISGs that can be exploited by HCMV for its replication. This is also the first report of a proviral function of IFITMs in DNA virus replication. In addition, whereas previous studies showed that IFITMs modulate virus entry, which is a very early stage in the virus life cycle, we

  13. ESCRT-dependent degradation of ubiquitylated plasma membrane proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Erika; Kalinowska, Kamila

    2017-12-01

    To control the abundance of plasma membrane receptors and transporters is crucial for proper perception and response to extracellular signals from surrounding cells and the environment. Posttranslational modification of plasma membrane proteins, especially ubiquitin conjugation or ubiquitylation, is key for the determination of stability for many transmembrane proteins localized on the cell surface. The targeted degradation is ensured by a complex network of proteins among which the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) plays a central role. This review focuses on progresses made in recent years on the understanding of the function of the ESCRT machinery in the degradation of ubiquitylated plasma membrane proteins in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the inward-facing conformation revealed by single particle electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeq Al-Zahrani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common inherited disease in European populations is cystic fibrosis. Mutations in the gene lead to loss of function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR. CFTR is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of membrane proteins that mostly act as active transporters using ATP to move substances across membranes. These proteins undergo large conformational changes during the transport cycle, consistent with an inward-facing to outward-facing translocation mechanism that was originally proposed by Jardetzky. CFTR is the only member of this family of proteins that functions as an ion channel, and in this case ATP and phosphorylation of a regulatory domain controls the opening of the channel. In this article we describe the inward-facing conformation of the protein and show it can be modulated by the presence of a purified recombinant NHERF1-PDZ1 domain that binds with high affinity to the CFTR C-terminal PDZ motif (-QDTRL. ATP hydrolysis activity of CFTR can also be modulated by glutathione, which we postulate may bind to the inward-facing conformation of the protein. A homology model for CFTR, based on a mitochondrial ABC transporter of glutathione in the inward-facing configuration has been generated. The map and the model are discussed with respect to the biology of the channel and the specific relationship between glutathione levels in the cell and CFTR. Finally, disease-causing mutations are mapped within the model and discussed in terms of their likely physiological effects.

  15. Topology mapping to characterize cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters: BicA (SulP/SLC26 family) and SbtA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, G Dean; Howitt, Susan M

    2014-09-01

    This mini-review addresses advances in understanding the transmembrane topologies of two unrelated, single-subunit bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria, namely BicA and SbtA. BicA is a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter that belongs to the SulP/SLC26 family that is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Topology mapping of BicA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 12 transmembrane helices with an unresolved hydrophobic region just beyond helix 8. Re-interpreting this data in the light of a recent topology study on rat prestin leads to a consensus topology of 14 transmembrane domains with a 7+7 inverted repeat structure. SbtA is also a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter, but of considerably higher affinity (Km 2-5 μM versus >100 μM for BicA). Whilst SbtA is widespread in cyanobacteria and a few bacteria, it appears to be absent from eukaryotes. Topology mapping of SbtA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 10 transmembrane helices. The topology consists of a 5+5 inverted repeat, with the two repeats separated by a large intracellular loop. The unusual location of the N and C-termini outside the cell raises the possibility that SbtA forms a novel fold, not so far identified by structural and topological studies on transport proteins.

  16. Bioinformatic survey of ABC transporters in dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Ciesielska, Anita; Stączek, Paweł

    2016-01-15

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a very large and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins. They are responsible for ATP hydrolysis driven translocation of countless substrates. Being a very old and diverse group of proteins present in all organisms they share a common feature, which is the presence of an evolutionary conservative nucleotide binding domain (NBD)--the engine that drives the transport. Another common domain is a transmembrane domain (TMD) which consists of several membrane-spanning helices. This part of protein is substrate-specific, thus it is much more variable. ABC transporters are known for driving drug efflux in many pathogens and cancer cells, therefore they are the subject of extensive studies. There are many examples of conferring a drug resistance phenotype in fungal pathogens by ABC transporters, however, little is known about these proteins in dermatophytes--a group of fungi causing superficial mycoses. So far only a single ABC transporter has been extensively studied in this group of pathogens. We analyzed available genomic sequences of seven dermatophyte species in order to provide an insight into dermatophyte ABC protein inventory. Phylogenetic studies of ABC transporter genes and their products were conducted and included ABC transporters of other fungi. Our results show that each dermatophyte genome studied possesses a great variety of ABC transporter genes. Detailed analysis of selected genes and their products indicates that relatively recent duplication of ABC transporter genes could lead to novel substrate specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular cloning of a putative divalent-cation transporter gene as a new genetic marker for the identification of Lactobacillus brevis strains capable of growing in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, N; Ito, M; Horiike, S; Taguchi, H

    2001-05-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis of Lactobacillus brevis isolates from breweries revealed that one of the random primers could distinguish beer-spoilage strains of L. brevis from nonspoilage strains. The 1.1-kb DNA fragment amplified from all beer-spoilers included one open reading frame, termed hitA (hop-inducible cation transporter), which encodes an integral membrane protein with 11 putative trans-membrane domains and a binding protein-dependent transport signature of a non-ATP binding membrane transporter common to several prokaryotic and eukaryotic transporters. The hitA polypeptide is homologous to the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family characterized as divalent-cation transport proteins in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Northern blot analysis indicated that the hitA transcripts are expressed in cells cultivated in MRS broth supplemented with hop bitter compounds, which act as mobile-carrier ionophores, dissipating the trans-membrane pH gradient in bacteria sensitive to the hop bitter compounds by exchanging H+ for cellular divalent cations such as Mn2+. This suggests that the hitA gene products may play an important role in making the bacteria resistant to hop bitter compounds in beer by transporting metal ions such as Mn2+ into cells that no longer maintain the proton gradient.

  18. Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, P. T.; Walker, D. K.; Dickinson, J. M.; Gundermann, D. M.; Drummond, M. J.; Timmerman, K. L.; Cope, M. B.; Mukherjea, R.; Jennings, K.; Volpi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. PMID:24699854

  19. Tunneling explains efficient electron transport via protein junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereiro, Jerry A; Yu, Xi; Pecht, Israel; Sheves, Mordechai; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Cahen, David

    2018-05-15

    Metalloproteins, proteins containing a transition metal ion cofactor, are electron transfer agents that perform key functions in cells. Inspired by this fact, electron transport across these proteins has been widely studied in solid-state settings, triggering the interest in examining potential use of proteins as building blocks in bioelectronic devices. Here, we report results of low-temperature (10 K) electron transport measurements via monolayer junctions based on the blue copper protein azurin (Az), which strongly suggest quantum tunneling of electrons as the dominant charge transport mechanism. Specifically, we show that, weakening the protein-electrode coupling by introducing a spacer, one can switch the electron transport from off-resonant to resonant tunneling. This is a consequence of reducing the electrode's perturbation of the Cu(II)-localized electronic state, a pattern that has not been observed before in protein-based junctions. Moreover, we identify vibronic features of the Cu(II) coordination sphere in transport characteristics that show directly the active role of the metal ion in resonance tunneling. Our results illustrate how quantum mechanical effects may dominate electron transport via protein-based junctions.

  20. Direct observation of electrogenic NH4(+) transport in ammonium transport (Amt) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Tobias; Garcia-Celma, Juan J; Lewe, Philipp; Andrade, Susana L A

    2014-07-08

    Ammonium transport (Amt) proteins form a ubiquitous family of integral membrane proteins that specifically shuttle ammonium across membranes. In prokaryotes, archaea, and plants, Amts are used as environmental NH4(+) scavengers for uptake and assimilation of nitrogen. In the eukaryotic homologs, the Rhesus proteins, NH4(+)/NH3 transport is used instead in acid-base and pH homeostasis in kidney or NH4(+)/NH3 (and eventually CO2) detoxification in erythrocytes. Crystal structures and variant proteins are available, but the inherent challenges associated with the unambiguous identification of substrate and monitoring of transport events severely inhibit further progress in the field. Here we report a reliable in vitro assay that allows us to quantify the electrogenic capacity of Amt proteins. Using solid-supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology, we have investigated the three Amt orthologs from the euryarchaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Af-Amt1 and Af-Amt3 are electrogenic and transport the ammonium and methylammonium cation with high specificity. Transport is pH-dependent, with a steep decline at pH values of ∼5.0. Despite significant sequence homologies, functional differences between the three proteins became apparent. SSM electrophysiology provides a long-sought-after functional assay for the ubiquitous ammonium transporters.

  1. Crystallographic and single-particle analyses of native- and nucleotide-bound forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awayn, N H; Rosenberg, M F; Kamis, A B; Aleksandrov, L A; Riordan, J R; Ford, R C

    2005-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis, one of the major human inherited diseases, is caused by defects in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a cell-membrane protein. CFTR acts as a chloride channel which can be opened by ATP. Low-resolution structural studies of purified recombinant human CFTR are described in the present paper. Localization of the C-terminal decahistidine tag in CFTR was achieved by Ni2+-nitriloacetate nanogold labelling, followed by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The presence of the gold label appears to improve the single-particle-alignment procedure. Projection structures of CFTR from two-dimensional crystals analysed by electron crystallography displayed two alternative conformational states in the presence of nucleotide and nanogold, but only one form of the protein was observed in the quiescent (nucleotide-free) state.

  2. Topology of membrane proteins-predictions, limitations and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigos, Konstantinos D; Govindarajan, Sudha; Bassot, Claudio; Västermark, Åke; Lamb, John; Shu, Nanjiang; Elofsson, Arne

    2017-10-26

    Transmembrane proteins perform a variety of important biological functions necessary for the survival and growth of the cells. Membrane proteins are built up by transmembrane segments that span the lipid bilayer. The segments can either be in the form of hydrophobic alpha-helices or beta-sheets which create a barrel. A fundamental aspect of the structure of transmembrane proteins is the membrane topology, that is, the number of transmembrane segments, their position in the protein sequence and their orientation in the membrane. Along these lines, many predictive algorithms for the prediction of the topology of alpha-helical and beta-barrel transmembrane proteins exist. The newest algorithms obtain an accuracy close to 80% both for alpha-helical and beta-barrel transmembrane proteins. However, lately it has been shown that the simplified picture presented when describing a protein family by its topology is limited. To demonstrate this, we highlight examples where the topology is either not conserved in a protein superfamily or where the structure cannot be described solely by the topology of a protein. The prediction of these non-standard features from sequence alone was not successful until the recent revolutionary progress in 3D-structure prediction of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  4. Crystal Structure of a Plant Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion Family Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Iwaki, Shigehiro; Tsukazaki, Tomoya

    2017-09-05

    The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of proteins consists of transporters responsible for multidrug resistance in prokaryotes. In plants, a number of MATE proteins were identified by recent genomic and functional studies, which imply that the proteins have substrate-specific transport functions instead of multidrug extrusion. The three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic MATE proteins, including those of plants, has not been reported, preventing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of these proteins. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a MATE protein from the plant Camelina sativa at 2.9 Å resolution. Two sets of six transmembrane α helices, assembled pseudo-symmetrically, possess a negatively charged internal pocket with an outward-facing shape. The crystal structure provides insight into the diversity of plant MATE proteins and their substrate recognition and transport through the membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ATP-dependent Conformational Changes Trigger Substrate Capture and Release by an ECF-type Biotin Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Sippach, Michael; Landmesser, Heidi; Kirsch, Franziska; Ogienko, Anastasia; Grunzel, Miriam; Kiesler, Cornelia; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Schneider, Erwin; Eitinger, Thomas

    2015-07-03

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters for vitamins and metal ions in prokaryotes consist of two ATP-binding cassette-type ATPases, a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a transmembrane protein (T component) that physically interacts with the ATPases and the S component. The mechanism of ECF transporters was analyzed upon reconstitution of a bacterial biotin transporter into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. ATPase activity was not stimulated by biotin and was only moderately reduced by vanadate. A non-hydrolyzable ATP analog was a competitive inhibitor. As evidenced by cross-linking of monocysteine variants and by site-specific spin labeling of the Q-helix followed by EPR-based interspin distance analyses, closure and reopening of the ATPase dimer (BioM2) was a consequence of ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. A previously suggested role of a stretch of small hydrophobic amino acid residues within the first transmembrane segment of the S units for S unit/T unit interactions was structurally and functionally confirmed for the biotin transporter. Cross-linking of this segment in BioY (S) using homobifunctional thiol-reactive reagents to a coupling helix of BioN (T) indicated a reorientation rather than a disruption of the BioY/BioN interface during catalysis. Fluorescence emission of BioY labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore was compatible with an ATP-induced reorientation and consistent with a hypothesized toppling mechanism. As demonstrated by [(3)H]biotin capture assays, ATP binding stimulated substrate capture by the transporter, and subsequent ATP hydrolysis led to substrate release. Our study represents the first experimental insight into the individual steps during the catalytic cycle of an ECF transporter in a lipid environment. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Insight of Transmembrane Processes of Self-Assembling Nanotubes Based on a Cyclic Peptide Using Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yankai; Yan, Tingxuan; Xu, Xia

    2017-09-28

    Transmembrane self-assembling cyclic peptide (SCP) nanotubes are promising candidates for delivering specific molecules through cell membranes. The detailed mechanisms behind the transmembrane processes, as well as stabilization factors of transmembrane structures, are difficult to elucidate through experiments. In this study, the effects of peptide sequence and oligomeric state on the transmembrane capabilities of SCP nanotubes and the perturbation of embedded SCP nanotubes acting on the membrane were investigated based on coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that hydrophilic SCP oligomers result in the elevation of the energy barrier while the oligomerization of hydrophobic SCPs causes the reduction of the energy barrier, further leading to membrane insertion. Once SCP nanotubes are embedded, membrane properties such as density, thickness, ordering state and lateral mobility are adjusted along the radial direction. This study provides insight into the transmembrane strategy of SCP nanotubes and sheds light on designing novel transport systems.

  7. CD147: a small molecule transporter ancillary protein at the crossroad of multiple hallmarks of cancer and metabolic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Agnieszka A; Schafer, Johnathon; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Neelakantan, Deepika; Ford, Heide L; Pearson, Chad G; Weekes, Colin D; Hansen, Kirk C; Eisenmesser, Elan Z

    2017-01-24

    Increased expression of CD147 in pancreatic cancer has been proposed to play a critical role in cancer progression via CD147 chaperone function for lactate monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Here, we show for the first time that CD147 interacts with membrane transporters beyond MCTs and exhibits a protective role for several of its interacting partners. CD147 prevents its interacting partner's proteasome-dependent degradation and incorrect plasma membrane localization through the CD147 transmembrane (TM) region. The interactions with transmembrane small molecule and ion transporters identified here indicate a central role of CD147 in pancreatic cancer metabolic reprogramming, particularly with respect to amino acid anabolism and calcium signaling. Importantly, CD147 genetic ablation prevents pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in conjunction with metabolic rewiring towards amino acid anabolism, thus paving the way for future combined pharmacological treatments.

  8. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhut Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  9. A cataract-causing connexin 50 mutant is mislocalized to the ER due to loss of the fourth transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraju Chalasani, Madhavi Latha; Muppirala, Madhavi; G Ponnam, Surya Prakash; Kannabiran, Chitra; Swarup, Ghanshyam

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the eye lens gap junction protein connexin 50 cause cataract. Earlier we identified a frameshift mutant of connexin 50 (c.670insA; p.Thr203AsnfsX47) in a family with autosomal recessive cataract. The mutant protein is smaller and contains 46 aberrant amino acids at the C-terminus after amino acid 202. Here, we have analysed this frameshift mutant and observed that it localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not in the plasma membrane. Moreover, overexpression of the mutant resulted in disintegration of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), reduction in the level of ERGIC-53 protein and breakdown of the Golgi in many cells. Overexpression of the frameshift mutant partially inhibited the transport of wild type connexin 50 to the plasma membrane. A deletion mutant lacking the aberrant sequence showed predominant localization in the ER and inhibited anterograde protein transport suggesting, therefore, that the aberrant sequence is not responsible for improper localization of the frameshift mutant. Further deletion analysis showed that the fourth transmembrane domain and a membrane proximal region (231-294 amino acids) of the cytoplasmic domain are needed for transport from the ER and localization to the plasma membrane. Our results show that a frameshift mutant of connexin 50 mislocalizes to the ER and causes disintegration of the ERGIC and Golgi. We have also identified a sequence of connexin 50 crucial for transport from the ER and localization to the plasma membrane.

  10. (Methyl)ammonium Transport in the Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dommelen, Anne; Keijers, Veerle; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Zamaroczy, Miklos

    1998-01-01

    An ammonium transporter of Azospirillum brasilense was characterized. In contrast to most previously reported putative prokaryotic NH4+ transporter genes, A. brasilense amtB is not part of an operon with glnB or glnZ which, in A. brasilense, encode nitrogen regulatory proteins PII and PZ, respectively. Sequence analysis predicts the presence of 12 transmembrane domains in the deduced AmtB protein and classifies AmtB as an integral membrane protein. Nitrogen regulates the transcription of the amtB gene in A. brasilense by the Ntr system. amtB is the first gene identified in A. brasilense whose expression is regulated by NtrC. The observation that ammonium uptake is still possible in mutants lacking the AmtB protein suggests the presence of a second NH4+ transport mechanism. Growth of amtB mutants at low ammonium concentrations is reduced compared to that of the wild type. This suggests that AmtB has a role in scavenging ammonium at low concentrations. PMID:9573149

  11. Lrit1, a Retinal Transmembrane Protein, Regulates Selective Synapse Formation in Cone Photoreceptor Cells and Visual Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akiko; Omori, Yoshihiro; Sugita, Yuko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Chaya, Taro; Kozuka, Takashi; Kon, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Satoyo; Matsushita, Kenji; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Kajimura, Naoko; Okada, Yasushi; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2018-03-27

    In the vertebrate retina, cone photoreceptors play crucial roles in photopic vision by transmitting light-evoked signals to ON- and/or OFF-bipolar cells. However, the mechanisms underlying selective synapse formation in the cone photoreceptor pathway remain poorly understood. Here, we found that Lrit1, a leucine-rich transmembrane protein, localizes to the photoreceptor synaptic terminal and regulates the synaptic connection between cone photoreceptors and cone ON-bipolar cells. Lrit1-deficient retinas exhibit an aberrant morphology of cone photoreceptor pedicles, as well as an impairment of signal transmission from cone photoreceptors to cone ON-bipolar cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Lrit1 interacts with Frmpd2, a photoreceptor scaffold protein, and with mGluR6, an ON-bipolar cell-specific glutamate receptor. Additionally, Lrit1-null mice showed visual acuity impairments in their optokinetic responses. These results suggest that the Frmpd2-Lrit1-mGluR6 axis regulates selective synapse formation in cone photoreceptors and is essential for normal visual function. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complete topology inversion can be part of normal membrane protein biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Nicholas B; Hadley, Sarah; Yin, Ying; Bowie, James U

    2017-04-01

    The topology of helical membrane proteins is generally defined during insertion of the transmembrane helices, yet it is now clear that it is possible for topology to change under unusual circumstances. It remains unclear, however, if topology reorientation is part of normal biogenesis. For dual topology dimer proteins such as the multidrug transporter EmrE, there may be evolutionary pressure to allow topology flipping so that the populations of both orientations can be equalized. We previously demonstrated that when EmrE is forced to insert in a distorted topology, topology flipping of the first transmembrane helix can occur during translation. Here, we show that topological malleability also extends to the C-terminal helix and that even complete topology inversion of the entire EmrE protein can occur after the full protein is translated and inserted. Thus, topology rearrangements are possible during normal biogenesis. Wholesale topology flipping is remarkable given the physical constraints of the membrane and expands the range of possible membrane protein folding pathways, both productive and detrimental. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  13. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  14. COMSAT: Residue contact prediction of transmembrane proteins based on support vector machines and mixed integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiling; Huang, Qingsheng; Bei, Zhendong; Wei, Yanjie; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present COMSAT, a hybrid framework for residue contact prediction of transmembrane (TM) proteins, integrating a support vector machine (SVM) method and a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method. COMSAT consists of two modules: COMSAT_SVM which is trained mainly on position-specific scoring matrix features, and COMSAT_MILP which is an ab initio method based on optimization models. Contacts predicted by the SVM model are ranked by SVM confidence scores, and a threshold is trained to improve the reliability of the predicted contacts. For TM proteins with no contacts above the threshold, COMSAT_MILP is used. The proposed hybrid contact prediction scheme was tested on two independent TM protein sets based on the contact definition of 14 Å between Cα-Cα atoms. First, using a rigorous leave-one-protein-out cross validation on the training set of 90 TM proteins, an accuracy of 66.8%, a coverage of 12.3%, a specificity of 99.3% and a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.184 were obtained for residue pairs that are at least six amino acids apart. Second, when tested on a test set of 87 TM proteins, the proposed method showed a prediction accuracy of 64.5%, a coverage of 5.3%, a specificity of 99.4% and a MCC of 0.106. COMSAT shows satisfactory results when compared with 12 other state-of-the-art predictors, and is more robust in terms of prediction accuracy as the length and complexity of TM protein increase. COMSAT is freely accessible at http://hpcc.siat.ac.cn/COMSAT/. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A single molecule approach for measuring the transport properties and energetics of membrane proteins in heterogeneous planar bio-mimetic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Kumud Raj

    The significance of transmembrane protein research is well documented. Numerous studies have clearly established the biological, biophysical and pharmaceutical importance that these membrane components serve. Communications through receptors regulate countless body functions and they also provide structural support to the cell. However, a lack of high-resolution structure data has limited our understanding of these proteins that make it necessary to study them in in-vitro platforms or 'bio-mimetic' assemblies. Albeit that an assortment of platforms have been suggested for in-vitro studies, the issues, however, remain the same. The lack of mobility of the proteins in artificial environments, the question of functionality that arises with mobility and the search in general for the best assembly, is still a work in progress. In this work, we have taken some of the most accepted platforms in the field and characterized them through the lens of single molecule spectroscopy. We have addressed the question of mobility by reducing it down to a single molecule and comparing it with the bulk. By utilizing the Serotonin Receptor 5HT3A we have shown that techniques such as passivation of the substrates in the assemblies by Bovine Serum Albumin has a significant effect at the molecular level. The larger size of the intracellular domain for the 5HT3A served as a great probe to understand and evaluate the interaction of a surface passivator with the integrated membrane protein. We have also taken this a step further by developing a novel, single cushion 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) assembly and added another degree of complexity- through a phase transition. We have utilized phase transition to get an insight into the local protein environment, activation energies, heterogeneity and diffusion characteristics by using Annexin V as our probe. The work presented here studies two completely different biological platforms using two entirely different transmembrane

  16. Recombinant Expression Screening of P. aeruginosa Bacterial Inner Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Constance J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmembrane proteins (TM proteins make up 25% of all proteins and play key roles in many diseases and normal physiological processes. However, much less is known about their structures and molecular mechanisms than for soluble proteins. Problems in expression, solubilization, purification, and crystallization cause bottlenecks in the characterization of TM proteins. This project addressed the need for improved methods for obtaining sufficient amounts of TM proteins for determining their structures and molecular mechanisms. Results Plasmid clones were obtained that encode eighty-seven transmembrane proteins with varying physical characteristics, for example, the number of predicted transmembrane helices, molecular weight, and grand average hydrophobicity (GRAVY. All the target proteins were from P. aeruginosa, a gram negative bacterial opportunistic pathogen that causes serious lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis. The relative expression levels of the transmembrane proteins were measured under several culture growth conditions. The use of E. coli strains, a T7 promoter, and a 6-histidine C-terminal affinity tag resulted in the expression of 61 out of 87 test proteins (70%. In this study, proteins with a higher grand average hydrophobicity and more transmembrane helices were expressed less well than less hydrophobic proteins with fewer transmembrane helices. Conclusions In this study, factors related to overall hydrophobicity and the number of predicted transmembrane helices correlated with the relative expression levels of the target proteins. Identifying physical characteristics that correlate with protein expression might aid in selecting the "low hanging fruit", or proteins that can be expressed to sufficient levels using an E. coli expression system. The use of other expression strategies or host species might be needed for sufficient levels of expression of transmembrane proteins with other physical

  17. Transceptors as a functional link of transporters and receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Diallinas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cells need to communicate with their environment in order to obtain nutrients, grow, divide and respond to signals related to adaptation in changing physiological conditions or stress. A very basic question in biology is how cells, especially of those organisms living in rapidly changing habitats, sense their environment. Apparently, this question is of particular importance to all free-living microorganisms. The critical role of receptors, transporters and channels, transmembrane proteins located in the plasma membrane of all types of cells, in signaling environmental changes is well established. A relative newcomer in environment sensing are the so called transceptors, membrane proteins that possess both solute transport and receptor-like signaling activities. Now, the transceptor concept is further enlarged to include micronutrient sensing via the iron and zinc high-affinity transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, what seems to underline the transport and/or sensing function of receptors, transporters and transceptors is ligand-induced conformational alterations recognized by downstream intracellular effectors.

  18. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  19. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Ying [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Kunming, Yunnan 650106 (China); Guo, Lei; Yang, Erxia; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Li, Qihan, E-mail: imbcams.lq@gmail.com [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China)

    2014-09-15

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex.

  1. Semantic role labeling for protein transport predicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin James H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic semantic role labeling (SRL is a natural language processing (NLP technique that maps sentences to semantic representations. This technique has been widely studied in the recent years, but mostly with data in newswire domains. Here, we report on a SRL model for identifying the semantic roles of biomedical predicates describing protein transport in GeneRIFs – manually curated sentences focusing on gene functions. To avoid the computational cost of syntactic parsing, and because the boundaries of our protein transport roles often did not match up with syntactic phrase boundaries, we approached this problem with a word-chunking paradigm and trained support vector machine classifiers to classify words as being at the beginning, inside or outside of a protein transport role. Results We collected a set of 837 GeneRIFs describing movements of proteins between cellular components, whose predicates were annotated for the semantic roles AGENT, PATIENT, ORIGIN and DESTINATION. We trained these models with the features of previous word-chunking models, features adapted from phrase-chunking models, and features derived from an analysis of our data. Our models were able to label protein transport semantic roles with 87.6% precision and 79.0% recall when using manually annotated protein boundaries, and 87.0% precision and 74.5% recall when using automatically identified ones. Conclusion We successfully adapted the word-chunking classification paradigm to semantic role labeling, applying it to a new domain with predicates completely absent from any previous studies. By combining the traditional word and phrasal role labeling features with biomedical features like protein boundaries and MEDPOST part of speech tags, we were able to address the challenges posed by the new domain data and subsequently build robust models that achieved F-measures as high as 83.1. This system for extracting protein transport information from Gene

  2. Overexpression of transmembrane protein 168 in the mouse nucleus accumbens induces anxiety and sensorimotor gating deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Fu

    Full Text Available Transmembrane protein 168 (TMEM168 comprises 697 amino acid residues, including some putative transmembrane domains. It is reported that TMEM168 controls methamphetamine (METH dependence in the nucleus accumbens (NAc of mice. Moreover, a strong link between METH dependence-induced adaptive changes in the brain and mood disorders has been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of accumbal TMEM168 in a battery of behavioral paradigms. The adeno-associated virus (AAV Tmem168 vector was injected into the NAc of C57BL/6J mice (NAc-TMEM mice. Subsequently, the accumbal TMEM168 mRNA was increased approximately by seven-fold when compared with the NAc-Mock mice (controls. The NAc-TMEM mice reported no change in the locomotor activity, cognitive ability, social interaction, and depression-like behaviors; however, TMEM168 overexpression enhanced anxiety in the elevated-plus maze and light/dark box test. The increased anxiety was reversed by pretreatment with the antianxiety drug diazepam (0.3 mg/kg i.p.. Moreover, the NAc-TMEM mice exhibited decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI in the startle response test, and the induced schizophrenia-like behavior was reversed by pretreatment with the antipsychotic drug risperidone (0.01 mg/kg i.p.. Furthermore, accumbal TMEM168 overexpression decreased the basal levels of extracellular GABA in the NAc and the high K+ (100 mM-stimulated GABA elevation; however, the total contents of GABA in the NAc remained unaffected. These results suggest that the TMEM168-regulated GABAergic neuronal system in the NAc might become a novel target while studying the etiology of anxiety and sensorimotor gating deficits.

  3. Postendocytic sorting of constitutively internalized dopamine transporter in cell lines and dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of released dopamine and is the target for psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamine. DAT undergoes marked constitutive endocytosis, but little is known about the fate and sorting of the endocytosed transporter. To study DAT sorting in cells...... lines, we fused the one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to DAT, thereby generating a transporter (TacDAT) with an extracellular antibody epitope suited for trafficking studies. TacDAT was functional and endocytosed constitutively in HEK293 cells. According to an ELISA-based assay, TacDAT intracellular...

  4. Medicago truncatula transporter database: a comprehensive database resource for M. truncatula transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhenyan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula has been chosen as a model species for genomic studies. It is closely related to an important legume, alfalfa. Transporters are a large group of membrane-spanning proteins. They deliver essential nutrients, eject waste products, and assist the cell in sensing environmental conditions by forming a complex system of pumps and channels. Although studies have effectively characterized individual M. truncatula transporters in several databases, until now there has been no available systematic database that includes all transporters in M. truncatula. Description The M. truncatula transporter database (MTDB contains comprehensive information on the transporters in M. truncatula. Based on the TransportTP method, we have presented a novel prediction pipeline. A total of 3,665 putative transporters have been annotated based on International Medicago Genome Annotated Group (IMGAG V3.5 V3 and the M. truncatula Gene Index (MTGI V10.0 releases and assigned to 162 families according to the transporter classification system. These families were further classified into seven types according to their transport mode and energy coupling mechanism. Extensive annotations referring to each protein were generated, including basic protein function, expressed sequence tag (EST mapping, genome locus, three-dimensional template prediction, transmembrane segment, and domain annotation. A chromosome distribution map and text-based Basic Local Alignment Search Tools were also created. In addition, we have provided a way to explore the expression of putative M. truncatula transporter genes under stress treatments. Conclusions In summary, the MTDB enables the exploration and comparative analysis of putative transporters in M. truncatula. A user-friendly web interface and regular updates make MTDB valuable to researchers in related fields. The MTDB is freely available now to all users at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtTransporter/.

  5. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    Cellular membranes are complex structures, consisting of hundreds of different lipids and proteins. These membranes act as barriers between distinct environments, constituting hot spots for many essential functions of the cell, including signaling, energy conversion, and transport. These functions....... Discovered interactions were then probed on the level of the membrane using liposome-based assays. In the second part, a transmembrane protein was investigated. Assays to probe activity of the plasma membrane ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana H+ -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2)) in single liposomes using both giant...... are implemented by soluble proteins reversibly binding to, as well as by integral membrane proteins embedded in, cellular membranes. The activity and interaction of these proteins is furthermore modulated by the lipids of the membrane. Here, liposomes were used as model membrane systems to investigate...

  6. Comparison of expressed human and mouse sodium/iodide sym-porters reveals differences in transport properties and subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayem, M.; Basquin, C.; Navarro, V.; Carrier, P.; Marsault, R.; Lindenthal, S.; Pourcher, T. [Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Sch Med, CEA, DSV, iBEB, SBTN, TIRO, F-06107 Nice (France); Chang, P. [CNRS, UPMC Biol Dev, UMR 7009, F-06230 Villefranche Sur Mer (France); Huc, S.; Darrouzet, E. [CEA Valrho, DSV, iBEB, SBTN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The active transport of iodide from the blood stream into thyroid follicular cells is mediated by the Na{sup +}/I{sup -} sym-porter (NIS). We studied mouse NIS (mNIS) and found that it catalyzes iodide transport into transfected cells more efficiently than human NIS (hNIS). To further characterize this difference,we compared {sup 125}I, uptake in the transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. We found that the Vmax for mNIS was four times higher than that for hNIS, and that the iodide transport constant (Km) was 2-5-fold lower for hNIS than mNIS. We also performed immuno-cyto-localization studies and observed that the subcellular distribution of the two ortho-logs differed. While the mouse protein was predominantly found at the plasma membrane, its human ortho-log was intracellular in {approx} 40% of the expressing cells. Using cell surface protein-labeling assays, we found that the plasma membrane localization frequency of the mouse protein was only 2-5-fold higher than that of the human protein, and therefore cannot alone account for,x values. We reasoned that the difference in the obtained Vmax the observed difference could also be caused by a higher turnover number for iodide transport in the mouse protein. We then expressed and analyzed chimeric proteins. The data obtained with these constructs suggest that the iodide recognition site could be located in the region extending from the N-terminus to transmembrane domain 8, and that the region between transmembrane domain 5 and the C-terminus could play a role in the subcellular localization of the protein. (authors)

  7. Comparison of expressed human and mouse sodium/iodide sym-porters reveals differences in transport properties and subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayem, M.; Basquin, C.; Navarro, V.; Carrier, P.; Marsault, R.; Lindenthal, S.; Pourcher, T.; Chang, P.; Huc, S.; Darrouzet, E.

    2008-01-01

    The active transport of iodide from the blood stream into thyroid follicular cells is mediated by the Na + /I - sym-porter (NIS). We studied mouse NIS (mNIS) and found that it catalyzes iodide transport into transfected cells more efficiently than human NIS (hNIS). To further characterize this difference,we compared 125 I, uptake in the transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. We found that the Vmax for mNIS was four times higher than that for hNIS, and that the iodide transport constant (Km) was 2-5-fold lower for hNIS than mNIS. We also performed immuno-cyto-localization studies and observed that the subcellular distribution of the two ortho-logs differed. While the mouse protein was predominantly found at the plasma membrane, its human ortho-log was intracellular in ∼ 40% of the expressing cells. Using cell surface protein-labeling assays, we found that the plasma membrane localization frequency of the mouse protein was only 2-5-fold higher than that of the human protein, and therefore cannot alone account for,x values. We reasoned that the difference in the obtained Vmax the observed difference could also be caused by a higher turnover number for iodide transport in the mouse protein. We then expressed and analyzed chimeric proteins. The data obtained with these constructs suggest that the iodide recognition site could be located in the region extending from the N-terminus to transmembrane domain 8, and that the region between transmembrane domain 5 and the C-terminus could play a role in the subcellular localization of the protein. (authors)

  8. Peptide microarray analysis of substrate specificity of the transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase KPI-2 reveals reactivity with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2006-11-01

    Human lemur (Lmr) kinases are predicted to be Tyr kinases based on sequences and are related to neurotrophin receptor Trk kinases. This study used homogeneous recombinant KPI-2 (Lmr2, LMTK2, Cprk, brain-enriched protein kinase) kinase domain and a library of 1,154 peptides on a microarray to analyze substrate specificity. We found that KPI-2 is strictly a Ser/Thr kinase that reacts with Ser either preceded by or followed by Pro residues but unlike other Pro-directed kinases does not strictly require an adjacent Pro residue. The most reactive peptide in the library corresponds to Ser-737 of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and the recombinant R domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was a preferred substrate. Furthermore the KPI-2 kinase phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the single site in phosphorylase and purified phosphorylase b, making this only the second known phosphorylase b kinase. Phosphorylase was used as a specific substrate to show that KPI-2 is inhibited in living cells by addition of nerve growth factor or serum. The results demonstrate the utility of the peptide library to probe specificity and discover kinase substrates and offer a specific assay that reveals hormonal regulation of the activity of this unusual transmembrane kinase.

  9. Tetraspanins and Transmembrane Adaptor Proteins As Plasma Membrane Organizers-Mast Cell Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halova, Ivana; Draber, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains diverse and specialized membrane domains, which include tetraspanin-enriched domains (TEMs) and transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP)-enriched domains. Recent biophysical, microscopic, and functional studies indicated that TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains are involved in compartmentalization of physicochemical events of such important processes as immunoreceptor signal transduction and chemotaxis. Moreover, there is evidence of a cross-talk between TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains. In this review we discuss the presence and function of such domains and their crosstalk using mast cells as a model. The combined data based on analysis of selected mast cell-expressed tetraspanins [cluster of differentiation (CD)9, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD151)] or TRAPs [linker for activation of T cells (LAT), non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), and phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (PAG)] using knockout mice or specific antibodies point to a diversity within these two families and bring evidence of the important roles of these molecules in signaling events. An example of this diversity is physical separation of two TRAPs, LAT and NTAL, which are in many aspects similar but show plasma membrane location in different microdomains in both non-activated and activated cells. Although our understanding of TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains is far from complete, pharmaceutical applications of the knowledge about these domains are under way.

  10. NTAL (non-T cell activation linker):a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in immunoreceptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brdička, Tomáš; Imrich, Martin; Angelisová, Pavla; Brdičková, Naděžda; Horváth, Ondřej; Špička, Jiří; Hilgert, Ivan; Lusková, Petra; Dráber, Petr; Novák, P.; Engels, N.; Wienands, J.; Simeoni, L.; Osterreicher, J.; Aguado, E.; Malissen, M.; Schraven, B.; Hořejší, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 12 (2002), s. 16180-16185 ISSN 0022-1007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : NTAL * transmembrane adaptor * immunoreceptor signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 15.838, year: 2002

  11. TmpL, a transmembrane protein required for intracellular redox homeostasis and virulence in a plant and an animal fungal pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hyung Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS is critical for developmental differentiation and virulence of many pathogenic fungi. In this report we demonstrate that a novel transmembrane protein, TmpL, is necessary for regulation of intracellular ROS levels and tolerance to external ROS, and is required for infection of plants by the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola and for infection of mammals by the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both fungi, tmpL encodes a predicted hybrid membrane protein containing an AMP-binding domain, six putative transmembrane domains, and an experimentally-validated FAD/NAD(P-binding domain. Localization and gene expression analyses in A. brassicicola indicated that TmpL is associated with the Woronin body, a specialized peroxisome, and strongly expressed during conidiation and initial invasive growth in planta. A. brassicicola and A. fumigatus DeltatmpL strains exhibited abnormal conidiogenesis, accelerated aging, enhanced oxidative burst during conidiation, and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress when compared to wild-type or reconstituted strains. Moreover, A. brassicicola DeltatmpL strains, although capable of initial penetration, exhibited dramatically reduced invasive growth on Brassicas and Arabidopsis. Similarly, an A. fumigatus DeltatmpL mutant was dramatically less virulent than the wild-type and reconstituted strains in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis. Constitutive expression of the A. brassicicola yap1 ortholog in an A. brassicicola DeltatmpL strain resulted in high expression levels of genes associated with oxidative stress tolerance. Overexpression of yap1 in the DeltatmpL background complemented the majority of observed developmental phenotypic changes and partially restored virulence on plants. Yap1-GFP fusion strains utilizing the native yap1 promoter exhibited constitutive nuclear localization in the A. brassicicola DeltatmpL background. Collectively, we

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0649 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0649 ref|NP_521460.1| PROBABLE TRANSMEMBRANE ABC TRANSPORTER PROTEIN [...Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000] emb|CAD17129.1| probable transmembrane abc transporter protein [Ralstonia solanacearum] NP_521460.1 1e-133 79% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0657 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0657 ref|NP_521459.1| PROBABLE TRANSMEMBRANE ABC TRANSPORTER PROTEIN [...Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000] emb|CAD17128.1| probable transmembrane abc transporter protein [Ralstonia solanacearum] NP_521459.1 6e-91 75% ...

  14. [Bacterial synthesis, purification, and solubilization of transmembrane segments of ErbB family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, M V; Shul'ga, A A; Ermoliuk, Ia S; Tkach, E N; Goncharuk, S A; Pustovalova, Iu E; Mineev, K S; Bocharov, É V; Maslennikov, I V; Arsen'ev, A S; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    A family of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB, represents an important class of receptor tyrosine kinases, playing a leading role in cellular growth, development and differentiation. Transmembrane domains of these receptors transduce biochemical signals across plasma membrane via lateral homo- and heterodimerization. Relatively small size of complexes of ErbB transmembrane domains with detergents or lipids allows one to study their detailed spatial structure using three-dimensional heteronuclear high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the effective expression system and purification procedure for preparative-scale production of transmembrane peptides from four representatives of ErbB family, ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, for structural studies. The recombinant peptides were produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS as C-terminal extensions of thioredoxin A. The fusion protein cleavage was accomplished with the light subunit of human enterokinase. Several (10-30) milligrams of purified isotope-labeled transmembrane peptides were isolated with the use of a simple and convenient procedure, which consists of consecutive steps of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and cation-exchange chromatography. The purified peptides were reconstituted in lipid/detergent environment (micelles or bicelles) and characterized using dynamic light scattering, CD and NMR spectroscopy. The data obtained indicate that the purified ErbB transmembrane peptides are suitable for structural and dynamic studies of their homo- and heterodimer complexes using high resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  15. Polarized trafficking: the palmitoylation cycle distributes cytoplasmic proteins to distinct neuronal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Elena; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2018-02-01

    In neurons, polarized cargo distribution occurs mainly between the soma and axonal and dendritic compartments, and requires coordinated regulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane trafficking. The Golgi complex plays a critical role during neuronal polarization and secretory trafficking has been shown to differentially transport proteins to both axons and dendrites. Besides the Golgi protein sorting, recent data revealed that palmitoylation cycles are an efficient mechanism to localize cytoplasmic, non-transmembrane proteins to particular neuronal compartments, such as the newly formed axon. Palmitoylation allows substrate proteins to bind to and ride with Golgi-derived secretory vesicles to all neuronal compartments. By allowing cytoplasmic proteins to 'hitchhike' on transport carriers in a non-polarized fashion, compartmentalized depalmitoylation may act as a selective retention mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure, Function, Self-Assembly and Origin of Simple Membrane Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins perform such essential cellular functions as transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls, transduction of environmental signals, regulation of cell fusion, recognition of other cells, energy capture and its conversion into high-energy compounds. In fact, 30-40% of genes in modem organisms codes for membrane proteins. Although contemporary membrane proteins or their functional assemblies can be quite complex, their transmembrane fragments are usually remarkably simple. The most common structural motif for these fragments is a bundle of alpha-helices, but occasionally it could be a beta-barrel. In a series of molecular dynamics computer simulations we investigated self-organizing properties of simple membrane proteins based on these structural motifs. Specifically, we studied folding and insertion into membranes of short, nonpolar or amphiphatic peptides. We also investigated glycophorin A, a peptide that forms sequence-specific dimers, and a transmembrane aggregate of four identical alpha-helices that forms an efficient and selective voltage-gated proton channel was investigated. Many peptides are attracted to water-membrane interfaces. Once at the interface, nonpolar peptides spontaneously fold to a-helices. Whenever the sequence permits, peptides that contain both polar and nonpolar amino also adopt helical structures, in which polar and nonpolar amino acid side chains are immersed in water and membrane, respectively. Specific identity of side chains is less important. Helical peptides at the interface could insert into the membrane and adopt a transmembrane conformation. However, insertion of a single helix is unfavorable because polar groups in the peptide become completely dehydrated upon insertion. The unfavorable free energy of insertion can be regained by spontaneous association of peptides in the membrane. The first step in this process is the formation of dimers, although the most common are aggregates of 4

  17. Contribution of Kunitz protease inhibitor and transmembrane domains to amyloid precursor protein homodimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khalifa, N; Tyteca, D; Courtoy, P J; Renauld, J C; Constantinescu, S N; Octave, J N; Kienlen-Campard, P

    2012-01-01

    The two major isoforms of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) are APP695 and APP751. They differ by the insertion of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) sequence in the extracellular domain of APP751. APP-KPI isoforms are increased in Alzheimer's disease brains, and they could be associated with disease progression. Recent studies have shown that APP processing to Aβ is regulated by homodimerization, which involves both extracellular and juxtamembrane/transmembrane (JM/TM) regions. Our aim is to understand the mechanisms controlling APP dimerization and the contribution of the ectodomain and JM/TM regions to this process. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches coupled to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis to measure the dimerization level of different APP isoforms and APP C-terminal fragments (C99) mutated in their JM/TM region. APP751 was found to form significantly more homodimers than APP695. Mutation of dimerization motifs in the TM domain of APP or C99 did not significantly affect fluorescence complementation. These findings indicate that the KPI domain plays a major role in APP dimerization. They set the basis for further investigation of the relation between dimerization, metabolism and function of APP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Uniform isotope labeling of a eukaryotic seven-transmembrane helical protein in yeast enables high-resolution solid-state NMR studies in the lipid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Shi Lichi; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Brown, Leonid S.

    2011-01-01

    Overexpression of isotope-labeled multi-spanning eukaryotic membrane proteins for structural NMR studies is often challenging. On the one hand, difficulties with achieving proper folding, membrane insertion, and native-like post-translational modifications frequently disqualify bacterial expression systems. On the other hand, eukaryotic cell cultures can be prohibitively expensive. One of the viable alternatives, successfully used for producing proteins for solution NMR studies, is yeast expression systems, particularly Pichia pastoris. We report on successful implementation and optimization of isotope labeling protocols, previously used for soluble secreted proteins, to produce homogeneous samples of a eukaryotic seven-transmembrane helical protein, rhodopsin from Leptosphaeria maculans. Even in shake-flask cultures, yields exceeded 5 mg of purified uniformly 13 C, 15 N-labeled protein per liter of culture. The protein was stable (at least several weeks at 5°C) and functionally active upon reconstitution into lipid membranes at high protein-to-lipid ratio required for solid-state NMR. The samples gave high-resolution 13 C and 15 N solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectra, amenable to a detailed structural analysis. We believe that similar protocols can be adopted for challenging mammalian targets, which often resist characterization by other structural methods.

  19. Mutational Analysis on Membrane Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) and Their Structural Consequences in Oculocutaeous Albinism Type 4 (OCA4)-A Molecular Dynamics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Balu; Purohit, Rituraj

    2016-11-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type IV (OCA4) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder which is characterized by reduced biosynthesis of melanin pigmentation in skin, hair, and eyes and caused by the genetic mutations in the membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP) encoded by SLC45A2 gene. The MATP protein consists of 530 amino acids which contains 12 putative transmembrane domains and plays an important role in pigmentation and probably functions as a membrane transporter in melanosomes. We scrutinized the most OCA4 disease-associated mutation and their structural consequences on SLC45A2 gene. To understand the atomic arrangement in 3D space, the native and mutant structures were modeled. Further the structural behavior of native and mutant MATP protein was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) approach in explicit lipid and water background. We found Y317C as the most deleterious and disease-associated SNP on SLC45A2 gene. In MDS, mutations in MATP protein showed loss of stability and became more flexible, which alter its structural conformation and function. This phenomenon has indicated a significant role in inducing OCA4. Our study explored the understanding of molecular mechanism of MATP protein upon mutation at atomic level and further helps in the field of pharmacogenomics to develop a personalized medicine for OCA4 disorder. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2608-2619, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0518 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0518 ref|ZP_01904566.1| probable transporter transmembrane protein [Rose...obacter sp. AzwK-3b] gb|EDM69965.1| probable transporter transmembrane protein [Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b] ZP_01904566.1 0.009 25% ...

  1. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, Willem J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)

  2. [Research advances in CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye-qing; Xiao, Yun-bei; Liu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-wei; Xu, Tao; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2012-12-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member(CMTM)is a novel generic family firstly reported by Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics. CMTM5 belongs to this family and has exhibited tumor-inhibiting activities. It can encode proteins approaching to the transmembrane 4 superfamily(TM4SF). CMTM5 is broadly expressed in normal adult and fetal human tissues, but is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM5 may inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear, CMTM5 may be involved in various signaling pathways governing the occurrence and development of tumors. CMTM5 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors, while further studies on CMTM5 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  3. EHD proteins: Key conductors of endocytic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of endocytic transport is controlled by an elaborate network of proteins. Rab GTP-binding proteins and their effectors have well-defined roles in mediating specific endocytic transport steps, but until recently, less was known about the four mammalian dynamin-like C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain (EHD) proteins that also regulate endocytic events. In recent years, however, great strides have been made in understanding the structure and function of these unique proteins. Indeed, a growing body of literature addresses EHD protein structure, interactions with binding partners, functions in mammalian cells, and the generation of various new model systems. Accordingly, this is now an opportune time to pause and review the function and mechanisms of action of EHD proteins, and to highlight some of the challenges and future directions for the field. PMID:21067929

  4. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A

    2002-01-01

    implicated in lipid movement and expressed in tissues with a role in sterol synthesis and absorption, might also be involved in sitosterol transport. Transport by the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp; Abcb1), the multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp1; Abcc1), the breast cancer resistance...

  5. A membrane protein / signaling protein interaction network for Arabidopsis version AMPv2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Lalonde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between membrane proteins and the soluble fraction are essential for signal transduction and for regulating nutrient transport. To gain insights into the membrane-based interactome, 3,852 open reading frames (ORFs out of a target list of 8,383 representing membrane and signaling proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a Gateway compatible vector. The mating-based split-ubiquitin system was used to screen for potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs among 490 Arabidopsis ORFs. A binary robotic screen between 142 receptor-like kinases, 72 transporters, 57 soluble protein kinases and phosphatases, 40 glycosyltransferases, 95 proteins of various functions and 89 proteins with unknown function detected 387 out of 90,370 possible PPIs. A secondary screen confirmed 343 (of 387 pPPIs between 179 proteins, yielding a scale-free network (r2=0.863. Eighty of 142 transmembrane receptor-like kinases (RLK tested positive, identifying three homomers, 63 heteromers and 80 pPPIs with other proteins. Thirty-one out of 142 RLK interactors (including RLKs had previously been found to be phosphorylated; thus interactors may be substrates for respective RLKs. None of the pPPIs described here had been reported in the major interactome databases, including potential interactors of G protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C, and AMT ammonium transporters. Two RLKs found as putative interactors of AMT1;1 were independently confirmed using a split luciferase assay in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These RLKs may be involved in ammonium-dependent phosphorylation of the C-terminus and regulation of ammonium uptake activity. The robotic screening method established here will enable a systematic analysis of membrane protein interactions in fungi, plants and metazoa.

  6. The transmembrane region is responsible for targeting of adaptor protein LAX into "heavy rafts''

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Otáhal, Pavel; Hořejší, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2012), e36330 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : LAX * transmembrane domain * DRM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  7. Tetraspanins and Transmembrane Adaptor Proteins as Plasma Membrane Organizers – Mast Cell Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane contains diverse and specialized membrane domains, which include tetraspanin-enriched domains (TEMs and transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP-enriched domains. Recent biophysical, microscopic and functional studies indicated that TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains are involved in compartmentalization of physicochemical events of such important processes as immunoreceptor signal transduction and chemotaxis. Moreover, there is evidence of a cross-talk between TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains. In this review we discuss the presence and function of such domains and their crosstalk using mast cells as a model. The combined data based on analysis of selected mast cell-expressed tetraspanins [cluster of differentiation (CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD151] or TRAPs [linker for activation of T cells (LAT, non-T cell activation linker (NTAL, and phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (PAG] using knockout mice or specific antibodies point to a diversity within these two families and bring evidence of the important roles of these molecules in signaling events. An example of this diversity is physical separation of two TRAPs, LAT and NTAL, which are in many aspects similar but show plasma membrane location in different microdomains in both non-activated and activated cells. Although our understanding of TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains is far from complete, pharmaceutical applications of the knowledge about these domains are under way.

  8. Mechanistic logic underlying the axonal transport of cytosolic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A.; Das, Utpal; Tang, Yong; Roy, Subhojit

    2011-01-01

    Proteins vital to presynaptic function are synthesized in the neuronal perikarya and delivered into synapses via two modes of axonal transport. While membrane-anchoring proteins are conveyed in fast axonal transport via motor-driven vesicles, cytosolic proteins travel in slow axonal transport; via mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that in cultured axons, populations of cytosolic proteins tagged to photoactivable-GFP (PA-GFP) move with a slow motor-dependent anterograde bias; distinct from vesicular-trafficking or diffusion of untagged PA-GFP. The overall bias is likely generated by an intricate particle-kinetics involving transient assembly and short-range vectorial spurts. In-vivo biochemical studies reveal that cytosolic proteins are organized into higher-order structures within axon-enriched fractions that are largely segregated from vesicles. Data-driven biophysical modeling best predicts a scenario where soluble molecules dynamically assemble into mobile supra-molecular structures. We propose a model where cytosolic proteins are transported by dynamically assembling into multi-protein complexes that are directly/indirectly conveyed by motors. PMID:21555071

  9. Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that facilitate ER-to-Golgi transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, W P; Walter, P

    1999-04-01

    Many eukaryotic cell surface proteins are anchored in the lipid bilayer through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI anchors are covalently attached in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The modified proteins are then transported through the secretory pathway to the cell surface. We have identified two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LAG1 and a novel gene termed DGT1 (for "delayed GPI-anchored protein transport"), encoding structurally related proteins with multiple membrane-spanning domains. Both proteins are localized to the ER, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Deletion of either gene caused no detectable phenotype, whereas lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells displayed growth defects and a significant delay in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that LAG1 and DGT1 encode functionally redundant or overlapping proteins. The rate of GPI anchor attachment was not affected, nor was the transport rate of several non-GPI-anchored proteins. Consistent with a role of Lag1p and Dgt1p in GPI-anchored protein transport, lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells deposit abnormal, multilayered cell walls. Both proteins have significant sequence similarity to TRAM, a mammalian membrane protein thought to be involved in protein translocation across the ER membrane. In vivo translocation studies, however, did not detect any defects in protein translocation in lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells, suggesting that neither yeast gene plays a role in this process. Instead, we propose that Lag1p and Dgt1p facilitate efficient ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins.

  10. Membrane transporters and drought resistance – a complex issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Jarzyniak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved complex adaptation strategies to survive changes in water status in the environment. Understanding the molecular nature of such adaptive changes allows the development of rapid innovations to improve crop performance. Plant membrane transport systems play a significant role when adjusting to water scarcity. Here we put proteins participating in transmembrane allocations of various molecules in the context of stomatal, cuticular and root responses, representing a part of the drought resistance strategy. Their role in the transport of signaling molecules, ions or osmolytes is summarized and the challenge of the forthcoming research, resulting from the recent discoveries, is highlighted.

  11. Three-dimensional structures of the mammalian multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein demonstrate major conformational changes in the transmembrane domains upon nucleotide binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Callaghan, Richard; Higgins, Christopher F; Ford, Robert C

    2003-03-07

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that is associated with multidrug resistance and the failure of chemotherapy in human patients. We have previously shown, based on two-dimensional projection maps, that P-glycoprotein undergoes conformational changes upon binding of nucleotide to the intracellular nucleotide binding domains. Here we present the three-dimensional structures of P-glycoprotein in the presence and absence of nucleotide, at a resolution limit of approximately 2 nm, determined by electron crystallography of negatively stained crystals. The data reveal a major reorganization of the transmembrane domains throughout the entire depth of the membrane upon binding of nucleotide. In the absence of nucleotide, the two transmembrane domains form a single barrel 5-6 nm in diameter and about 5 nm deep with a central pore that is open to the extracellular surface and spans much of the membrane depth. Upon binding nucleotide, the transmembrane domains reorganize into three compact domains that are each 2-3 nm in diameter and 5-6 nm deep. This reorganization opens the central pore along its length in a manner that could allow access of hydrophobic drugs (transport substrates) directly from the lipid bilayer to the central pore of the transporter.

  12. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  13. Exploiting hydrophobicity for efficient production of transmembrane helices for structure determination by NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Steinocher, Helena; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    -labeled protein. In this work, we have exploited the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins to develop a simple and efficient production scheme for isotope-labeled single-pass transmembrane domains (TMDs) with or without intrinsically disordered regions. We have evaluated the applicability and limitations...... of the strategy using seven membrane protein variants that differ in their overall hydrophobicity and length and show a recovery for suitable variants of >70%. The developed production scheme is cost-efficient and easy to implement and has the potential to facilitate an increase in the number of structures...

  14. MOLECULAR DOCKING AND DYNAMICS STUDIES ON THE PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS OF ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE PILIN NANOWIRES OF GEOBACTER SULFURREDUCENS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeya Sundara Sharmila1 *

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular interactions are key aspects in biological recognitions applicable in nano/micro systems. Bacterial nanowires are pilus filament based structures that can conduct electrons. The transport of electron is proposed to be facilitated by filamentous fibers made up of polymeric assemblies of proteins called pilin. Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of delivering electrons through extracellular electron transport (EET by employing conductive nanowires, which are pilin proteins composed of type IV subunit PilA. Protein-protein interactions play an important role in the stabilization of the pilin nanowire assembly complex and it contains transmembrane (TM domain. In current study, protein-protein docking and multiple molecular dynamic (MD simulations were performed to understand the binding mode of pilin nanowires. The MD result explains the conformational behavior and folding of pilin nanowires in water environment in different time scale duration 20, 5, 5, 10 and 20ns (total of 60ns. Direct hydrogen bonds and water mediated hydrogen bonds that play a crucial role during the simulation were investigated. The conformational state, folding, end-toend distance profile and hydrogen bonding behavior had indicated that the Geobacter sulfurreducens pilin nanowires have electrical conductivity properties.

  15. Role of α and β Transmembrane Domains in Integrin Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shamloo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrins are transmembrane proteins playing a crucial role in the mechanical signal transduction from the outside to the inside of a cell, and vice versa. Nevertheless, this signal transduction could not be implemented by a single protein. Rather, in order for integrins to be able to participate in signal transduction, they need to be activated and produce clusters first. As integrins consist of α- and β-subunits that are separate in the active state, studying both subunits separately is of a great importance, for, in the active state, the distance between α- and β-subunits is long enough that they do not influence one another significantly. Thus, this study aims to investigate the tendency of transmembrane domains of integrins to form homodimers. We used both Steered and MARTINI Coarse-grained molecular dynamics method to perform our simulations, mainly because of a better resolution and computational feasibility that each of these methods could provide to us. Using the Steered molecular dynamics method for α- and β-subunits, we found that the localized lipid packing prevented them from clustering. Nonetheless, the lipid packing phenomenon was found to be an artifact after investigating this process using a coarse grained (CG model. Exploiting the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we found that α- and β-subunits tend to form a stable homo-dimer.

  16. Identification and functional analysis of two Golgi-localized UDP-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohae; Tefsen, Boris; Heemskerk, Marc J; Lagendijk, Ellen L; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; van Die, Irma; Ram, Arthur F J

    2015-11-02

    Galactofuranose (Galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. The incorporation of Galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by Golgi-localized Galf transferases. The nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (UDP-Galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the Golgi by a dedicated nucleotide sugar transporter. Based on homology with recently identified UDP-Galf-transporters in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans, two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger were found. Their function and localization was determined by gene deletions and GFP-tagging studies, respectively. The two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger are homologous to each other and are predicted to contain eleven transmembrane domains (UgtA) or ten transmembrane domains (UgtB) due to a reduced length of the C-terminal part of the UgtB protein. The presence of two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in the genome was not unique for A. niger. From the twenty Aspergillus species analysed, nine species contained two additional putative UDP-Galf-transporters. Three of the nine species were outside the Aspergillus section nigri, indication an early duplication of UDP-Galf-transporters and subsequent loss of the UgtB copy in several aspergilli. Deletion analysis of the single and double mutants in A. niger indicated that the two putative UDP-Galf-transporters (named UgtA and UgtB) have a redundant function in UDP-Galf-transport as only the double mutant displayed a Galf-negative phenotype. The Galf-negative phenotype of the double mutant could be complemented by expressing either CFP-UgtA or CFP-UgtB fusion proteins from their endogenous promoters, indicating that both CFP-tagged proteins are functional. Both Ugt proteins co-localize with each other as well as with the GDP

  17. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT or FITM proteins are related to lipid phosphatase/phosphotransferase enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Hayes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT or FITM proteins have been implicated in the partitioning of triacylglycerol to lipid droplets and the budding of lipid droplets from the ER. At the molecular level, the sole relevant interaction is that FITMs directly bind to triacyglycerol and diacylglycerol, but how they function at the molecular level is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two FITM homologues: Scs3p and Yft2p. Scs3p was initially identified because deletion leads to inositol auxotrophy, with an unusual sensitivity to addition of choline. This strongly suggests a role for Scs3p in phospholipid biosynthesis. Looking at the FITM family as widely as possible, we found that FITMs are widespread throughout eukaryotes, indicating presence in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Protein alignments also showed that FITM sequences contain the active site of lipid phosphatase/phosphotransferase (LPT enzymes. This large family transfers phosphate-containing headgroups either between lipids or in exchange for water. We confirmed the prediction that FITMs are related to LPTs by showing that single amino-acid substitutions in the presumptive catalytic site prevented their ability to rescue growth of the mutants on low inositol/high choline media when over-expressed. The substitutions also prevented rescue of other phenotypes associated with loss of FITM in yeast, including mistargeting of Opi1p, defective ER morphology, and aberrant lipid droplet budding. These results suggest that Scs3p, Yft2p and FITMs in general are LPT enzymes involved in an as yet unknown critical step in phospholipid metabolism.

  18. The Origin and Early Evolution of Membrane Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Schweighofter, Karl; Wilson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of membrane proteins, and in particular ion channels, are considered from the point of view that the transmembrane segments of membrane proteins are structurally quite simple and do not require specific sequences to fold. We argue that the transport of solute species, especially ions, required an early evolution of efficient transport mechanisms, and that the emergence of simple ion channels was protobiologically plausible. We also argue that, despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. These properties can be subtly modulated by local modifications to the sequence rather than global changes in molecular architecture. In order to address the evolution and development of ion channels, we focus on identifying those protein domains that are commonly associated with ion channel proteins and are conserved throughout the three main domains of life (Eukarya, Prokarya, and Archaea). We discuss the potassium-sodium-calcium superfamily of voltage-gated ion channels, mechanosensitive channels, porins, and ABC-transporters and argue that these families of membrane channels have sufficiently universal architectures that they can readily adapt to the diverse functional demands arising during evolution.

  19. Enhancing Membrane Protein Identification Using a Simplified Centrifugation and Detergent-Based Membrane Extraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanting; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jingjing; He, Han; Gu, Lei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Ma, Danjun; Zhou, Hu; Zheng, Jing

    2018-02-20

    Membrane proteins may act as transporters, receptors, enzymes, and adhesion-anchors, accounting for nearly 70% of pharmaceutical drug targets. Difficulties in efficient enrichment, extraction, and solubilization still exist because of their relatively low abundance and poor solubility. A simplified membrane protein extraction approach with advantages of user-friendly sample processing procedures, good repeatability and significant effectiveness was developed in the current research for enhancing enrichment and identification of membrane proteins. This approach combining centrifugation and detergent along with LC-MS/MS successfully identified higher proportion of membrane proteins, integral proteins and transmembrane proteins in membrane fraction (76.6%, 48.1%, and 40.6%) than in total cell lysate (41.6%, 16.4%, and 13.5%), respectively. Moreover, our method tended to capture membrane proteins with high degree of hydrophobicity and number of transmembrane domains as 486 out of 2106 (23.0%) had GRAVY > 0 in membrane fraction, 488 out of 2106 (23.1%) had TMs ≥ 2. It also provided for improved identification of membrane proteins as more than 60.6% of the commonly identified membrane proteins in two cell samples were better identified in membrane fraction with higher sequence coverage. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008456.

  20. The serotonin transporter undergoes constitutive internalization and is primarily sorted to late endosomes and lysosomal degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of surface resident...... SERT, two functional epitope tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N-terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope...

  1. Two seven-transmembrane domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O proteins cofunction in Arabidopsis root thigmomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M

    2009-07-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane-localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gbeta subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism.

  2. PSI/TM-Coffee: a web server for fast and accurate multiple sequence alignments of regular and transmembrane proteins using homology extension on reduced databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Evan W; Tommaso, Paolo D; Chatzou, Maria; Magis, Cedrik; Notredame, Cedric; Chang, Jia-Ming

    2016-07-08

    The PSI/TM-Coffee web server performs multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of proteins by combining homology extension with a consistency based alignment approach. Homology extension is performed with Position Specific Iterative (PSI) BLAST searches against a choice of redundant and non-redundant databases. The main novelty of this server is to allow databases of reduced complexity to rapidly perform homology extension. This server also gives the possibility to use transmembrane proteins (TMPs) reference databases to allow even faster homology extension on this important category of proteins. Aside from an MSA, the server also outputs topological prediction of TMPs using the HMMTOP algorithm. Previous benchmarking of the method has shown this approach outperforms the most accurate alignment methods such as MSAProbs, Kalign, PROMALS, MAFFT, ProbCons and PRALINE™. The web server is available at http://tcoffee.crg.cat/tmcoffee. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane recruiter the alter ego of CFTR as a multi-kinase anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anil

    2007-11-01

    This review focuses on a newly discovered interaction between protein kinases involved in cellular energetics, a process that may be disturbed in cystic fibrosis for unknown reasons. I propose a new model where kinase-mediated cellular transmission of energy provides mechanistic insight to a latent role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). I suggest that CFTR acts as a multi-kinase recruiter to the apical epithelial membrane. My group finds that, in the cytosol, two protein kinases involved in cell energy homeostasis, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), bind one another. Preliminary data suggest that both can also bind CFTR (function unclear). The disrupted role of this CFTR-kinase complex as 'membrane transmitter to the cell' is proposed as an alternative paradigm to the conventional ion transport mediated and CFTR/chloride-centric view of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. Chloride remains important, but instead, chloride-induced control of the phosphohistidine content of one kinase component (NDPK, via a multi-kinase complex that also includes a third kinase, CK2; formerly casein kinase 2). I suggest that this complex provides the necessary near-equilibrium conditions needed for efficient transmission of phosphate energy to proteins controlling cellular energetics. Crucially, a new role for CFTR as a kinase controller is proposed with ionic concentration acting as a signal. The model posits a regulatory control relay for energy sensing involving a cascade of protein kinases bound to CFTR.

  4. Zn(2+) site engineering at the oligomeric interface of the dopamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard-Nielsen, Kristine; Norregaard, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Javitch, Jonathan A; Gether, Ulrik

    2002-07-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters exist as homo-oligomeric proteins. However, the functional implication of this oligomerization remains unclear. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a Zn(2+) binding site at the predicted dimeric interface of the dopamine transporter (DAT) corresponding to the external end of transmembrane segment 6. Upon binding to this site, which involves a histidine inserted in position 310 (V310H) and the endogenous Cys306 within the same DAT molecule, Zn(2+) potently inhibits [(3)H]dopamine uptake. These data provide indirect evidence that conformational changes critical for the translocation process may occur at the interface between two transporter molecules in the oligomeric structure.

  5. Transmembrane peptides as sensors of the membrane physical state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotto, Stefano; Di Biasi, Luigi; Sessa, Lucia; Concilio, Simona

    2018-05-01

    Cell membranes are commonly considered fundamental structures having multiple roles such as confinement, storage of lipids, sustain and control of membrane proteins. In spite of their importance, many aspects remain unclear. The number of lipid types is orders of magnitude larger than the number of amino acids, and this compositional complexity is not clearly embedded in any membrane model. A diffused hypothesis is that the large lipid palette permits to recruit and organize specific proteins controlling the formation of specialized lipid domains and the lateral pressure profile of the bilayer. Unfortunately, a satisfactory knowledge of lipid abundance remains utopian because of the technical difficulties in isolating definite membrane regions. More importantly, a theoretical framework where to fit the lipidomic data is still missing. In this work, we wish to utilize the amino acid sequence and frequency of the membrane proteins as bioinformatics sensors of cell bilayers. The use of an alignment-free method to find a correlation between the sequences of transmembrane portion of membrane proteins with the membrane physical state suggested a new approach for the discovery of antimicrobial peptides.

  6. Point mutations in the transmembrane region of the clic1 ion channel selectively modify its biophysical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Averaimo

    Full Text Available Chloride intracellular Channel 1 (CLIC1 is a metamorphic protein that changes from a soluble cytoplasmic protein into a transmembrane protein. Once inserted into membranes, CLIC1 multimerises and is able to form chloride selective ion channels. Whilst CLIC1 behaves as an ion channel both in cells and in artificial lipid bilayers, its structure in the soluble form has led to some uncertainty as to whether it really is an ion channel protein. CLIC1 has a single putative transmembrane region that contains only two charged residues: arginine 29 (Arg29 and lysine 37 (Lys37. As charged residues are likely to have a key role in ion channel function, we hypothesized that mutating them to neutral alanine to generate K37A and R29A CLIC1 would alter the electrophysiological characteristics of CLIC1. By using three different electrophysiological approaches: i single channel Tip-Dip in artificial bilayers using soluble recombinant CLIC1, ii cell-attached and iii whole-cell patch clamp recordings in transiently transfected HEK cells, we determined that the K37A mutation altered the single-channel conductance while the R29A mutation affected the single-channel open probability in response to variation in membrane potential. Our results show that mutation of the two charged amino acids (K37 and R29 in the putative transmembrane region of CLIC1 alters the biophysical properties of the ion channel in both artificial bilayers and cells. Hence these charged residues are directly involved in regulating its ion channel activity. This strongly suggests that, despite its unusual structure, CLIC1 itself is able to form a chloride ion channel.

  7. A synthetic prestin reveals protein domains and molecular operation of outer hair cell piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechinger, Thorsten J; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Halaszovich, Christian R; Moser, Tobias; Kügler, Sebastian; Fakler, Bernd; Oliver, Dominik

    2011-06-24

    Prestin, a transporter-like protein of the SLC26A family, acts as a piezoelectric transducer that mediates the fast electromotility of outer hair cells required for cochlear amplification and auditory acuity in mammals. Non-mammalian prestin orthologues are anion transporters without piezoelectric activity. Here, we generated synthetic prestin (SynPres), a chimera of mammalian and non-mammalian prestin exhibiting both, piezoelectric properties and anion transport. SynPres delineates two distinct domains in the protein's transmembrane core that are necessary and sufficient for generating electromotility and associated non-linear charge movement (NLC). Functional analysis of SynPres showed that the amplitude of NLC and hence electromotility are determined by the transport of monovalent anions. Thus, prestin-mediated electromotility is a dual-step process: transport of anions by an alternate access cycle, followed by an anion-dependent transition generating electromotility. The findings define structural and functional determinants of prestin's piezoelectric activity and indicate that the electromechanical process evolved from the ancestral transport mechanism.

  8. Direct effects of ionizing radiation on integral membrane proteins. Noncovalent energy transfer requires specific interpeptide interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhun, E.; Jhun, B.H.; Jones, L.R.; Jung, C.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The 12 transmembrane alpha helices (TMHs) of human erythrocyte glucose transporter were individually cut by pepsin digestion as membrane-bound 2.5-3.5-kDa peptide fragments. Radiation-induced chemical degradation of these fragments showed an average target size of 34 kDa. This is 10-12 x larger than the average size of an individual TMH, demonstrating that a significant energy transfer occurs among these TMHs in the absence of covalent linkage. Heating this TMH preparation at 100 degree C for 15 min reduced the target size to 5 kDa or less, suggesting that the noncovalent energy transfer requires specific helix-helix interactions. Purified phospholamban, a small (6-kDa) integral membrane protein containing a single TMH, formed a pentameric assembly in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The chemical degradation target size of this phospholamban pentamer was 5-6 kDa, illustrating that not all integral membrane protein assemblies permit intersubunit energy transfer. These findings together with other published observations suggest strongly that significant noncovalent energy transfer can occur within the tertiary and quaternary structure of membrane proteins and that as yet undefined proper molecular interactions are required for such covalent energy transfer. Our results with pepsin-digested glucose transporter also illustrate the importance of the interhelical interaction as a predominating force in maintaining the tertiary structure of a transmembrane protein

  9. Nucleotide-induced conformational dynamics in ABC transporters from structure-based coarse grained modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechsig, Holger

    2016-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which mediate the exchange of diverse substrates across membranes powered by ATP molecules. Our understanding of their activity is still hampered since the conformational dynamics underlying the operation of such proteins cannot yet be resolved in detailed molecular dynamics studies. Here a coarse grained model which allows to mimic binding of nucleotides and follow subsequent conformational motions of full-length transporter structures in computer simulations is proposed and implemented. To justify its explanatory quality, the model is first applied to the maltose transporter system for which multiple conformations are known and we find that the model predictions agree remarkably well with the experimental data. For the MalK subunit the switching from open to the closed dimer configuration upon ATP binding is reproduced and, moreover, for the full-length maltose transporter, progression from inward-facing to the outward-facing state is correctly obtained. For the heme transporter HmuUV, for which only the free structure could yet be determined, the model was then applied to predict nucleotide-induced conformational motions. Upon binding of ATP-mimicking ligands the structure changed from a conformation in which the nucleotide-binding domains formed an open shape, to a conformation in which they were found in tight contact, while, at the same time, a pronounced rotation of the transmembrane domains was observed. This finding is supported by normal mode analysis, and, comparison with structural data of the homologous vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD suggests that the observed rotation mechanism may contribute a common functional aspect for this class of ABC transporters. Although in HmuuV noticeable rearrangement of essential transmembrane helices was detected, there are no indications from our simulations that ATP binding alone may facilitate propagation of substrate molecules in this transporter

  10. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  11. Intestinal glucose transport and salinity adaptation in a euryhaline teleost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshkin, S.J.; Ahearn, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Glucose transport by upper and lower intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles of the African tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was characterized in fish acclimated to either freshwater of full-strength sea water. D-[ 3 H]-glucose uptake by vesicles was stimulated by a transmembrane Na gradient, was electrogenic, and was enhanced by countertransport of either D-glucose or D-galactose. Glucose transport was greater in the upper intestine than in the lower intestine and in sea water animals rather than in fish acclimated to freshwater. Glucose influx (10-s uptake) involved both saturable and nonsaturable transport components. Sea water adaptation increased apparent glucose influx K/sub t/, J/sub max/, apparent diffusional permeability (P), and the apparent Na affinity of the cotransport system in both intestinal segments, but the stoichiometry of Na-glucose transfer (1:1) was unaffected by differential saline conditions or gut region. It is suggested that increased sugar transport in sea water animals is due to the combination of enhanced Na-binding properties and an increase in number or transfer rate of the transport proteins. Freshwater animals compensate for reduced Na affinity of the coupled process by markedly increasing the protein affinity for glucose

  12. Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of P. aeruginosa alkaline protease (AprA, lipase ABC transporter domains (LARDs were designed for the secretion of fusion proteins. Results The LARDs included four glycine-rich repeats comprising a β-roll structure, and were added to the C-terminus of test proteins. Either Pro-Gly linker or Factor Xa site was added between fusion proteins and LARDs. We attached different length of LARDs such as LARD0, LARD1 or whole TliA (the longest LARD to three types of proteins; green fluorescent protein (GFP, epidermal growth factor (EGF and cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP. These fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli together with ABC transporter of either P. fluorescens or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Export of fusion proteins with the whole TliA through the ABC transporter was evident on the basis of lipase enzymatic activity. Upon supplementation of E. coli with ABC transporter, GFP-LARDs and EGF-LARDs were excreted into the culture supernatant. Conclusion The LARDs or whole TliA were attached to C-termini of model proteins and enabled the export of the model proteins such as GFP and EGF in E. coli supplemented with ABC transporter. These results open the possibility for the extracellular production of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas using LARDs or TliA as a C-terminal signal sequence.

  13. The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor

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    Buchmeier Michael J

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1, and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. Results Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2 of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV and Lassa fever virus, are presented, based on consistent structural propensities despite variation in the amino acid sequence. The principal features of the model, a hydrophobic amino terminus, and two antiparallel helices separated by a glycosylated, antigenic apex, are common to a number of otherwise disparate families of enveloped RNA viruses. Within the first amphipathic helix, demonstrable by circular dichroism of a peptide fragment, there is a highly conserved heptad repeat pattern proposed to mediate multimerization by coiled-coil interactions. The amino terminal 18 amino acids are 28% identical and 50% highly similar to the corresponding region of Ebola, a member of the Filovirus family. Within the second, charged helix just prior to membrane insertion there is also high similarity over the central 18 amino acids in corresponding regions of Lassa and Ebola, which may be further related to the similar region of HIV-1 defining a potent antiviral peptide analogue. Conclusions These findings indicate a common pattern of structure and function among viral transmembrane fusion proteins from a number of virus families. Such a pattern may define a viral transmembrane superfamily that evolved from a common precursor eons ago.

  14. Ion Transport in Confined Geometries below the Nanoscale: Access Resistance Dominates Protein Channel Conductance in Diluted Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Antonio; López, M Lidón; Queralt-Martín, María; Aguilella, Vicente M

    2017-10-24

    Synthetic nanopores and mesoscopic protein channels have common traits like the importance of electrostatic interactions between the permeating ions and the nanochannel. Ion transport at the nanoscale occurs under confinement conditions so that the usual assumptions made in microfluidics are challenged, among others, by interfacial effects such as access resistance (AR). Here, we show that a sound interpretation of electrophysiological measurements in terms of channel ion selective properties requires the consideration of interfacial effects, up to the point that they dominate protein channel conductance in diluted solutions. We measure AR in a large ion channel, the bacterial porin OmpF, by means of single-channel conductance measurements in electrolyte solutions containing varying concentrations of high molecular weight PEG, sterically excluded from the pore. Comparison of experiments performed in charged and neutral planar membranes shows that lipid surface charges modify the ion distribution and determine the value of AR, indicating that lipid molecules are more than passive scaffolds even in the case of large transmembrane proteins. We also found that AR may reach up to 80% of the total channel conductance in diluted solutions, where electrophysiological recordings register essentially the AR of the system and depend marginally on the pore characteristics. These findings may have implications for several low aspect ratio biological channels that perform their physiological function in a low ionic strength and macromolecule crowded environment, just the two conditions enhancing the AR contribution.

  15. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ruiling; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Zhang, Zhanquan; Tian, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    Acidity plays an important role in flavor and overall organoleptic quality of fruit and is mainly due to the presence of organic acids. Understanding the molecular basis of organic acid metabolism is thus of primary importance for fruit quality improvement. Here, we cloned a putative tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter gene (SlTDT) from tomato, and submitted it to the NCBI database (GenBank accession number: KC733165). SlTDT protein contained 13 putative transmembrane domains in silico analys...

  16. An unbiased expression screen for synaptogenic proteins identifies the LRRTM protein family as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, Michael W; Laurén, Juha; Cassidy, Robert M; Dobie, Frederick A; Takahashi, Hideto; Nygaard, Haakon B; Airaksinen, Matti S; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Craig, Ann Marie

    2009-03-12

    Delineating the molecular basis of synapse development is crucial for understanding brain function. Cocultures of neurons with transfected fibroblasts have demonstrated the synapse-promoting activity of candidate molecules. Here, we performed an unbiased expression screen for synaptogenic proteins in the coculture assay using custom-made cDNA libraries. Reisolation of NGL-3/LRRC4B and neuroligin-2 accounts for a minority of positive clones, indicating that current understanding of mammalian synaptogenic proteins is incomplete. We identify LRRTM1 as a transmembrane protein that induces presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. All four LRRTM family members exhibit synaptogenic activity, LRRTMs localize to excitatory synapses, and artificially induced clustering of LRRTMs mediates postsynaptic differentiation. We generate LRRTM1(-/-) mice and reveal altered distribution of the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1, confirming an in vivo synaptic function. These results suggest a prevalence of LRR domain proteins in trans-synaptic signaling and provide a cellular basis for the reported linkage of LRRTM1 to handedness and schizophrenia.

  17. Lrit1, a Retinal Transmembrane Protein, Regulates Selective Synapse Formation in Cone Photoreceptor Cells and Visual Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Ueno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In the vertebrate retina, cone photoreceptors play crucial roles in photopic vision by transmitting light-evoked signals to ON- and/or OFF-bipolar cells. However, the mechanisms underlying selective synapse formation in the cone photoreceptor pathway remain poorly understood. Here, we found that Lrit1, a leucine-rich transmembrane protein, localizes to the photoreceptor synaptic terminal and regulates the synaptic connection between cone photoreceptors and cone ON-bipolar cells. Lrit1-deficient retinas exhibit an aberrant morphology of cone photoreceptor pedicles, as well as an impairment of signal transmission from cone photoreceptors to cone ON-bipolar cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Lrit1 interacts with Frmpd2, a photoreceptor scaffold protein, and with mGluR6, an ON-bipolar cell-specific glutamate receptor. Additionally, Lrit1-null mice showed visual acuity impairments in their optokinetic responses. These results suggest that the Frmpd2-Lrit1-mGluR6 axis regulates selective synapse formation in cone photoreceptors and is essential for normal visual function. : Ueno et al. finds that Lrit1 plays an important role in regulating the synaptic connection between cone photoreceptors and cone ON-bipolar cells. The Frmpd2-Lrit1-mGluR6 axis is crucial for selective synapse formation in cone photoreceptors and for development of normal visual function. Keywords: retina, circuit, synapse formation, cone photoreceptor cell, ON-bipolar cell, visual acuity

  18. CUP-1 Is a Novel Protein Involved in Dietary Cholesterol Uptake in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Victor J.; Athie, Alejandro; Salinas, Laura S.; Navarro, Rosa E.; Vaca, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Sterols transport and distribution are essential processes in all multicellular organisms. Survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans depends on dietary absorption of sterols present in the environment. However the general mechanisms associated to sterol uptake in nematodes are poorly understood. In the present work we provide evidence showing that a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein, designated Cholesterol Uptake Protein-1 (CUP-1), is involved in dietary cholesterol uptake in C. elegans. Animals lacking CUP-1 showed hypersensitivity to cholesterol limitation and were unable to uptake cholesterol. A CUP-1-GFP fusion protein colocalized with cholesterol-rich vesicles, endosomes and lysosomes as well as the plasma membrane. Additionally, by FRET imaging, a direct interaction was found between the cholesterol analog DHE and the transmembrane “cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus” (CRAC) motif present in C. elegans CUP-1. In-silico analysis identified two mammalian homologues of CUP-1. Most interestingly, CRAC motifs are conserved in mammalian CUP-1 homologous. Our results suggest a role of CUP-1 in cholesterol uptake in C. elegans and open up the possibility for the existence of a new class of proteins involved in sterol absorption in mammals. PMID:22479487

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Mediated by the MacB ABC Transporter Family: A Structural and Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Greene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The MacB ABC transporter forms a tripartite efflux pump with the MacA adaptor protein and TolC outer membrane exit duct to expel antibiotics and export virulence factors from Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we review recent structural and functional data on MacB and its homologs. MacB has a fold that is distinct from other structurally characterized ABC transporters and uses a unique molecular mechanism termed mechanotransmission. Unlike other bacterial ABC transporters, MacB does not transport substrates across the inner membrane in which it is based, but instead couples cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis with transmembrane conformational changes that are used to perform work in the extra-cytoplasmic space. In the MacAB-TolC tripartite pump, mechanotransmission drives efflux of antibiotics and export of a protein toxin from the periplasmic space via the TolC exit duct. Homologous tripartite systems from pathogenic bacteria similarly export protein-like signaling molecules, virulence factors and siderophores. In addition, many MacB-like ABC transporters do not form tripartite pumps, but instead operate in diverse cellular processes including antibiotic sensing, cell division and lipoprotein trafficking.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance Mediated by the MacB ABC Transporter Family: A Structural and Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas P.; Kaplan, Elise; Crow, Allister; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    The MacB ABC transporter forms a tripartite efflux pump with the MacA adaptor protein and TolC outer membrane exit duct to expel antibiotics and export virulence factors from Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we review recent structural and functional data on MacB and its homologs. MacB has a fold that is distinct from other structurally characterized ABC transporters and uses a unique molecular mechanism termed mechanotransmission. Unlike other bacterial ABC transporters, MacB does not transport substrates across the inner membrane in which it is based, but instead couples cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis with transmembrane conformational changes that are used to perform work in the extra-cytoplasmic space. In the MacAB-TolC tripartite pump, mechanotransmission drives efflux of antibiotics and export of a protein toxin from the periplasmic space via the TolC exit duct. Homologous tripartite systems from pathogenic bacteria similarly export protein-like signaling molecules, virulence factors and siderophores. In addition, many MacB-like ABC transporters do not form tripartite pumps, but instead operate in diverse cellular processes including antibiotic sensing, cell division and lipoprotein trafficking. PMID:29892271

  1. Time-dependent, glucose-regulated Arabidopsis Regulator of G-protein Signaling 1 network

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    Dinesh Kumar Jaiswal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants lack 7-transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs because the G alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex is “self-activating”—meaning that it spontaneously exchanges bound GDP for GTP without the need of a GPCR. In lieu of GPCRs, most plants have a seven transmembrane receptor-like regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS protein, a component of the complex that keeps G-protein signaling in its non-activated state. The addition of glucose physically uncouples AtRGS1 from the complex through specific endocytosis leaving the activated G protein at the plasma membrane. The complement of proteins in the AtRGS1/G-protein complex over time from glucose-induced endocytosis was profiled by immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry (IP-MS. A total of 119 proteins in the AtRGS1 complex were identified. Several known interactors of the complex were identified, thus validating the approach, but the vast majority (93/119 were not known previously. AtRGS1 protein interactions were dynamically modulated by d-glucose. At low glucose levels, the AtRGS1 complex is comprised of proteins involved in transport, stress and metabolism. After glucose application, the AtRGS1 complex rapidly sheds many of these proteins and recruits other proteins involved in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. The profile of the AtRGS1 components answers several questions about the type of coat protein and vesicular trafficking GTPases used in AtRGS1 endocytosis and the function of endocytic AtRGS1.

  2. Computational Analysis of Uncharacterized Proteins of Environmental Bacterial Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, K. J.; Kumar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Betaproteobacteria strain CB is a gram-negative bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria and are found naturally in soil and water. In this complex environment, bacteria play a key role in efficiently eliminating the organic material and other pollutants from wastewater. To investigate the process of pollutant removal from wastewater using bacteria, it is important to characterize the proteins encoded by the bacterial genome. Our study combines a number of bioinformatics tools to predict the function of unassigned proteins in the bacterial genome. The genome of Betaproteobacteria strain CB contains 2,112 proteins in which function of 508 proteins are unknown, termed as uncharacterized proteins (UPs). The localization of the UPs with in the cell was determined and the structure of 38 UPs was accurately predicted. These UPs were predicted to belong to various classes of proteins such as enzymes, transporters, binding proteins, signal peptides, transmembrane proteins and other proteins. The outcome of this work will help better understand wastewater treatment mechanism.

  3. A mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics derived from single transmembrane protein properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dorothee Schmeitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fate decision processes of T lymphocytes are crucial for health and disease. Whether a T lymphocyte is activated, divides, gets anergic or initiates apoptosis depends on extracellular triggers and intracellular signalling. Free cytosolic calcium dynamics plays an important role in this context. The relative contributions of store-derived calcium entry and calcium entry from extracellular space to T lymphocyte activation are still a matter of debate. Here we develop a quantitative mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics in order to establish a tool which allows to disentangle cause-effect relationships between ion fluxes and observed calcium time courses. The model is based on single transmembrane protein characteristics which have been determined in independent experiments. This reduces the number of unknown parameters in the model to a minimum and ensures the predictive power of the model. Simulation results are subsequently used for an analysis of whole cell calcium dynamics measured under various experimental conditions. The model accounts for a variety of these conditions, which supports the suitability of the modelling approach. The simulation results suggest a model in which calcium dynamics dominantly relies on the opening of channels in calcium stores while calcium entry through calcium-release activated channels (CRAC is more associated with the maintenance of the T lymphocyte calcium levels and prevents the cell from calcium depletion. Our findings indicate that CRAC guarantees a long-term stable calcium level which is required for cell survival and sustained calcium enhancement.

  4. Transmembrane Peptides as Sensors of the Membrane Physical State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piotto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell membranes are commonly considered fundamental structures having multiple roles such as confinement, storage of lipids, sustain and control of membrane proteins. In spite of their importance, many aspects remain unclear. The number of lipid types is orders of magnitude larger than the number of amino acids, and this compositional complexity is not clearly embedded in any membrane model. A diffused hypothesis is that the large lipid palette permits to recruit and organize specific proteins controlling the formation of specialized lipid domains and the lateral pressure profile of the bilayer. Unfortunately, a satisfactory knowledge of lipid abundance remains utopian because of the technical difficulties in isolating definite membrane regions. More importantly, a theoretical framework where to fit the lipidomic data is still missing. In this work, we wish to utilize the amino acid sequence and frequency of the membrane proteins as bioinformatics sensors of cell bilayers. The use of an alignment-free method to find a correlation between the sequences of transmembrane portion of membrane proteins with the membrane physical state (MPS suggested a new approach for the discovery of antimicrobial peptides.

  5. Functions of intrinsic disorder in transmembrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder is common in integral membrane proteins, particularly in the intracellular domains. Despite this observation, these domains are not always recognized as being disordered. In this review, we will discuss the biological functions of intrinsically disordered regions of membrane...... receptors. The functions of the disordered regions are many and varied. We will discuss selected examples including: (1) Organization of receptors, kinases, phosphatases and second messenger sources into signaling complexes. (2) Modulation of the membrane-embedded domain function by ball-and-chain like...... mechanisms. (3) Trafficking of membrane proteins. (4) Transient membrane associations. (5) Post-translational modifications most notably phosphorylation and (6) disorder-linked isoform dependent function. We finish the review by discussing the future challenges facing the membrane protein community regarding...

  6. Fast axonal transport of labeled proteins in motoneurons of exercise-trained rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmin, B.J.; Lavoie, P.A.; Gardiner, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the fast orthograde axonal transport of radiolabeled proteins was measured to determine the effects of endurance-running training on transport velocity and amounts of transported proteins in rat sciatic motoneurons. Female rats were subjected to a progressive running-training program for 10-12 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, rats underwent right L4-L5 dorsal root ganglionectomy. The next day, 20 microCi of [3H]leucine was injected bilaterally in the vicinity of the motoneuronal cell bodies supplying the sciatic nerve, to study axonal transport parameters. Results showed that peak and average transport velocities of labeled proteins were significantly (P less than 0.05) increased by 22 and 29%, respectively, in the deafferented nerves of the runners as compared with controls. Moreover, the amount of total transported protein-bound radioactivity was increased in both left (40%) and right (37%) sciatic nerves of the runners. An exhaustive exercise session reduced (P less than 0.05) peak displacement (8%) and total transported protein-bound radioactivity (36%) in the sciatic nerves of control rats, whereas no changes were noticed in trained animals. The data suggest that chronic endurance running induces significant adaptations in the fast axonal transport of labeled proteins

  7. A pH-dependent conformational ensemble mediates proton transport through the influenza A/M2 protein†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Alexei L.; Lear, James D.; Ma, Chunlong; Lamb, Robert A.; Pinto, Lawrence H.; DeGrado, William F.

    2010-01-01

    The influenza A M2 protein exhibits inwardly rectifying, pH-activated proton transport that saturates at low pH. A comparison of high-resolution structures of the transmembrane domain at high and low pH suggests that pH-dependent conformational changes may facilitate proton conduction by alternately changing the accessibility of the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the channel as a proton transits through the transmembrane domain. Here, we show that M2 functionally reconstituted in liposomes populates at least three different conformational states over a physiologically relevant pH range, with transition midpoints that are consistent with previously reported His37 pKas. We then develop and test two similar, quantitative mechanistic models of proton transport, where protonation shifts the equilibrium between structural states having different proton affinities and solvent accessibilities. The models account well for a collection of experimental data sets over a wide range of pHs and voltages and require only a small number of adjustable parameters to accurately describe the data. While the kinetic models do not require any specific conformation for the protein, they nevertheless are consistent with a large body of structural information based on high-resolution NMR and crystallographic structures, optical spectroscopy, and MD calculations. PMID:20968306

  8. The Role of Water Distribution Controlled by Transmembrane Potentials in the Cytochrome c-Cardiolipin Interaction: Revealing from Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Wu, Lie; Liu, Li; Jiang, Xiue

    2017-11-02

    The interaction of cytochrome c (cyt c) with cardiolipin (CL) plays a crucial role in apoptotic functions, however, the changes of the transmembrane potential in governing the protein behavior at the membrane-water interface have not been studied due to the difficulties in simultaneously monitoring the interaction and regulating the electric field. Herein, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroelectrochemistry is employed to study the mechanism of how the transmembrane potentials control the interaction of cyt c with CL membranes by regulating the electrode potentials of an Au film. When the transmembrane potential decreases, the water content at the interface of the membranes can be increased to slow down protein adsorption through decreasing the hydrogen-bond and hydrophobic interactions, but regulates the redox behavior of CL-bound cyt c through a possible water-facilitated proton-coupled electron transfer process. Our results suggest that the potential drop-induced restructure of the CL conformation and the hydration state could modify the structure and function of CL-bound cyt c on the lipid membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. ZnO nanoparticles modulate the ionic transport and voltage regulation of lysenin nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Sheenah L; Eixenberger, Josh E; Rossland, Steven; Apsley, Holly; Hoffmann, Connor; Shrestha, Nisha; McHugh, Michael; Punnoose, Alex; Fologea, Daniel

    2017-12-16

    The insufficient understanding of unintended biological impacts from nanomaterials (NMs) represents a serious impediment to their use for scientific, technological, and medical applications. While previous studies have focused on understanding nanotoxicity effects mostly resulting from cellular internalization, recent work indicates that NMs may interfere with transmembrane transport mechanisms, hence enabling contributions to nanotoxicity by affecting key biological activities dependent on transmembrane transport. In this line of inquiry, we investigated the effects of charged nanoparticles (NPs) on the transport properties of lysenin, a pore-forming toxin that shares fundamental features with ion channels such as regulation and high transport rate. The macroscopic conductance of lysenin channels greatly diminished in the presence of cationic ZnO NPs. The inhibitory effects were asymmetrical relative to the direction of the electric field and addition site, suggesting electrostatic interactions between ZnO NPs and a binding site. Similar changes in the macroscopic conductance were observed when lysenin channels were reconstituted in neutral lipid membranes, implicating protein-NP interactions as the major contributor to the reduced transport capabilities. In contrast, no inhibitory effects were observed in the presence of anionic SnO 2 NPs. Additionally, we demonstrate that inhibition of ion transport is not due to the dissolution of ZnO NPs and subsequent interactions of zinc ions with lysenin channels. We conclude that electrostatic interactions between positively charged ZnO NPs and negative charges within the lysenin channels are responsible for the inhibitory effects on the transport of ions. These interactions point to a potential mechanism of cytotoxicity, which may not require NP internalization.

  10. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Chantreau

    Full Text Available The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR. In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors.

  11. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  12. [Identification and analysis of the proteins interacted with Prestin in cochlear outer hair cells of guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Wang, J Y; Zhang, F L; Xia, Y

    2018-01-07

    Objective: To explore the regulation and mechanism of Prestin protein by identifying the proteins interacted with Prestin in cochlear outer hair cell(OHC) and analyzing their biological function. Methods: Co-immunoprecipitation combined mass spectrometry technology was used to isolate and identify the proteins interacted with Prestin protein of OHC, bioinformatics was used to construct Prestin protein interaction network. The proteins interacted with Prestin in OHC of guinea pig were determined by matching primary interaction mass spectrometry with protein interaction network, and annotated their functions. Results: The results of co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry showed that 116 kinds of credible proteins could interact with Prestin. By constructing Prestin protein interaction network, matching the results of mass spectrometry and analyzing of sub-cellular localization, eight kinds of proteins were confirmed that they interacted with Prestin directly, namely EEF2, HSP90AB1, FN1, FLNA, EEF1A1, HSP90B1, ATP5A1, and ERH, respectively, which were mainly involved in the synthesis and transportation, transmembrane folding and localization, structural stability and signal transduction of Prestin protein. Conclusion: EEF2, HSP90AB1, FN1, FLNA, EEF1A1, HSP90B1, ATP5A1 and ERH provide molecular basis for sensory amplification function of OHCs by participating in biotransformation, transmembrane folding and localization, signal transduction and other biological processes of Prestin protein.

  13. Upregulation of the Creatine Transporter Slc6A8 by Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Almilaji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The transmembrane Klotho protein contributes to inhibition of 1,25(OH2D3 formation. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could function as an enzyme with e.g. β-glucuronidase activity, be cleaved off and be released into blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Klotho regulates several cellular transporters. Klotho protein deficiency accelerates the appearance of age related disorders including neurodegeneration and muscle wasting and eventually leads to premature death. The main site of Klotho protein expression is the kidney. Klotho protein is also appreciably expressed in other tissues including chorioid plexus. The present study explored the effect of Klotho protein on the creatine transporter CreaT (Slc6A8, which participates in the maintenance of neuronal function and survival. Methods: To this end cRNA encoding Slc6A8 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with and without additional injection of cRNA encoding Klotho protein. Creatine transporter CreaT (Slc6A8 activity was estimated from creatine induced current determined by two-electrode voltage-clamp. Results: Coexpression of Klotho protein significantly increased creatine-induced current in Slc6A8 expressing Xenopus oocytes. Coexpression of Klotho protein delayed the decline of creatine induced current following inhibition of carrier insertion into the cell membrane by brefeldin A (5 µM. The increase of creatine induced current by coexpression of Klotho protein in Slc6A8 expressing Xenopus oocytes was reversed by β-glucuronidase inhibitor (DSAL. Similarly, treatment of Slc6A8 expressing Xenopus oocytes with recombinant human alpha Klotho protein significantly increased creatine induced current. Conclusion: Klotho protein up-regulates the activity of creatine transporter CreaT (Slc6A8 by stabilizing the carrier protein in the cell membrane, an effect requiring β-glucuronidase activity of Klotho protein.

  14. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 is required for normal fat storage in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Diego A; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nguyen, Long N; Cheng, Wang; Tan, Bryan C; Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Velan, S Sendhil; Wang, Hongyan; Silver, David L

    2014-04-04

    Triglycerides within the cytosol of cells are stored in a phylogenetically conserved organelle called the lipid droplet (LD). LDs can be formed at the endoplasmic reticulum, but mechanisms that regulate the formation of LDs are incompletely understood. Adipose tissue has a high capacity to form lipid droplets and store triglycerides. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2/FIT2) is highly expressed in adipocytes, and data indicate that FIT2 has an important role in the formation of LDs in cells, but whether FIT2 has a physiological role in triglyceride storage in adipose tissue remains unproven. Here we show that adipose-specific deficiency of FIT2 (AF2KO) in mice results in progressive lipodystrophy of white adipose depots and metabolic dysfunction. In contrast, interscapular brown adipose tissue of AF2KO mice accumulated few but large LDs without changes in cellular triglyceride levels. High fat feeding of AF2KO mice or AF2KO mice on the genetically obese ob/ob background accelerated the onset of lipodystrophy. At the cellular level, primary adipocyte precursors of white and brown adipose tissue differentiated in vitro produced fewer but larger LDs without changes in total cellular triglyceride or triglyceride biosynthesis. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential, physiological role in fat storage in vivo.

  15. Transport of fluid and solutes in the body I. Formulation of a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, C C; Bowen, B D; Reed, R K; Bert, J L

    1999-09-01

    A compartmental model of short-term whole body fluid, protein, and ion distribution and transport is formulated. The model comprises four compartments: a vascular and an interstitial compartment, each with an embedded cellular compartment. The present paper discusses the assumptions on which the model is based and describes the equations that make up the model. Fluid and protein transport parameters from a previously validated model as well as ionic exchange parameters from the literature or from statistical estimation [see companion paper: C. C. Gyenge, B. D. Bowen, R. K. Reed, and J. L. Bert. Am. J. Physiol. 277 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 46): H1228-H1240, 1999] are used in formulating the model. The dynamic model has the ability to simulate 1) transport across the capillary membrane of fluid, proteins, and small ions and their distribution between the vascular and interstitial compartments; 2) the changes in extracellular osmolarity; 3) the distribution and transport of water and ions associated with each of the cellular compartments; 4) the cellular transmembrane potential; and 5) the changes of volume in the four fluid compartments. The validation and testing of the proposed model against available experimental data are presented in the companion paper.

  16. A tonoplast intrinsic protein in Gardenia jasminoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and molecular studies proved that plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) subfamily of aquaporins play key functions in plant water homeostasis. Five specialized subgroups (TIP1-5) of TIPs have been found in higher plants, in which the TIP1 and TIP2 isoforms are the largest arbitrary groups. TIPs have high water-transport activity than PIPs, some TIPs can transport other small molecule such as urea, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide. In this work, the structure of the putative tonoplast aquaporin from Gardenia jasminoides (GjTIP) was analyzed. Its transcript level has increased during fruit maturation. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the protein belongs to TIP1 subfamily. A three-dimensional model structure of GjTIP was built based on crystal structure of an ammonia-permeable AtTIP2-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The model structure displayed as a homo-tetramer, each monomer has six trans-membrane and two half-membrane-spanning α helices. The data suggests that the GjTIP has tendency to be a mixed function aquaporin, might involve in water, urea and hydrogen peroxide transport, and the gating machanism founded in some AQPs involving pH and phosphorylation response have not been proved in GjTIP.

  17. Internal hydration of a metal-transporting ATPase is controlled by membrane lateral pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Fischermeier, E. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Pospisil, P. [A.S.C. R., Prague (Czech Republic). J. Heyrovsky Inst. Physical Chemistry; Solioz, M. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Sayed, A.; Hof, M.

    2017-07-01

    The active transport of ions across biological mem branes requires their hydration shell to interact with the interior of membrane proteins. However, the influence of the external lipid phase on internal dielectric dynamics is hard to access by experiment. Using the octahelical transmembrane architecture of the copper-transporting P{sub 1B}-type ATPase from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) as a model structure, we have established the site-specific labeling of internal cysteines with a polarity-sensitive fluorophore. This enabled dipolar relaxation studies in a solubilized form of the protein and in its lipid-embedded state in nano-discs (NDs). Time-dependent fluorescence shifts revealed the site-specific hydration and dipole mobility around the conserved ion-binding motif. The spatial distribution of both features is shaped significantly and independently of each other by membrane lateral pressure.

  18. Internal hydration of a metal-transporting ATPase is controlled by membrane lateral pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Karim; Pospisil, P.; Sayed, A.; Hof, M.

    2017-01-01

    The active transport of ions across biological mem branes requires their hydration shell to interact with the interior of membrane proteins. However, the influence of the external lipid phase on internal dielectric dynamics is hard to access by experiment. Using the octahelical transmembrane architecture of the copper-transporting P_1_B-type ATPase from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) as a model structure, we have established the site-specific labeling of internal cysteines with a polarity-sensitive fluorophore. This enabled dipolar relaxation studies in a solubilized form of the protein and in its lipid-embedded state in nano-discs (NDs). Time-dependent fluorescence shifts revealed the site-specific hydration and dipole mobility around the conserved ion-binding motif. The spatial distribution of both features is shaped significantly and independently of each other by membrane lateral pressure.

  19. Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Sun Yuliang; Lin Jianguo; Bu Zhigao; Wu Qingyang; Jiang, Shibo; Steinhauer, David A.; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai

    2006-01-01

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV

  20. PAG - a multipurpose transmembrane adaptor protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Hořejší, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 41 (2014), s. 4881-4892 ISSN 0950-9232 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : PAG * adaptor protein * membrane raft Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.459, year: 2014

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on transmembrane potential of Streptococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Akoev, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus faecalis with ionizing radiation at doses of 5 to 100 krad is shown to reduce the energy-dependent accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium (DDA + ) by the cell. Since transmembrane potential is the moving force of DDA + transport across the membrane, the decrease in DDA + accumulation is suggested to be due to potential reduction. This radiation effect was not due to inactivation of the potential-generating mechanism; thus, the ATPase activity and glycolytic activity of the irradiated cells were higher than in the control. At the same time, the membranes exhibited an increased permeability for K + and protons, which is probably due to structural rearrangements in the membranes after irradiation. It is suggested that the potential reduction results from the increase in proton permeability of membranes

  2. Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein Mep45 of rumen anaerobe Selenomonas ruminantium forms a non-specific diffusion pore via its C-terminal transmembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Hayashi, Kanako; Tochigi, Saeko; Kusano, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The major outer membrane protein Mep45 of Selenomonas ruminantium, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, comprises two distinct domains: the N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain, whose function has been unknown. Here, we solubilized and purified Mep45 and characterized its function using proteoliposomes reconstituted with Mep45. We found that Mep45 forms a nonspecific diffusion channel via its C-terminal region. The channel was permeable to solutes smaller than a molecular weight of roughly 600, and the estimated pore radius was 0.58 nm. Truncation of the SLH domain did not affect the channel property. On the basis of the fact that Mep45 is the most abundant outer membrane protein in S. ruminantium, we conclude that Mep45 serves as a main pathway through which small solutes diffuse across the outer membrane of this bacterium.

  3. Quantitative phosphoproteomics dissection of seven-transmembrane receptor signaling using full and biased agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L; Kelstrup, Christian D; Lyngsø, Christina

    2010-01-01

    (q)-dependent and -independent AT(1)R signaling. This study provides substantial novel insight into angiotensin II signal transduction and is the first study dissecting the differences between a full agonist and a biased agonist from a 7TMR on a systems-wide scale. Importantly, it reveals a previously unappreciated diversity......Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) signal through the well described heterotrimeric G proteins but can also activate G protein-independent signaling pathways of which the impact and complexity are less understood. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a prototypical 7TMR...... and quantity of Galpha(q) protein-independent signaling and uncovers novel signaling pathways. We foresee that the amount and diversity of G protein-independent signaling may be more pronounced than previously recognized for other 7TMRs as well. Quantitative mass spectrometry is a promising tool for evaluation...

  4. NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 Are Two Half-Size Transporters from the Chlamydomonas NRT2 Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Javier Higuera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The NRT2 transporters mediate High Affinity Nitrate/NitriteTransport (HAN/NiT, which are essential for nitrogen acquisition from these inorganic forms. The NRT2 proteins are encoded by a multigene family in plants, and contain 12 transmembrane-spanning domains. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has six NRT2, two of which (NRT2.5 and NRT2.4 are located in Chromosome III, in tandem head to tail. cDNAs for these genes were isolated and their sequence revealed that they correspond to half-size NRT2 transporters each containing six transmembrane domains. NRT2.5 has long N- and C- termini sequences without known homology. NRT2.4 also contains long termini sequences but smaller than NRT2.5. Expression of both studied genes occurred at a very low level, slightly in darkness, and was not modified by the N or C source. Silencing of NRT2.4 by specific artificial miRNA resulted in the inhibition of nitrite transport in the absence of other HANNiT (NRT2.1/NAR2 in the cell genetic background. Nitrite transport activity in the Hansenula polymorpha Δynt::URA3 Leu2 mutant was restored by expressing CrNRT2.4. These results indicate that half-size NRT2 transporters are present in photosynthetic organisms and that NRT2.4 is a HANiT.

  5. Rapid ammonia gas transport accounts for futile transmembrane cycling under NH3/NH4+ toxicity in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-12-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4(+) cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4(+) toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4(+)) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope (13)N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4(+) ion. Influx of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+), which exceeded 200 µmol g(-1) h(-1), was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4(+)), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g(-1) h(-1)). Efflux of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+) responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions.

  6. Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing protein 1 (Tmub1/HOPS facilitates surface expression of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjeong Yang

    Full Text Available Some ubiquitin-like (UBL domain-containing proteins are known to play roles in receptor trafficking. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs undergo constitutive cycling between the intracellular compartment and the cell surface in the central nervous system. However, the function of UBL domain-containing proteins in the recycling of the AMPARs to the synaptic surface has not yet been reported.Here, we report that the Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 1 (Tmub1 protein, formerly known as the Hepatocyte Odd Protein Shuttling (HOPS protein, which is abundantly expressed in the brain and which exists in a synaptosomal membrane fraction, facilitates the recycling of the AMPAR subunit GluR2 to the cell surface. Neurons transfected with Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi plasmids showed a significant reduction in the AMPAR current as compared to their control neurons. Consistently, the synaptic surface expression of GluR2, but not of GluR1, was significantly decreased in the neurons transfected with the Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi and increased in the neurons overexpressing EGFP-Tmub1/HOPS. The altered surface expression of GluR2 was speculated to be due to the altered surface-recycling of the internalized GluR2 in our recycling assay. Eventually, we found that GluR2 and glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP were coimmunoprecipitated by the anti-Tmub1/HOPS antibody from the mouse brain. Taken together, these observations show that the Tmub1/HOPS plays a role in regulating basal synaptic transmission; it contributes to maintain the synaptic surface number of the GluR2-containing AMPARs by facilitating the recycling of GluR2 to the plasma membrane.

  7. Training-induced changes in membrane transport proteins of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C.

    2006-01-01

    Training improves human physical performance by inducing structural and cardiovascular changes, metabolic changes, and changes in the density of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the training-induced changes in proteins involved in sarcolemmal membrane transport. It is concluded...

  8. Two Seven-Transmembrane Domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O Proteins Cofunction in Arabidopsis Root Thigmomorphogenesis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H. Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane–localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gβ subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism. PMID:19602625

  9. Protein-Protein Docking in Drug Design and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Bartuzi, Damian; Stępniewski, Tomasz Maciej; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Selent, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are responsible for a number of key physiological processes in the living cells and underlie the pathomechanism of many diseases. Nowadays, along with the concept of so-called "hot spots" in protein-protein interactions, which are well-defined interface regions responsible for most of the binding energy, these interfaces can be targeted with modulators. In order to apply structure-based design techniques to design PPIs modulators, a three-dimensional structure of protein complex has to be available. In this context in silico approaches, in particular protein-protein docking, are a valuable complement to experimental methods for elucidating 3D structure of protein complexes. Protein-protein docking is easy to use and does not require significant computer resources and time (in contrast to molecular dynamics) and it results in 3D structure of a protein complex (in contrast to sequence-based methods of predicting binding interfaces). However, protein-protein docking cannot address all the aspects of protein dynamics, in particular the global conformational changes during protein complex formation. In spite of this fact, protein-protein docking is widely used to model complexes of water-soluble proteins and less commonly to predict structures of transmembrane protein assemblies, including dimers and oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this chapter we review the principles of protein-protein docking, available algorithms and software and discuss the recent examples, benefits, and drawbacks of protein-protein docking application to water-soluble proteins, membrane anchoring and transmembrane proteins, including GPCRs.

  10. Analysis of Nanobody-Epitope Interactions in Living Cells via Quantitative Protein Transport Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früholz, Simone; Pimpl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, quantitative protein transport analyses have been used to elucidate the sorting and transport of proteins in the endomembrane system of plants. Here, we have applied our knowledge about transport routes and the corresponding sorting signals to establish an in vivo system for testing specific interactions between soluble proteins.Here, we describe the use of quantitative protein transport assays in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts to test for interactions occurring between a GFP-binding nanobody and its GFP epitope. For this, we use a secreted GFP-tagged α-amylase as a reporter together with a vacuolar-targeted RFP-tagged nanobody. The interaction between these proteins is then revealed by a transport alteration of the secretory reporter due to the interaction-triggered attachment of the vacuolar sorting signal.

  11. Myelin-associated proteins labelled by slow axonal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, P.P.; DuBois, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of protein metabolism and provides evidence that the neuronal contribution to myelin metabolism may be restricted to lipids only. On the other hand this line of research led to the partial characterization of a group of neuronal proteins probably involved in axo-glial interactions subserving the onset of myelination and the structural maintenance of the mature myelin sheath. Intraocular injection of radioactive amino acids allows the study of the anterograde transport of labelled proteins along retinofugal fibres which are well myelinated. Myelin extracted from the optic nerve and tract under these conditions also contains labelled proteins. Three hypotheses are available to explain this phenomenon. To offer an explanation for this phenomenon the work was planned as follows. a) Characterization of the spatio-temporal pattern of labelling of myelin, in order to define the experimental conditions (survival time and region of the optic pathway to be studied) necessary to obtain maximal labelling. b) Characterization (by gel electrophoresis) of the myelin-associated proteins which become labelled by axonal transport, in order to work on a consistent pattern of labelling. c) Investigation of the possible mechanism responsible for the labelling of myelin-associated proteins. (Auth.)

  12. Lysosomal putative RNA transporter SIDT2 mediates direct uptake of RNA by lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Shu; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Contu, Viorica Raluca; Hase, Katsunori; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Kabuta, Chihana; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are thought to be the major intracellular compartment for the degradation of macromolecules. We recently identified a novel type of autophagy, RNautophagy, where RNA is directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. However, the mechanism of RNA translocation across the lysosomal membrane and the physiological role of RNautophagy remain unclear. In the present study, we performed gain- and loss-of-function studies with isolated lysosomes, and found that SIDT2 (SID1 transmembrane family, member 2), an ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans putative RNA transporter SID-1 (systemic RNA interference deficient-1), mediates RNA translocation during RNautophagy. We also observed that SIDT2 is a transmembrane protein, which predominantly localizes to lysosomes. Strikingly, knockdown of Sidt2 inhibited up to ˜50% of total RNA degradation at the cellular level, independently of macroautophagy. Moreover, we showed that this impairment is mainly due to inhibition of lysosomal RNA degradation, strongly suggesting that RNautophagy plays a significant role in constitutive cellular RNA degradation. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanisms of RNA metabolism, intracellular RNA transport, and atypical types of autophagy.

  13. Complement Activation by Ceramide Transporter Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, G.H.; Losen, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Veerhuis, R.; Molenaar, P.C.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; De Baets, M.H.; Daha, MR; Martinez-Martinez, P.

    2014-01-01

    C1q is the initiator of the classical complement pathway and, as such, is essential for efficient opsonization and clearance of pathogens, altered self-structures, and apoptotic cells. The ceramide transporter protein (CERT) and its longer splicing isoform CERTL are known to interact with

  14. Cloning of human genes encoding novel G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, A.; Docherty, J.M.; Heiber, M. [Univ. of Toronto, (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of several novel human genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors. Each of the receptors contained the familiar seven transmembrane topography and most closely resembled peptide binding receptors. Gene GPR1 encoded a receptor protein that is intronless in the coding region and that shared identity (43% in the transmembrane regions) with the opioid receptors. Northern blot analysis revealed that GPR1 transcripts were expressed in the human hippocampus, and the gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.6. Gene GPR2 encoded a protein that most closely resembled an interleukin-8 receptor (51% in the transmembrane regions), and this gene, not expressed in the six brain regions examined, was localized to chromosome 17q2.1-q21.3. A third gene, GPR3, showed identity (56% in the transmembrane regions) with a previously characterized cDNA clone from rat and was localized to chromosome 1p35-p36.1. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Prediction of membrane transport proteins and their substrate specificities using primary sequence information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish K Mishra

    Full Text Available Membrane transport proteins (transporters move hydrophilic substrates across hydrophobic membranes and play vital roles in most cellular functions. Transporters represent a diverse group of proteins that differ in topology, energy coupling mechanism, and substrate specificity as well as sequence similarity. Among the functional annotations of transporters, information about their transporting substrates is especially important. The experimental identification and characterization of transporters is currently costly and time-consuming. The development of robust bioinformatics-based methods for the prediction of membrane transport proteins and their substrate specificities is therefore an important and urgent task.Support vector machine (SVM-based computational models, which comprehensively utilize integrative protein sequence features such as amino acid composition, dipeptide composition, physico-chemical composition, biochemical composition, and position-specific scoring matrices (PSSM, were developed to predict the substrate specificity of seven transporter classes: amino acid, anion, cation, electron, protein/mRNA, sugar, and other transporters. An additional model to differentiate transporters from non-transporters was also developed. Among the developed models, the biochemical composition and PSSM hybrid model outperformed other models and achieved an overall average prediction accuracy of 76.69% with a Mathews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.49 and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC of 0.833 on our main dataset. This model also achieved an overall average prediction accuracy of 78.88% and MCC of 0.41 on an independent dataset.Our analyses suggest that evolutionary information (i.e., the PSSM and the AAIndex are key features for the substrate specificity prediction of transport proteins. In comparison, similarity-based methods such as BLAST, PSI-BLAST, and hidden Markov models do not provide accurate predictions

  16. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemannstöns, Karen; Ripp, Caroline; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP) in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk) are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964), which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  17. Redirecting the Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transporters BicA and SbtA to the Chloroplast Envelope: Soluble and Membrane Cargos Need Different Chloroplast Targeting Signals in Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien eRolland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most major crops used for human consumption are C3 plants, which yields are limited by photosynthetic inefficiency. To circumvent this, it has been proposed to implement the cyanobacterial CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM, principally consisting of bicarbonate transporters and carboxysomes, into plant chloroplasts. As it is currently not possible to recover homoplasmic transplastomic monocots, foreign genes must be introduced in these plants via nuclear transformation. Consequently, it is paramount to ensure that resulting proteins reach the appropriate sub-cellular compartment, which for cyanobacterial transporters BicA and SbtA, is the chloroplast inner-envelope membrane (IEM. At present, targeting signals to redirect large transmembrane proteins from non-chloroplastic organisms to plant chloroplast envelopes are unknown. The goal of this study was to identify such signals, using agrobacteria-mediated transient expression and confocal microscopy to determine the sub-cellular localization of ~37 GFP-tagged chimeras. Initially, fragments of chloroplast proteins known to target soluble cargos to the stroma were tested for their ability to redirect BicA, but they proved ineffective. Next, different N-terminal regions from Arabidopsis IEM transporters were tested. We demonstrated that the N-terminus of AtHP59, AtPLGG1 or AtNTT1 (92-115 amino acids, containing a cleavable chloroplast transit peptide (cTP and a membrane protein leader (MPL, was sufficient to redirect BicA or SbtA to the chloroplast envelope. This constitutes the first evidence that nuclear-encoded transmembrane proteins from non-chloroplastic organisms can be targeted to the envelope of plant chloroplasts; a finding which represents an important advance in chloroplast engineering by opening up the door to further manipulation of the chloroplastic envelope.

  18. Cell Membrane Transport Mechanisms: Ion Channels and Electrical Properties of Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbacka, Julita; Choromańska, Anna; Rossowska, Joanna; Weżgowiec, Joanna; Saczko, Jolanta; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cellular life strongly depends on the membrane ability to precisely control exchange of solutes between the internal and external (environmental) compartments. This barrier regulates which types of solutes can enter and leave the cell. Transmembrane transport involves complex mechanisms responsible for passive and active carriage of ions and small- and medium-size molecules. Transport mechanisms existing in the biological membranes highly determine proper cellular functions and contribute to drug transport. The present chapter deals with features and electrical properties of the cell membrane and addresses the questions how the cell membrane accomplishes transport functions and how transmembrane transport can be affected. Since dysfunctions of plasma membrane transporters very often are the cause of human diseases, we also report how specific transport mechanisms can be modulated or inhibited in order to enhance the therapeutic effect.

  19. Kinetics of transmembrane transport of small molecules into electropermeabilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucihar, Gorazd; Kotnik, Tadej; Miklavcic, Damijan; Teissié, Justin

    2008-09-15

    The transport of propidium iodide into electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells was monitored with a photomultiplier tube during and after the electric pulse. The influence of pulse amplitude and duration on the transport kinetics was investigated with time resolutions from 200 ns to 4 ms in intervals from 400 micros to 8 s. The transport became detectable as early as 60 micros after the start of the pulse, continued for tens of seconds after the pulse, and was faster and larger for higher pulse amplitudes and/or longer pulse durations. With fixed pulse parameters, transport into confluent monolayers of cells was slower than transport into suspended cells. Different time courses of fluorescence increase were observed during and at various times after the pulse, reflecting different transport mechanisms and ongoing membrane resealing. The data were compared to theoretical predictions of the Nernst-Planck equation. After a delay of 60 micros, the time course of fluorescence during the pulse was approximately linear, supporting a mainly electrophoretic solution of the Nernst-Planck equation. The time course after the pulse agreed with diffusional solution of the Nernst-Planck equation if the membrane resealing was assumed to consist of three distinct components, with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds, hundreds of microseconds, and tens of seconds, respectively.

  20. Transport proteins of parasitic protists and their role in nutrient salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Paul; Major, Peter; Nakjang, Sirintra; Hirt, Robert P; Embley, T Martin

    2014-01-01

    The loss of key biosynthetic pathways is a common feature of important parasitic protists, making them heavily dependent on scavenging nutrients from their hosts. This is often mediated by specialized transporter proteins that ensure the nutritional requirements of the parasite are met. Over the past decade, the completion of several parasite genome projects has facilitated the identification of parasite transporter proteins. This has been complemented by functional characterization of individual transporters along with investigations into their importance for parasite survival. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on transporters from parasitic protists and highlight commonalities and differences in the transporter repertoires of different parasitic species, with particular focus on characterized transporters that act at the host-pathogen interface.

  1. Structure, function and physiological consequences of virally encoded chemokine seven transmembrane receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Smit, M J; Waldhoer, M

    2008-01-01

    A number of human and animal herpes viruses encode G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane (7TM) segments-most of which are clearly related to human chemokine receptors. It appears, that these receptors are used by the virus for immune evasion, cellular transformation, tissue targeting...... pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the current knowledge of structure, function and trafficking patterns of virally encoded chemokine receptors and further address the putative roles of these receptors in virus survival and host -cell and/or -immune system modulation. Finally, we...

  2. Alterations in protein transport events in rat liver after estrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, M.A.; Jones, A.L.; Underdown, B.J.; Schiff, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE) treatment on the hepatic processing of rat polymeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) and human asialoorosomucoid (ASOr) were studied. After 5 days of treatment with EE (5 mg/kg) or solvent alone, male rats were anesthetized and injected with tracer doses of the test proteins. Bile flow rates had been reduced by >60% in the EE-treated animals. A previously reported radiolabeling strategy was used to monitor both the transport of intact protein to bile and the degradation of protein in lysosomes. Transport of intact IgA to bile was reduced by 43%, with transport peaking 27 min later in EE-treated animals compared with controls. There was a corresponding impairment of uptake of labeled IgA from blood. EE induced no kinetic change in the uptake or processing of ASOr. However, there was an increase in the proportion of ASOr reaching bile intact from 3% to 15-23% of the injected dose. The data indicate that EE disables the transport pathway for IgA and causes a partial change in the routing of ASOr after endocytosis in favor of direct transport to the bile canaliculus. These findings may have implications for the importance of membrane composition in protein transport events

  3. InterProScan Result: FS932793 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS932793 FS932793_2_ORF2 6EA452AE762D110F PANTHER PTHR12479 LYSOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED TRANSME...MBRANE PROTEIN 4.4e-71 T IPR004687 Golgi 4-transmembrane spanning transporter Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810)|Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  4. InterProScan Result: BB993418 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB993418 BB993418_6_ORF2 7325F21342D1E3DD PANTHER PTHR12479 LYSOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED TRANSME...MBRANE PROTEIN 1.9e-69 T IPR004687 Golgi 4-transmembrane spanning transporter Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810)|Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  5. Resveratrol Inhibits Porcine Intestinal Glucose and Alanine Transport: Potential Roles of Na+/K+-ATPase Activity, Protein Kinase A, AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and the Association of Selected Nutrient Transport Proteins with Detergent Resistant Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Klinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beneficial effects of Resveratrol (RSV have been demonstrated, including effects on transporters and channels. However, little is known about how RSV influences intestinal transport. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of RSV on intestinal transport and the respective mechanisms. Methods: Porcine jejunum and ileum were incubated with RSV (300 µM, 30 min in Ussing chambers (functional studies and tissue bathes (detection of protein expression, phosphorylation, association with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results: RSV reduced alanine and glucose-induced short circuit currents (ΔIsc and influenced forskolin-induced ΔIsc. The phosphorylation of sodium–glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, protein kinase A substrates (PKA-S and liver kinase B1 (LKB1 increased but a causative relation to the inhibitory effects could not directly be established. The DRM association of SGLT1, peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1 and (phosphorylated Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3 did not change. Conclusion: RSV influences the intestinal transport of glucose, alanine and chloride and is likely to affect other transport processes. As the effects of protein kinase activation vary between the intestinal localizations, it would appear that increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels are part of the mechanism. Nonetheless, the physiological responses depend on cell type-specific structures.

  6. Selective elimination of high constitutive activity or chemokine binding in the human herpesvirus 8 encoded seven transmembrane oncogene ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2000-01-01

    Open reading frame 74 (ORF74) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 is a highly constitutively active seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor stimulated by angiogenic chemokines, e.g. growth-related oncogene-alpha, and inhibited by angiostatic chemokines e.g. interferon-gamma-inducible protein. Transgenic mice...

  7. Analysis of Light-Induced Transmembrane Ion Gradients and Membrane Potential in Photosystem I Proteoliposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennisi, Cristian P.; Greenbaum, Elias; Yoshida, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.

  8. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Barber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated.

  9. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  10. The nitrate transporter (NRT gene family in poplar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Bai

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an important nutrient required for plant growth. It also acts as a signal regulating plant development. Nitrate is actively taken up and transported by nitrate transporters (NRT, which form a large family with many members and distinct functions. In contrast to Arabidopsis and rice there is little information about the NRT family in woody plants such as Populus. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus NRT family was performed. Sixty-eight PtNRT1/PTR, 6 PtNRT2, and 5 PtNRT3 genes were identified in the P. trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the genes of the NRT family are divided into three clades: NRT1/PTR with four subclades, NRT2, and NRT3. Topological analysis indicated that all members of PtNRT1/PTR and PtNRT2 have 8 to 12 trans-membrane domains, whereas the PtNRT3 proteins have no or up to two trans-membrane domains. Four PtNRT3 members were predicted as secreted proteins. Microarray analyses revealed tissue-specific expression patterns of PtNRT genes with distinct clusters of NRTs for roots, for the elongation zone of the apical stem segment and the developing xylem and a further cluster for leaves, bark and wood. A comparison of different poplar species (P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, P. euphratica, P. fremontii x P. angustifolia, and P. x canescens showed that the tissue-specific patterns of the NRT genes varied to some extent with species. Bioinformatic analysis of putative cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of PtNRT family retrieved motifs suggesting the regulation of the NRT genes by N metabolism, by energy and carbon metabolism, and by phytohormones and stress. Multivariate analysis suggested that the combination and abundance of motifs in distinct promoters may lead to tissue-specificity. Our genome wide analysis of the PtNRT genes provides a valuable basis for functional analysis towards understanding the role of nitrate transporters for tree growth.

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of a novel ammonium transporter gene from eichhornia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Yan, G.; Zheng, L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the molecular mechanism for Eichhornia crassipes to transport ammonium from outside, we cloned a novel ammonium transporter (EcAMT) gene from E. crassipes and identified its function by using yeast complementation experiment. The full-length cDNA of EcAMT contains a 1506 nucletide-long open reading frame which encodes a protein of 501 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that EcAMT had 8 transmembrane regions. The expressions of EcAMT gene under three different nitrogen conditions were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results showed that the expression of EcAMT gene was up-regulated under nitrogen starvation. Our study results revealed some molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to absorb the ammonium in eutrophic water. (author)

  12. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-06-19

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl(-) ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl(-) flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl(-). The location of these Cl(-)-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl(-) ions from the cytoplasm. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Relative transmembrane segment rearrangements during BK channel activation resolved by structurally assigned fluorophore–quencher pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-activated proteins can sense, and respond to, changes in the electric field pervading the cell membrane by virtue of a transmembrane helix bundle, the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Canonical VSDs consist of four transmembrane helices (S1–S4) of which S4 is considered a principal component because it possesses charged residues immersed in the electric field. Membrane depolarization compels the charges, and by extension S4, to rearrange with respect to the field. The VSD of large-conductance voltage- and Ca-activated K+ (BK) channels exhibits two salient inconsistencies from the canonical VSD model: (1) the BK channel VSD possesses an additional nonconserved transmembrane helix (S0); and (2) it exhibits a “decentralized” distribution of voltage-sensing charges, in helices S2 and S3, in addition to S4. Considering these unique features, the voltage-dependent rearrangements of the BK VSD could differ significantly from the standard model of VSD operation. To understand the mode of operation of this unique VSD, we have optically tracked the relative motions of the BK VSD transmembrane helices during activation, by manipulating the quenching environment of site-directed fluorescent labels with native and introduced Trp residues. Having previously reported that S0 and S4 diverge during activation, in this work we demonstrate that S4 also diverges from S1 and S2, whereas S2, compelled by its voltage-sensing charged residues, moves closer to S1. This information contributes spatial constraints for understanding the BK channel voltage-sensing process, revealing the structural rearrangements in a non-canonical VSD. PMID:22802360

  14. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Christopher L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  15. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future

  16. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuin, Tanmay [Cell and Developmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag 713104 (India); Roy, Jagat Kumar, E-mail: jkroy@bhu.ac.in [Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  17. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai 200063 (China); Liu, Siwen [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhang, Liang [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Xiao [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Lei, Yang [Department of Internal Medicine, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Peng, Xiaojun [Jingjie PTM BioLab (Hangzhou) Co. Ltd, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Cheng, Zhongyi [Advanced Institute of Translational Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); and others

    2015-11-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  18. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Liu, Chengyu; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Dan; Lei, Yang; Peng, Xiaojun; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  19. Identifying the molecular functions of electron transport proteins using radial basis function networks and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Nguyen, Trinh-Trung-Duong; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2017-05-01

    The electron transport proteins have an important role in storing and transferring electrons in cellular respiration, which is the most proficient process through which cells gather energy from consumed food. According to the molecular functions, the electron transport chain components could be formed with five complexes with several different electron carriers and functions. Therefore, identifying the molecular functions in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. This work includes two phases for discriminating electron transport proteins from transport proteins and classifying categories of five complexes in electron transport proteins. In the first phase, the performances from PSSM with AAIndex feature set were successful in identifying electron transport proteins in transport proteins with achieved sensitivity of 73.2%, specificity of 94.1%, and accuracy of 91.3%, with MCC of 0.64 for independent data set. With the second phase, our method can approach a precise model for identifying of five complexes with different molecular functions in electron transport proteins. The PSSM with AAIndex properties in five complexes achieved MCC of 0.51, 0.47, 0.42, 0.74, and 1.00 for independent data set, respectively. We suggest that our study could be a power model for determining new proteins that belongs into which molecular function of electron transport proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scrambling of the amino acids within the transmembrane domain of Vpu results in a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVTM) that is less pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Melissa L.; Pacyniak, Erik; Gomez, Lisa M.; Inbody, Sarah H.; Mulcahy, Ellyn R.; Culley, Nathan; Pinson, David M.; Powers, Michael F.; Wong, Scott W.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the transmembrane (TM) domain of the subtype B Vpu enhances virion release from cells and some studies have shown that this domain may form an oligomeric structure with properties of an ion channel. To date, no studies have been performed to assess the role of this domain in virus pathogenesis in a macaque model of disease. Using a pathogenic molecular clone of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV KU-1bMC33 ), we have generated a novel virus in which the transmembrane domain of the Vpu protein was scrambled but maintained hydrophobic in nature (SHIV TM ), which presumably would disrupt any ion channel TM properties of this protein. Vectors expressing the Vpu as a fusion protein with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (Vpu TM EGFP) indicate that it was transported to the same intracellular compartment as the unmodified Vpu protein but did not down-regulate cell surface expression of CD4. To assess the pathogenicity of SHIV TM , three pig-tailed macaques were inoculated with the SHIV TM and monitored for 6-8 months for CD4 + T cell levels, viral loads and the stability of the sequence of the vpu gene. Our results indicated that unlike the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 , inoculation of macaques with SHIV TM did not cause a severe CD4 + T cell loss over the course of their infections. Sequence analysis of the vpu gene analyzed from sequential PBMC samples derived from macaques revealed that the scrambled TM was stable during the course of infection. At necropsy, examination of tissues revealed low viral loads and none of the pathology commonly observed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues following inoculation with the pathogenic parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 virus. Thus, these results show for the first time that the TM domain of Vpu contributes to the pathogenicity of SHIV KU-1bMC33 in pig-tailed macaques

  1. Position-dependent Effects of Polylysine on Sec Protein Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K.; Musser, Siegfried M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or “pause sites,” were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport. PMID:22367204

  2. Position-dependent effects of polylysine on Sec protein transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2012-04-13

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or "pause sites," were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport.

  3. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W. J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel pha...

  4. Sequence Classification: 387954 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB TMH TMB TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|31792465|ref|NP_854958.1| PROBABLE DRUGS-TRANSPORT... TRANSMEMBRANE ATP-BINDING PROTEIN ABC TRANSPORTER || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/31792465 ...

  5. Sequence Classification: 397674 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB TMH TMB TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|15608413|ref|NP_215789.1| PROBABLE DRUGS-TRANSPORT... TRANSMEMBRANE ATP-BINDING PROTEIN ABC TRANSPORTER || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/15608413 ...

  6. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, Ryan M.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Pereira, Fred A.; Raphael, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Trafficking to the plasma membrane is required for prestin function. → Biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) was fused to prestin through a transmembrane domain. → BAP-prestin can be metabolically labeled with biotin in HEK293 cells. → Biotin-BAP-prestin allows for selective imaging of fully trafficked prestin. → The biotin-BAP-prestin displays voltage-sensitive activity. -- Abstract: Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity.

  7. Electron transport through supported biomembranes at the nanoscale by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casuso, I; Fumagalli, L; Samitier, J; Padros, E; Reggiani, L; Akimov, V; Gomila, G

    2007-01-01

    We present a reliable methodology to perform electron transport measurements at the nanoscale on supported biomembranes by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). It allows measurement of both (a) non-destructive conductive maps and (b) force controlled current-voltage characteristics in wide voltage bias range in a reproducible way. Tests experiments were performed on purple membrane monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Non-destructive conductive images show uniform conductivity of the membrane with isolated nanometric conduction defects. Current-voltage characteristics under different compression conditions show non-resonant tunneling electron transport properties, with two different conduction regimes as a function of the applied bias, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This methodology opens the possibility for a detailed study of electron transport properties of supported biological membranes, and of soft materials in general

  8. Electron transport through supported biomembranes at the nanoscale by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casuso, I [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Fumagalli, L [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Samitier, J [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Padros, E [Unitat de BiofIsica, Departamento de BioquImica i de Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina i Centre d' Estudis en BiofIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Reggiani, L [CNR-INFM National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Akimov, V [CNR-INFM National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Gomila, G [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    We present a reliable methodology to perform electron transport measurements at the nanoscale on supported biomembranes by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). It allows measurement of both (a) non-destructive conductive maps and (b) force controlled current-voltage characteristics in wide voltage bias range in a reproducible way. Tests experiments were performed on purple membrane monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Non-destructive conductive images show uniform conductivity of the membrane with isolated nanometric conduction defects. Current-voltage characteristics under different compression conditions show non-resonant tunneling electron transport properties, with two different conduction regimes as a function of the applied bias, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This methodology opens the possibility for a detailed study of electron transport properties of supported biological membranes, and of soft materials in general.

  9. Dopamine transporter; solubilization and characterization of [3H] GBR-12935 binding in canine caudate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallee, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter protein, as indexed by [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding, was solubilized from canine striatal membranes with the detergent digitonin. This solubilized protein retained the same pharmacological characteristics as membrane attached uptake sites. The binding of [ 3 H]GBR-12935 to solubilized preparations was specific, saturable and reversible with an equilibrium dissociation constant of approximately 3 nM and a maximum ligand binding (B max ) of 3.4 pmol/mg protein. [ 3 H]GBR-12935 also bound to solubilized sites in a sodium-independent manner with a K D of approximately 6 nM and a B max of 1.2 ± 0.2 pmol/mg protein. Dopamine uptake inhibitors and substrates of DA uptake inhibited [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding in a stereoselective and concentration dependent manner. For these compounds rank order of potency for inhibition of [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding correlated with their potency for inhibition of dopamine uptake. K D values for DA uptake inhibitors in solubilized preparations correlated with those obtained on [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding in the native state. The dopamine transporter appears to be a transmembrane glycoprotein by virtue of its absorption and specific elution from wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-lectin column. Solubilization of the putative dopamine transporter with full retention of binding activity now allows for the purification and biochemical characterization of this important membrane protein

  10. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Linnemannstöns

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7 was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964, which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  11. Self-Assembling Organic Nanopores as Synthetic Transmembrane Channels with Tunable Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxi

    A long-standing goal in the area of supramolecular self-assembly involves the development of synthetic ion/water channels capable of mimicking the mass-transport characteristics of biological channels and pores. Few examples of artificial transmembrane channels with large lumen, high conductivity and selectivity are known. A review of pronounced biological transmembrane protein channels and some representative synthetic models have been provided in Chapter 1, followed by our discovery and initial investigation of shape-persistent oligoamide and phenylene ethynylene macrocycles as synthetic ion/water channels. In Chapter 2, the systematic structural modification of oligoamide macrocycles 1, the so-called first-generation of these shape-persistent macrocycles, has led to third-generation macrocycles 3. The third generation was found to exhibit unprecedented, strong intermolecular association in both the solid state and solution via multiple techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and 1H NMR. Fluorescence spectroscopy paired with dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that macrocycles 3 can assemble into a singly dispersed nanotubular structure in solution. The resultant self-assembling pores consisting of 3 were examined by HPTS-LUVs assays and BLM studies (Chapter 3) and found to form cation-selective (PK+/PCl- = 69:1) transmembrane ion channels with large conductance (200 ˜ 2000 pS for alkali cations) and high stability with open times reaching to 103 seconds. Tuning the aggregation state of macrocycles by choosing an appropriate polar solvent mixture (i.e., 3:1, THF:DMF, v/v) and concentration led to the formation of ion channels with well-defined square top behavior. A parallel study using DLS to examine the size of aggregates was used in conjunction with channel activity assays (LUVs/BLM) to reveal the effects of the aggregation state on channel activity. Empirical evidence now clearly indicates that a preassembled state, perhaps that of a

  12. Swine interferon-induced transmembrane protein, sIFITM3, inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinfang; Qian, Ping; Wu, Qunfeng; Liu, Shasha; Fan, Wenchun; Zhang, Keshan; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2014-09-01

    The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a widely expressed potent antiviral effector of the host innate immune system. It restricts a diverse group of pathogenic, enveloped viruses, by interfering with endosomal fusion. In this report, the swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) gene was cloned. It shares the functionally conserved CD225 domain and multiple critical amino acid residues (Y19, F74, F77, R86 and Y98) with its human ortholog, which are essential for antiviral activity. Ectopic expression of sIFITM3 significantly inhibited non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in BHK-21 cells. Furthermore, sIFITM3 blocked FMDV infection at early steps in the virus life cycle by disrupting viral attachment to the host cell surface. Importantly, inoculation of 2-day-old suckling mice with a plasmid expressing sIFITM3 conferred protection against lethal challenge with FMDV. These results suggest that sIFITM3 is a promising antiviral agent and that can safeguard the host from infection with FMDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transport parameter estimation from lymph measurements and the Patlak equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P D; Wolf, M B

    1992-01-01

    Two methods of estimating protein transport parameters for plasma-to-lymph transport data are presented. Both use IBM-compatible computers to obtain least-squares parameters for the solvent drag reflection coefficient and the permeability-surface area product using the Patlak equation. A matrix search approach is described, and the speed and convenience of this are compared with a commercially available gradient method. The results from both of these methods were different from those of a method reported by Reed, Townsley, and Taylor [Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 26): H1037-H1041, 1989]. It is shown that the Reed et al. method contains a systematic error. It is also shown that diffusion always plays an important role for transmembrane transport at the exit end of a membrane channel under all conditions of lymph flow rate and that the statement that diffusion becomes zero at high lymph flow rate depends on a mathematical definition of diffusion.

  14. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are essential in the treatment of infectious diseases. A better understanding of transport processes involved in drug disposition will improve the predictability of drug-drug interactions with consequences for drug response. Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are efflux transporters mediating the excretion of several antimicrobial drugs as well as other organic compounds into bile and urine, thereby contributing to drug disposition. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including their functional role in drug transport with a specific focus on antimicrobial drugs. The PubMed database was searched using the terms "MATE1," "MATE-2K," "MATE2," "SLC47A1," "SLC47A2," and "toxin extrusion protein" (up to June 2012). MATE proteins have been recognized as important transporters mediating the final excretion step of cationic drugs into bile and urine. These include the antiviral drugs acyclovir, amprenavir, and ganciclovir, the antibiotics cephalexin, cephradine and levofloxacin, as well as the antimalarial agents chloroquine and quinine. It is therefore important to enhance our understanding of the role of MATEs in drug extrusion with particular emphasis on the functional consequences of genetic variants on disposition of these antimicrobial drugs.

  15. A cell-based fluorescent glucose transporter assay for SGLT2 inhibitor discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption in the kidney, and currently, SGLT2 inhibitors are considered as promising hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. By constructing CHO cell lines that stably express the human SGLT2 transmembrane protein, along with a fluorescent glucose transporter assay that uses 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG as a glucose analog, we have developed a nonradioactive, cell-based assay for the discovery and characterization of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  16. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  17. Tungsten transport protein A (WtpA) in Pyrococcus furiosus: the first member of a new class of tungstate and molybdate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Krijger, Gerard C; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2006-09-01

    A novel tungstate and molybdate binding protein has been discovered from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This tungstate transport protein A (WtpA) is part of a new ABC transporter system selective for tungstate and molybdate. WtpA has very low sequence similarity with the earlier-characterized transport proteins ModA for molybdate and TupA for tungstate. Its structural gene is present in the genome of numerous archaea and some bacteria. The identification of this new tungstate and molybdate binding protein clarifies the mechanism of tungstate and molybdate transport in organisms that lack the known uptake systems associated with the ModA and TupA proteins, like many archaea. The periplasmic protein of this ABC transporter, WtpA (PF0080), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, WtpA was observed to bind tungstate (dissociation constant [K(D)] of 17 +/- 7 pM) and molybdate (K(D) of 11 +/- 5 nM) with a stoichiometry of 1.0 mol oxoanion per mole of protein. These low K(D) values indicate that WtpA has a higher affinity for tungstate than do ModA and TupA and an affinity for molybdate similar to that of ModA. A displacement titration of molybdate-saturated WtpA with tungstate showed that the tungstate effectively replaced the molybdate in the binding site of the protein.

  18. The human CFTR protein expressed in CHO cells activates aquaporin-3 in a cAMP-dependent pathway: study by digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2013-12-11

    The transmembrane water movements during cellular processes and their relationship to ionic channel activity remain largely unknown. As an example, in epithelial cells it was proposed that the movement of water could be directly linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein activity through a cAMP-stimulated aqueous pore, or be dependent on aquaporin. Here, we used digital holographic microscopy (DHM) an interferometric technique to quantify in situ the transmembrane water fluxes during the activity of the epithelial chloride channel, CFTR, measured by patch-clamp and iodide efflux techniques. We showed that the water transport measured by DHM is fully inhibited by the selective CFTR blocker CFTRinh172 and is absent in cells lacking CFTR. Of note, in cells expressing the mutated version of CFTR (F508del-CFTR), which mimics the most common genetic alteration encountered in cystic fibrosis, we also show that the water movement is profoundly altered but restored by pharmacological manipulation of F508del-CFTR-defective trafficking. Importantly, whereas activation of this endogenous water channel required a cAMP-dependent stimulation of CFTR, activation of CFTR or F508del-CFTR by two cAMP-independent CFTR activators, genistein and MPB91, failed to trigger water movements. Finally, using a specific small-interfering RNA against the endogenous aquaporin AQP3, the water transport accompanying CFTR activity decreased. We conclude that water fluxes accompanying CFTR activity are linked to AQP3 but not to a cAMP-stimulated aqueous pore in the CFTR protein.

  19. Lipid Bilayer Composition Affects Transmembrane Protein Orientation and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie D. Hickey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm membranes change in structure and composition upon ejaculation to undergo capacitation, a molecular transformation which enables spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction and be capable of fertilization. Changes to the membrane environment including lipid composition, specifically lipid microdomains, may be responsible for enabling capacitation. To study the effect of lipid environment on proteins, liposomes were created using lipids extracted from bull sperm membranes, with or without a protein (Na+ K+-ATPase or -amylase. Protein incorporation, function, and orientation were determined. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET confirmed protein inclusion in the lipid bilayer, and protein function was confirmed using a colourometric assay of phosphate production from ATP cleavage. In the native lipid liposomes, ATPase was oriented with the subunit facing the outer leaflet, while changing the lipid composition to 50% native lipids and 50% exogenous lipids significantly altered this orientation of Na+ K+-ATPase within the membranes.

  20. Combined Impact of low dose Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Field, and Homeopathic Remedy at low Dilution on the Transmembrane Transport of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadareishvili, G.

    2006-01-01

    Influence of different agents on the ionic homeostasis of the tumor cells has its specificity - transmembrane transport is faster and these cells are more sensitive to various agents. It is known fact that low doses of ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields (EMF) of certain frequency, and a number of homeopathic remedies produce stimulating effect in the cellular ionic homeostasis. The objective of present study was investigation of combined, simultaneous action of these three factors. The cell of Ehrlich carcinoma served as major material. With an aid of ion-selective electrodes the sum effect of the following factors was evaluated: low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy), EMF (45 Hz, 2 mT), and stimulated phosphoric acid (homeopathic preparation diluted at 10 -14 ). It was found that integral index of the ionic homeostasis during above action, was higher than after action of any of these factors separately. On the other hand, if dose of ionizing radiation was increased to 0.5 Gy, which is known to inhibit ionic transport, the sum effect was decreased. (author)

  1. Functional characterization of Citrus macrophylla BOR1 as a boron transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon, Paola; Aquea, Felipe; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2013-11-01

    Plants have evolved to develop an efficient system of boron uptake and transport using a range of efflux carriers named BOR proteins. In this work we isolated and characterized a boron transporter of citrus (Citrus macrophylla), which was named CmBOR1 for its high homology to AtBOR1. CmBOR1 has 4403 bp and 12 exons. Its coding region has 2145 bp and encodes for a protein of 714 amino acids. CmBOR1 possesses the molecular features of BORs such as an anion exchanger domain and the presence of 10 transmembrane domains. Functional analysis in yeast indicated that CmBOR1 has an efflux boron transporter activity, and transformants have increased tolerance to excess boron. CmBOR1 is expressed in leaves, stem and flowers and shows the greatest accumulation in roots. The transcript accumulation was significantly increased under boron deficiency conditions in shoots. In contrast, the accumulation of the transcript did not change in boron toxicity conditions. Finally, we observed that constitutive expression of CmBOR1 was able to increase tolerance to boron deficiency conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that CmBOR1 is a xylem loading boron transporter. Based on these results, it was determined that CmBOR1 encodes a boric acid/borate transporter involved in tolerance to boron deficiency in plants. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. The E5 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating ...

  3. How cholesterol interacts with proteins and lipids during its intracellular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Solanko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    as well as by non-vesicular sterol exchange between organelles. In this article, we will review recent progress in elucidating sterol-lipid and sterol-protein interactions contributing to proper sterol transport in living cells. We outline recent biophysical models of cholesterol distribution and dynamics...... for characterization of sterol-protein interactions and for monitoring intracellular sterol transport. Finally, we review recent work on the molecular mechanisms underlying lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol import into mammalian cells and describe the process of cellular cholesterol efflux. Overall, we emphasize how......Sterols, as cholesterol in mammalian cells and ergosterol in fungi, are indispensable molecules for proper functioning and nanoscale organization of the plasma membrane. Synthesis, uptake and efflux of cholesterol are regulated by a variety of protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions...

  4. Crystal structure of the Alcanivorax borkumensis YdaH transporter reveals an unusual topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Jani Reddy; Su, Chih-Chia; Delmar, Jared A.; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Kumar, Nitin; Chou, Tsung-Han; Long, Feng; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Yu, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    The potential of the folic acid biosynthesis pathway as a target for the development of antibiotics has been clinically validated. However, many pathogens have developed resistance to these antibiotics, prompting a re-evaluation of potential drug targets within the pathway. The ydaH gene of Alcanivorax borkumensis encodes an integral membrane protein of the AbgT family of transporters for which no structural information was available. Here we report the crystal structure of A. borkumensis YdaH, revealing a dimeric molecule with an architecture distinct from other families of transporters. YdaH is a bowl-shaped dimer with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm to halfway across the membrane bilayer. Each subunit of the transporter contains nine transmembrane helices and two hairpins that suggest a plausible pathway for substrate transport. Further analyses also suggest that YdaH could act as an antibiotic efflux pump and mediate bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs.

  5. TOPDOM: database of conservatively located domains and motifs in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Julia; Dobson, László; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2016-09-01

    The TOPDOM database-originally created as a collection of domains and motifs located consistently on the same side of the membranes in α-helical transmembrane proteins-has been updated and extended by taking into consideration consistently localized domains and motifs in globular proteins, too. By taking advantage of the recently developed CCTOP algorithm to determine the type of a protein and predict topology in case of transmembrane proteins, and by applying a thorough search for domains and motifs as well as utilizing the most up-to-date version of all source databases, we managed to reach a 6-fold increase in the size of the whole database and a 2-fold increase in the number of transmembrane proteins. TOPDOM database is available at http://topdom.enzim.hu The webpage utilizes the common Apache, PHP5 and MySQL software to provide the user interface for accessing and searching the database. The database itself is generated on a high performance computer. tusnady.gabor@ttk.mta.hu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Sequence Classification: 396576 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|15607335|ref|NP_214708.1| PROBABLE DRUGS-TRANSPORT... TRANSMEMBRANE ATP-BINDING PROTEIN ABC TRANSPORTER || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/15607335 ...

  7. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  8. Quantification of the Intracellular Life Time of Water Molecules to Measure Transport Rates of Human Aquaglyceroporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Madelene; Hernebring, Malin; Eriksson, Stefanie; Elbing, Karin; Geijer, Cecilia; Lasič, Samo; Dahl, Peter; Hansen, Jesper S; Topgaard, Daniel; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2017-12-01

    Orthodox aquaporins are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid diffusion of water, while aquaglyceroporins facilitate the diffusion of small uncharged molecules such as glycerol and arsenic trioxide. Aquaglyceroporins play important roles in human physiology, in particular for glycerol metabolism and arsenic detoxification. We have developed a unique system applying the strain of the yeast Pichia pastoris, where the endogenous aquaporins/aquaglyceroporins have been removed and human aquaglyceroporins AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9 are recombinantly expressed enabling comparative permeability measurements between the expressed proteins. Using a newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance approach based on measurement of the intracellular life time of water, we propose that human aquaglyceroporins are poor facilitators of water and that the water transport efficiency is similar to that of passive diffusion across native cell membranes. This is distinctly different from glycerol and arsenic trioxide, where high glycerol transport efficiency was recorded.

  9. The conserved glycine residues in the transmembrane domain of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein are not required for assembly and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Maofu; Kielian, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low pH-triggered fusion reaction mediated by the viral E1 protein. Both the E1 fusion peptide and transmembrane (TM) domain are essential for membrane fusion, but the functional requirements for the TM domain are poorly understood. Here we explored the role of the five TM domain glycine residues, including the highly conserved glycine pair at E1 residues 415/416. SFV mutants with alanine substitutions for individual or all five glycine residues (5G/A) showed growth kinetics and fusion pH dependence similar to those of wild-type SFV. Mutants with increasing substitution of glycine residues showed an increasingly more stringent requirement for cholesterol during fusion. The 5G/A mutant showed decreased fusion kinetics and extent in fluorescent lipid mixing assays. TM domain glycine residues thus are not required for efficient SFV fusion or assembly but can cause subtle effects on the properties of membrane fusion

  10. Hypercapnia modulates cAMP signalling and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid secretion in airway epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark J.; Saint‐Criq, Vinciane; Patel, Waseema; Ibrahim, Salam H.; Verdon, Bernard; Ward, Christopher; Garnett, James P.; Tarran, Robert; Cann, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Raised arterial blood CO2 (hypercapnia) is a feature of many lung diseases.CO2 has been shown to act as a cell signalling molecule in human cells, notably by influencing the levels of cell signalling second messengers: cAMP and Ca2+.Hypercapnia reduced cAMP‐stimulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid transport in Calu‐3 cells and primary human airway epithelia but did not affect cAMP‐regulated HCO3 − transport via pendrin or Na+/HCO3 − cotransporters.These results further support the role of CO2 as a cell signalling molecule and suggests CO2‐induced reductions in airway anion and fluid transport may impair innate defence mechanisms of the lungs. Abstract Hypercapnia is clinically defined as an arterial blood partial pressure of CO2 of above 40 mmHg and is a feature of chronic lung disease. In previous studies we have demonstrated that hypercapnia modulates agonist‐stimulated cAMP levels through effects on transmembrane adenylyl cyclase activity. In the airways, cAMP is known to regulate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)‐mediated anion and fluid secretion, which contributes to airway surface liquid homeostasis. The aim of the current work was to investigate if hypercapnia could modulate cAMP‐regulated ion and fluid transport in human airway epithelial cells. We found that acute exposure to hypercapnia significantly reduced forskolin‐stimulated elevations in intracellular cAMP as well as both adenosine‐ and forskolin‐stimulated increases in CFTR‐dependent transepithelial short‐circuit current, in polarised cultures of Calu‐3 human airway cells. This CO2‐induced reduction in anion secretion was not due to a decrease in HCO3 − transport given that neither a change in CFTR‐dependent HCO3 − efflux nor Na+/HCO3 − cotransporter‐dependent HCO3 − influx were CO2‐sensitive. Hypercapnia also reduced the volume of forskolin‐stimulated fluid

  11. Mutational analysis of PVX TGBp3 links subcellular accumulation and protein turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, H.-J.; Ye, C.-M.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2008-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp3 is required for virus cell-to-cell transport, has an N-terminal transmembrane domain, and a C-terminal cytosolic domain. In the absence of virus infection TGBp3:GFP is seen in the cortical and perinuclear ER. In PVX infected cells the TGBp3:GFP fusion is also seen in the nucleoplasm indicating that events during PVX infection trigger entry into the nucleus. Mutational analysis failed to identify a nuclear targeting domain. Mutations inhibiting TGBp3 association with the ER and inhibiting virus movement did not block TGBp3:GFP in the nucleoplasm. A mutation disrupting the N-terminal transmembrane domain of TGBp3 caused the fusion to accumulate in the nucleus indicating that nuclear import is regulated by ER interactions. Tunicamycin, an ER-stress inducing chemical, caused lower levels of GFP and TGBp3:GFP to accumulate in virus infected protoplasts. MG115 and MG132 were used to demonstrate that wild-type and mutant TGBp3:GFP fusions were degraded by the 26S proteasome. These observations are consistent with an ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggesting that PVX TGBp3, similar to aberrant ER proteins, is translocate to the cytoplasm for degradation. Nuclear accumulation of mutant and wild-type TGBp3:GFP is independent of other PVX proteins and may be another feature of an ERAD pathway

  12. Role of loop L5-6 connecting transmembrane segments M5 and M6 in biogenesis and functioning of yeast Pma1 H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The L5-6 loop is a short extracytoplasmic stretch (714-DNSLDID) connecting transmembrane segments M5 and M6 and forming along with segments M4 and M8 the core through which cations are transported by H+-, Ca2+-, K+,Na+-, H+,K+-, and other P2-ATPases. To study structure-function relationships within this loop of the yeast plasma membrane Pma1 H+-ATPase, alanine- and cysteine-scanning mutagenesis has been employed. Ala and Cys substitutions for the most conserved residue (Leu717) led to complete block in biogenesis preventing the enzyme from reaching secretory vesicles. The Ala replacement at Asp714 led to five-fold decrease in the mutant expression and loss of its activity, while the Cys substitution blocked biogenesis completely. Replacements of other residues did not lead to loss of enzymatic activity. Additional replacements were made for Asp714 and Asp720 (Asp®Asn/Glu). Of the substitutions made at Asp714, only D714N partially restored the mutant enzyme biogenesis and functioning. However, all mutant enzymes with substituted Asp720 were active. The expressed mutants (34-95% of the wild-type level) showed activity high enough (35-108%) to be analyzed in detail. One of the mutants (I719A) had three-fold reduced coupling ratio between ATP hydrolysis and H+ transport; however, the I719C mutation was rather indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme. Thus, substitutions at two of the seven positions seriously affected biogenesis and/or functioning of the enzyme. Taken together, these results suggest that the M5-M6 loop residues play an important role in protein stability and function, and they are probably responsible for proper arrangement of transmembrane segments M5 and M6 and other domains of the enzyme. This might also be important for the regulation of the enzyme.

  13. Identification and Characterization of RibN, a Novel Family of Riboflavin Transporters from Rhizobium leguminosarum and Other Proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Angulo, Víctor A.; Bonomi, Hernán R.; Posadas, Diana M.; Serer, María I.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Zorreguieta, Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobia are symbiotic bacteria able to invade and colonize the roots of legume plants, inducing the formation of nodules, where bacteria reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Riboflavin availability influences the capacity of rhizobia to survive in the rhizosphere and to colonize roots. In this study, we identified the RL1692 gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum downstream of a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch. RL1692 encodes a putative transmembrane permease with two EamA domains. The presence of an FMN riboswitch regulating a transmembrane protein is usually observed in riboflavin transporters, suggesting that RL1692 may be involved in riboflavin uptake. The product of RL1692, which we named RibN, is conserved in members of the alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria and shares no significant identity with any riboflavin transporter previously identified. In this work, we show that RibN is localized in the membrane cellular fraction and its expression is downregulated by riboflavin. By heterologous expression in a Brucella abortus mutant auxotrophic for riboflavin, we demonstrate that RibN possesses flavin transport activity. Similarly, we also demonstrate that RibN orthologues from Ochrobactrum anthropi and Vibrio cholerae (which lacks the FMN riboswitch) are able to transport riboflavin. An R. leguminosarum ribN null mutant exhibited lower nodule occupancy levels in pea plants during symbiosis assays. Thus, we propose that RibN and its homologues belong to a novel family of riboflavin transporters. This work provides the first experimental description of riboflavin transporters in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23935051

  14. Cytosol-dependent membrane fusion in ER, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore assembly: biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikova, Elvira R; Melikov, Kamran; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope rearrangements after mitosis are often studied in the reconstitution system based on Xenopus egg extract. In our recent work we partially replaced the membrane vesicles in the reconstitution mix with protein-free liposomes to explore the relative contributions of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. Here we discuss our finding that cytosolic proteins mediate fusion between membranes lacking functional transmembrane proteins and the role of membrane fusion in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope reorganization. Cytosol-dependent liposome fusion has allowed us to restore, without adding transmembrane nucleoporins, functionality of nuclear pores, their spatial distribution and chromatin decondensation in nuclei formed at insufficient amounts of membrane material and characterized by only partial decondensation of chromatin and lack of nuclear transport. Both the mechanisms and the biological implications of the discovered coupling between spatial distribution of nuclear pores, chromatin decondensation and nuclear transport are discussed.

  15. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of P30, the transmembrane domain of pertactin, an autotransporter from Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanshi; Black, Isobel; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2007-01-01

    P30, the transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from B. pertussis has been crystallized after refolding in vitro. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic data are reported. P30, the 32 kDa transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from Bordetella pertussis, is supposed to form a β-barrel inserted into the outer membrane for the translocation of the passenger domain. P30 was cloned and expressed in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. After refolding and purification, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 292 K. The crystals diffract to a resolution limit of 3.5 Å using synchrotron radiation and belong to the hexagonal space group P6 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.27, c = 134.43 Å

  17. Interaction between a plasma membrane-localized ankyrin-repeat protein ITN1 and a nuclear protein RTV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hikaru [Department of Bioproduction, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri-shi, Hokkaido 093-2422 (Japan); Sakata, Keiko; Kusumi, Kensuke [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Iba, Koh, E-mail: koibascb@kyushu-u.org [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ITN1, a plasma membrane ankyrin protein, interacts with a nuclear DNA-binding protein RTV1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear transport of RTV1 is partially inhibited by interaction with ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RTV1 can promote the nuclear localization of ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both overexpression of RTV1 and the lack of ITN1 increase salicylic acids sensitivity in plants. -- Abstract: The increased tolerance to NaCl 1 (ITN1) protein is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized protein involved in responses to NaCl stress in Arabidopsis. The predicted structure of ITN1 is composed of multiple transmembrane regions and an ankyrin-repeat domain that is known to mediate protein-protein interactions. To elucidate the molecular functions of ITN1, we searched for interacting partners using a yeast two-hybrid assay, and a nuclear-localized DNA-binding protein, RTV1, was identified as a candidate. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that RTV1 interacted with ITN1 at the PM and nuclei in vivo. RTV1 tagged with red fluorescent protein localized to nuclei and ITN1 tagged with green fluorescent protein localized to PM; however, both proteins localized to both nuclei and the PM when co-expressed. These findings suggest that RTV1 and ITN1 regulate the subcellular localization of each other.

  18. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  20. Chaperone turns gatekeeper: PCBP2 and DMT1 form an iron-transport pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2014-08-15

    How is cellular iron (Fe) uptake and efflux regulated in mammalian cells? In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Yanatori et al. report for the first time that a member of the emerging PCBP [poly(rC)-binding protein] Fe-chaperone family, PCBP2, physically interacts with the major Fe importer DMT1 (divalent metal transporter 1) and the Fe exporter FPN1 (ferroportin 1). In both cases, the interaction of the Fe transporter with PCBP2 is Fe-dependent. Interestingly, another PCBP Fe-chaperone, PCBP1, does not appear to bind to DMT1. Strikingly, the PCBP2-DMT1 interaction is required for DMT1-dependent cellular Fe uptake, suggesting that, in addition to functioning as an intracellular Fe chaperone, PCBP2 may be a molecular 'gate- keeper' for transmembrane Fe transport. These new data hint at the possibility that PCBP2 may be a component of a yet-to-be-described Fe-transport metabolon that engages in Fe channelling to and from Fe transporters and intracellular sites.

  1. Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří

    2016-11-07

    Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell-free expression and stable isotope labelling strategies for membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhanifar, Solmaz; Reckel, Sina; Junge, Friederike; Schwarz, Daniel; Kai, Lei; Karbyshev, Mikhail; Loehr, Frank; Bernhard, Frank; Doetsch, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins are highly underrepresented in the structural data-base and remain one of the most challenging targets for functional and structural elucidation. Their roles in transport and cellular communication, furthermore, often make over-expression toxic to their host, and their hydrophobicity and structural complexity make isolation and reconstitution a complicated task, especially in cases where proteins are targeted to inclusion bodies. The development of cell-free expression systems provides a very interesting alternative to cell-based systems, since it circumvents many problems such as toxicity or necessity for the transportation of the synthesized protein to the membrane, and constitutes the only system that allows for direct production of membrane proteins in membrane-mimetic environments which may be suitable for liquid state NMR measurements. The unique advantages of the cell-free expression system, including strong expression yields as well as the direct incorporation of almost any combination of amino acids with very little metabolic scrambling, has allowed for the development of a wide-array of isotope labelling techniques which facilitate structural investigations of proteins whose spectral congestion and broad line-widths may have earlier rendered them beyond the scope of NMR. Here we explore various labelling strategies in conjunction with cell-free developments, with a particular focus on α-helical transmembrane proteins which benefit most from such methods.

  3. Modeling structure of G protein-coupled receptors in huan genome

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-26

    G protein-coupled receptors (or GPCRs) are integral transmembrane proteins responsible to various cellular signal transductions. Human GPCR proteins are encoded by 5% of human genes but account for the targets of 40% of the FDA approved drugs. Due to difficulties in crystallization, experimental structure determination remains extremely difficult for human GPCRs, which have been a major barrier in modern structure-based drug discovery. We proposed a new hybrid protocol, GPCR-I-TASSER, to construct GPCR structure models by integrating experimental mutagenesis data with ab initio transmembrane-helix assembly simulations, assisted by the predicted transmembrane-helix interaction networks. The method was tested in recent community-wide GPCRDock experiments and constructed models with a root mean square deviation 1.26 Å for Dopamine-3 and 2.08 Å for Chemokine-4 receptors in the transmembrane domain regions, which were significantly closer to the native than the best templates available in the PDB. GPCR-I-TASSER has been applied to model all 1,026 putative GPCRs in the human genome, where 923 are found to have correct folds based on the confidence score analysis and mutagenesis data comparison. The successfully modeled GPCRs contain many pharmaceutically important families that do not have previously solved structures, including Trace amine, Prostanoids, Releasing hormones, Melanocortins, Vasopressin and Neuropeptide Y receptors. All the human GPCR models have been made publicly available through the GPCR-HGmod database at http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/GPCR-HGmod/ The results demonstrate new progress on genome-wide structure modeling of transmembrane proteins which should bring useful impact on the effort of GPCR-targeted drug discovery.

  4. Rapid Ammonia Gas Transport Accounts for Futile Transmembrane Cycling under NH3/NH4+ Toxicity in Plant Roots1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4+ cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4+ toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4+) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope 13N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4+ ion. Influx of 13NH3/13NH4+, which exceeded 200 µmol g–1 h–1, was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4+), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g–1 h–1). Efflux of 13NH3/13NH4+ responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions. PMID:24134887

  5. β-Klotho as a Negative Regulator of the Peptide Transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abousaab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: β-Klotho, a transmembrane protein expressed in several tissues including the brain and the kidney, is critically important for inhibition of 1,25(OH2D3 formation by FGF23. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could be cleaved off, thus being released into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Soluble klotho is a β-glucuronidase participating in the regulation of several ion channels and carriers. The present study explored the effect of β-Klotho protein on the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Methods: cRNA encoding PEPT1 or PEPT2 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes and glycine-glycine (2 mM-induced inward current (IGly taken as measure of glycine-glycine transport. Measurements were made without or with prior 24 h treatment with soluble β-Klotho protein (30 ng/ml in the absence and presence of β-glucuronidase inhibitor D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone monohydrate (DSAL,10 µM. Ussing chamber experiments were employed to determine electrogenic peptide transport across intestinal epithelia of klotho deficient (kl-/- and corresponding wild type (kl+/+ mice. Results: IGly was observed in PEPT1 and in PEPT2 expressing oocytes but not in water injected oocytes. In both, PEPT1 and PEPT2 expressing oocytes IGly was significantly decreased by treatment with soluble β-Klotho protein. As shown for PEPT1, β-klotho protein decreased significantly the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the affinity of the carrier. The effect of β-Klotho on PEPT1 was reversed by DSAL. Intestinal IGly was significantly larger in kl-/- than in kl+/+ mice. Conclusion: β-Klotho participates in the regulation of the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2.

  6. Structural basis for TatA oligomerization: an NMR study of Escherichia coli TatA dimeric structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available Many proteins are transported across lipid membranes by protein translocation systems in living cells. The twin-arginine transport (Tat system identified in bacteria and plant chloroplasts is a unique system that transports proteins across membranes in their fully-folded states. Up to date, the detailed molecular mechanism of this process remains largely unclear. The Escherichia coli Tat system consists of three essential transmembrane proteins: TatA, TatB and TatC. Among them, TatB and TatC form a tight complex and function in substrate recognition. The major component TatA contains a single transmembrane helix followed by an amphipathic helix, and is suggested to form the translocation pore via self-oligomerization. Since the TatA oligomer has to accommodate substrate proteins of various sizes and shapes, the process of its assembly stands essential for understanding the translocation mechanism. A structure model of TatA oligomer was recently proposed based on NMR and EPR observations, revealing contacts between the transmembrane helices from adjacent subunits. Herein we report the construction and stabilization of a dimeric TatA, as well as the structure determination by solution NMR spectroscopy. In addition to more extensive inter-subunit contacts between the transmembrane helices, we were also able to observe interactions between neighbouring amphipathic helices. The side-by-side packing of the amphipathic helices extends the solvent-exposed hydrophilic surface of the protein, which might be favourable for interactions with substrate proteins. The dimeric TatA structure offers more detailed information of TatA oligomeric interface and provides new insights on Tat translocation mechanism.

  7. A Novel Superfamily of Transporters for Allantoin and Other Oxo Derivatives of Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Marcelo; Catoni, Elisabetta; Ludewig, Uwe; Hilpert, Melanie; Schneider, Anja; Kunze, Reinhard; Tegeder, Mechthild; Frommer, Wolf Bernd; Schumacher, Karin

    2002-01-01

    A wide spectrum of soil heterocyclic nitrogen compounds are potential nutrients for plants. Here, it is shown that Arabidopsis plants are able to use allantoin as sole nitrogen source. By functional complementation of a yeast mutant defective in allantoin uptake, an Arabidopsis transporter, AtUPS1 (Arabidopsis thaliana ureide permease 1), was identified. AtUPS1 belongs to a novel superfamily of plant membrane proteins with five open reading frames in Arabidopsis (identity, 64 to 82%). UPS proteins have 10 putative transmembrane domains with a large cytosolic central domain containing a “Walker A” motif. Transport of 14C-labeled allantoin by AtUPS1 in yeast exhibited saturation kinetics (Km ∼ 52 μM), was dependent on Glc and a proton gradient, and was stimulated by acidic pH. AtUPS1 transports uric acid and xanthine, besides allantoin, but not adenine. Protons are cosubstrates in allantoin transport by AtUPS1, as demonstrated by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In plants, AtUPS1 gene expression was dependent on the nitrogen source. Therefore, AtUPS1 presumably is involved in the uptake of allantoin and other purine degradation products when primary sources are limiting. PMID:11971139

  8. Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.

    1987-01-01

    Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of [ 14 C]urate and p-[ 3 H]aminohippurate ([ 3 H]PAH) in rabbit S 2 proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and γ-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit γ-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and γ-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and γ-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S 2 proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH

  9. Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Puneet; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.; Whitelegge, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein’s native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain post-translational modifications that must be characterized if the covalent primary structure of a membrane protein is to be defined. This goal has been achieved using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with low-resolution mass analyzers for intact protein profiling, and high-resolution instruments for top-down experiments, toward complete covalent primary structure information. In top-down, the intact protein profile is supplemented by gas-phase fragmentation of the intact protein, including its transmembrane regions, using collisionally activated and/or electroncapture dissociation (CAD/ECD) to yield sequence-dependent high-resolution MS information. Dedicated liquid chromatography systems with aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were developed allowing us to demonstrate that polytopic integral membrane proteins are amenable to ESI-MS analysis, including top-down measurements. Covalent post-translational modifications are localized regardless of their position in transmembrane domains. Top-down measurements provide a more detail oriented high-resolution description of post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity for enhanced understanding beyond genomic translation. PMID:21982782

  10. Identification of Residues in the Lipopolysaccharide ABC Transporter That Coordinate ATPase Activity with Extractor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brent W; Owens, Tristan W; Orabella, Matthew J; Davis, Rebecca M; May, Janine M; Trauger, Sunia A; Kahne, Daniel; Ruiz, Natividad

    2016-10-18

    The surface of most Gram-negative bacteria is covered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), creating a permeability barrier against toxic molecules, including many antimicrobials. To assemble LPS on their surface, Gram-negative bacteria must extract newly synthesized LPS from the inner membrane, transport it across the aqueous periplasm, and translocate it across the outer membrane. The LptA to -G proteins assemble into a transenvelope complex that transports LPS from the inner membrane to the cell surface. The Lpt system powers LPS transport from the inner membrane by using a poorly characterized ATP-binding cassette system composed of the ATPase LptB and the transmembrane domains LptFG. Here, we characterize a cluster of residues in the groove region of LptB that is important for controlling LPS transport. We also provide the first functional characterization of LptFG and identify their coupling helices that interact with the LptB groove. Substitutions at conserved residues in these coupling helices compromise both the assembly and function of the LptB 2 FG complex. Defects in LPS transport conferred by alterations in the LptFG coupling helices can be rescued by changing a residue in LptB that is adjacent to functionally important residues in the groove region. This suppression is achieved by increasing the ATPase activity of the LptB 2 FG complex. Taken together, these data identify a specific binding site in LptB for the coupling helices of LptFG that is responsible for coupling of ATP hydrolysis by LptB with LptFG function to achieve LPS extraction. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is synthesized at the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and transported across several compartments to the cell surface, where it forms a barrier that protects these organisms from antibiotics. The LptB 2 FG proteins form an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that uses energy from ATP hydrolysis in the cytoplasm to facilitate extraction of LPS from the outer face of the

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of P30, the transmembrane domain of pertactin, an autotransporter from Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yanshi; Black, Isobel; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Isaacs, Neil W., E-mail: n.isaacs@chem.gla.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry and WestChem, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    P30, the transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from B. pertussis has been crystallized after refolding in vitro. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic data are reported. P30, the 32 kDa transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from Bordetella pertussis, is supposed to form a β-barrel inserted into the outer membrane for the translocation of the passenger domain. P30 was cloned and expressed in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. After refolding and purification, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 292 K. The crystals diffract to a resolution limit of 3.5 Å using synchrotron radiation and belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.27, c = 134.43 Å.

  12. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by membrane transport protein, Mhp1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Katie J; Jackson, Scott M; Brueckner, Florian; Patching, Simon G; Beckstein, Oliver; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Geng, Tian; Weyand, Simone; Drew, David; Lanigan, Joseph; Sharples, David J; Sansom, Mark SP; Iwata, So; Fishwick, Colin WG; Johnson, A Peter; Cameron, Alexander D; Henderson, Peter JF

    2014-01-01

    The hydantoin transporter Mhp1 is a sodium-coupled secondary active transport protein of the nucleobase-cation-symport family and a member of the widespread 5-helix inverted repeat superfamily of transporters. The structure of Mhp1 was previously solved in three different conformations providing insight into the molecular basis of the alternating access mechanism. Here, we elucidate detailed events of substrate binding, through a combination of crystallography, molecular dynamics, site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical/biophysical assays, and the design and synthesis of novel ligands. We show precisely where 5-substituted hydantoin substrates bind in an extended configuration at the interface of the bundle and hash domains. They are recognised through hydrogen bonds to the hydantoin moiety and the complementarity of the 5-substituent for a hydrophobic pocket in the protein. Furthermore, we describe a novel structure of an intermediate state of the protein with the external thin gate locked open by an inhibitor, 5-(2-naphthylmethyl)-L-hydantoin, which becomes a substrate when leucine 363 is changed to an alanine. We deduce the molecular events that underlie acquisition and transport of a ligand by Mhp1. PMID:24952894

  13. Low rate doses effects of gamma radiation on glycoproteins of transmembrane junctions in fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, J.E.; Caceres, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Glycoproteins of trans-membrane junctions are molecules that help to bind cells with the extracellular matrix. Integrins are the most important trans-membrane molecules among others. The damage of gamma radiation on those proteins could be an important early event that causes membrane abnormalities which may lead to cell malfunction and cancer induced by radiation due to cell dissociation. Randomized blocks with 3 repetitions of mouse embryo fibroblast cultures, were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma rays, during 20 days. Biological damage to glycoproteins and integrins was evaluated by cellular growth and fibroblast proliferative capacity. Integrins damage was studied by isolation by column immunoaffinity chromatography migrated on SDS-Page under reducing and non reducing conditions, and inhibition of integrins extracellular matrix adhesion by monoclonal antibodies effect. The dose/rate (0.05 Gy/day-0.2 Gy/day) of gamma given to cells did not show damage evidence on glycoproteins and integrins. If damage happened, it was repaired by cells very soon, was delayed by continuous cellular division or by glycoproteins characteristic of being multiple extracellular ligatures. Bio effects became more evident with an irradiation time greater than 20 days or a high dose/rate. (authors). 6 refs

  14. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVKU-1bMC33) susceptible to rimantadine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Lisa M.; Pacyniak, Erik; Miller, Jean-Marie; Hill, M. Sarah; Stephens, Edward B.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV KU-1bMC33 in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV M2 ) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV KU-1bMC33 ) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV VpuA19H replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV KU-1bMC33 . This SHIV VpuA19H virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV M2 . Electron microscopic examination of SHIV VpuA19H -infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV M2 -infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the alteration of one amino acid and provide

  15. RECOVERY ACT - Thylakoid Assembly and Folded Protein Transport by the Tat Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabney-Smith, Carole [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Assembly of functional photosystems complete with necessary intrinsic (membrane-bound) and extrinsic proteins requires the function of at least 3 protein transport pathways in thylakoid membranes. Our research focuses on one of those pathways, a unique and essential protein transport pathway found in the chloroplasts of plants, bacteria, and some archaebacteria, the Twin arginine translocation (Tat) system. The chloroplast Tat (cpTat) system is thought to be responsible for the proper location of ~50% of thylakoid lumen proteins, several of which are necessary for proper photosystem assembly, maintenance, and function. Specifically, cpTat systems are unique because they transport fully folded and assembled proteins across ion tight membranes using only three membrane components, Tha4, Hcf106, and cpTatC, and the protonmotive force generated by photosynthesis. Despite the importance of the cpTat system in plants, the mechanism of transport of a folded precursor is not well known. Our long-term goal is to investigate the role protein transport systems have on organelle biogenesis, particularly the assembly of membrane protein complexes in thylakoids of chloroplasts. The objective of this proposal is to correlate structural changes in the membrane-bound cpTat component, Tha4, to the mechanism of translocation of folded-precursor substrates across the membrane bilayer by using a cysteine accessibility and crosslinking approach. Our central hypothesis is that the precursor passes through a proteinaceous pore of assembled Tha4 protomers that have undergone a conformational or topological change in response to transport. This research is predicated upon the observations that Tha4 exists in molar excess in the membrane relative to the other cpTat components; its regulated assembly to the precursor-bound receptor; and our data showing oligomerization of Tha4 into very large complexes in response to transport. Our rationale for these studies is that understanding cp

  16. The role of membrane microdomains in transmembrane signaling through the epithelial glycoprotein Gp140/CDCP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Stacy M.; Dunn, Clarence A.; Brown, Tod A.; Wayner, Elizabeth E.; Carter, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) via integrin adhesion receptors initiates signaling cascades leading to changes in cell behavior. While integrin clustering is necessary to initiate cell attachment to the matrix, additional membrane components are necessary to mediate the transmembrane signals and the cell adhesion response that alter downstream cell behavior. Many of these signaling components reside in glycosphingolipid-rich and cholesterol-rich membrane domains such as Tetraspanin Enriched Microdomains (TEMs)/Glycosynapse 3 and Detergent-Resistant Microdomains (DRMs), also known as lipid rafts. In the following article, we will review examples of how components in these membrane microdomains modulate integrin adhesion after initial attachment to the ECM. Additionally, we will present data on a novel adhesion-responsive transmembrane glycoprotein Gp140/CUB Domain Containing Protein 1, which clusters in epithelial cell-cell contacts. Gp140 can then be phosphorylated by Src Family Kinases at tyrosine 734 in response to outside-in signals- possibly through interactions involving the extracellular CUB domains. Data presented here suggests that outside-in signals through Gp140 in cell-cell contacts assemble membrane clusters that associate with membrane microdomains to recruit and activate SFKs. Active SFKs then mediate phosphorylation of Gp140, SFK and PKCδ with Gp140 acting as a transmembrane scaffold for these kinases. We propose that the clustering of Gp140 and signaling components in membrane microdomains in cell-cell contacts contributes to changes in cell behavior. PMID:18269919

  17. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  18. Numerical calculation on a two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral protein movement in plasma membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Tomonari; Okumoto, Atsushi; Goto, Hitoshi; Sekino, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    A two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral movement of transmembrane proteins in plasma membranes has been observed by using single-molecule experiments. A nested double-compartment model where large compartments are divided into several smaller ones has been proposed in order to explain this observation. These compartments are considered to be delimited by membrane-skeleton "fences" and membrane-protein "pickets" bound to the fences. We perform numerical simulations of a master equation using a simple two-dimensional lattice model to investigate the heterogeneous diffusion dynamics behavior of transmembrane proteins within plasma membranes. We show that the experimentally observed two-step subdiffusion process can be described using fence and picket models combined with decreased local diffusivity of transmembrane proteins in the vicinity of the pickets. This allows us to explain the two-step subdiffusion behavior without explicitly introducing nested double compartments.

  19. Molecular determinants of transport stimulation of EAAT2 are located at interface between the trimerization and substrate transport domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ole V; Liberato, José L; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Dos Santos, Wagner F; Fontana, Andréia C K

    2015-04-01

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) regulate glutamatergic signal transmission by clearing extracellular glutamate. Dysfunction of these transporters has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders. Previous studies have shown that venom from the spider Parawixia bistriata and a purified compound (Parawixin1) stimulate EAAT2 activity and protect retinal tissue from ischemic damage. In the present study, the EAAT2 subtype specificity of this compound was explored, employing chimeric proteins between EAAT2 and EAAT3 transporter subtypes and mutants to characterize the structural region targeted by the compound. This identified a critical residue (Histidine-71 in EAAT2 and Serine-45 in EAAT3) in transmembrane domain 2 (TM2) to be important for the selectivity between EAAT2 and EAAT3 and for the activity of the venom. Using the identified residue in TM2 as a structural anchor, several neighboring amino acids within TM5 and TM8 were identified to also be important for the activity of the venom. This structural domain of the transporter lies at the interface of the rigid trimerization domain and the central substrate-binding transport domain. Our studies suggest that the mechanism of glutamate transport enhancement involves an interaction with the transporter that facilitates the movement of the transport domain. We identified a domain (purple star) in the glutamate transporter EAAT2 that is important for transport stimulation through a spider venom, and suggest a mechanism for enhanced transporter function through facilitated substrate translocation (arrow). Because the dysfunction of glutamate transporters is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, understanding the mechanisms of enhanced transport could have therapeutic implications. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Rate and Regulation of Copper Transport by Human Copper Transporter 1 (hCTR1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryon, Edward B.; Molloy, Shannon A.; Ivy, Kristin; Yu, Huijun; Kaplan, Jack H.

    2013-01-01

    Human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) is a homotrimer of a 190-amino acid monomer having three transmembrane domains believed to form a pore for copper permeation through the plasma membrane. The hCTR1-mediated copper transport mechanism is not well understood, nor has any measurement been made of the rate at which copper ions are transported by hCTR1. In this study, we estimated the rate of copper transport by the hCTR1 trimer in cultured cells using 64Cu uptake assays and quantification of plasma membrane hCTR1. For endogenous hCTR1, we estimated a turnover number of about 10 ions/trimer/s. When overexpressed in HEK293 cells, a second transmembrane domain mutant of hCTR1 (H139R) had a 3-fold higher Km value and a 4-fold higher turnover number than WT. Truncations of the intracellular C-terminal tail and an AAA substitution of the putative metal-binding HCH C-terminal tripeptide (thought to be required for transport) also exhibited elevated transport rates and Km values when compared with WT hCTR1. Unlike WT hCTR1, H139R and the C-terminal mutants did not undergo regulatory endocytosis in elevated copper. hCTR1 mutants combining methionine substitutions that block transport (M150L,M154L) on the extracellular side of the pore and the high transport H139R or AAA intracellular side mutations exhibited the blocked transport of M150L,M154L, confirming that Cu+ first interacts with the methionines during permeation. Our results show that hCTR1 elements on the intracellular side of the hCTR1 pore, including the carboxyl tail, are not essential for permeation, but serve to regulate the rate of copper entry. PMID:23658018

  1. ETMB-RBF: discrimination of metal-binding sites in electron transporters based on RBF networks with PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Wu, Sheng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose and is a very important biological process in living cell. As cells do cellular respiration, they need a pathway to store and transport electrons, the electron transport chain. The function of the electron transport chain is to produce a trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient as a result of oxidation-reduction reactions. In these oxidation-reduction reactions in electron transport chains, metal ions play very important role as electron donor and acceptor. For example, Fe ions are in complex I and complex II, and Cu ions are in complex IV. Therefore, to identify metal-binding sites in electron transporters is an important issue in helping biologists better understand the workings of the electron transport chain. We propose a method based on Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) profiles and significant amino acid pairs to identify metal-binding residues in electron transport proteins. We have selected a non-redundant set of 55 metal-binding electron transport proteins as our dataset. The proposed method can predict metal-binding sites in electron transport proteins with an average 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 93.2% and 93.1% for metal-binding cysteine and histidine, respectively. Compared with the general metal-binding predictor from A. Passerini et al., the proposed method can improve over 9% of sensitivity, and 14% specificity on the independent dataset in identifying metal-binding cysteines. The proposed method can also improve almost 76% sensitivity with same specificity in metal-binding histidine, and MCC is also improved from 0.28 to 0.88. We have developed a novel approach based on PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs for identifying metal-binding sites from electron transport proteins. The proposed approach achieved a significant improvement with independent test set of metal-binding electron transport proteins.

  2. Students' Conceptions of Water Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang; Schonborn, Konrad J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding diffusion of water into and out of the cell through osmosis is fundamental to the learning and teaching of biology. Although this process is thought of as occurring directly across the lipid bilayer, the majority of water transport is actually mediated by specialised transmembrane water-channels called aquaporins. This study…

  3. Transport of soluble proteins through the Golgi occurs by diffusion via continuities across cisternae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznoussenko, Galina V; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Rizzo, Riccardo; Polishchuk, Roman; Martella, Oliviano; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Fusella, Aurora; Spaar, Alexander; Sallese, Michele; Capestrano, Maria Grazia; Pavelka, Margit; Vos, Matthijn R; Rikers, Yuri GM; Helms, Volkhard; Mironov, Alexandre A; Luini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of transport through the Golgi complex is not completely understood, insofar as no single transport mechanism appears to account for all of the observations. Here, we compare the transport of soluble secretory proteins (albumin and α1-antitrypsin) with that of supramolecular cargoes (e.g., procollagen) that are proposed to traverse the Golgi by compartment progression–maturation. We show that these soluble proteins traverse the Golgi much faster than procollagen while moving through the same stack. Moreover, we present kinetic and morphological observations that indicate that albumin transport occurs by diffusion via intercisternal continuities. These data provide evidence for a transport mechanism that applies to a major class of secretory proteins and indicate the co-existence of multiple intra-Golgi trafficking modes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02009.001 PMID:24867214

  4. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YER081W, YDR105C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDR105C TMS1 Vacuolar membrane protein of unknown function that is conserved in mammals; predicted to contai...tion that is conserved in mammals; predicted to contain eleven transmembrane heli

  5. Up-Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 by ß-Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed Warsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Klotho, a transmembrane protein expressed in chorioid plexus of the brain, kidney, and several other tissues, is required for inhibition of 1,25(OH2D3 formation by FGF23. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could be cleaved off, thus being released into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. At least in part by exerting β-glucuronidase activity, soluble klotho regulates several ion channels and carriers. Klotho protein deficiency accelerates the appearance of age related disorders including neurodegeneration and muscle wasting and eventually leads to premature death. The present study explored the effect of Klotho protein on the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 (SLC1A3 and EAAT2 (SLC1A2, Na+ coupled carriers clearing excitatory amino acids from the synaptic cleft and thus participating in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Methods: cRNA encoding EAAT1 or EAAT2 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes and glutamate (2 mM-induced inward current (IGlu taken as measure of glutamate transport. Measurements were made without or with prior 24 h treatment with soluble ß-Klotho protein (30 ng/ml in the absence and presence of β-glucuronidase inhibitor D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone monohydrate (DSAL,10 µM. Results: IGlu was observed in EAAT1 and in EAAT2 expressing oocytes but not in water injected oocytes. In both, EAAT1 and EAAT2 expressing oocytes IGlu was significantly increased by treatment with soluble ß-Klotho protein, an effect reversed by DSAL. Treatment with ß-klotho protein increased significantly the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the affinity of the carriers. Conclusion: ß-Klotho up-regulates the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 and thus participates in the regulation of neuronal excitation.

  6. Comparative analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2016-09-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they all have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity arose in Leptospira correlating to progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Structural, Bioinformatic, and In Vivo Analyses of Two Treponema pallidum Lipoproteins Reveal a Unique TRAP Transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Goldberg, Martin; Schuck, Peter; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V. (NIH); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-25

    Treponema pallidum, the bacterial agent of syphilis, is predicted to encode one tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter (TRAP-T). TRAP-Ts typically employ a periplasmic substrate-binding protein (SBP) to deliver the cognate ligand to the transmembrane symporter. Herein, we demonstrate that the genes encoding the putative TRAP-T components from T. pallidum, tp0957 (the SBP), and tp0958 (the symporter), are in an operon with an uncharacterized third gene, tp0956. We determined the crystal structure of recombinant Tp0956; the protein is trimeric and perforated by a pore. Part of Tp0956 forms an assembly similar to those of 'tetratricopeptide repeat' (TPR) motifs. The crystal structure of recombinant Tp0957 was also determined; like the SBPs of other TRAP-Ts, there are two lobes separated by a cleft. In these other SBPs, the cleft binds a negatively charged ligand. However, the cleft of Tp0957 has a strikingly hydrophobic chemical composition, indicating that its ligand may be substantially different and likely hydrophobic. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant versions of Tp0956 and Tp0957 established that these proteins associate avidly. This unprecedented interaction was confirmed for the native molecules using in vivo cross-linking experiments. Finally, bioinformatic analyses suggested that this transporter exemplifies a new subfamily of TPATs (TPR-protein-associated TRAP-Ts) that require the action of a TPR-containing accessory protein for the periplasmic transport of a potentially hydrophobic ligand(s).

  8. RosettaTMH: a method for membrane protein structure elucidation combining EPR distance restraints with assembly of transmembrane helices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leaver-Fay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins make up approximately one third of all proteins, and they play key roles in a plethora of physiological processes. However, membrane proteins make up less than 2% of experimentally determined structures, despite significant advances in structure determination methods, such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy. One potential alternative means of structure elucidation is to combine computational methods with experimental EPR data. In 2011, Hirst and others introduced RosettaEPR and demonstrated that this approach could be successfully applied to fold soluble proteins. Furthermore, few computational methods for de novo folding of integral membrane proteins have been presented. In this work, we present RosettaTMH, a novel algorithm for structure prediction of helical membrane proteins. A benchmark set of 34 proteins, in which the proteins ranged in size from 91 to 565 residues, was used to compare RosettaTMH to Rosetta’s two existing membrane protein folding protocols: the published RosettaMembrane folding protocol (“MembraneAbinitio” and folding from an extended chain (“ExtendedChain”. When EPR distance restraints are used, RosettaTMH+EPR outperforms ExtendedChain+EPR for 11 proteins, including the largest six proteins tested. RosettaTMH+EPR is capable of achieving native-like folds for 30 of 34 proteins tested, including receptors and transporters. For example, the average RMSD100SSE relative to the crystal structure for rhodopsin was 6.1 ± 0.4 Å and 6.5 ± 0.6 Å for the 449-residue nitric oxide reductase subunit B, where the standard deviation reflects variance in RMSD100SSE values across ten different EPR distance restraint sets. The addition of RosettaTMH and RosettaTMH+EPR to the Rosetta family of de novo folding methods broadens the scope of helical membrane proteins that can be accurately modeled with this software suite.

  9. Modeling structure of G protein-coupled receptors in huan genome

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (or GPCRs) are integral transmembrane proteins responsible to various cellular signal transductions. Human GPCR proteins are encoded by 5% of human genes but account for the targets of 40% of the FDA approved drugs. Due

  10. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  11. The putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein CLP1 is involved in cellulase induction in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengli; Wang, Bang; Ji, Jingxiao; Jiang, Yongsheng; Wan, Li; Tian, Chaoguang; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-09

    Neurospora crassa recently has become a novel system to investigate cellulase induction. Here, we discovered a novel membrane protein, cellodextrin transporter-like protein 1 (CLP1; NCU05853), a putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein that is a critical component of the cellulase induction pathway in N. crassa. Although CLP1 protein cannot transport cellodextrin, the suppression of cellulase induction by this protein was discovered on both cellobiose and Avicel. The co-disruption of the cellodextrin transporters cdt2 and clp1 in strain Δ3βG formed strain CPL7. With induction by cellobiose, cellulase production was enhanced 6.9-fold in CPL7 compared with Δ3βG. We also showed that the suppression of cellulase expression by CLP1 occurred by repressing the expression of cellodextrin transporters, particularly cdt1 expression. Transcriptome analysis of the hypercellulase-producing strain CPL7 showed that the cellulase expression machinery was dramatically stimulated, as were the cellulase enzyme genes including the inducer transporters and the major transcriptional regulators. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The Putative Cellodextrin Transporter-like Protein CLP1 Is Involved in Cellulase Induction in Neurospora crassa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengli; Wang, Bang; Ji, Jingxiao; Jiang, Yongsheng; Wan, Li; Tian, Chaoguang; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    Neurospora crassa recently has become a novel system to investigate cellulase induction. Here, we discovered a novel membrane protein, cellodextrin transporter-like protein 1 (CLP1; NCU05853), a putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein that is a critical component of the cellulase induction pathway in N. crassa. Although CLP1 protein cannot transport cellodextrin, the suppression of cellulase induction by this protein was discovered on both cellobiose and Avicel. The co-disruption of the cellodextrin transporters cdt2 and clp1 in strain Δ3βG formed strain CPL7. With induction by cellobiose, cellulase production was enhanced 6.9-fold in CPL7 compared with Δ3βG. We also showed that the suppression of cellulase expression by CLP1 occurred by repressing the expression of cellodextrin transporters, particularly cdt1 expression. Transcriptome analysis of the hypercellulase-producing strain CPL7 showed that the cellulase expression machinery was dramatically stimulated, as were the cellulase enzyme genes including the inducer transporters and the major transcriptional regulators. PMID:25398875

  13. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pietribiasi

    Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.

  14. Chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by the removable backbone modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shan; Zuo, Chao; Huang, Dong-Liang; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Chemical synthesis can produce membrane proteins bearing specifically designed modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, isotope labeling) that are difficult to obtain through recombinant protein expression approaches. The resulting homogeneously modified synthetic membrane proteins are valuable tools for many advanced biochemical and biophysical studies. This protocol describes the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by condensation of transmembrane peptide segments through native chemical ligation. To avoid common problems encountered due to the poor solubility of transmembrane peptides in almost any solvent, we describe an effective procedure for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins through the removable-backbone modification (RBM) strategy. Two key steps of this protocol are: (i) installation of solubilizing Arg4-tagged RBM groups into the transmembrane peptides at any primary amino acid through Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) solid-phase peptide synthesis and (ii) native ligation of the full-length sequence, followed by removal of the RBM tags by TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) cocktails to afford the native protein. The installation of RBM groups is achieved by using 4-methoxy-5-nitrosalicyladehyde by reduction amination to incorporate an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary. The Arg4-tag-modified membrane-spanning peptide segments behave like water-soluble peptides to facilitate their purification, ligation and mass characterization.

  15. Intracellular Transport and Kinesin Superfamily Proteins: Structure, Function and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, N.; Takemura, R.

    Using various molecular cell biological and molecular genetic approaches, we identified kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) and characterized their significant functions in intracellular transport, which is fundamental for cellular morphogenesis, functioning, and survival. We showed that KIFs not only transport various membranous organelles, proteins complexes and mRNAs fundamental for cellular functions but also play significant roles in higher brain functions such as memory and learning, determination of important developmental processes such as left-right asymmetry formation and brain wiring. We also elucidated that KIFs recognize and bind to their specific cargoes using scaffolding or adaptor protein complexes. Concerning the mechanism of motility, we discovered the simplest unique monomeric motor KIF1A and determined by molecular biophysics, cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography that KIF1A can move on a microtubule processively as a monomer by biased Brownian motion and by hydolyzing ATP.

  16. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashleigh L; Doris, Sean E; Li, Longjun; Hughes, Mark A; Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A; Helms, Brett A

    2017-05-24

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device's active materials when they enter the membrane's pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane's ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium-sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development.

  17. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device’s active materials when they enter the membrane’s pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane’s ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium–sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development. PMID:28573201

  18. Interactions with selected drug renal transporters and transporter-mediated cytotoxicity in antiviral agents from the group of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandíková, J.; Volková, M.; Pávek, P.; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Kubíček, V.; Trejtnar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 3 (2013), s. 135-146 ISSN 0300-483X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hOAT1 * hCNTs * MDR1 * BCRP * nephrotoxicity * transmembrane transport Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.745, year: 2013

  19. Electronic transport on the spatial structure of the protein: Three-dimensional lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, R.G.; Frazão, N.F.; Macedo-Filho, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The electronic transport on the structure of the three-dimensional lattice model of the protein is studied. • The signing of the current–voltage is directly affected by permutations of the weak bonds in the structure. • Semiconductor behave of the proteins suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors. - Abstract: We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in protein chain consisting of thirty-six standard amino acids. The protein chains studied have three-dimensional structure, which can present itself in three distinct conformations and the difference consist in the presence or absence of thirteen hydrogen-bondings. Our theoretical method uses an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model, appropriate to describe the protein segments modeled by the amino acid chain. We note that the presence and the permutations between weak bonds in the structure of proteins are directly related to the signing of the current–voltage. Furthermore, the electronic transport depends on the effect of temperature. In addition, we have found a semiconductor behave in the models investigated and it suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  20. Electronic transport on the spatial structure of the protein: Three-dimensional lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Piauí, 64800-000 Floriano, PI (Brazil); Frazão, N.F. [Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 581750-000 Cuité, PB (Brazil); Macedo-Filho, A., E-mail: amfilho@gmail.com [Campus Prof. Antonio Geovanne Alves de Sousa, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri, PI (Brazil)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The electronic transport on the structure of the three-dimensional lattice model of the protein is studied. • The signing of the current–voltage is directly affected by permutations of the weak bonds in the structure. • Semiconductor behave of the proteins suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors. - Abstract: We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in protein chain consisting of thirty-six standard amino acids. The protein chains studied have three-dimensional structure, which can present itself in three distinct conformations and the difference consist in the presence or absence of thirteen hydrogen-bondings. Our theoretical method uses an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model, appropriate to describe the protein segments modeled by the amino acid chain. We note that the presence and the permutations between weak bonds in the structure of proteins are directly related to the signing of the current–voltage. Furthermore, the electronic transport depends on the effect of temperature. In addition, we have found a semiconductor behave in the models investigated and it suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  1. Identification of membrane proteins by tandem mass spectrometry of protein ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Altman, Matthew C.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The most common way of identifying proteins in proteomic analyses is to use short segments of sequence (“tags”) determined by mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic fragments. The approach is effective with globular proteins and with membrane proteins with significant polar segments between membrane-spanning α-helices, but it is ineffective with other hydrophobic proteins where protease cleavage sites are either infrequent or absent. By developing methods to purify hydrophobic proteins in organic solvents and by fragmenting ions of these proteins by collision induced dissociation with argon, we have shown that partial sequences of many membrane proteins can be deduced easily by manual inspection. The spectra from small proteolipids (1–4 transmembrane α-helices) are dominated usually by fragment ions arising from internal amide cleavages, from which internal sequences can be obtained, whereas the spectra from larger membrane proteins (5–18 transmembrane α-helices) often contain fragment ions from N- and/or C-terminal parts yielding sequences in those regions. With these techniques, we have, for example, identified an abundant protein of unknown function from inner membranes of mitochondria that to our knowledge has escaped detection in proteomic studies, and we have produced sequences from 10 of 13 proteins encoded in mitochondrial DNA. They include the ND6 subunit of complex I, the last of its 45 subunits to be analyzed. The procedures have the potential to be developed further, for example by using newly introduced methods for protein ion dissociation to induce fragmentation of internal regions of large membrane proteins, which may remain partially folded in the gas phase. PMID:17720804

  2. Phospholipase D family member 4, a transmembrane glycoprotein with no phospholipase D activity, expression in spleen and early postnatal microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Yoshikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phospholipase D (PLD catalyzes conversion of phosphatidylcholine into choline and phosphatidic acid, leading to a variety of intracellular signal transduction events. Two classical PLDs, PLD1 and PLD2, contain phosphatidylinositide-binding PX and PH domains and two conserved His-x-Lys-(x(4-Asp (HKD motifs, which are critical for PLD activity. PLD4 officially belongs to the PLD family, because it possesses two HKD motifs. However, it lacks PX and PH domains and has a putative transmembrane domain instead. Nevertheless, little is known regarding expression, structure, and function of PLD4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PLD4 was analyzed in terms of expression, structure, and function. Expression was analyzed in developing mouse brains and non-neuronal tissues using microarray, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry. Structure was evaluated using bioinformatics analysis of protein domains, biochemical analyses of transmembrane property, and enzymatic deglycosylation. PLD activity was examined by choline release and transphosphatidylation assays. Results demonstrated low to modest, but characteristic, PLD4 mRNA expression in a subset of cells preferentially localized around white matter regions, including the corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter, during the first postnatal week. These PLD4 mRNA-expressing cells were identified as Iba1-positive microglia. In non-neuronal tissues, PLD4 mRNA expression was widespread, but predominantly distributed in the spleen. Intense PLD4 expression was detected around the marginal zone of the splenic red pulp, and splenic PLD4 protein recovered from subcellular membrane fractions was highly N-glycosylated. PLD4 was heterologously expressed in cell lines and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Moreover, heterologously expressed PLD4 proteins did not exhibit PLD enzymatic activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results showed that PLD4 is a non

  3. Genome, secretome and glucose transport highlight unique features of the protein production host Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia pastoris is widely used as a production platform for heterologous proteins and model organism for organelle proliferation. Without a published genome sequence available, strain and process development relied mainly on analogies to other, well studied yeasts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results To investigate specific features of growth and protein secretion, we have sequenced the 9.4 Mb genome of the type strain DSMZ 70382 and analyzed the secretome and the sugar transporters. The computationally predicted secretome consists of 88 ORFs. When grown on glucose, only 20 proteins were actually secreted at detectable levels. These data highlight one major feature of P. pastoris, namely the low contamination of heterologous proteins with host cell protein, when applying glucose based expression systems. Putative sugar transporters were identified and compared to those of related yeast species. The genome comprises 2 homologs to S. cerevisiae low affinity transporters and 2 to high affinity transporters of other Crabtree negative yeasts. Contrary to other yeasts, P. pastoris possesses 4 H+/glycerol transporters. Conclusion This work highlights significant advantages of using the P. pastoris system with glucose based expression and fermentation strategies. As only few proteins and no proteases are actually secreted on glucose, it becomes evident that cell lysis is the relevant cause of proteolytic degradation of secreted proteins. The endowment with hexose transporters, dominantly of the high affinity type, limits glucose uptake rates and thus overflow metabolism as observed in S. cerevisiae. The presence of 4 genes for glycerol transporters explains the high specific growth rates on this substrate and underlines the suitability of a glycerol/glucose based fermentation strategy. Furthermore, we present an open access web based genome browser http://www.pichiagenome.org.

  4. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  5. Mutations of C19orf12, coding for a transmembrane glycine zipper containing mitochondrial protein, cause mis-localization of the protein, inability to respond to oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial Ca2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venco, Paola; Bonora, Massimo; Giorgi, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    19orf12 protein was not exclusively present in mitochondria, but also in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and MAM (Mitochondria Associated Membrane), while mutant C19orf12 variants presented a different localization. Moreover, after induction of oxidative stress, a GFP-tagged C19orf12 wild-type protein...... was able to relocate to the cytosol. On the contrary, mutant isoforms were not able to respond to oxidative stress. High mitochondrial calcium concentration and increased H2O2 induced apoptosis were found in fibroblasts derived from one patient as compared to controls. C19orf12 protein is a 17 k...... to rearrange in a structural domain, which is homologs to the N-terminal regulatory domain of the magnesium transporter MgtE, suggesting that C19orf12 may act as a regulatory protein for human MgtE transporters. The mutations here described affect respectively one glycine residue of the glycine zipper motifs...

  6. Comparative genomic analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2015-11-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity was accompanied by progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ion Binding Energies Determining Functional Transport of ClC Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Xu; Zou, Xian-Wu; Sang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The ClC-type proteins, a large family of chloride transport proteins ubiquitously expressed in biological organisms, have been extensively studied for decades. Biological function of ClC proteins can be reflected by analyzing the binding situation of Cl- ions. We investigate ion binding properties of ClC-ec1 protein with the atomic molecular dynamics simulation approach. The calculated electrostatic binding energy results indicate that Cl- at the central binding site Scen has more binding stability than the internal binding site Sint. Quantitative comparison between the latest experimental heat release data isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and our calculated results demonstrates that chloride ions prefer to bind at Scen than Sint in the wild-type ClC-ec1 structure and prefer to bind at Sext and Scen than Sint in mutant E148A/E148Q structures. Even though the chloride ions make less contribution to heat release when binding to Sint and are relatively unstable in the Cl- pathway, they are still part contributors for the Cl- functional transport. This work provides a guide rule to estimate the importance of Cl- at the binding sites and how chloride ions have influences on the function of ClC proteins.

  8. An MFS Transporter-Like ORF from MDR Acinetobacter baumannii AIIMS 7 Is Associated with Adherence and Biofilm Formation on Biotic/Abiotic Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Sahu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A major facilitator superfamily (MFS transporter-like open reading frame (ORF of 453 bp was identified in a pathogenic strain Acinetobacter baumannii AIIMS 7, and its association with adherence and biofilm formation was investigated. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR showed differential expression in surface-attached biofilm cells than nonadherent cells. In vitro translation showed synthesis of a ∼17 kDa protein, further confirmed by cloning and heterologous expression in E. coli DH5. Up to 2.1-, 3.1-, and 4.1- fold biofilm augmentation was observed on abiotic (polystyrene and biotic (S. cerevisiae/HeLa surface, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and gfp-tagged fluorescence microscopy revealed increased adherence to abiotic (glass and biotic (S. cerevisiae surface. Extracellular DNA(eDNA was found significantly during active growth; due to probable involvement of the protein in DNA export, strong sequence homology with MFS transporter proteins, and presence of transmembrane helices. In summary, our findings show that the putative MFS transporter-like ORF (pmt is associated with adherence, biofilm formation, and probable eDNA release in A. baumannii AIIMS 7.

  9. A combination of compositional index and genetic algorithm for predicting transmembrane helical segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Zaki

    Full Text Available Transmembrane helix (TMH topology prediction is becoming a focal problem in bioinformatics because the structure of TM proteins is difficult to determine using experimental methods. Therefore, methods that can computationally predict the topology of helical membrane proteins are highly desirable. In this paper we introduce TMHindex, a method for detecting TMH segments using only the amino acid sequence information. Each amino acid in a protein sequence is represented by a Compositional Index, which is deduced from a combination of the difference in amino acid occurrences in TMH and non-TMH segments in training protein sequences and the amino acid composition information. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm was employed to find the optimal threshold value for the separation of TMH segments from non-TMH segments. The method successfully predicted 376 out of the 378 TMH segments in a dataset consisting of 70 test protein sequences. The sensitivity and specificity for classifying each amino acid in every protein sequence in the dataset was 0.901 and 0.865, respectively. To assess the generality of TMHindex, we also tested the approach on another standard 73-protein 3D helix dataset. TMHindex correctly predicted 91.8% of proteins based on TM segments. The level of the accuracy achieved using TMHindex in comparison to other recent approaches for predicting the topology of TM proteins is a strong argument in favor of our proposed method.The datasets, software together with supplementary materials are available at: http://faculty.uaeu.ac.ae/nzaki/TMHindex.htm.

  10. A solute-binding protein for iron transport in Streptococcus iniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Anxing

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae is a major pathogen that causes considerable morbidity and mortality in cultured fish worldwide. The pathogen's ability to adapt to the host affects the extent of infection, hence understanding the mechanisms by which S. iniae overcomes physiological stresses during infection will help to identify potential virulence determinants of streptococcal infection. Grow S. iniae under iron-restricted conditions is one approach for identifying host-specific protein expression. Iron plays an important role in many biological processes but it has low solubility under physiological condition. Many microorganisms have been shown to be able to circumvent this nutritional limitation by forming direct contacts with iron-containing proteins through ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. The ABC transporter superfamilies constitute many different systems that are widespread among living organisms with different functions, such as ligands translocation, mRNA translation, and DNA repair. Results An ABC transporter system, named as mtsABC (metal transport system was cloned from S. iniae HD-1, and was found to be involved in heme utilization. mtsABC is cotranscribed by three downstream genes, i.e., mtsA, mtsB, and mtsC. In this study, we cloned the first gene of the mtsABC transporter system (mtsA, and purified the corresponding recombinant protein MtsA. The analysis indicated that MtsA is a putative lipoprotein which binds to heme that can serve as an iron source for the microorganism, and is expressed in vivo during Kunming mice infection by S. iniae HD-1. Conclusions This is believed to be the first report on the cloning the ABC transporter lipoprotein from S. iniae genomic DNA. Together, our data suggested that MtsA is associated with heme, and is expressed in vivo during Kunming mice infection by S. iniae HD-1 which indicated that it can be a potential candidate for S. iniae subunit vaccine.

  11. Drug transport mechanism of the AcrB efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Klaas M

    2009-05-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tripartite multidrug efflux systems extrude cytotoxic substances from the cell directly into the medium bypassing periplasm and the outer membrane. In E. coli, the tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the pump that extrudes multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB, a member of the Resistance Nodulation cell Division (RND) family, is the major site for substrate recognition and energy transduction of the entire tripartite system. The drug/proton antiport processes in this secondary transporter are suggested to be spatially separated, a feature frequently observed for primary transporters like membrane-bound ATPases. The recently elucidated asymmetric structure of the AcrB trimer reveals three different monomer conformations proposed to represent consecutive states in a directional transport cycle. Each monomer shows a distinct tunnel system with entrances located at the boundary of the outer leaflet of the inner membrane and the periplasm through the periplasmic porter (pore) domain towards the funnel of the trimer and TolC. In one monomer a hydrophobic pocket is present which has been shown to bind the AcrB substrates minocyclin and doxorubicin. The energy conversion from the proton motive force into drug efflux includes proton binding in (and release from) the transmembrane part. The conformational changes observed within a triad of essential, titratable residues (D407/D408/K940) residing in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain appear to be transduced by transmembrane helix 8 and associated with the conformational changes seen in the periplasmic domain. From the asymmetric structure a possible peristaltic pump transport mechanism based on a functional rotation of the AcrB trimer has been postulated. The novel drug transport model combines the alternate access pump mechanism with the rotating site catalysis of F(1)F(o) ATPase as

  12. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake; Saier, Milton H

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg(2+) transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Integral and peripheral association of proteins and protein complexes with Yersinia pestis inner and outer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunai Christine L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yersinia pestis proteins were sequentially extracted from crude membranes with a high salt buffer (2.5 M NaBr, an alkaline solution (180 mM Na2CO3, pH 11.3 and membrane denaturants (8 M urea, 2 M thiourea and 1% amidosulfobetaine-14. Separation of proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis was followed by identification of more than 600 gene products by MS. Data from differential 2D gel display experiments, comparing protein abundances in cytoplasmic, periplasmic and all three membrane fractions, were used to assign proteins found in the membrane fractions to three protein categories: (i integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins with low solubility in aqueous solutions (220 entries; (ii peripheral membrane proteins with moderate to high solubility in aqueous solutions (127 entries; (iii cytoplasmic or ribosomal membrane-contaminating proteins (80 entries. Thirty-one proteins were experimentally associated with the outer membrane (OM. Circa 50 proteins thought to be part of membrane-localized, multi-subunit complexes were identified in high Mr fractions of membrane extracts via size exclusion chromatography. This data supported biologically meaningful assignments of many proteins to the membrane periphery. Since only 32 inner membrane (IM proteins with two or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs were profiled in 2D gels, we resorted to a proteomic analysis by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Ninety-four additional IM proteins with two or more TMDs were identified. The total number of proteins associated with Y. pestis membranes increased to 456 and included representatives of all six β-barrel OM protein families and 25 distinct IM transporter families.

  14. Functional Diversity of Tandem Substrate-Binding Domains in ABC Transporters from Pathogenic Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Vujicic - Zagar, Andreja; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter GInPQ is an essential uptake system for amino acids in gram-positive pathogens and related nonpathogenic bacteria. The transporter has tandem substrate-binding domains (SBDs) fused to each transmembrane domain, giving rise to four SBDs per functional

  15. Role for ribosome-associated complex and stress-seventy subfamily B (RAC-Ssb) in integral membrane protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Sampson, Ligia; Döring, Kristina; Lin, Yuping; Yu, Vivian Y; Bukau, Bernd; Kramer, Günter; Cate, Jamie H D

    2017-12-01

    Targeting of most integral membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by the signal recognition particle, which recognizes a hydrophobic signal sequence near the protein N terminus. Proper folding of these proteins is monitored by the unfolded protein response and involves protein degradation pathways to ensure quality control. Here, we identify a new pathway for quality control of major facilitator superfamily transporters that occurs before the first transmembrane helix, the signal sequence recognized by the signal recognition particle, is made by the ribosome. Increased rates of translation elongation of the N-terminal sequence of these integral membrane proteins can divert the nascent protein chains to the ribosome-associated complex and stress-seventy subfamily B chaperones. We also show that quality control of integral membrane proteins by ribosome-associated complex-stress-seventy subfamily B couples translation rate to the unfolded protein response, which has implications for understanding mechanisms underlying human disease and protein production in biotechnology. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Intermolecular detergent-membrane protein noes for the characterization of the dynamics of membrane protein-detergent complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cédric; Orts, Julien; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Vögeli, Beat; Smrt, Sean; Lorieau, Justin; Riek, Roland

    2014-12-11

    The interaction between membrane proteins and lipids or lipid mimetics such as detergents is key for the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. In NMR-based structural studies of membrane proteins, qualitative analysis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) or paramagnetic resonance enhancement are used in general to identify the transmembrane segments of a membrane protein. Here, we employed a quantitative characterization of intermolecular NOEs between (1)H of the detergent and (1)H(N) of (2)H-perdeuterated, (15)N-labeled α-helical membrane protein-detergent complexes following the exact NOE (eNOE) approach. Structural considerations suggest that these intermolecular NOEs should show a helical-wheel-type behavior along a transmembrane helix or a membrane-attached helix within a membrane protein as experimentally demonstrated for the complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain HAfp23. The partial absence of such a NOE pattern along the amino acid sequence as shown for a truncated variant of HAfp23 and for the Escherichia coli inner membrane protein YidH indicates the presence of large tertiary structure fluctuations such as an opening between helices or the presence of large rotational dynamics of the helices. Detergent-protein NOEs thus appear to be a straightforward probe for a qualitative characterization of structural and dynamical properties of membrane proteins embedded in detergent micelles.

  17. Study of the transport of mercurial compounds by seric proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien-Saint Guily, Nicole

    1970-01-01

    A bond between the seric proteins and various mercurial compounds labeled with the radioisotopes 203 Hg and 197 Hg was demonstrated by means of research methods specific to radioactivity combined with protein separation techniques. In the course of this study it was shown how strongly the composition of the buffer during electrophoretic migration influences the transport of certain organo-mercurial compounds by the seric proteins. By means of a thioloprive: N - ethyl - maleimide, labeled with 14 C, it was proved that the bonding sites between the proteins and the mercurial compounds were the thiol groups of the proteins but that other bonding sites, in particular the amino groups, could also be involved. (author) [fr

  18. The transmembrane domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor stimulates phosphorylation of the TrkB tyrosine kinase receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadipour, Khalil; MacLean, Michael; Pirkle, Sean; Ali, Solav; Lopez-Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Stokes, David L; Chao, Moses V

    2017-10-06

    The function of protein products generated from intramembraneous cleavage by the γ-secretase complex is not well defined. The γ-secretase complex is responsible for the cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein that results in Aβ, a transmembrane (TM) peptide. Another protein that undergoes very similar γ-secretase cleavage is the p75 neurotrophin receptor. However, the fate of the cleaved p75 TM domain is unknown. p75 neurotrophin receptor is highly expressed during early neuronal development and regulates survival and process formation of neurons. Here, we report that the p75 TM can stimulate the phosphorylation of TrkB (tyrosine kinase receptor B). In vitro phosphorylation experiments indicated that a peptide representing p75 TM increases TrkB phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, mutagenesis analyses revealed that a valine residue at position 264 in the rat p75 neurotrophin receptor is necessary for the ability of p75 TM to induce TrkB phosphorylation. Because this residue is just before the γ-secretase cleavage site, we then investigated whether the p75(αγ) peptide, which is a product of both α- and γ-cleavage events, could also induce TrkB phosphorylation. Experiments using TM domains from other receptors, EGFR and FGFR1, failed to stimulate TrkB phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation and biochemical fractionation data suggested that p75 TM stimulates TrkB phosphorylation at the cell membrane. Altogether, our results suggest that TrkB activation by p75(αγ) peptide may be enhanced in situations where the levels of the p75 receptor are increased, such as during brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Lipid transfer proteins do their thing anchored at membrane contact sites… but what is their thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Louise H; Levine, Tim P

    2016-04-15

    Membrane contact sites are structures where two organelles come close together to regulate flow of material and information between them. One type of inter-organelle communication is lipid exchange, which must occur for membrane maintenance and in response to environmental and cellular stimuli. Soluble lipid transfer proteins have been extensively studied, but additional families of transfer proteins have been identified that are anchored into membranes by transmembrane helices so that they cannot diffuse through the cytosol to deliver lipids. If such proteins target membrane contact sites they may be major players in lipid metabolism. The eukaryotic family of so-called Lipid transfer proteins Anchored at Membrane contact sites (LAMs) all contain both a sterol-specific lipid transfer domain in the StARkin superfamily (related to StART/Bet_v1), and one or more transmembrane helices anchoring them in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), making them interesting subjects for study in relation to sterol metabolism. They target a variety of membrane contact sites, including newly described contacts between organelles that were already known to make contact by other means. Lam1-4p target punctate ER-plasma membrane contacts. Lam5p and Lam6p target multiple contacts including a new category: vacuolar non-NVJ cytoplasmic ER (VancE) contacts. These developments confirm previous observations on tubular lipid-binding proteins (TULIPs) that established the importance of membrane anchored proteins for lipid traffic. However, the question remaining to be solved is the most difficult of all: are LAMs transporters, or alternately are they regulators that affect traffic more indirectly? © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Can membrane-bound carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin carry out a transmembrane proton transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupisz, Kamila; Sujak, Agnieszka; Patyra, Magdalena; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Gruszecki, Wiesław I

    2008-10-01

    Polar carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin (beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) incorporated into planar lipid membranes formed with diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine increases the specific electric resistance of the membrane from ca. 4 to 13 x 10(7) Omega cm2 (at 5 mol% zeaxanthin with respect to lipid). Such an observation is consistent with the well known effect of polar carotenoids in decreasing fluidity and structural stabilization of lipid bilayers. Zeaxanthin incorporated into the lipid membrane at 1 mol% has very small effect on the overall membrane resistance but facilitates equilibration of the transmembrane proton gradient, as demonstrated with the application of the H+-sensitive antimony electrodes. Relatively low changes in the electrical potential suggest that the equilibration process may be associated with a symport/antiport activity or with a transmembrane transfer of the molecules of acid. UV-Vis linear dichroism analysis of multibilayer formed with the same lipid-carotenoid system shows that the transition dipole moment of the pigment molecules forms a mean angle of 21 degrees with respect to the axis normal to the plane of the membrane. This means that zeaxanthin spans the membrane and tends to have its two hydroxyl groups anchored in the opposite polar zones of the membrane. Detailed FTIR analysis of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin indicates that the polyene chain of carotenoids is able to form weak hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Possible molecular mechanisms responsible for proton transport by polyenes are discussed, including direct involvement of the polyene chain in proton transfer and indirect effect of the pigment on physical properties of the membrane.

  1. Lysosomal membrane protein SIDT2 mediates the direct uptake of DNA by lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Shu; Contu, Viorica Raluca; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Hase, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Hisae; Kabuta, Chihana; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2017-01-02

    Lysosomes degrade macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. We previously identified 2 novel types of autophagy, RNautophagy and DNautophagy, where lysosomes directly take up RNA and DNA, in an ATP-dependent manner, for degradation. We have also reported that SIDT2 (SID1 transmembrane family, member 2), an ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans putative RNA transporter SID-1 (systemic RNA interference defective-1), mediates RNA translocation during RNautophagy. In this addendum, we report that SIDT2 also mediates DNA translocation in the process of DNautophagy. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the direct uptake of nucleic acids by lysosomes and the physiological functions of DNautophagy.

  2. Regulation of dopamine transporter function by protein-protein interactions: new discoveries and methodological challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Gether, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    -synaptic neurons. This has led to the identification of a plethora of different kinases, receptors and scaffolding proteins that interact with DAT and hereby either modulate the catalytic activity of the transporter or regulate its trafficking and degradation. Several new tools for studying DAT regulation in live...

  3. Design Function and Structure of a Monomeric CLC Transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Robertson; L Kolmakova-Partensky; C Miller

    2011-12-31

    Channels and transporters of the ClC family cause the transmembrane movement of inorganic anions in service of a variety of biological tasks, from the unusual - the generation of the kilowatt pulses with which electric fish stun their prey - to the quotidian - the acidification of endosomes, vacuoles and lysosomes. The homodimeric architecture of ClC proteins, initially inferred from single-molecule studies of an elasmobranch Cl{sup -} channel and later confirmed by crystal structures of bacterial Cl{sup -}/H{sup +} antiporters, is apparently universal. Moreover, the basic machinery that enables ion movement through these proteins - the aqueous pores for anion diffusion in the channels and the ion-coupling chambers that coordinate Cl{sup -} and H{sup +} antiport in the transporters - are contained wholly within each subunit of the homodimer. The near-normal function of a bacterial ClC transporter straitjacketed by covalent crosslinks across the dimer interface and the behaviour of a concatemeric human homologue argue that the transport cycle resides within each subunit and does not require rigid-body rearrangements between subunits. However, this evidence is only inferential, and because examples are known in which quaternary rearrangements of extramembrane ClC domains that contribute to dimerization modulate transport activity, we cannot declare as definitive a 'parallel-pathways picture in which the homodimer consists of two single-subunit transporters operating independently. A strong prediction of such a view is that it should in principle be possible to obtain a monomeric ClC. Here we exploit the known structure of a ClC Cl{sup -}/H{sup +} exchanger, ClC-ec1 from Escherichia coli, to design mutants that destabilize the dimer interface while preserving both the structure and the transport function of individual subunits. The results demonstrate that the ClC subunit alone is the basic functional unit for transport and that cross-subunit interaction is not

  4. Signaling via G proteins mediates tumorigenic effects of GPR87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arfelt, Kristine Niss; Fares, Suzan; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H.

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large protein family of seven transmembrane (7TM) spanning proteins that regulate multiple physiological functions. GPR87 is overexpressed in several cancers and plays a role in tumor cell survival. Here, the basal activity of GPR87 was investigated...

  5. Role of nonstructural protein NS2A in flavivirus assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, J.Y.; Pijlman, G.P.; Kondratieva, N.; Hyde, J.; Mackenzie, J.M.; Khromykh, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Flavivirus nonstructural (NS) proteins are involved in RNA replication and modulation of the host antiviral response; however, evidence is mounting that some NS proteins also have essential roles in virus assembly. Kunjin virus (KUN) NS2A is a small, hydrophobic, transmembrane protein that is part

  6. PTPBR7 binding proteins in myelinating neurons of the mouse brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesini, I.M.; Debyser, G.; Croes, H.J.E.; Dam, G.B. ten; Devreese, B.; Stoker, A.W.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPBR7 is a receptor-like, transmembrane protein that is localized on the surface of neuronal cells. Its protein phosphatase activity is reduced upon multimerization, and PTPBR7-deficient mice display motor coordination defects. Extracellular molecules that may

  7. A Lys-Trp cation-π interaction mediates the dimerization and function of the chloride intracellular channel protein 1 transmembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Bradley; Polyansky, Anton A; Fanucchi, Sylvia; Dirr, Heini W

    2014-01-14

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) is a dual-state protein that can exist either as a soluble monomer or in an integral membrane form. The oligomerization of the transmembrane domain (TMD) remains speculative despite it being implicated in pore formation. The extent to which electrostatic and van der Waals interactions drive folding and association of the dimorphic TMD is unknown and is complicated by the requirement of interactions favorable in both aqueous and membrane environments. Here we report a putative Lys37-Trp35 cation-π interaction and show that it stabilizes the dimeric form of the CLIC1 TMD in membranes. A synthetic 30-mer peptide comprising a K37M TMD mutant was examined in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes using far-ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism, fluorescence, and UV absorbance spectroscopy. Our data suggest that Lys37 is not implicated in the folding, stability, or membrane insertion of the TMD peptide. However, removal of this residue impairs the formation of dimers and higher-order oligomers. This is accompanied by a 30-fold loss of chloride influx activity, suggesting that dimerization modulates the rate of chloride conductance. We propose that, within membranes, individual TMD helices associate via a Lys37-mediated cation-π interaction to form active dimers. The latter findings are also supported by results of modeling a putative TMD dimer conformation in which Lys37 and Trp35 form cation-π pairs at the dimer interface. Dimeric helix bundles may then associate to form fully active ion channels. Thus, within a membrane-like environment, aromatic interactions involving a polar lysine side chain provide a thermodynamic driving force for helix-helix association.

  8. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called "repeat-swap modeling" to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport also

  9. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eFenollar Ferrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to either the outside or inside of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (asymmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called repeat-swap modeling to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that

  10. Yarrowia lipolytica vesicle-mediated protein transport pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckerich Jean-Marie

    2007-11-01

    transport shows that 40% of Y. lipolytica proteins are closer to animal ones, whereas they are only 13% in the case of S. cerevisiae. Conclusion These results provide further support for the idea, previously noted about the endoplasmic reticulum translocation pathway, that Y. lipolytica is more representative of vesicular secretion of animals and other fungi than is S. cerevisiae.

  11. Effect of ceramic membrane channel geometry and uniform transmembrane pressure on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane's retentate flow channel geometry (round or diamond-shaped) and uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) on limiting flux (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal during skim milk MF at a temperature of 50°C, a retentate protein concentration of 8.5%, and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m·s(-1). Performance of membranes with round and diamond flow channels was compared in UTP mode. Performance of the membrane with round flow channels was compared with and without UTP. Using UTP with round flow channel MF membranes increased the LF by 5% when compared with not using UTP, but SP removal was not affected by the use of UTP. Using membranes with round channels instead of diamond-shaped channels in UTP mode increased the LF by 24%. This increase was associated with a 25% increase in Reynolds number and can be explained by lower shear at the vertices of the diamond-shaped channel's surface. The SP removal factor of the diamond channel system was higher than the SP removal factor of the round channel system below the LF. However, the diamond channel system passed more casein into the MF permeate than the round channel system. Because only one batch of each membrane was tested in our study, it was not possible to determine if the differences in protein rejection between channel geometries were due to the membrane design or random manufacturing variation. Despite the lower LF of the diamond channel system, the 47% increase in membrane module surface area of the diamond channel system produced a modular permeate removal rate that was at least 19% higher than the round channel system. Consequently, using diamond channel membranes instead of round channel membranes could reduce some of the costs associated with ceramic MF of skim milk if fewer membrane modules could be used to attain the required membrane area. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. The substrate-binding protein imposes directionality on an electrochemical sodium gradient-driven TRAP transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Geertsma, Eric R.; Severi, Emmanuele; Kelly, David J.; Poolman, Bert; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate-binding protein-dependent secondary transporters are widespread in prokaryotes and are represented most frequently by members of the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter family. Here, we report the membrane reconstitution of a TRAP transporter, the sialic acid-specific

  13. Complement activation by ceramide transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerard H; Losen, Mario; Buurman, Wim A; Veerhuis, Robert; Molenaar, Peter C; Steinbusch, Harry W M; De Baets, Marc H; Daha, Mohamed R; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar

    2014-02-01

    C1q is the initiator of the classical complement pathway and, as such, is essential for efficient opsonization and clearance of pathogens, altered self-structures, and apoptotic cells. The ceramide transporter protein (CERT) and its longer splicing isoform CERTL are known to interact with extracellular matrix components, such as type IV collagen, and with the innate immune protein serum amyloid P. In this article, we report a novel function of CERT in the innate immune response. Both CERT isoforms, when immobilized, were found to bind the globular head region of C1q and to initiate the classical complement pathway, leading to activation of C4 and C3, as well as generation of the membrane attack complex C5b-9. In addition, C1q was shown to bind to endogenous CERTL on the surface of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate the role of CERTs in innate immunity, especially in the clearance of apoptotic cells.

  14. Fluoroquinolone resistance protein NorA of Staphylococcus aureus is a multidrug efflux transporter.

    OpenAIRE

    Neyfakh, A A; Borsch, C M; Kaatz, G W

    1993-01-01

    The gene of the Staphylococcus aureus fluoroquinolone efflux transporter protein NorA confers resistance to a number of structurally dissimilar drugs, not just to fluoroquinolones, when it is expressed in Bacillus subtilis. NorA provides B. subtilis with resistance to the same drugs and to a similar extent as the B. subtilis multidrug transporter protein Bmr does. NorA and Bmr share 44% sequence similarity. Both the NorA- and Bmr-conferred resistances can be completely reversed by reserpine.

  15. Kinetics of proton transport into influenza virions by the viral M2 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Ivanovic

    Full Text Available M2 protein of influenza A viruses is a tetrameric transmembrane proton channel, which has essential functions both early and late in the virus infectious cycle. Previous studies of proton transport by M2 have been limited to measurements outside the context of the virus particle. We have developed an in vitro fluorescence-based assay to monitor internal acidification of individual virions triggered to undergo membrane fusion. We show that rimantadine, an inhibitor of M2 proton conductance, blocks the acidification-dependent dissipation of fluorescence from a pH-sensitive virus-content probe. Fusion-pore formation usually follows internal acidification but does not require it. The rate of internal virion acidification increases with external proton concentration and saturates with a pK(m of ∼4.7. The rate of proton transport through a single, fully protonated M2 channel is approximately 100 to 400 protons per second. The saturating proton-concentration dependence and the low rate of internal virion acidification derived from authentic virions support a transporter model for the mechanism of proton transfer.

  16. Aquaporin-11: A channel protein lacking apparent transport function expressed in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunenari Takashi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aquaporins are a family of integral membrane proteins composed of two subfamilies: the orthodox aquaporins, which transport only water, and the aquaglyceroporins, which transport glycerol, urea, or other small solutes. Two recently described aquaporins, numbers 11 and 12, appear to be more distantly related to the other mammalian aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Results We report on the characterization of Aquaporin-11 (AQP11. AQP11 RNA and protein is found in multiple rat tissues, including kidney, liver, testes and brain. AQP11 has a unique distribution in brain, appearing in Purkinje cell dendrites, hippocampal neurons of CA1 and CA2, and cerebral cortical neurons. Immunofluorescent staining of Purkinje cells indicates that AQP11 is intracellular. Unlike other aquaporins, Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP11 in the plasma membrane failed to transport water, glycerol, urea, or ions. Conclusion AQP11 is functionally distinct from other proteins of the aquaporin superfamily and could represent a new aquaporin subfamily. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of AQP11 in the brain.

  17. Application of split-green fluorescent protein for topology mapping membrane proteins in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toddo, Stephen; Soderstrom, Bill; Palombo, Isolde

    2012-01-01

    A topology map of a membrane protein defines the location of transmembrane helices and the orientation of soluble domains relative to the membrane. In the absence of a high-resolution structure, a topology map is an essential guide for studying structurefunction relationships. Although these maps....../periplasmic location of the N-terminus of a protein. Here, we show that the bimolecular split-green fluorescent protein complementation system can overcome this limitation and can be used to determine the location of both the N- and C-termini of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli....

  18. Evidence for the involvement of Ala 166 in coupling Na(+) to sugar transport through the human Na(+)/glucose cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A K; Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A

    2001-01-01

    . The affinity for Na(+) was unchanged compared to that of hSGLT1, whereas the sugar affinity was reduced and sugar specificity was altered. There was a reduction in the turnover rate of the transporter, and in contrast to that of hSGLT1, the turnover rate depended on the sugar molecule. Exposure of A166C......We mutated residue 166, located in the putative Na(+) transport pathway between transmembrane segments 4 and 5 of human Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1), from alanine to cysteine (A166C). A166C was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and electrophysiological methods were used to assay function...... to MTSEA and MTSET, but not MTSES, abolished sugar transport. Accessibility of A166C to alkylating reagents was independent of protein conformation, indicating that the residue is always accessible from the extracellular surface. Sugar and phlorizin did not protect the residue from being alkylated...

  19. Improved gel electrophoresis matrix for hydrophobic protein separation and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, Caroline; Fillet, Marianne; Rolando, Christian

    2011-03-01

    We propose an improved acrylamide gel for the separation of hydrophobic proteins. The separation strategy is based on the incorporation of N-alkylated and N,N'-dialkylated acrylamide monomers in the gel composition in order to increase hydrophobic interactions between the gel matrix and the membrane proteins. Focusing on the most efficient monomer, N,N'-dimethylacrylamide, the potentiality of the new matrix was evaluated on membrane proteins of the human colon HCT-116 cell line. Protein analysis was performed using an adapted analytical strategy based on FT-ICR tandem mass spectrometry. As a result of this comparative study, including advanced reproducibility experiments, more hydrophobic proteins were identified in the new gel (average GRAVY: -0.085) than in the classical gel (average GRAVY: -0.411). Highly hydrophobic peptides were identified reaching a GRAVY value up to 1.450, therefore indicating their probable locations in the membrane. Focusing on predicted transmembrane domains, it can be pointed out that 27 proteins were identified in the hydrophobic gel containing up to 11 transmembrane domains; in the classical gel, only 5 proteins containing 1 transmembrane domain were successfully identified. For example, multiple ionic channels and receptors were characterized in the hydrophobic gel such as the sodium/potassium channel and the glutamate or the transferrin receptors whereas they are traditionally detected using specific enrichment techniques such as immunoprecipitation. In total, membrane proteins identified in the classical gel are well documented in the literature, while most of the membrane proteins only identified on the hydrophobic gel have rarely or never been described using a proteomic-based approach. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

  1. ATP-binding cassette transporters in reproduction: a new frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, E.; Ortiga-Carvalho, T.M.; Reis, F.M.; Lye, S.J.; Gibb, W.; Matthews, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters actively efflux an array of clinically relevant compounds across biological barriers, and modulate biodistribution of many physiological and pharmacological factors. To date, over 48 ABC transporters have been identified and shown to be directly and indirectly involved in peri-implantation events and fetal/placental development. They efflux cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamins, cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, diverse xenobiotics and environmental toxins, playing a critical role in regulating drug disposition, immunological responses and lipid trafficking, as well as preventing fetal accumulation of drugs and environmental toxins. METHODS This review examines ABC transporters as important mediators of placental barrier functions and key reproductive processes. Expression, localization and function of all identified ABC transporters were systematically reviewed using PubMed and Google Scholar websites to identify relevant studies examining ABC transporters in reproductive tissues in physiological and pathophysiological states. Only reports written in English were incorporated with no restriction on year of publication. While a major focus has been placed on the human, extensive evidence from animal studies is utilized to describe current understanding of the regulation and function of ABC transporters relevant to human reproduction. RESULTS ABC transporters are modulators of steroidogenesis, fertilization, implantation, nutrient transport and immunological responses, and function as ‘gatekeepers’ at various barrier sites (i.e. blood-testes barrier and placenta) against potentially harmful xenobiotic factors, including drugs and environmental toxins. These roles appear to be species dependent and change as a function of gestation and development. The best-described ABC transporters in reproductive tissues (primarily in the placenta) are the multidrug transporters p-glycoprotein and

  2. Biochemical characterization of a heterotrimeric G(i)-protein activator peptide designed from the junction between the intracellular third loop and sixth transmembrane helix in the m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Matsubayashi, Rina; Hara, Kanako; Onozuka, Tatsuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. The mAChR family comprises 5 subtypes, m1-m5, each of which has a different coupling selectivity for heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). m4 mAChR specifically activates the Gi/o family by enhancing the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) reaction with the Gα subunit through an interaction that occurs via intracellular segments. Here, we report that the m4 mAChR mimetic peptide m4i3c(14)Gly, comprising 14 residues in the junction between the intracellular third loop (i3c) and transmembrane helix VI (TM-VI) extended with a C-terminal glycine residue, presents GEF activity toward the Gi1 α subunit (Gαi1). The m4i3c(14)Gly forms a stable complex with guanine nucleotide-free Gαi1 via three residues in the VTI(L/F) motif, which is conserved within the m2/4 mAChRs. These results suggest that this m4 mAChR mimetic peptide, which comprises the amino acid of the mAChR intracellular segments, is a useful tool for understanding the interaction between GPCRs and G-proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New Insight Into the Diversity of SemiSWEET Sugar Transporters and the Homologs in Prokaryotes

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    Baolei Jia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs and SemiSWEETs represent a family of sugar transporters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, respectively. SWEETs contain seven transmembrane helices (TMHs, while SemiSWEETs contain three. The functions of SemiSWEETs are less studied. In this perspective article, we analyzed the diversity and conservation of SemiSWEETs and further proposed the possible functions. 1,922 SemiSWEET homologs were retrieved from the UniProt database, which is not proportional to the sequenced prokaryotic genomes. However, these proteins are very diverse in sequences and can be classified into 19 clusters when >50% sequence identity is required. Moreover, a gene context analysis indicated that several SemiSWEETs are located in the operons that are related to diverse carbohydrate metabolism. Several proteins with seven TMHs can be found in bacteria, and sequence alignment suggested that these proteins in bacteria may be formed by the duplication and fusion. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the amino acids for sugar translocation are still conserved and coevolved, although the sequences show diversity. Among them, the functions of a few amino acids are still not clear. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in SemiSWEETs and provide future researchers the foundation to explore these uncharted areas.

  4. Relationship between plasma growth hormone concentration and cellular sodium transport in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlitz, H.; Jonsson, O.; Bengtsson, B.-Aa. (Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Endocrinology, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mean plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration and cellular sodium transport in untreated and treated acromegaly. Seventeen patients (age 55 [+-] 3 years) with active acromegaly were studied with respect to plasma GH (mean of 24 h GH profile) and erythrocyte electrolyte content as well as transmembrane sodium transport. The patients were reinvestigated two weeks after successful surgery (N = 14) and again after one year (N = 13). Erythrocyte electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry and sodium influx and efflux rate constant determined by in vitro incubation using a modified Keyne's formula. In patients with active acromegaly there was a significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and cellular sodium transport, while GH tended to show a negative relatonship to the same parameter. After successful treatment, both IGF-1 and GH disclosed a positive relationship to cellular sodium transport. After one year, a significant increase in erythrocyte sodium content was seen in the patients compared to the preoperative situation. In conclusion, if this is a generalized phenomonen the results are compatible with a sodium-retaining effect of GH via stimulation of transmembrane sodium transport. In active acromegaly this may be counteracted by a sodium transport inhibitor giving the reverse relationship between GH and cellular sodium transport. (au).

  5. Phosphate-binding protein from Polaromonas JS666: purification, characterization, crystallization and sulfur SAD phasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegos, Vanessa R.; Hey, Louis; LaMirande, Jacob; Pfeffer, Rachel; Lipsh, Rosalie; Amitay, Moshe; Gonzalez, Daniel; Elias, Mikael (JCT-Israel); (UMM); (CNRS-UMR)

    2017-05-25

    Phosphate-binding proteins (PBPs) are key proteins that belong to the bacterial ABC-type phosphate transporters. PBPs are periplasmic (or membrane-anchored) proteins that capture phosphate anions from the environment and release them to the transmembrane transporter. Recent work has suggested that PBPs have evolved for high affinity as well as high selectivity. In particular, a short, unique hydrogen bond between the phosphate anion and an aspartate residue has been shown to be critical for selectivity, yet is not strictly conserved in PBPs. Here, the PBP fromPolaromonasJS666 is focused on. Interestingly, this PBP is predicted to harbor different phosphate-binding residues to currently known PBPs. Here, it is shown that the PBP fromPolaromonasJS666 is capable of binding phosphate, with a maximal binding activity at pH 8. Its structure is expected to reveal its binding-cleft configuration as well as its phosphate-binding mode. Here, the expression, purification, characterization, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data collection to 1.35 Å resolution of the PBP fromPolaromonasJS666 are reported.

  6. Expression of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases, CAIX and CAXII, in human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerman Michael I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmembrane CAIX and CAXII are members of the alpha carbonic anhydrase (CA family. They play a crucial role in differentiation, proliferation, and pH regulation. Expression of CAIX and CAXII proteins in tumor tissues is primarily induced by hypoxia and this is particularly true for CAIX, which is regulated by the transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. Their distributions in normal adult human tissues are restricted to highly specialized cells that are not always hypoxic. The human fetus exists in a relatively hypoxic environment. We examined expression of CAIX, CAXII and HIF-1α in the developing human fetus and postnatal tissues to determine whether expression of CAIX and CAXII is exclusively regulated by HIF-1. Results The co-localization of CAIX and HIF-1α was limited to certain cell types in embryonic and early fetal tissues. Those cells comprised the primitive mesenchyma or involved chondrogenesis and skin development. Transient CAIX expression was limited to immature tissues of mesodermal origin and the skin and ependymal cells. The only tissues that persistently expressed CAIX protein were coelomic epithelium (mesothelium and its remnants, the epithelium of the stomach and biliary tree, glands and crypt cells of duodenum and small intestine, and the cells located at those sites previously identified as harboring adult stem cells in, for example, the skin and large intestine. In many instances co-localization of CAIX and HIF-1α was not evident. CAXII expression is restricted to cells involved in secretion and water absorption such as parietal cells of the stomach, acinar cells of the salivary glands and pancreas, epithelium of the large intestine, and renal tubules. Co-localization of CAXII with CAIX or HIF-1α was not observed. Conclusion The study has showed that: 1 HIF-1α and CAIX expression co- localized in many, but not all, of the embryonic and early fetal tissues; 2 There is no evidence of

  7. Chimeric rabies glycoprotein with a transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail from Newcastle disease virus fusion protein incorporates into the Newcastle disease virion at reduced levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui Mei; Zu, Shu Long; Zhou, Wei Wei; Wang, Xi Jun; Shuai, Lei; Wang, Xue Lian; Ge, Jin Ying; Bu, Zhi Gao

    2017-08-31

    Rabies remains an important worldwide health problem. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed as a vaccine vector in animals by using a reverse genetics approach. Previously, our group generated a recombinant NDV (LaSota strain) expressing the complete rabies virus G protein (RVG), named rL-RVG. In this study, we constructed the variant rL-RVGTM, which expresses a chimeric rabies virus G protein (RVGTM) containing the ectodomain of RVG and the transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic tail (CT) from the NDV fusion glycoprotein to study the function of RVG's TM and CT. The RVGTM did not detectably incorporate into NDV virions, though it was abundantly expressed at the surface of infected BHK-21 cells. Both rL-RVG and rL-RVGTM induced similar levels of NDV virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) after initial and secondary vaccination in mice, whereas rabies VNA induction by rL-RVGTM was markedly lower than that induced by rL-RVG. Though rL-RVG could spread from cell to cell like that in rabies virus, rL-RVGTM lost this ability and spread in a manner similar to the parental NDV. Our data suggest that the TM and CT of RVG are essential for its incorporation into NDV virions and for spreading of the recombinant virus from the initially infected cells to surrounding cells.

  8. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Uhna; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Link, Andrew J.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2005-01-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signals by clearing released NE at synapses. NET regulation by receptors and intracellular signaling pathways is supported by a growing list of associated proteins including syntaxin1A, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A-C), PICK1, and Hic-5. In the present study, we sought evidence for additional partnerships by mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with human NET (hNET) stably expressed in a mouse noradrenergic neuroblastoma cell line. Our initial proteomic analyses reveal multiple peptides derived from hNET, peptides arising from the mouse PP2A anchoring subunit (PP2A-Ar) and peptides derived from 14-3-3 proteins. We verified physical association of NET with PP2A-Ar via co-immunoprecipitation studies using mouse vas deferens extracts and with 14-3-3 via a fusion pull-down approach, implicating specifically the hNET NH 2 -terminus for interactions. The transporter complexes described likely support mechanisms regulating transporter activity, localization, and trafficking

  9. Calsyntenin-1 shelters APP from proteolytic processing during anterograde axonal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steuble

    2012-06-01

    Endocytosis of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP is thought to represent the major source of substrate for the production of the amyloidogenic Aβ peptide by the β-secretase BACE1. The irreversible nature of proteolytic cleavage implies the existence of an efficient replenishment route for APP from its sites of synthesis to the cell surface. We recently found that APP exits the trans-Golgi network in intimate association with calsyntenin-1, a transmembrane cargo-docking protein for Kinesin-1-mediated vesicular transport. Here we characterized the function of calsyntenin-1 in neuronal APP transport using selective immunoisolation of intracellular trafficking organelles, immunocytochemistry, live-imaging, and RNAi. We found that APP is co-transported with calsyntenin-1 along axons to early endosomes in the central region of growth cones in carriers that exclude the α-secretase ADAM10. Intriguingly, calsyntenin-1/APP organelles contained BACE1, suggesting premature cleavage of APP along its anterograde path. However, we found that APP contained in calsyntenin-1/APP organelles was stable. We further analyzed vesicular trafficking of APP in cultured hippocampal neurons, in which calsyntenin-1 was reduced by RNAi. We found a markedly increased co-localization of APP and ADAM10 in axons and growth cones, along with increased proteolytic processing of APP and Aβ secretion in these neurons. This suggested that the reduced capacity for calsyntenin-1-dependent APP transport resulted in mis-sorting of APP into additional axonal carriers and, therefore, the premature encounter of unprotected APP with its ectodomain proteases. In combination, our results characterize calsyntenin-1/APP organelles as carriers for sheltered anterograde axonal transport of APP.

  10. Topology and immersion depth of an integral membrane protein by paramagnetic rates from dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdul-Wahid, M Sameer; Verardi, Raffaello; Veglia, Gianluigi; Prosser, R Scott

    2011-09-01

    In studies of membrane proteins, knowledge of protein topology can provide useful insight into both structure and function. In this work, we present a solution NMR method for the measurement the tilt angle and average immersion depth of alpha helices in membrane proteins, from analysis of the paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements arising from dissolved oxygen. No modification to the micelle or protein is necessary, and the topology of both transmembrane and amphipathic helices are readily determined. We apply this method to the measure the topology of a monomeric mutant of phospholamban (AFA-PLN), a 52-residue membrane protein containing both an amphipathic and a transmembrane alpha helix. In dodecylphosphocholine micelles, the amphipathic helix of AFA-PLN was found to have a tilt angle of 87° ± 1° and an average immersion depth of 13.2 Å. The transmembrane helix was found to have an average immersion depth of 5.4 Å, indicating residues 41 and 42 are closest to the micelle centre. The resolution of paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements from dissolved oxygen compares favourably to those from Ni (II), a hydrophilic paramagnetic species.

  11. Topology and immersion depth of an integral membrane protein by paramagnetic rates from dissolved oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abdul-Wahid, M. Sameer; Verardi, Raffaello; Veglia, Gianluigi; Prosser, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    In studies of membrane proteins, knowledge of protein topology can provide useful insight into both structure and function. In this work, we present a solution NMR method for the measurement the tilt angle and average immersion depth of alpha helices in membrane proteins, from analysis of the paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements arising from dissolved oxygen. No modification to the micelle or protein is necessary, and the topology of both transmembrane and amphipathic helices are readily determined. We apply this method to the measure the topology of a monomeric mutant of phospholamban (AFA-PLN), a 52-residue membrane protein containing both an amphipathic and a transmembrane alpha helix. In dodecylphosphocholine micelles, the amphipathic helix of AFA-PLN was found to have a tilt angle of 87° ± 1° and an average immersion depth of 13.2 Å. The transmembrane helix was found to have an average immersion depth of 5.4 Å, indicating residues 41 and 42 are closest to the micelle centre. The resolution of paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements from dissolved oxygen compares favourably to those from Ni (II), a hydrophilic paramagnetic species.

  12. Chloroplast Iron Transport Proteins - Function and Impact on Plant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Millán, Ana F; Duy, Daniela; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated about three billion years ago by endosymbiosis of an ancestor of today's cyanobacteria with a mitochondria-containing host cell. During evolution chloroplasts of higher plants established as the site for photosynthesis and thus became the basis for all life dependent on oxygen and carbohydrate supply. To fulfill this task, plastid organelles are loaded with the transition metals iron, copper, and manganese, which due to their redox properties are essential for photosynthetic electron transport. In consequence, chloroplasts for example represent the iron-richest system in plant cells. However, improvement of oxygenic photosynthesis in turn required adaptation of metal transport and homeostasis since metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes oxidative damage. This is most acute in chloroplasts, where radicals and transition metals are side by side and ROS-production is a usual feature of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, on the one hand when bound by proteins, chloroplast-intrinsic metals are a prerequisite for photoautotrophic life, but on the other hand become toxic when present in their highly reactive, radical generating, free ionic forms. In consequence, transport, storage and cofactor-assembly of metal ions in plastids have to be tightly controlled and are crucial throughout plant growth and development. In the recent years, proteins for iron transport have been isolated from chloroplast envelope membranes. Here, we discuss their putative functions and impact on cellular metal homeostasis as well as photosynthetic performance and plant metabolism. We further consider the potential of proteomic analyses to identify new players in the field.

  13. NMR studies of the fifth transmembrane segment of Na+,K+-ATPase reveals a non-helical ion-binding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhaug, Jarl; Jakobsen, Louise Odgaard; Esmann, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the fifth membrane-spanning segment (M5) in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was determined using liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The spectra reveal that this peptide is substantially less...... transmembrane element of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. Furthermore, this region spans the residues implicated in Na(+) and K(+) transport, where they are likely to offer the flexibility needed to coordinate Na(+) as well as K(+) during active transport....... alpha-helical than the corresponding M5 peptide of Ca(2+)-ATPase. A well-defined alpha-helix is shown in the C-terminal half of the peptide. Apart from a short helical stretch at the N-terminus, the N-terminal half contains a non-helical region with two proline residues and sequence similarity to a non-structured...

  14. X-radiation effect on water transport in ascite cells of Ehrlich carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnov, V.A.; Ajvazishvili, M.A.; Kartvelishvili, I.I.; Tushishvili, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of local X radiation with doses 0.05 and 0.15 C/kg on water transport in ascitic cells of Erlich carcinoma is studied in rats. To study water transport through cell membranes, tritium mark was used. It is concluded that radiation effect on water transport in cells of Erlich carcinoma may be related to change in ionic permittivity of the membrane, because small changes in transmembrane ion transport affect immediately the osmotic motion of water. 5 refs

  15. TM9/Phg1 and SadA proteins control surface expression and stability of SibA adhesion molecules in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froquet, Romain; le Coadic, Marion; Perrin, Jackie; Cherix, Nathalie; Cornillon, Sophie; Cosson, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    TM9 proteins form a family of conserved proteins with nine transmembrane domains essential for cellular adhesion in many biological systems, but their exact role in this process remains unknown. In this study, we found that genetic inactivation of the TM9 protein Phg1A dramatically decreases the surface levels of the SibA adhesion molecule in Dictyostelium amoebae. This is due to a decrease in sibA mRNA levels, in SibA protein stability, and in SibA targeting to the cell surface. A similar phenotype was observed in cells devoid of SadA, a protein that does not belong to the TM9 family but also exhibits nine transmembrane domains and is essential for cellular adhesion. A contact site A (csA)-SibA chimeric protein comprising only the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of SibA and the extracellular domain of the Dictyostelium surface protein csA also showed reduced stability and relocalization to endocytic compartments in phg1A knockout cells. These results indicate that TM9 proteins participate in cell adhesion by controlling the levels of adhesion proteins present at the cell surface.

  16. Multiple regulatory roles of the mouse transmembrane adaptor protein NTAL in gene transcription and mast cell physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polakovicova

    Full Text Available Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL; also called LAB or LAT2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, including mast cells. There are conflicting reports on the role of NTAL in the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI signaling. Studies carried out on mast cells derived from mice with NTAL knock out (KO and wild type mice suggested that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, while experiments with RNAi-mediated NTAL knockdown (KD in human mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells suggested its positive regulatory role. To determine whether different methodologies of NTAL ablation (KO vs KD have different physiological consequences, we compared under well defined conditions FcεRI-mediated signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs with NTAL KO or KD. BMMCs with both NTAL KO and KD exhibited enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ERK, and depolymerization of filamentous actin. These data provide clear evidence that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI activation events in murine BMMCs, independently of possible compensatory developmental alterations. To gain further insight into the role of NTAL in mast cells, we examined the transcriptome profiles of resting and antigen-activated NTAL KO, NTAL KD, and corresponding control BMMCs. Through this analysis we identified several genes that were differentially regulated in nonactivated and antigen-activated NTAL-deficient cells, when compared to the corresponding control cells. Some of the genes seem to be involved in regulation of cholesterol-dependent events in antigen-mediated chemotaxis. The combined data indicate multiple regulatory roles of NTAL in gene expression and mast cell physiology.

  17. A nonsense mutation in TMEM95 encoding a nondescript transmembrane protein causes idiopathic male subfertility in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Pausch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variants underlying reduced male reproductive performance have been identified in humans and model organisms, most of them compromising semen quality. Occasionally, male fertility is severely compromised although semen analysis remains without any apparent pathological findings (i.e., idiopathic subfertility. Artificial insemination (AI in most cattle populations requires close examination of all ejaculates before insemination. Although anomalous ejaculates are rejected, insemination success varies considerably among AI bulls. In an attempt to identify genetic causes of such variation, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Imputed genotypes of 652,856 SNPs were available for 7962 AI bulls of the Fleckvieh (FV population. Male reproductive ability (MRA was assessed based on 15.3 million artificial inseminations. The GWAS uncovered a strong association signal on bovine chromosome 19 (P = 4.08 × 10(-59. Subsequent autozygosity mapping revealed a common 1386 kb segment of extended homozygosity in 40 bulls with exceptionally poor reproductive performance. Only 1.7% of 35,671 inseminations with semen samples of those bulls were successful. None of the bulls with normal reproductive performance was homozygous, indicating recessive inheritance. Exploiting whole-genome re-sequencing data of 43 animals revealed a candidate causal nonsense mutation (rs378652941, c.483C>A, p.Cys161X in the transmembrane protein 95 encoding gene TMEM95 which was subsequently validated in 1990 AI bulls. Immunohistochemical investigations evidenced that TMEM95 is located at the surface of spermatozoa of fertile animals whereas it is absent in spermatozoa of subfertile animals. These findings imply that integrity of TMEM95 is required for an undisturbed fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that deficiency of TMEM95 severely compromises male reproductive performance in cattle and reveal for the first time a phenotypic effect associated with genomic

  18. Characterization of the single transmembrane domain of human receptor activity-modifying protein 3 in adrenomedullin receptor internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Nozaki, Naomi; Kato, Johji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less effectively than does RAMP2. ► The RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization. ► A new strategy of promoting internalization and resensitization of the receptor was found. -- Abstract: Two receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP2 and RAMP3) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) to function as two heterodimeric receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3) for adrenomedullin (AM), a potent cardiovascular protective peptide. Following AM stimulation, both receptors undergo rapid internalization through a clathrin-dependent pathway, after which CLR/RAMP3, but not CLR/RAMP2, can be recycled to the cell surface for resensitization. However, human (h)RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less efficiently than does hRAMP2. Therefore, the molecular basis of the single transmembrane domain (TMD) and the intracellular domain of hRAMP3 during AM receptor internalization was investigated by transiently transfecting various RAMP chimeras and mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCLR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that substituting the RAMP3 TMD with that of RAMP2 markedly enhanced AM-induced internalization of CLR. However, this replacement did not enhance the cell surface expression of CLR, [ 125 I]AM binding affinity or AM-induced cAMP response. More detailed analyses showed that substituting the Thr 130 –Val 131 sequence in the RAMP3 TMD with the corresponding sequence (Ile 157 –Pro 158 ) from RAMP2 significantly enhanced AM-mediated CLR internalization. In contrast, substituting the RAMP3 target sequence with Ala 130 –Ala 131 did not significantly affect CLR internalization. Thus, the RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization, and the aforementioned introduction of the Ile–Pro sequence into the RAMP3 TMD may be a strategy for promoting receptor internalization/resensitization.

  19. The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is a transmembrane protein present in all cell types of adult Hydra and upregulated at the boundary between bud and parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer Susanne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Notch signalling pathway is conserved in pre-bilaterian animals. In the Cnidarian Hydra it is involved in interstitial stem cell differentiation and in boundary formation during budding. Experimental evidence suggests that in Hydra Notch is activated by presenilin through proteolytic cleavage at the S3 site as in all animals. However, the endogenous ligand for HvNotch has not been described yet. Results We have cloned a cDNA from Hydra, which encodes a bona-fide Notch ligand with a conserved domain structure similar to that of Jagged-like Notch ligands from other animals. Hyjagged mRNA is undetectable in adult Hydra by in situ hybridisation but is strongly upregulated and easily visible at the border between bud and parent shortly before bud detachment. In contrast, HyJagged protein is found in all cell types of an adult hydra, where it localises to membranes and endosomes. Co-localisation experiments showed that it is present in the same cells as HvNotch, however not always in the same membrane structures. Conclusions The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is conserved in Cnidarians. Together with HvNotch it may be involved in the formation of the parent-bud boundary in Hydra. Moreover, protein distribution of both, HvNotch receptor and HyJagged indicate a more widespread function for these two transmembrane proteins in the adult hydra, which may be regulated by additional factors, possibly involving endocytic pathways.

  20. The cystic-fibrosis-associated ΔF508 mutation confers post-transcriptional destabilization on the C. elegans ABC transporter PGP-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping He

    2012-11-01

    Membrane proteins make up ∼30% of the proteome. During the early stages of maturation, this class of proteins can experience localized misfolding in distinct cellular compartments, such as the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER lumen and ER membrane. ER quality control (ERQC mechanisms monitor folding and determine whether a membrane protein is appropriately folded or is misfolded and warrants degradation. ERQC plays crucial roles in human diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, in which deletion of a single amino acid (F508 results in the misfolding and degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR Cl– channel. We introduced the ΔF508 mutation into Caenorhabditis elegans PGP-3, a 12-transmembrane ABC transporter with 15% identity to CFTR. When expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, PGP-3wt was stable and efficiently trafficked to the apical plasma membrane through a COPII-dependent mechanism. However, PGP-3ΔF508 was post-transcriptionally destabilized, resulting in reduced total and apical membrane protein levels. Genetic or physiological activation of the osmotic stress response pathway, which causes accumulation of the chemical chaperone glycerol, stabilized PGP-3ΔF508. Efficient degradation of PGP-3ΔF508 required the function of several C. elegans ER-associated degradation (ERAD homologs, suggesting that destabilization occurs through an ERAD-type mechanism. Our studies show that the ΔF508 mutation causes post-transcriptional destabilization and degradation of PGP-3 in C. elegans epithelial cells. This model, combined with the power of C. elegans genetics, provides a new opportunity to genetically dissect metazoan ERQC.

  1. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarin, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd 2+ -ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C 354 , C 356 and proline P 355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D 692 in Tm8, glutamate E 164 in Tm4 and methionine M 149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author) [fr

  2. Effect of electric charge on the transperitoneal transport of plasma proteins during CAPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, B.; Koomen, G. C.; Imholz, A. L.; Struijk, D. G.; Reddingius, R. E.; Arisz, L.; Krediet, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to whether electric charges of plasma proteins influence their transport across the peritoneal membrane during CAPD. Fixed negative charges in the peritoneal membrane are diminished during peritonitis in rats. METHODS: Peritoneal clearances of 10 proteins and their

  3. Plasma Membrane-Located Purine Nucleotide Transport Proteins Are Key Components for Host Exploitation by Microsporidian Intracellular Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Eva; Hacker, Christian; Dean, Paul; Mifsud, John; Goldberg, Alina V.; Williams, Tom A.; Nakjang, Sirintra; Gregory, Alison; Hirt, Robert P.; Lucocq, John M.; Kunji, Edmund R. S.; Embley, T. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites of most animal groups including humans, but despite their significant economic and medical importance there are major gaps in our understanding of how they exploit infected host cells. We have investigated the evolution, cellular locations and substrate specificities of a family of nucleotide transport (NTT) proteins from Trachipleistophora hominis, a microsporidian isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient. Transport proteins are critical to microsporidian success because they compensate for the dramatic loss of metabolic pathways that is a hallmark of the group. Our data demonstrate that the use of plasma membrane-located nucleotide transport proteins (NTT) is a key strategy adopted by microsporidians to exploit host cells. Acquisition of an ancestral transporter gene at the base of the microsporidian radiation was followed by lineage-specific events of gene duplication, which in the case of T. hominis has generated four paralogous NTT transporters. All four T. hominis NTT proteins are located predominantly to the plasma membrane of replicating intracellular cells where they can mediate transport at the host-parasite interface. In contrast to published data for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, we found no evidence for the location for any of the T. hominis NTT transporters to its minimal mitochondria (mitosomes), consistent with lineage-specific differences in transporter and mitosome evolution. All of the T. hominis NTTs transported radiolabelled purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, GTP and GDP) when expressed in Escherichia coli, but did not transport radiolabelled pyrimidine nucleotides. Genome analysis suggests that imported purine nucleotides could be used by T. hominis to make all of the critical purine-based building-blocks for DNA and RNA biosynthesis during parasite intracellular replication, as well as providing essential energy for parasite cellular metabolism and protein synthesis. PMID:25474405

  4. Plasma membrane-located purine nucleotide transport proteins are key components for host exploitation by microsporidian intracellular parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heinz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites of most animal groups including humans, but despite their significant economic and medical importance there are major gaps in our understanding of how they exploit infected host cells. We have investigated the evolution, cellular locations and substrate specificities of a family of nucleotide transport (NTT proteins from Trachipleistophora hominis, a microsporidian isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient. Transport proteins are critical to microsporidian success because they compensate for the dramatic loss of metabolic pathways that is a hallmark of the group. Our data demonstrate that the use of plasma membrane-located nucleotide transport proteins (NTT is a key strategy adopted by microsporidians to exploit host cells. Acquisition of an ancestral transporter gene at the base of the microsporidian radiation was followed by lineage-specific events of gene duplication, which in the case of T. hominis has generated four paralogous NTT transporters. All four T. hominis NTT proteins are located predominantly to the plasma membrane of replicating intracellular cells where they can mediate transport at the host-parasite interface. In contrast to published data for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, we found no evidence for the location for any of the T. hominis NTT transporters to its minimal mitochondria (mitosomes, consistent with lineage-specific differences in transporter and mitosome evolution. All of the T. hominis NTTs transported radiolabelled purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, GTP and GDP when expressed in Escherichia coli, but did not transport radiolabelled pyrimidine nucleotides. Genome analysis suggests that imported purine nucleotides could be used by T. hominis to make all of the critical purine-based building-blocks for DNA and RNA biosynthesis during parasite intracellular replication, as well as providing essential energy for parasite cellular metabolism and protein synthesis.

  5. Substituted 2-Acylaminocycloalkylthiophene-3-carboxylic Acid Arylamides as Inhibitors of the Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Transmembrane Protein 16A (TMEM16A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Eric C; Phuan, Puay W; Reggi, Amanda L; Ferrera, Loretta; Galietta, Luis J V; Levy, Sarah E; Moises, Alannah C; Cil, Onur; Diez-Cecilia, Elena; Lee, Sujin; Verkman, Alan S; Anderson, Marc O

    2017-06-08

    Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), also called anoctamin 1 (ANO1), is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed widely mammalian cells, including epithelia, vascular smooth muscle tissue, electrically excitable cells, and some tumors. TMEM16A inhibitors have been proposed for treatment of disorders of epithelial fluid and mucus secretion, hypertension, asthma, and possibly cancer. Herein we report, by screening, the discovery of 2-acylaminocycloalkylthiophene-3-carboxylic acid arylamides (AACTs) as inhibitors of TMEM16A and analysis of 48 synthesized analogs (10ab-10bw) of the original AACT compound (10aa). Structure-activity studies indicated the importance of benzene substituted as 2- or 4-methyl, or 4-fluoro, and defined the significance of thiophene substituents and size of the cycloalkylthiophene core. The most potent compound (10bm), which contains an unusual bromodifluoroacetamide at the thiophene 2-position, had IC 50 of ∼30 nM, ∼3.6-fold more potent than the most potent previously reported TMEM16A inhibitor 4 (Ani9), and >10-fold improved metabolic stability. Direct and reversible inhibition of TMEM16A by 10bm was demonstrated by patch-clamp analysis. AACTs may be useful as pharmacological tools to study TMEM16A function and as potential drug development candidates.

  6. Neuronal and non-neuronal GABA transporters as targets for antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karsten K; White, H Steve; Schousboe, Arne

    2010-01-01

    of transmembrane transport and enzymatic degradation. The development of tiagabine selectively inhibiting the GABA transporter GAT1 constitutes a proof of concept that the GABA transporters are interesting drug targets in the context of antiepileptic drugs. The review provides a detailed analysis of the role......,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol) has been shown to possess a novel anticonvulsant profile in animal models of epilepsy, involving the ability to inhibit GABA transport mediated by GAT1 and BGT1 at the same time....

  7. Effect of transmembrane pressure control on energy efficiency during skim milk concentration by ultrafiltration at 10 and 50°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot-Hains, S; Benoit, S; Bouchard, C; Doyen, A; Bazinet, L; Pouliot, Y

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of the ultrafiltration process during skim milk concentration was studied using both dynamic and constant (465 or 672kPa) transmembrane pressure experiments at refrigerated temperature (10°C) and high temperature (50°C). The pilot-scale module was equipped with a 10-kDa polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane element with a surface area of 2.04m 2 . Permeation flux, resistance-in-series model, mineral and protein rejection, and energy consumption were studied as a function of temperature and transmembrane pressure applied. Higher permeation flux values were systematically obtained at 50°C. Also, a significant temperature effect was found for calcium rejection, which was lower at 10°C compared with 50°C. Total hydraulic resistance and reversible fouling resistance were higher at 50°C than at 10°C. No change in protein rejection was observed, depending on the operating mode studied. Permeation flux, which was higher at 50°C, had lower pumping energy consumption compared with ultrafiltration at the colder temperature. Also, the low ultrafiltration temperature required a higher total energy consumption to reach the 3.6× retentate compared with ultrafiltration at 50°C. Overall, our study shows that the operating parameters and temperature can be optimized using an energy efficiency ratio. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin A Transport Mechanism of the Multitransmembrane Cell-Surface Receptor STRA6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riki Kawaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A has biological functions as diverse as sensing light for vision, regulating stem cell differentiation, maintaining epithelial integrity, promoting immune competency, regulating learning and memory, and acting as a key developmental morphogen. Vitamin A derivatives have also been used in treating human diseases. If vitamin A is considered a drug that everyone needs to take to survive, evolution has come up with a natural drug delivery system that combines sustained release with precise and controlled delivery to the cells or tissues that depend on it. This “drug delivery system” is mediated by plasma retinol binding protein (RBP, the principle and specific vitamin A carrier protein in the blood, and STRA6, the cell-surface receptor for RBP that mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. The mechanism by which the RBP receptor absorbs vitamin A from the blood is distinct from other known cellular uptake mechanisms. This review summarizes recent progress in elucidating the fundamental molecular mechanism mediated by the RBP receptor and multiple newly discovered catalytic activities of this receptor, and compares this transport system with retinoid transport independent of RBP/STRA6. How to target this new type of transmembrane receptor using small molecules in treating diseases is also discussed.

  9. The ichthyotoxic alga Chattonella marina induces Na+, K+-ATPase, and CFTR proteins expression in fish gill chloride cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Janet Y.M.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Au, Doris W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the ichthyotoxic Chattonella marina stimulated proliferation of branchial chloride cell (CC) and induced osmotic distress akin to hyperactive elimination of ions in fish (Rhabdosargus sarba). To ascertain the in vivo effects of C. marina on key CC ion transporters, the localization and expression of Na + , K + -ATPase (NKA) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) proteins in response to C. marina exposure were investigated, using a quantitative immunocytochemical approach. The polarized distributions of NKA (α subunit) and CFTR proteins in branchial CCs of R. sarba remained unchanged under C. marina exposure. However, significant inductions of these two ion-transporters were detected in CCs of fish after 6 h exposure. By real-time PCR, no significant changes in gill NKA and CFTR mRNA expressions were detected, suggesting a post-transcriptional pathway is likely involved in regulating the ion transporters abundance. This study is the first to demonstrate the in vivo effects of harmful algal toxin on NKA and CFTR protein expressions in gill transepithelial cells. Taken together, an augmentation of branchial CCs together with hyper-stimulation of NKA and CFTR in CCs attribute to the rapid development of osmotic distress in C. marina susceptible fish

  10. Schisandra chinensis peptidoglycan-assisted transmembrane transport of lignans uniquely altered the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms in human HepG2 cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill (S. chinensis (SC fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2 was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w. In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a "Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism".

  11. The human dopamine transporter forms a tetramer in the plasma membrane: cross-linking of a cysteine in the fourth transmembrane segment is sensitive to cocaine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Hanne; Sen, Namita; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2003-11-14

    Using cysteine cross-linking, we demonstrated previously that the dopamine transporter (DAT) is at least a homodimer, with the extracellular end of transmembrane segment (TM) 6 at a symmetrical dimer interface. We have now explored the possibility that DAT exists as a higher order oligomer in the plasma membrane. Cysteine cross-linking of wild type DAT resulted in bands on SDS-PAGE consistent with dimer, trimer, and tetramer, suggesting that DAT forms a tetramer in the plasma membrane. A cysteine-depleted DAT (CD-DAT) into which only Cys243 or Cys306 was reintroduced was cross-linked to dimer, suggesting that these endogenous cysteines in TM4 and TM6, respectively, were cross-linked at a symmetrical dimer interface. Reintroduction of both Cys243 and Cys306 into CD-DAT led to a pattern of cross-linking indistinguishable from that of wild type, with dimer, trimer, and tetramer bands. This indicated that the TM4 interface and the TM6 interface are distinct and further suggested that DAT may exist in the plasma membrane as a dimer of dimers, with two symmetrical homodimer interfaces. The cocaine analog MFZ 2-12 and other DAT inhibitors, including benztropine and mazindol, protected Cys243 against cross-linking. In contrast, two substrates of DAT, dopamine and tyramine, did not significantly impact cross-linking. We propose that the impairment of cross-linking produced by the inhibitors results from a conformational change at the TM4 interface, further demonstrating that these compounds are not neutral blockers but by themselves have effects on the structure of the transporter.

  12. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  13. An evolved xylose transporter from Zymomonas mobilis enhances sugar transport in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingqing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose is a second most abundant sugar component of lignocellulose besides glucose. Efficient fermentation of xylose is important for the economics of biomass-based biorefineries. However, sugar mixtures are sequentially consumed in xylose co-fermentation with glucose due to carbon catabolite repression (CCR in microorganisms. As xylose transmembrance transport is one of the steps repressed by CCR, it is therefore of interest to develop a transporter that is less sensitive to the glucose inhibition or CCR. Results The glucose facilitator protein Glf transporter from Zymomonas mobilis, also an efficient transporter for xylose, was chosen as the target transporter for engineering to eliminate glucose inhibition on xylose uptake. The evolution of Glf transporter was carried out with a mixture of glucose and xylose in E. coli. Error-prone PCR and random deletion were employed respectively in two rounds of evolution. Aided by a high-throughput screening assay using xylose analog p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX in 96-well plates, a best mutant 2-RD5 was obtained that contains several mutations, and a deletion of 134 residues (about 28% of total residues, or three fewer transmembrane sections (TMSs. It showed a 10.8-fold improvement in terms of pNPX transport activity in the presence of glucose. The fermentation performance results showed that this mutant improved xylose consumption by 42% with M9 minimal medium containing 20 g L-1 xylose only, while with the mixture sugar of xylose and glucose, 28% more glucose was consumed, but no obvious co-utilization of xylose was observed. Further glucose fed-batch experiments suggested that the intracellular metabolism of xylose was repressed by glucose. Conclusions Through random mutagenesis and partial deletion coupled with high-throughput screening, a mutant of the Glf transporter (2-RD5 was obtained that relieved the inhibition of xylose transport by glucose. The fermentation

  14. Purification and Identification of Membrane Proteins from Urinary Extracellular Vesicles using Triton X-114 Phase Partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuiwang; Musante, Luca; Tataruch, Dorota; Xu, Xiaomeng; Kretz, Oliver; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Luo, Haihua; Zou, Hequn; Jiang, Yong; Holthofer, Harry

    2018-01-05

    Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) have become a promising source for biomarkers accurately reflecting biochemical changes in kidney and urogenital diseases. Characteristically, uEVs are rich in membrane proteins associated with several cellular functions like adhesion, transport, and signaling. Hence, membrane proteins of uEVs should represent an exciting protein class with unique biological properties. In this study, we utilized uEVs to optimize the Triton X-114 detergent partitioning protocol targeted for membrane proteins and proceeded to their subsequent characterization while eliminating effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein, the most abundant interfering protein in urine. This is the first report aiming to enrich and characterize the integral transmembrane proteins present in human urinary vesicles. First, uEVs were enriched using a "hydrostatic filtration dialysis'' appliance, and then the enriched uEVs and lysates were verified by transmission electron microscopy. After using Triton X-114 phase partitioning, we generated an insoluble pellet fraction and aqueous phase (AP) and detergent phase (DP) fractions and analyzed them with LC-MS/MS. Both in- and off-gel protein digestion methods were used to reveal an increased number of membrane proteins of uEVs. After comparing with the identified proteins without phase separation as in our earlier publication, 199 different proteins were detected in DP. Prediction of transmembrane domains (TMDs) from these protein fractions showed that DP had more TMDs than other groups. The analyses of hydrophobicity revealed that the GRAVY score of DP was much higher than those of the other fractions. Furthermore, the analysis of proteins with lipid anchor revealed that DP proteins had more lipid anchors than other fractions. Additionally, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the DP proteins detected participate in endocytosis and signaling, which is consistent with the expected biological functions of membrane proteins. Finally

  15. N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE Proteins Regulate Meristem Initiation by Modulating Auxin Transport and MAX2 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Ghawana, Sanjay; Jones, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE (NDL) proteins interact with the G? subunit (AGB1) of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the presen...

  16. Sensitive and specific fluorescent probes for functional analysis of the three major types of mammalian ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Irina V; Pande, Praveen; Patton, Wayne F

    2011-01-01

    An underlying mechanism for multi drug resistance (MDR) is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC transporters also determine the general fate and effect of pharmaceutical agents in the body. The three major types of ABC transporters are MDR1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), MRP1/2 (ABCC1/2) and BCRP/MXR (ABCG2) proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows determination of the functional expression levels of ABC transporters in live cells, but most dyes used as indicators (rhodamine 123, DiOC(2)(3), calcein-AM) have limited applicability as they do not detect all three major types of ABC transporters. Dyes with broad coverage (such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin and mitoxantrone) lack sensitivity due to overall dimness and thus may yield a significant percentage of false negative results. We describe two novel fluorescent probes that are substrates for all three common types of ABC transporters and can serve as indicators of MDR in flow cytometry assays using live cells. The probes exhibit fast internalization, favorable uptake/efflux kinetics and high sensitivity of MDR detection, as established by multidrug resistance activity factor (MAF) values and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Used in combination with general or specific inhibitors of ABC transporters, both dyes readily identify functional efflux and are capable of detecting small levels of efflux as well as defining the type of multidrug resistance. The assay can be applied to the screening of putative modulators of ABC transporters, facilitating rapid, reproducible, specific and relatively simple functional detection of ABC transporter activity, and ready implementation on widely available instruments.

  17. Isolation of a novel aquaglyceroporin from a marine teleost (Sparus auratus): function and tissue distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Estevao, M.D.; Fuentes, J.; Cardoso, -; Fabra, M.; Passos, A.L.; Detmers, F.J.M.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cerda, J.; Power, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aquaporins (formerly called the major intrinsic protein family) are transmembrane channel proteins. The family includes the CHIP group, which are functionally characterised as water channels and the GLP group, which are specialised for glycerol transport. The present study reports the

  18. Calcium channel blockers ameliorate iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis by altering iron transport and stellate cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Department of Pathology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Research on Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Zhao, Xin [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei (China); Chang, Yanzhong [Laboratory of Molecular Iron Metabolism, College of Life Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Chu, Xi [Department of Pharmacy, The Forth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050011, Hebei (China); Zhang, Xuan [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Liu, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Wang, Na [Department of Physiology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Gao, Yonggang [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Zhang, Jianping, E-mail: zhangjianping14@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Chu, Li, E-mail: chuli0614@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Integrative Medicine on Liver-Kidney Patterns, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China)

    2016-06-15

    Liver fibrosis is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with iron overload. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can antagonize divalent cation entry into renal and myocardial cells and inhibit fibrogenic gene expression. We investigated the potential of CCBs to resolve iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis. Kunming mice were assigned to nine groups (n = 8 per group): control, iron overload, deferoxamine, high and low dose verapamil, high and low dose nimodipine, and high and low dose diltiazem. Iron deposition and hepatic fibrosis were measured in mouse livers. Expression levels of molecules associated with transmembrane iron transport were determined by molecular biology approaches. In vitro HSC-T6 cells were randomized into nine groups (the same groups as the mice). Changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and metalloproteinase expression in cells were detected to assess the anti-fibrotic effects of CCBs during iron overload conditions. We found that CCBs reduced hepatic iron content, intracellular iron deposition, the number of hepatic fibrotic areas, collagen expression levels, and hydroxyproline content. CCBs rescued abnormal expression of α1C protein in L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and down-regulated divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) expression in mouse livers. In iron-overloaded HSC-T6 cells, CCBs reduced iron deposition, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). CCBs are potential therapeutic agents that can be used to address hepatic fibrosis during iron overload. They resolve hepatic fibrosis probably correlated with regulating transmembrane iron transport and inhibiting HSC growth. - Highlights: • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) reduced hepatic iron content. • CCBs decreased hepatic fibrotic areas and collagen expression levels. • CCBs resolve fibrosis by regulating iron transport and

  19. Computational studies of G protein-coupled receptor complexes : Structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sensoy, Ozge; Almeida, Jose G; Shabbir, Javeria; de Sousa Moreira, Irina; Morra, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitously expressed transmembrane proteins associated with a wide range of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson, schizophrenia, and also implicated in in several abnormal heart conditions. As such, this family of receptors is regarded as excellent drug

  20. A Neutron View of Proteins in Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Despite the growing number of atomic-resolution membrane protein structures, direct structural information about proteins in their native membrane environment is scarce. This problem is particularly relevant in the case of the highly-charged S1-S4 voltage- sensing domains responsible for nerve impulses, where interactions with the lipid bilayer are critical for the function of voltage-activated potassium channels. We have used neutron diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations to inves