WorldWideScience

Sample records for transportation benefits crime

  1. Crime and public transport: designing a safer journey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, Tinus

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues related to transport and security with a particular focus on the role that the physical environment plays in increasing or reducing opportunities for crime. The focus is on crime problems on public transport and the use...

  2. Transport engineering and reduction in crime: the Medellin case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomer Bea, D.

    2016-07-01

    This study analyses the impact of the aerial cable car public transport system, locally known as Metrocable, in Medellín (Colombia), on the reduction in crime. As part of the municipal policies of social urbanism, Metrocable has contributed to the social integration of the population in the outlying neighbourhoods, which has increased safety in Medellín. This case is clearly of great interest from the point of view of Criminal Sciences, demonstrating how crime can be combated by using tools beyond ius puniendi. (Author)

  3. Crime

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  4. Advanced public transportation systems benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  5. Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship. NBER Working Paper No. 16722

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that education offers a wide-range of benefits that extend beyond increases in labor market productivity. Improvements in education can lower crime, improve health, and increase voting and democratic participation. This chapter reviews recent developments on these "non-production" benefits of education with an…

  6. Cost-Benefit Analyses of Transportation Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of cost-benefit analyses of transportation infrastructure investment projects from the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Such analyses are based on a number of untenable ontological assumptions about social value, human nature and the natural......-to-pay investigations. Accepting the ontological and epistemological assumptions of cost-benefit analysis involves an implicit acceptance of the ethical and political values favoured by these assumptions. Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences...

  7. Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the GMS : a Study of the East-West and North-South Corridors. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2.6 million square kilometers and a ...

  8. Guide to calculating transportation demand management benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    1997-02-14

    The full benefits of transportation demand management (TDM) programs were discussed. TDM includes several policies, programs and measures designed to change travel patterns. TDM programs include commute trip reductions, pricing policies, land use management strategies, and programs to support alternative modes of transportation such as public transit, carpooling, bicycling, walking and telecommuting. In addition to reduction in traffic congestion and reduction in air pollution, other impacts of TDM programs were also evaluated. The value of these impacts based on external cost savings was estimated. A list of documents, software and organizations which could be helpful for TDM planning and evaluation was provided. 34 refs., 14 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  10. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  11. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  12. Possible association between serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and extremely violent crime in Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ding-Lieh; Hong, Chen-Jee; Shih, Hao-Ling; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, has been implicated in aggressive behavior. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which reuptakes serotonin into the nerve terminal, plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function. Previous western reports have demonstrated that the low-activity short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic-region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with aggressive behavior and associated personality traits. In the present study, we investigated this 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism in a group of Chinese males who had been convicted for extremely violent crime (n = 135) and a normal control group (n = 111). The proportion of S-allele carriers was significantly higher in the criminal group than in the controls (p = 0.006). A significant association was not demonstrated for the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse or alcohol abuse in the criminal group. Our findings demonstrate that carriage of the low-activity S allele is associated with extremely violent criminal behavior in Chinese males, and suggests that the 5-HTT may be implicated in the mechanisms underlying violent behaviors.

  13. Costs and benefits of MDOT intelligent transportation system deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report analyses costs and benefits of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployed by : the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). MDOT ITS focuses on traffic incident : management and also provide Freeway Courtesy Patrol services. A...

  14. Methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits of transportation research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, Louw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide updated information by identifying and discussing methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits appropriate for transportation-related research facilities/programmes. The information has been...

  15. Economic benefits of employment transportation services : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    This report examines the benefits that accrue from employment transportation services implemented as a result of changes in welfare policy, namely the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. Employment transp...

  16. Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  17. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  18. Educational Inequality and Juvenile Crime: An Area Based Analysis [Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report No. 26

    OpenAIRE

    Sabates, Ricardo; Feinstein, Leon; Shingal, Anirudh

    2008-01-01

    This study considers the influence of one form of relative deprivation on crime, namely educational inequality. This is examined through an area-based analysis of the relationship between juvenile conviction rates for a range of offences and educational inequality based on maths Key Stage 3 scores in English local education authorities (LEAs). Using aggregate area-level information from three cohorts of young people (born between 1983 and 1985) within each area, and controlling for other vari...

  19. Potential benefits of superconductivity to transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; Johnson, Larry R.

    Research in U.S. transportation applications of superconductors is strongly motivated by a number of potential national benefits. These include the reduction of dependence on petroleum-based fuels, energy savings, substantially reduced air and noise pollution, increased customer convenience, and reduced maintenance costs. Current transportation technology offers little flexibility to switch to alternative fuels, and efforts to achieve the other benefits are confounded by growing congestion at airports and on urban roadways. A program has been undertaken to identify possible applications of the emerging superconducting applications to transportation and to evaluate potential national benefits. The current phase of the program will select the most promising applications for a more detailed subsequent study. Transportation modes being examined include highway and industrial vehicles, as well as rail, sea, air transport and pipelines. Three strategies are being considered: (1) replacing present components with those employing superconductors, (2) substituting new combinations of components or systems for present systems, and (3) developing completely new technologies. Distinctions are made between low-, medium-, and near-room-temperature superconductors. The most promising applications include magnetically levitated passenger and freight vehicles; replacement of drive systems in locomotives, self-propelled rail cars, and ships; and electric vehicles inductively coupled to electrified roadways.

  20. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  1. Transport-related fringe benefits: implications for moving and the journey to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; van der Vlist, A.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Firms offer compensation not only through wages, but also offer transport-related fringe benefits such as transport benefits (company cars, travel, and parking benefits) and relocation benefits to job applicants. We argue that these benefits are not randomly offered to employees, but depend on the

  2. Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) offer significant environmental benefits over competing technologies and hence the environment is a strong driving force behind the development of FC systems for transport and stationary applications. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of FC and competing systems, and points out strengths and weaknesses of the different FC systems, suggesting areas for improvement. The results presented build on earlier work [D. Hart, G. Hoermandinger, Initial assessment of the environmental characteristics of fuel cells and competing technologies, ETSU F/02/00111/REP/1, ETSU, Harwell, UK, 1997.] and provide a detailed analysis of a wider range of systems, The analysis takes the form of a model, which compares system emissions (global, regional and local pollutants) and energy consumption on a full fuel cycle basis. It considers a variety of primary energy sources, intermediate fuel supply steps and FC systems for transport and stationary end-uses. These are compared with alternative systems for transport and stationary applications. Energy and pollutant emission reductions of FC systems compared to alternative vehicle technology vary considerably, though all FC technologies show reduction in energy use and CO 2 emissions of at least 20%; as well as reductions of several orders of magnitude in regulated pollutants compared to the base-case vehicle. The location of emissions is also of importance, with most emissions in the case of FC vehicles occurring in the fuel supply stage. The energy, CO 2 and regulated emissions advantages of FC systems for distributed and baseload electricity are more consistent than for transport applications, with reductions in regulated pollutants generally larger than one order of magnitude compared to competing technologies. For CHP applications, the advantages of FC systems with regard to regulated pollutants remain large. However, energy and CO 2 emission advantages are reduced, depending largely on the assumptions made

  3. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  4. Predicting differences in the perceived relevance of crime's costs and benefits in a test of rational choice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    Previous hypothetical scenario tests of rational choice theory have presented all participants with the same set of consequences, implicitly assuming that these consequences would be relevant for each individual. Recent research demonstrates that those researcher-presented consequences do not accurately reflect those considered by study participants and that there is individual variation in the relevance of various consequences. Despite this and some theoretical propositions that such differences should exist, little empirical research has explored the possibility of predicting such variation. This study allows participants to develop their own set of relevant consequences for three hypothetical offenses and examines how several demographic and theoretical variables impact those consequences' relevance. Exploratory results suggest individual factors impact the perceived relevance of several cost and benefit types, even among a relatively homogenous sample of college students. Implications for future tests of rational choice theory, as well as policy implications are discussed.

  5. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....

  6. A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Golub, A.; Robinson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation improvements inevitably lead to an uneven distribution of user benefits, in space and by network type (private and public transport). This paper makes a moral argument for what would be a fair distribution of these benefits. The argument follows Walzer’s ‘‘Spheres of Justice’’

  7. Benefits assessment of advanced public transportation system technologies, update 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report was performed under the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program. This program focuses on the development and demonstration of innovative advanced navigation, information and communicati...

  8. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  9. Challenges of organized environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.

  10. Broad economic benefits of freight transportation infrastructure improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project strives to introduce a novel way to quantify the broad re-organization benefits associated with an : improvement in the freight infrastructure. Using the approach based on 1) the technique known as Field of Influence, and : 2) RAS adjust...

  11. Storage and transport casks combine to bring benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorup, C.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Assurance Corporation is currently preparing a safety report on its new spent fuel storage/transport casks. The report is due to be submitted to the NRC in 1989, together with an application for a licence. The aim of the combined casks is to simplify the process of dealing with spent fuel, whilst keeping costs down. The design of the casks is described, together with questions relating to the licensing of the casks. (author)

  12. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 16 (Cost-Benefit Analysis of Transportation Projects)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the problems of evaluating transportation projects in the context of the less-developed countries. Emphasis will be placed on highway projects, because these account for the bulk of transport investments in the developing parts of the world. If a project passes a straight financial test, based on the present value of its cash inflows and outflows, projects would only come if this financial NPV were outweighed by the present value of the project’s various externali...

  14. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  15. Temporal dimensions of vulnerability to crime in economic sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into vulnerability to crime in two economic sectors in Belgium. Vulnerability to crime is an integration of diverse temporal factors. We address pre-crime and post-crime aspects of vulnerability, arising before and after the criminal event in an economic context. Based on interviews with professionals, security staff, law enforcement agents and with criminals in the transport sector and the hotel and catering industry, a study of police files, and i...

  16. Impact of Transport Zone Number in Simulation Models on Cost-Benefit Analysis Results in Transport Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, feasibility studies need to be prepared for all planned transport investments, mainly those co-financed with UE grants. One of the fundamental aspect of feasibility study is the economic justification of an investment, evaluated in an area of so called cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The main goal of CBA calculation is to prove that a transport investment is really important for the society and should be implemented as economically efficient one. It can be said that the number of hours (PH - passengers hours) in trips and travelled kilometres (PK - passengers kilometres) are the most important for CBA results. The differences between PH and PK calculated for particular investment scenarios are the base for benefits calculation. Typically, transport simulation models are the best source for such data. Transport simulation models are one of the most powerful tools for transport network planning. They make it possible to evaluate forecast traffic volume and passenger flows in a public transport system for defined scenarios of transport and area development. There are many different transport models. Their construction is often similar, and they mainly differ in the level of their accuracy. Even models for the same area may differ in this matter. Typically, such differences come from the accuracy of supply side representation: road and public transport network representation. In many cases only main roads and a public transport network are represented, while local and service roads are eliminated as a way of reality simplification. This also enables a faster and more effective calculation process. On the other hand, the description of demand part of these models based on transport zones is often stable. Difficulties with data collection, mainly data on land use, resulted in the lack of changes in the analysed land division into so called transport zones. In this paper the author presents an influence of land division on the results of traffic analyses, and hence

  17. Intelligent transport systems deployment in Thessaloniki: Assessment of costs and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsakis Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation projects often require large initial investments and are expected to generate benefits extending far into the future. Thus, there is a need to compare benefits and costs that occur at different periods over time. Since money has a time value, the same amount of money at different time periods does not have the same value. Therefore, it is important to convert costs and benefits into equivalent values when conducting a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA. A special category of transportation projects is that of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS. ITS comprise innovative solutions for travel demand and traffic management, and it is expected to play a key role in future sustainable urban development plans. Compared to other transportation projects, ITS have a lower initial investment. In this paper a framework based on a CBA is presented, assessing costs and benefits of three ITS projects implemented in Thessaloniki, Greece. The paper refers to future developments of ITS in the city of Thessaloniki. The examined systems have already been developed as demonstration systems in various regions throughout Europe. The benefits of the systems have been transferred and scaled up, so as to be in line with the specific characteristics of the Greek environment.

  18. The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.

  19. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  20. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  1. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  2. Costs and benefits of employment transportation for low-wage workers: an assessment of job access public transportation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuriah Vonu, Piyushimita; Persky, Joseph; Soot, Siim; Sriraj, P S

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of public transportation-based employment transportation (ET) services to transport low-wage workers to jobs in the US. We make an attempt to capture a more comprehensive range of intended and unintended outcomes of ET services than those traditionally considered in the case of public transportation services. Using primary data from 23 locations across the country, we present a framework to evaluate how transportation improvements, in interaction with labor markets, can affect users' short-run economic welfare, users' long-run human capital accumulation and non-users' short-run economic welfare. These services were partially funded by a specialized program - the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program - which was consolidated into larger transit funding programs by recent legislation. In the sites examined, we found that low wage users benefited from self-reported increased access to jobs, improvements in earnings potential, as well as from savings in transport cost and time. Simulations show the potential of users to accrue long-term worklife benefits. At the same time, users may have accrued changes in leisure time as a result of transitioning from unemployment to employment, and generated a range of societal impacts on three classes of non-users: the general tax-paying public, the general commuting public in the service operating area and other low-wage workers in local labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Internet and computer crimes

    OpenAIRE

    Janýšková, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    INTERNET AND COMPUTER CRIME (SUMMARY) The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to the basic problems of Internet and computer crime (furthermore also "cyber crime"), which is a type of crime that is still relatively new, but fast developing in a similar pace as the information technologies. The thesis contains seven substantial chapters. First chapter is an introduction of this thesis, which focuses on its structure and summary of the content. Second chapter presents the most ...

  4. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  5. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...

  6. Crime Scene Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.

    Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime investigation. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to investigate a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…

  7. THE DETERMINATION OF CRIMES OF CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rubantsova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to determination of starting conceptual positions of a concept and signs of corruption. In article it is noted that qualification of this type of crimes is rather difficult. To a basis of a corruption crime the illegal transaction having criminal character constitutes. The government employee, having the rights and obligations of the government employee, he sells to other persons that he by right doesn’t belong to it. The corruption crime becomes result of this transaction. It always has mercenary character and is made for the sake of receipt of benefit of property nature. Corruption in the state has system nature.

  8. Essays in Education, Crime, and Job Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick

    , Crime, and Job Displacement”, analyzes the determinants and social implications of these three factors. While independent, each essay within this thesis examines the impact of factors such as education, in terms of reduced crime, job loss, in terms of increased crime, and discrimination, in terms of its......With a limited budget and resources, governments must decide how to allocate funds across a variety of factors which benefit society such as education, crime deterrence, and public safety. Each increase in spending on one area comes with the knowledge that this money cannot be spent on social...... problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  10. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  11. Transport demand, harmful emissions, environment and health co-benefits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HE, Ling-Yun; QIU, Lu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese residents' travel demand has been increasing dramatically. As a result, emissions from motor vehicles have been found as one main source of air pollution in China, which consequently influences the residents' health. To better understand the environmental deterioration and health losses caused by the transport sector in China, in current circumstances, one must know how the changes in residents' travel demand and alternative transport modes affect environment and health co-benefits in China. We first of all calculate the demand from nearly all the residents' travel means, including road, rail, water, and air transport. Besides, based on the results, this paper further makes projections for a business-as-usual scenario for 2050 with several alternative transport scenarios to reduce harmful emissions and improve the welfare of the residents' health in China. Our integrated framework includes the harmful emissions models, the fixed box model and the exposure-response models, to link transport demand with possible environmental and health outcomes. The findings suggest that significant environment and health co-benefits are possible if alternative transport replaces. This research, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to estimate the total resident's travel demand under different scenarios and the consequent environment and health co-benefits in the transitional China. - Highlights: • The changes in travel demand affect both environment and health in China. • Integrated framework is proposed to analyze environment and health co-benefits. • Travel demand here includes all travel means: road, rail, water, and air transport. • Counter-factual scenarios are proposed to estimate environment and health impacts.

  12. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  13. Relating cost-benefit analysis results with transport project decisions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Jan Anne; Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Koopmans, Carl; Kroesen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    This paper relates the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) results of transportation policy proposals in the Netherlands with the decision to implement or abandon the proposal. The aim of this study is to explore the relation between the CBA results and decision-making. Multinomial logit regression models

  14. Relating cost-benefit analysis results with transport project decisions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; Frenken, Koen; Koopmans, Carl; Kroesen, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper relates the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) results of transportation policy proposals in the Netherlands with the decision to implement or abandon the proposal. The aim of this study is to explore the relation between the CBA results and decision-making. Multinomial logit regression

  15. Improving the problem analysis in cost-benefit analysis for transport projects : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; Mouter, N.

    2013-01-01

    Key actors (consultants, scientists and policy makers) in the Netherlands transport policy cost-benefit analysis (CBA) practice consider ‘problem analysis’ to be one of the important CBA substantive problems. Their idea is that a good-quality problem analysis can help to identify proper solutions,

  16. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  17. Combating transnational environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.

  18. Changes in walking associated with perceived neighborhood safety and police-recorded crime: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary; Evenson, Kelly R; Moore, Kari; Block, Richard; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-04-01

    To explore the association of changes in perceived safety and police-recorded crime with changes in transport and leisure walking using longitudinal data from Chicago residents participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012). Main exposures included perceived safety (self-reported as feeling safe walking in the neighborhood and reporting violence to be a problem in the neighborhood), and one-year counts of police-recorded crime occurring within a one-mile buffer of participants' residences. Main outcomes included transport and leisure walking (self-reported and calculated as total minutes/week across four study visits). Fixed effects models assessed the association of change in perceived safety and police-recorded crime with changes in transport and leisure walking over a 10-year period for 796 adults. No associations were found between changes in perceived safety and either changes in transport or leisure walking. Residing in areas with increases in murder was associated with decreases in transport walking. However, no other associations were found with police-recorded crime. There continues to be a need to explore the benefits of cultivating safe neighborhoods that enhance resident health and well-being. Research should continue examining how community initiatives may build safe environments and community identity that promote walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In Crime Stories: Criminalistic Fantasy and the Culture of Crisis in Weimar Germany, Todd Herzog – explicitly or implicitly – deals with different established myths about crime fiction, criminality and its cultural presumptions. It is generally quite seldom – as Herzog does – that the three subje...... is indeed part of this needed and remarkable wave of theoretical and historical revisions of our understanding of crime through factual and fictional representations....

  20. Globalization theories of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization is affecting all areas of social life, and thus no exception crime. Its effect is most evident in the development of new forms of crime that transcends national borders and states receive a supranational character. This primarily refers to the various forms of organized crime, but also in certain of its forms, which are a kind of state violence and the consequences of which are reflected in the systematic violation of human rights. Also, the process of globalization of crime has caused the formation of international organizations aimed at combating of crime which transcends national boundaries. New forms of crime are conditioned by globalization demanded a new approach to their study. Existing criminological theories have proven inadequate in explaining all the causes that lead to crime. It was necessary to create new theories and new doctrines about the causes of crime. In the continuous process of development of criminology, in constant search for new explanations of the causes of crime, within the sociological theories have emerged and globalization theories of criminality, which the authors in their work special attention. The focus of the globalization theory on crime just on its prevention, to reduce the risk of its occurrence. This is certainly a positive step because it shifts the focus of criminologists with immediate causes of crime and focus on the study of their interactions, which is largely socially conditioned, which is especially prominent in the work. The aim of this paper is to point out that globalization theories should not be viewed in isolation from other criminological theories and doctrines, but that one, although relatively new, contribute to the creation of complete systems of criminological doctrines in order to find the optimal social response to crime.

  1. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  2. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  3. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dağlar, Murat; Argun, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they b...

  4. Measuring the environmental benefits of hydrogen transportation fuel cycles under uncertainty about external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, Liliya; Gulli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ('oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine') in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ('natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell'). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove this ambiguity highlighting that the hydrogen pathway provides significant environmental benefits ,especially in densely populated areas, assuming 100% city driving.

  5. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankerl, M.W.; Schmid, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper

  6. Low carbon scenarios for transport in India: Co-benefits analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Subash; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2015-01-01

    Dependence on oil for transport is a concern for India's policymakers on three counts – energy security, local environment and climate change. Rapid urbanisation and accompanying motorisation has created some of the most polluting cities in India and rising demand for oil is leading to higher imports, besides causing more CO 2 emissions. The government of India wants to achieve the climate goals through a sustainability approach that simultaneously addresses other environment and developmental challenges. This paper analyses a sustainable low carbon transport (SLCT) scenario based on sustainable strategies for passenger and freight mobility, vehicle technologies and fuel using global CO 2 prices that correspond to 2 °C global stabilisation target. The scenarios span from years 2010 to 2050 and are analysed using the energy system model-ANSWER MARKAL. The SLCT scenario has improved energy security (cumulative oil demand lower by 3100 Mtoe), improved air quality (PM 2.5 emissions never exceed the existing levels) and the cumulative CO 2 emissions are lower by 13 billion t CO 2 thereby showing that achieving development objectives with CO 2 co-benefits is feasible. -- Highlights: •India's BAU transitions pose challenges for energy security and climate change. •Sustainable transport policies deliver benefits for air quality and energy security. •Sustainable transport policies fall short of mitigation needed for 2 °C stabilisation. •Transport sector becomes increasingly dependent on electricity. •Low carbon policies are essential to clean transport and electricity generation

  7. The nature of crime : Is cheating necessary for cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalek, R; Cohen, L E

    1991-09-01

    The classical social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the counterintuitive thesis that crime is beneficial for society because it provokes punishment, which enhances social solidarity. His logic, however, is blemished by a reified view of society that leads to group-selectionist thinking and a teleological account of the causes of crime. Reconceptualization of the relationship between crime and punishment in terms of evolutionary game theory, however, suggests that crime (cheating) may confer benefits on cooperating individuals by promoting stability in their patterns of cooperation.

  8. Science against Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)

  9. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  10. Database crime to crime match rate calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J

    2009-06-01

    Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.

  11. Vulnerability to crime in economic sectors: evidence from the hotel, restaurant and café business (Horeca) and the transport sector in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the structures of economic sectors and the question as to what makes them particularly susceptible to be harmed by crime and/or what creates opportunities for criminal misuse. Initially, we highlight certain bottlenecks which the two sectors are currently faced with in the Belgian context. It is argued that some of these bottlenecks might lead to criminal exploitation. Drawing upon interviews with players in the two sectors, law enforcement agents, criminals that “know” th...

  12. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  13. Crime-prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone

    In Denmark, crime prevention is embedded in state professional practices in kindergartens, schools and youth clubs. These welfare institutions are conceived as safe places that safeguard children and young people through inclusive learning environments, warm and empathic relationships between......-sectional cooperation called “SSP”. SSP is a locally anchored cooperation of the school (S), the social services (S) and the police (P) and its aim is to create a coordinated system of prevention, e.g., to prevent crime or school drop outs. In continuation of this, crime preventive work is understood as a practice...

  14. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  15. Benefits of flexibility from smart electrified transportation and heating in the future UK electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Fei; Aunedi, Marko; Strbac, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The economic and environmental benefits of smart EVs/HPs are quantified. • This paper implements an advanced stochastic analytical framework. • Operating patterns and potential flexibility of EVs/HPs are sourced from UK trials. • A comprehensive set of case studies across UK future scenarios are carried out. - Abstract: This paper presents an advanced stochastic analytical framework to quantify the benefits of smart electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) on the carbon emission and the integration cost of renewable energy sources (RES) in the future UK electricity system. The typical operating patterns of EVs/HPs as well as the potential flexibility to perform demand shifting and frequency response are sourced from recent UK trials. A comprehensive range of case studies across several future UK scenarios suggest that smart EVs/HPs could deliver measurable carbon reductions by enabling a more efficient operation of the electricity system, while at the same time making the integration of electrified transport and heating demand significantly less carbon intensive. The second set of case studies establish that smart EVs/HPs have significant potential to support cost-efficient RES integration by reducing: (a) RES balancing cost, (b) cost of required back-up generation capacity, and (c) cost of additional low-carbon capacity required to offset lower fuel efficiency and curtailed RES output while achieving the same emission target. Frequency response provision from EVs/HPs could significantly enhance both the carbon benefit and the RES integration benefit of smart EVs/HPs.

  16. The Perception of Small Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2010-01-01

    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  17. Hot Routes: Developing a New Technique for the Spatial Analysis of Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, L.; Partridge, H.; Shepherd, N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hotspot mapping techniques such as KDE to represent the geographical spread of linear events can be problematic. Network-constrained data (for example transport-related crime) require a different approach to visualize concentration. We propose a methodology called Hot Routes, which measures the risk distribution of crime along a linear network by calculating the rate of crimes per section of road. This method has been designed for everyday crime analysts, and requires only a Geogra...

  18. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....

  19. Theory of digital crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva B. M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available hackers seem to be the most mysterious people in the contemporary world. Where legal actions are helpless, hackers can intervene. However, not only hackers but state employees commit cyber crimes once they get power. Is it just a coincidence or authorities and hackers have lots of things in common? This article is trying to cast light on the reasons why digital crimes are committed.

  20. Neighborhood crime and travel behavior : an investigation of the influence of neighborhood crime rates on mode choice - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There are considerable environmental and public health benefits if people choose to walk, bicycle, or ride transit, instead of drive. : However, little work has been done on the effects of neighborhood crimes on mode choice. Instinctively, we underst...

  1. Neighborhood crime and travel behavior : an investigation of the influence of neighborhood crime rates on mode choice, phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There are considerable environmental and public health benefits if people choose to walk, bicycle, or ride transit, instead of drive. However, little work has been done on the effects of neighborhood crimes on mode choice. Instinctively, we understan...

  2. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...

  3. When Love Meets Hate: The Relationship Between State Policies on Gay and Lesbian Rights and Hate Crime Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Brian L.; Levy, Denise L.

    2016-01-01

    Do public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation? We propose that legal inequalities increase hate crimes because they provide discursive opportunities for bias, discrimination, and violence. Legal equality, however, will reduce violence. Using annual panel data from 2000 to 2012, a period of substantial policy change, we analyze how three state policies affect reported hate crimes: same-sex partnerships, employment non-discrimination, and hate crime laws. Hate crime and employment non-discrimination laws that include sexual orientation reduce hate crime incidence. Partnership recognition increases reported hate crimes, though it may not increase actual crime incidence. Because incidence is spatially correlated, policy changes in one state yield spillover benefits in other states. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence that public policies affect hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Findings confirm the roles of institutional heterosexism and discursive opportunities in producing hate crimes. PMID:27886725

  4. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T

    2012-07-01

    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  6. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN FIGHTING ORGANISED CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.

  7. Benefits of microgravity for measurement of thermo-transport coefficients in liquid metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praizey, J.P.

    1988-05-01

    After giving a brief review of thermo-transport principles, this paper describes the experimental technique used and presents the results obtained on the ground. The author determines the solutal stability conditions to be satisfied by the metal alloy so that ground thermotransport measurements are not disturbed by convection effects. The benefits of microgravity when such conditions cannot be achieved are demonstrated and the results obtained on pure Sn (isotope separation), Sn-Co, Sn-Ag and Sn-Bi during Spacelab missions in 1983 and 1985 are presented. The results of experiments carried out without the disturbing effect of convection are compared with those found in literature (experiments or calculations carried out from liquid structure models) [fr

  8. Crime and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J L

    1995-01-01

    The conflict between knowing and not knowing, speech and silence, remembering and forgetting, is the central dialectic of psychological trauma. This conflict is manifest in the individual disturbances of memory, the amnesias and hypermnesias, of traumatized people. It is manifest also on a social level, in persisting debates over the historical reality of atrocities that have been documented beyond any reasonable doubt. Social controversy becomes particularly acute at moments in history when perpetrators face the prospect of being publicly exposed or held legally accountable for crimes long hidden or condoned. This situation obtains in many countries emerging from dictatorship, with respect to political crimes such as murder and torture. It obtains in this country with regard to the private crimes of sexual and domestic violence. This article examines a current public controversy, regarding the credibility of adult recall of childhood abuse, as a classic example of the dialectic of trauma.

  9. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PM x , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 . Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5, NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  11. Traffic-related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Nitschke, Monika; Zhang, Ying; Shah, Pushan; Crabb, Shona; Hansen, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases and cause non-negligible air pollution, primarily in urban areas. Changing people's travel behaviour towards alternative transport is an efficient approach to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large number of vehicles. Such a strategy also provides an opportunity to gain health co-benefits of improved air quality and enhanced physical activities. This study aimed at quantifying co-benefit effects of alternative transport use in Adelaide, South Australia. We made projections for a business-as-usual scenario for 2030 with alternative transport scenarios. Separate models including air pollution models and comparative risk assessment health models were developed to link alternative transport scenarios with possible environmental and health benefits. In the study region with an estimated population of 1.4 million in 2030, by shifting 40% of vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) by passenger vehicles to alternative transport, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by approximately 0.4μg/m(3) compared to business-as-usual, resulting in net health benefits of an estimated 13deaths/year prevented and 118 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented per year due to improved air quality. Further health benefits would be obtained from improved physical fitness through active transport (508deaths/year prevented, 6569DALYs/year prevented), and changes in traffic injuries (21 deaths and, 960 DALYs prevented). Although uncertainties remain, our findings suggest that significant environmental and health benefits are possible if alternative transport replaces even a relatively small portion of car trips. The results may provide assistance to various government organisations and relevant service providers and promote collaboration in policy-making, city planning and infrastructure establishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  13. MONEY LAUNDERING AS A TYPE OF ORGANIZED CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Aleksoski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wash is a new form of crime that endangers stability, transparency and efficiency of financial systems, the developed countries and developing countries. One of the most widespread and simplest understanding, and according to some authors and simplest definition of the term money laundering is the conversion of "black money in green." The most comprehensive definition of the term money laundering would be the definition accepted by the G-7 and the FATF, as supplemented by the element of avoiding legal consequences. According to this definition the process of money laundering is: - "The process by which the gains for which it is believed to originate from criminal activity are transported, transferred, converted or incorporated into legal funds in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership. The purpose of the process of money laundering through illegal activities to enable these funds to appear as legitimate, and persons involved in criminal activity to escape the legal consequences of such action. " Given that money laundering is an international problem, the national regulations of almost all countries contain provisions that prohibit and penalize any kind of organized crime aimed at acquiring illegal material benefit. The money acquired illegally, criminals need to legalize or black money to resort to legal financial flows in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership.

  14. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosz, Ben; Grant-Muller, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO 2 equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO 2 equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO 2 equivalency over 25 years. • ISA and AHS

  15. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolosz, Ben, E-mail: kolosz27@gmail.com; Grant-Muller, Susan, E-mail: S.M.Grant-Muller@its.leeds.ac.uk

    2015-01-15

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 25 years

  16. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    promote evidence-based crime and violence reduction policies and strategies. ... Current available crime data ... Figure 1: The ecological framework: WHO examples of multi-level risk factors. Source: ... murder are the South African Police Service's (SAPS) ..... crime: testing social disorganization theory, American Journal.

  17. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  18. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  19. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  20. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  1. Gun Theft and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J

    2018-06-01

    Some law enforcement officials and other observers have asserted that theft is the primary source of guns to crime. In fact, the role of theft in supplying the guns used in robbery, assault, and murder is unknown, and current evidence provides little guidance about whether an effective program to reduce gun theft would reduce gun violence. The current article analyzes publicly available national data on gun theft together with a unique data set for Chicago. The results tend to support a conclusion that stolen guns play only a minor role in crime. First, publicly available data are used to calculate that thefts are only about 1% of all gun transactions nationwide. Second, an analysis of original data from Chicago demonstrates that less than 3% of crime guns recovered by the police have been reported stolen to the Chicago Police Department (CPD). If a gun is reported stolen, there is a 20% chance that it will be recovered, usually in conjunction with an arrest for illegal carrying. Less than half of those picked up with a stolen gun have a criminal record that includes violent offenses. Third, results from surveys of convicted criminals, both nationally and in Chicago, suggest that it is rare for respondents to have stolen the gun used in their most recent crime. The data on which these results are based have various shortcomings. A research agenda is proposed that would provide more certainty about the role of theft.

  2. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major objective ... weighing the level of satisfaction derivable, set off against the ... preventive measures like the provision of improved living standards and ..... There were several clusters of abandoned arms and combat gear which soon.

  3. International Crimes and Transitional Justice: where does organised crime fit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Stephan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.

  4. Proteome Imbalance of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Brown Adipocytes Leads to Metabolic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Ruchi; Paulo, Esther; Wu, Dongmei; Wang, Yangmeng; Swaney, Danielle L; Jimenez-Morales, David; Krogan, Nevan J; Wang, Biao

    2018-03-06

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical for thermoregulation and contributes to total energy expenditure. However, whether BAT has non-thermogenic functions is largely unknown. Here, we describe that BAT-specific liver kinase b1 knockout (Lkb1 BKO ) mice exhibited impaired BAT mitochondrial respiration and thermogenesis but reduced adiposity and liver triglyceride accumulation under high-fat-diet feeding at room temperature. Importantly, these metabolic benefits were also present in Lkb1 BKO mice at thermoneutrality, where BAT thermogenesis was not required. Mechanistically, decreased mRNA levels of mtDNA-encoded electron transport chain (ETC) subunits and ETC proteome imbalance led to defective BAT mitochondrial respiration in Lkb1 BKO mice. Furthermore, reducing mtDNA gene expression directly in BAT by removing mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in BAT also showed ETC proteome imbalance and the trade-off between BAT thermogenesis and systemic metabolism at room temperature and thermoneutrality. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ETC proteome imbalance in BAT regulates systemic metabolism independently of thermogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  7. Women in crime

    OpenAIRE

    Campaniello, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, women’s participation in the labor market has increased considerably in most countries and is converging toward the participation rate of men. Though on a lesser scale, a similar movement toward gender convergence seems to be occurring in the criminal world, though many more men than women still engage in criminal activity. Technological progress and social norms have freed women from the home, increasing their participation in both the labor market and the crime market. ...

  8. Life cycle benefit-cost analysis of alternatives for deployment of the transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, J.L.; Dole, L.R.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) occupies almost 37,000 acres in and around the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the rapid effort to produce a working atomic bomb, three plants were constructed: Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25), now the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and the Center for Environmental Technology and Waste Management; Clinton Laboratories (now the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]); and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Following the end of the Cold War and the resulting reduction in nuclear weapons production, the DOE faced an unprecedented task of safely managing, storing, and treating legacy waste while, at the same time, cleaning up the contaminated areas within its sites in 33 states in a manner that uses the most cost-effective methods in conjunction with its responsibility to protect human health and the environment. The Transportable Vitrification system (TVS), an alternative waste treatment technology, has been developed by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50). EM-50, or OTD, is the DOE program concerned with developing, demonstrating, and deploying new methods for environmental restoration and waste management and, as such, has provided the majority of the funding for the development of the TVS. This study reports the results of life cycle benefit-cost-risk analyses of the TVS for a series of use-scenarios proposed for treating mixed low-level waste (MLLW) streams on the ORR in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidelines contained in OMB Circular 94. The system is designed to produce about 300 lb of glass per hour at its maximum capacity and is capable of processing wet, dry, or slurried waste. When formed into glass by the TVS, MLLW streams meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal requirements (LDR) and can potentially be disposed of as low-level wastes (LLW)

  9. Potential benefits and impacts on the CRWMS transportation system of filling spent fuel shipping casks with depleted uranium silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Forsberg, C.W.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology, the Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Fill System (DUSCOFS), is proposed to improve the performance and reduce the uncertainties of geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), thus reducing both radionuclide release rates from the waste package and the potential for repository nuclear criticality events. DUSCOFS may also provide benefits for SNF storage and transport if it is loaded into the container early in the waste management cycle. Assessments have been made of the benefits to be derived by placing depleted uranium silicate (DUS) glass into SNF containers for enhancing repository performance assessment and controlling criticality over geologic times in the repository. Also, the performance, benefits, and impacts which can be derived if the SNF is loaded into a multi-purpose canister with DUS glass at a reactor site have been assessed. The DUSCOFS concept and the benefits to the waste management cycle of implementing DUSCOFS early in the cycle are discussed in this paper

  10. Reinventing the Wheel: The Economic Benefits of Wheeled Transportation in Early British Colonial West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Isaías N. Chaves; Stanley L. Engerman; James A. Robinson

    2013-01-01

    One of the great puzzles of Sub-Saharan African economic history is that wheeled transportation was barely used prior to the colonial period. Instead, head porterage was the main method of transportation. The consensus among historians is that this was a rational adaption to the underlying conditions and factor endowments. In this paper we undertake the first systematic investigation of the relative costs of the different forms of wheeled transportation in Africa. We focus on calculating the ...

  11. Storyboards of crimes. Examining crime scenario creation and investigative experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, J.J.; de Gruijter, M.

    2011-01-01

    To solve a crime a chronological description of what went on, when, how, why and by who must be given; a crime scenario. As to avoid the risk of wrongful conviction due to tunnel vision in an investigation, Dutch investigators are obliged to create multiple scenarios and rule but one out. Although

  12. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E; Elan, Seth L; Hudson, Rexford A; Kollars, Nina A

    2003-01-01

    .... The report notes the participation of such groups in all major types of crime, including trafficking of human beings and various commodities, financial crimes, extortion, gambling, prostitution, and violent crimes...

  13. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  14. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  15. Designing cities to minimise crime

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saville, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime is, to a large degree, absent from the contemporary debate on sustainability. Yet it is difficult to think of sustainable cities without considering crime and safety in the design, planning and development process. Some argue that ecological...

  16. [Teaching about Crime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of a newsletter from the American Bar Association emphasizes teaching about crime and punishment. The first article offers an overview of the diversity and common assumptions that underpin the teaching of criminology. Student interest in crime and criminology creates an opportunity for instructors interested in challenging students'…

  17. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  18. Crime and punishment: Does it pay to punish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, J. R.; Semeshenko, V.; Schneider, E. M.; Gordon, M. B.

    2012-08-01

    Crime is the result of a rational distinctive balance between the benefits and costs of an illegal act. This idea was proposed by Becker more than forty years ago (Becker (1968) [1]). In this paper, we simulate a simple artificial society, in which agents earn fixed wages and can augment (or lose) wealth as a result of a successful (or not) act of crime. The probability of apprehension depends on the gravity of the crime, and the punishment takes the form of imprisonment and fines. We study the costs of the law enforcement system required for keeping crime within acceptable limits, and compare it with the harm produced by crime. A sharp phase transition is observed as a function of the probability of punishment, and this transition exhibits a clear hysteresis effect, suggesting that the cost of reversing a deteriorated situation might be much higher than that of maintaining a relatively low level of delinquency. Besides, we analyze economic consequences that arise from crimes under different scenarios of criminal activity and probabilities of apprehension.

  19. Economic benefits of productivity increases through truck-to-rail mode shift in freight transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Although the study of economic benefits of improving (or not improving) the efficiency of freight movement has been recognized as one of the critical research topic by the decision makers and researchers alike, there remains a dearth of transparent a...

  20. Crime As Entertainment or Entertainment as A Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.  

  1. ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER IN MONEY LAUNDERING CRIME: REGULATION NEEDED IN RESPONSE TO MEETING OF TECHNOLOGY AND CRIME IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Lisanawati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in information technology have affected modern society in numerous areas, including communication, education, commerce, and so on. These advancements have brought incredible benefits; they have also provided opportunities and motivation for various forms of crime. Information technology has also made crime highly profitable. Among the many types of criminal activities, modern technology has allowed money laundering to become an online crime. This new type of crime has raised some legal questions about the capability of national and international regulations in relation to current and upcoming issues. These include finding electronic funds transfer records after the fact, and determining money laundering activity that includes electronic funds transfer. Although Indonesia is an integral member of a community concerned with the interaction between technology and money laundering, it has not provided regulations to deal with the current and upcoming issues involving the crime of electronic money laundering. The increase in the amount of crime indicates the following series of techniques and mechanisms that had been detected in relation to money laundering activity. This research will examine current issues under the light of Indonesian regulations, and will put forward some proposals to close the legal vacuum.

  2. "Safe Going": the influence of crime rates and perceived crime and safety on walking in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Phil; Kearns, Ade; Livingston, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have simultaneously examined the relationship of levels of recorded crime, perceptions of crime and disorder, and safety from crime with rates of physical activity. We developed a series of multilevel ordinal regression models to examine these aspects in relation to self-reported neighbourhood walking frequency in a cross-sectional sample of 3824 British adults from 29 deprived neighbourhoods in Glasgow, UK. Perceptions of several serious local antisocial behaviours (drunkenness and burglary) and feelings of personal safety (feeling safe in the home and if walking alone in the local area at night) were consistently associated, respectively, with less and more frequent walking. Conversely, perceiving drug dealing or drug use as a serious problem was associated with walking more frequently. There was a small but significant association between walking frequency in neighbourhoods with higher recorded person crime (but not property crime) rates when considered in conjunction with other aspects of disorder and crime safety, although not when additionally controlling for sociodemographic, neighbourhood and community aspects. The magnitude of these objective and perceived crime-related effects is modest and features of the psychosocial environment and social cohesion (having a sense of progress from living in the neighbourhood, group participation and positively rating social venues), as well as health and personal income deprivation, may more strongly determine levels of neighbourhood walking. Nevertheless, physical activity benefits may accrue at the population level through provision of environments that are safer from crime. Our study also shows the importance to local walking of neighbourhood management, which reduces problems of disorder, and of social regeneration, which helps strengthen sense of community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…

  4. Borderless Crime - Computer Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.

  5. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...... has implications for how tax authorities (and other state authorities) reform their coercive regulation. If they decide to pursue a voluntary based approach where the actions of external partners play a central role, then the analysis helps to show some of the implied challenges and potentials....

  6. Crimes of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, L

    1990-01-01

    Everyday, thousands of women are targets of violation that range from simple cases of sexual harassment to extreme cases of dowry deaths. This article describes different forms of violence against women. Wife beating has been prevalent in all societies regardless of race, culture, and socioeconomic status. In India, incidents like bride burning and dowry death are common because laws against these crimes have never been enforced. In Chile, the constitution grants the husband marital authority over his wife, resulting to wife beating due to unequal power balance. Due to the prevalence of these violations, shelters, legal reforms, and various groups and agencies to combat violence against women all over the world have initiated programs. Coalitions have also been organized to promote awareness and denounce male violence.

  7. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S D

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  8. THE MANAGERIAL BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF BIODIESEL USAGE IN MARITIME TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN BUNEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global economy development has not only positive effects but also negative consequences, in terms of air pollution with a major impact against the climate change and human health. This fact stimulated the intensification of research endeavours to identify and develop new options for sustainable energy supply and further for reducing the dependence on fossil fuels, as considered the major air pollutants globally. Among the non-polluting fuels, the currently biodiesel second generation becomes a viable solution in order to develop an alternative sustainable source of fueling. Even if this type of fuel has been implemented and approved as viable for land and air transportation meanings, the maritime transportation sector is still reluctant in implementing this new fuel on board to commercial vessels. In this article were approached the major advantages of using biodiesel powered engines, being detailed the technical, operational and legal solutions to eliminate the current reserve in adopting this innovative cleaner fuel on maritime transportation practice.

  9. Low carbon scenarios for transport in India: Co-benefits analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dependence on oil for transport is a concern for India's policymakers on three counts – energy security, local environment and climate change. Rapid urbanisation and accompanying motorisation has created some of the most polluting cities in India and rising demand for oil is leading to higher...... imports, besides causing more CO2 emissions. The government of India wants to achieve the climate goals through a sustainability approach that simultaneously addresses other environment and developmental challenges. This paper analyses a sustainable low carbon transport (SLCT) scenario based...

  10. Creating the Synergy of Land Use, Transport, Energy and Environment Elements towards Climate Change Co-benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use, transport, energy consumption and air quality issues in a city are interconnected and therefore form a nexus. This study attempts to analyze this nexus by identifying the magnitude and quality of the links among the elements. The study was undertaken in Bandung City, Indonesia by analyzing the concen-tricity of land use of the city, computing traffic loads at some primary radial trunk roads towards city center, assessing transport energy and air quality in the study area. Analysis on the present linearity of the nexus was also conducted by acquiring relevant secondary data as well as information from the separate study by the first authors in the same city. A quantitative analysis was undertaken to corroborate the rela-tionships among linear connections of the elements. The result exhibits that the interconnections among elements in the nexus do exist. It also shows that the interconnection of the nexus i.e. land use, transport, energy consumption and air quality is linear and it requires a synergistic efforts to enhance the strategies towards climate change co-benefits. By looking at the nexus as a policy arena, the study proposes prospec-tive policy directions that could lead to synergize co-benefits of climate change and accordingly contribute to climate change adaptation of the city and the reduction of climate change impacts.

  11. 77 FR 77180 - Notice of Transportation Services' OMB Designation, timely return of excess transit benefits to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... lead Federal agency to inform commercial vanpool companies of the Federal internal controls that govern... the Treasury, and stakeholder notification of the minimum internal controls AGENCY: Office of the... internal controls that now govern the Transit Benefit Program to prevent future accumulations, and assist...

  12. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  13. Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden); Linnaeus University, 35195 Vaexjoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Lisa; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO{sub 2} benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO{sub 2} emission balance. (author)

  14. Trading greenhouse gas emission benefits from biofuel use in US transportation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarappan, Subbu; Joshi, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Replacing petroleum fuels with biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has been shown to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These GHG benefits can potentially be traded in the fledgling carbon markets, and methodologies for quantifying and trading are still being developed. We review the main challenges in developing such carbon trading frameworks and outline a proposed framework for the US, the main features of which include, lifecycle assessment of GHG benefits, a combination of project-specific and standard performance measures, and assigning GHG property rights to biofuel producers. At carbon prices of 10 $ t −1 , estimated monetary benefits from such trading can be 4.5 M$ hm −3 and 17 M$ hm −3 of corn ethanol and cellulosic ethanol respectively. -- Highlights: ▶ Develops a biofuel GHG trading protocol using life-cycle emissions. ▶ Discusses the differences in feedstock and impacts on GHG trading potential. ▶ Compares the developed protocol for biofuels with other existing protocols. ▶ Estimates the market potential, and challenges associated with trading GHG emissions.

  15. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas.The economic theory of crime [1] demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime.The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  16. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  17. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  18. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    SACQ). We believe ... justice and evolving forms of crime in South Africa, and the global South more broadly, complements the SACQ's ... These high-profile events, along with disruptions and conflict in Parliament, have served to create a political.

  19. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  20. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    and public policy at Edinburgh University. When the data ... violence, vigilantism and public and sexual assaults.13. Although ... Xhosa speakers, Xhosa-speaking translators helped facilitate ...... socioeconomic conditions that generate crime.

  1. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  2. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  3. General Aspects Regarding the Crime of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Draghici

    2016-01-01

    Thus, according to article 210 of the Penal Code, the crime of human trafficking involves„recruiting, transportation, sheltering or receiving of a person with the purpose of exploiting.Forthe offense of human trafficking there may exist preparatory acts, but the law does not incriminatethese acts as crimes and does not punish them. The attempt is punished according to article 217 ofthe Penal Code, stating that the attempt to the offenses stipulated at articles 209- 211 and article213 paragraph 2 of the Penal Code shall be punished.

  4. Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Hon, G.; Wang, H. [The International Council for Clean Transportation ICCT, Beijing (China); Tsimplis, M. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate

  5. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  6. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  7. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  8. Evaluations of Antigay Hate Crimes and Hate Crime Legislation: Independent and Differentially Predicted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Peters, Christopher S

    2017-08-11

    Minimal studies have investigated individuals' evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation simultaneously, with most research focusing on one or the other. In a sample of 246 heterosexual undergraduates, the present study found that evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation were unrelated. Higher social dominance orientation (SDO) and crime control orientation scores were associated with more positive evaluations of antigay hate crimes. Positive evaluations of hate crime legislation were associated with more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. We also found that the relationship between SDO and evaluations were mediated by crime control beliefs (for hate crimes evaluations) and antigay attitudes (for hate crime legislation evaluations). The present findings have possible implications for the manner in which organizations advocate for the extension of hate crime legislation to include sexual orientation.

  9. Benefits associated with advanced technologies applied to a high-speed civil transport concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoroski, L. P.; Shields, E. W.; Fenbert, J. W.; Mcelroy, M. O.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a first-order assessment of the mission performance benefits associated with the technology improvements and goals of the Phase II High-Speed Research (HSR) Program are presented. A breakdown of the four major disciplines resulted in the following estimated TOGW savings from the 1990 vehicle: propulsion at 14.3 percent, structures at 11.7 percent, flight-deck systems at 4.0 percent, and aerodynamics at 15.0 percent. Based on 100 percent success of the HSR Phase II proposed technology advancements, the overall combined impact is estimated to result in a 45 percent reduction in TOGW from a 1990 entry-into-service (EIS) date, which could result in a viable 2005 EIS vehicle with an acceptable TOGW that meets Stage III community noise restrictions. Through supersonic laminar flow control and the possible reduction in reserve fuel requirements resulting from synthetic vision capability, the potential exists for an additional 9.6 percent reduction in TOGW.

  10. Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, T.; Elshkaki, A.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Castillo, A.; Scarbrough, T.; ApSimon, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO 2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.

  11. Estimated health benefits of exhaust free transport in the city of Malmö, Southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Ebba; Lisberg Jensen, Ebba; Westerberg, Karin; Stroh, Emilie; Rittner, Ralf; Gustafsson, Susanna; Spanne, Mårten; Nilsson, Henric; Oudin, Anna

    2018-05-25

    Air pollution is responsible for one in eight premature deaths worldwide, and thereby a major threat to human health. Health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution concentrations can be used as a mean of assessing the health impacts of policy, plans and projects, and support decision-makers in choices to prevent disease. The aim of this study was to estimate health impacts attributable to a hypothetical decrease in air pollution concentrations in the city of Malmö in Southern Sweden corresponding to a policy on-road transportations without tail-pipe emissions in the municipality. We used air pollution data modelled for each of the 326,092 inhabitants in Malmö by a Gaussian dispersion model combined with an emission database with >40,000 sources. The dispersion model calculates Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) (later transformed into Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 )) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter pipe emissions. Even though the estimates are sensitive to the dose-response functions used and to exposure misclassification errors, even the most conservative estimate of the number of prevented deaths is 7 times larger than the annual traffic fatalities in Malmö, indicating a substantial possibility to reduce the health burden attributed to tail-pipe emissions in the study area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Haraldsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  13. A Neglected Population: Media Consumption, Perceived Risk, and Fear of Crime Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Luzi

    2018-03-01

    The 4.5 million international students worldwide bring in multifold benefits to the advancement of culture, economy, and national security in education host countries. Surprisingly, few prior studies have explored international students' fear of crime, which may harm their mental and physical health and undermine their educational achievements. The current study aims to fill in this research void by investigating international students' fear of crime in line with the cultivation theoretical framework, which postulates that media consumption cultivates fear of crime. The analyses draw on a sample of 398 international students attending nine different public and private universities across the United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), I investigate the extent and correlates of students' fear of crime. The findings reveal that international students are more fearful in the United States than in their home countries. SEM results show that controlling for students' fear in their home countries, attention paid to crime news is positively related to fear in the United States, through perceived victimization risk. The SEM results also suggest that exposure to non-U.S. social media (e.g., WeChat and Weibo) is positively related to respondents' fear of crime, whereas exposure to U.S. social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) is not related to fear of crime. The current study highlights the importance of studying the impact of fear of crime and social media use on international students.

  14. The Socio-Economic Determinants of Crime in Pakistan: New Evidence on an Old Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crime appears to be strictly related to the level of education attained and to individuals’ economic and social background. The objective of the study examines multiple factors i.e., education, unemployment, poverty and economic growth which contributed to the rate of crimes in Pakistan during the period of 1972-2011. The study finds a positive relationship between crime rates and unemployment rate in Pakistan. Higher unemployment diminishes the rate of return of legal activities, and is more likely to increase the return of illegal activities. There is a significant negative relationship between the crime rates and the higher education. More education directly induces high earnings of individuals and may increase both the opportunity cost of crimes and the cost of time spent in criminal activity. The study further assesses that GDP per capita leads to higher crime rates in the long-run but to lower rates in the short-run. Higher income shows that there are greater benefits for criminals as for thefts and robberies. Affluent areas attract more criminals due to the opportunities available to them. Finally, there is a positive relationship between the crime rates and poverty in the long-run but there is a negative relationship in the short-run. Poverty may lead to a high level of stress and mental illness which in turn causes individuals to adopt the criminal behavior. The study posits a caution that policy formulation in ameliorating crimes in Pakistan should anchor both social and economic factors.

  15. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  16. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  17. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  18. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko; Shukla, Priyadarshi R

    2015-01-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels. (letter)

  19. When love meets hate: The relationship between state policies on gay and lesbian rights and hate crime incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Brian L; Levy, Denise L

    2017-01-01

    Do public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation? We propose that legal inequalities increase hate crimes because they provide discursive opportunities for bias, discrimination, and violence. Legal equality, however, will reduce violence. Using annual panel data from 2000 to 2012, a period of substantial policy change, we analyze how three state policies affect reported hate crimes: same-sex partnerships, employment non-discrimination, and hate crime laws. Hate crime and employment non-discrimination laws that include sexual orientation reduce hate crime incidence. Partnership recognition increases reported hate crimes, though it may not increase actual crime incidence. Because incidence is spatially correlated, policy changes in one state yield spillover benefits in other states. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence that public policies affect hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Findings confirm the roles of institutional heterosexism and discursive opportunities in producing hate crimes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organized crime-trafficking with human being

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Organized crime - Trafficking in human beings This thesis deals with the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings under Sec. 168 of the Czech Criminal Code. A trafficking in human being is not a frequent criminal offence but with its consequences belongs to the most dangerous crimes. After the Velvet revolution the relevance of this crime has raised subsequently and therefore the regulation of this crime requires particular attention. It is important to find new ways and improve curren...

  1. Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is consid-ered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or ...

  2. Comment: Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems | Aigbovo | Mizan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment presents an overview of criminological theories of crime and examines some contemporary crime problems in Nigeria against the backdrop of relevant theories. It also analyses society's response to each crime problem in the form of government policies and legislation. The paper argues that an appreciable ...

  3. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  4. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  5. Criminological problems of studying crime consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitov R.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of crime consequences is studied as a total social and not social, direct and indirect damage caused by crime. The quantitative and qualitative indicators of these consequences are shown. It is determined that concept of crime does not embrace its consequences and victims. The qualitative indicators of crime consequences imply the consequences’ character and structure; the quantitative indicators imply cumulative consequences of certain kinds of crime, the dynamics of certain kinds of consequences and coefficient of certain crime consequences. It is proved that not only physical and juridical persons, but also the public, authorities and associations (groups of people having no indication of juridical person must be recognized as crime sufferers. It is argued that crimes can cause property and moral damage (goodwill damage, ecological damage, considerable damage of interests protected by the law, information, managerial damage and other kinds of damage. Theoretically according to criminal law a crime sufferer is a physical, juridical person, an authority, the public, group of people who suffered from physical, property, moral or other kind of damage caused by a completed or uncompleted crime. The author proves the necessity to fix the concept of crime sufferer in criminal law. The concept of victim should include Russian criminal actualities, foreign experience and embrace not only physical but also juridical persons and groups of people suffered from crimes.

  6. The perception of small crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  7. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  8. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  9. Preventing Crime through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit

  10. Preventing Crime Through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit

  11. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    , and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...

  12. Crime and Child-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Byron M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the notion that heredity plays a powerful role in criminal behavior, including genetic evidence that can allow for antisocial behavior. Reviews suggestions for reversing rising crime rates in light of the hereditary connection, policy development, family cohesion, and child raising. (GR)

  13. NEIGHBORHOOD CRIME AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: GENETIC MODERATION AND EPIGENETIC MEDIATOIN OF EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. Objective The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Conclusion The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. PMID:26513121

  14. Neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among African American women: Genetic moderation and epigenetic mediation of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...... fiction that blend seeking with other emotions: the hardboiled crime fiction that blends detection with action and hot emotions like anger and bonding, and the moral crime fiction that strongly evokes moral disgust and contempt, often in conjunction with detectors that perform hard to fake signals...

  16. The impact of unilateral divorce on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio; Giolito, Eugenio P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact of unilateral divorce on crime. First, using crime rates from the FBI's Uniform Crime Report program for the period 1965-1998 and differences in the timing in the introduction of the reform, we find that unilateral divorce has a positive impact on violent crime rates, with an 8% to 12% average increase for the period under consideration. Second, arrest data not only confirms the findings of a positive impact on violent crime but also shows that this impac...

  17. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  18. Dal computer crime al computer-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Apruzzese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon

  19. Benefits and Harms of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Gluud, Lise L; Bennett, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a novel drug class for the treatment of diabetes. We aimed at describing the maximal benefits and risks associated with SGLT2-i for patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY......, ketoacidosis and CVD. Secondary outcomes were fasting plasma glucose, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, lipids, liver function tests, creatinine and adverse events including infections. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of 34 RCTs with 9,154 patients showed...... to low quality evidence). Analysis of 12 RCTs found a beneficial effect of SGLT2-i on HbA1c compared with OAD (-0.20%, -0.28 to -0.13%; moderate quality evidence). CONCLUSION: This review includes a large number of patients with type 2 diabetes and found that SGLT2-i reduces HbA1c with a notable...

  20. Simulating the Impact of Crime on African-American Women’s Physical Activity and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wong, Michelle S.; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T.; Hertenstein, Daniel L.; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and obesity among African-American women. Methods We developed an agent-based model, in 2016, representing resource-limited Washington, DC communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African-American women under different circumstances. Results Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African-American women have a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations are accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreases the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African-American women to exercise to 37.5%, further increases the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). Conclusions Our simulations show that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e. economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. PMID:29086471

  1. Simulating the Impact of Crime on African American Women's Physical Activity and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. The use of ethanol in the bus in public transport system of Salvador (Bahia): environmental benefits; O uso de onibus a etanol no sistema de transporte publico de Salvador (Bahia): beneficios ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Alberto Rodamilans Freire de; Lopo, Luciene Matos; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article makes an initial approach on the environmental benefits, the replacement of diesel vehicles to the public transportation system in Salvador by cars to ethanol and natural gas. It also makes an approach on reducing the emission of pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate material, and estimates the environmental benefit caused by the reduction of the emission of pollutants. (author)

  3. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  4. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  5. Estimating Congestion Benefits of Transportation Projects with FIXiT 2.0: Updating and Improving the Sketch Planning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies face continual pressure to ensure the proper allocation of transportation investments and financial resources. Choosing the right set of congestion mitigation and mobility strategies is critical to ensuring the wise applicatio...

  6. Neighborhood crime and transit station access mode choice - phase III of neighborhood crime and travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...

  7. Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Juan

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation, titled "Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State," proposes a new understanding of the dictatorship novels of Ricardo Piglia, Juan José Saer, and Manuel Puig grounded in their shared appropriation from popular crime fiction. Across the 1940's, 50's, and 60's, a wide range of popular crime fiction was translated, written, theorized, printed and reprinted in Argentina, and these popular genres grew steadily in readership, visibility, and cultural legitimacy....

  8. How to become a victim of crime

    OpenAIRE

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-01-01

    Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1) the emergence of criminal threats; 2) increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3) the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations); 4) increase the number of victims of crimes as regis...

  9. Does Violent Crime Deter Physical Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Crime has potentially important externalities. We investigate the relationship between recorded violent crime at the local area level and individuals’ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 local areas across England over the period 2005 to 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. Our analysis controls for individual-level characteristics, no...

  10. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  11. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Al Neyadi; Alia Al Kaabi; Laila Al Kaabi; Mariam Al Ghufli; Maitha Al Shamsi; Dr. Muhammad Khan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being ...

  12. Teen Births Keep American Crime High

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measur...

  13. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  14. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.

  15. Gun Laws and Crime: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viren

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...

  16. Crime, Compulsory Schooling Laws and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin

    2015-01-01

    Do compulsory schooling laws reduce crime? Previous evidence for the U.S. from the 1960s and 1970s suggests they do, primarily working through their effect on educational attainment to generate a causal impact on crime. In this paper, we consider whether more recent experience replicates this. There are two key findings. First, there is a strong and consistent negative effect on crime from stricter compulsory schooling laws. Second, there is a weaker and sometimes non-existent link between su...

  17. The Integrated Approach versus the Traditional Approach: Analyzing the Benefits of a Dance and Transportation Integrated Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a dance and transportation integrated curriculum on student learning and engagement. The curriculum, entitled Consequences of Our Actions: Dance and Transportation, synthesized transportation content with the art form of dance. The experimental and control groups were comprised of fifth-grade…

  18. Crime perception and Presidential evaluation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R. Gómez Vilchis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available How important are citizen perceptions of an increase in crime rate when they evaluate the President? This article uses Mexico as a case study to examine the relationship between perception of crime and citizen grading of the President. The research uses 11 national surveys from 1994 to 2006 to analyze the effects of perception of crime on citizen grading of the President before and after the 2000 presidential election. The main proposition is that, after the 2000 political transition, perception of crime, together with other economic variables, becomes more relevant and has stronger effects when citizens evaluate the President due to an increase of their expectations of the Executive's competence.

  19. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.

  20. City of Durham Police Crime Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...

  1. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  3. Opportunities for Environmental Crime: A Test of Situational Crime Prevention Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.; van Erp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT) has been proposed as an alternative to offender-based theories of white-collar crime. This paper uses the results of a cross-case analysis of 23 criminal investigations of environmental crime in the Netherlands to explore the fruitfulness of SCPT

  4. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  5. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...

  6. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  7. Economic Crimes In The Period Of Nazaret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam mansoori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Other Words, The Victim Of Crime Or Bad Act And Contrary To The Provisions Specified In A Society. Breaking The Law In One Way Or Another In All Sections Of Society Or Culture There And Just Not Certain. Given The Importance Of Nazareth As A Crucial Moment In History, Investigate The Crime As One Of The Most Important Events Of This Period Can Reveal Its Many Ambiguities In The Fields Of Committing Economic Crimes. Accordingly, In This Study We Try Economic Crimes Testament Naseri Typology And The Role Of Various Factors In This Phenomenon, Particularly In Its Dual Role Of Government Is. Therefore, Relying On Historical Documents And Library Resources Available And The Statistical Analysis Of Crimes Of This Period, The Description Of The Economic Situation Of Naseri Age, The Type Of Economic Crime In The Period Studied And Said Some Of The Factors Contributing To The Occurrence Of This Crime, As Far As Possible From The Viewpoint Of Analytical Thought. According To The Findings Obtained From Different Types Of Economic Crimes, The Murder Of A 7/58%, The Highest Rate Of Opium Drawing 2/0% Were Allocated To The Lowest. Although The Government Of Nazareth Was The Main Cause Of Action In Dealing With Criminals However Its Way To Provide Mass Media, And In Many Cases They Are Also Added On.

  8. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  9. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  10. The need for hate crime legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as hate crimes,3 undermine social cohesion4 and have been shown to have ... a bias motive'.8 A 'hate crime' is thus an act which constitutes a ... not report their experience to the police and that ... police officers appear to share such sentiments.28 ... considerable media attention. ..... opening the lodge to gay tourists. During ...

  11. On the behavorial economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.; Ash, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences' mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The standard rational-choice crime model is refined by a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According

  12. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  13. Lessons Learned from Crime Caught on Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Bernasco, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on came...

  14. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the...

  15. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  16. Contemporary Organized Crime. : Developments, Challenges and Responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina

    2017-01-01

    This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information

  17. On the behavioral economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.; Ash, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the

  18. Gambling Harm and Crime Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda

    2017-03-01

    Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.

  19. Designing a Data Warehouse for Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Yeol Song

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.

  20. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12......-17 year olds, using experimental or quasi-experimental research designs and focusing on effects in terms of disruptive or criminal behavior. The review provides detailed descriptions of all identified studies, and the characteristics and effectiveness of the interventions is analyzed. This report has been...

  1. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month.

  2. Distance to parks and non-residential destinations influences physical activity of older people, but crime doesn't: a cross-sectional study in a southern European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Pires, Andrea; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pina, Maria Fátima

    2015-06-27

    Physical activity (PA) has numerous health benefits, but older adults live mostly sedentary lifestyles. The physical and social neighborhood environment may encourage/dissuade PA. In particular, neighborhood crime may lead to feeling unsafe and affect older adults' willingness to be physically active. Yet, research on this topic is still inconclusive. Older population, probably the age group most influenced by the neighborhood environment, has been understudied, especially in Southern Europe. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in older adults and objective crime, alongside other neighborhood characteristics. We obtained data from a population-based cohort from Porto (2005-2008) to assess LTPA. Only adults aged 65 years or more were included (n = 532). A Geographic Information System was used to measure neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood crime was expressed as crime rates by category (incivilities, criminal offenses with and without violence and traffic crime). Neighborhood characteristics such as socioeconomic deprivation, land gradient, street density, transportation network, distance to parks, non-residential destinations and sport spaces were also included. Generalized Additive Models were fitted to estimate the association between neighborhood characteristics and the participation (being active vs. inactive) and frequency (min/day) of LTPA. Forty-six percent of the men and 61 % of the women did not engage in any kind of LTPA. Among the active participants, men spent on average 50.5 (35.2 Standard Deviation, SD) min/day in LTPA, whereas the average among women was 36.9 (35.1 SD) min/day (p big issue.

  3. Álcool, drogas e crime Alcohol, drugs and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chalub

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve duas situações complexas e duplamente preocupantes em termos de saúde pública, seja, por sua alta prevalência e/ou por suas conseqüências. Trata-se dos transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e a criminalidade. Será relatada a forma como diversos pesquisadores as associam, bem como a situação das perícias de usuários e dependentes de álcool e drogas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão das publicações sobre o tema, utilizando-se, como bancos de dados, o Medline e o Lilacs, cobrindo o período de 1986 a 2006. Os descritores usados foram: "alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuse" e "crime". Resumos de congressos, artigos e livros relevantes sobre o tema, publicados por diferentes autoridades no assunto, em diversas fases de pesquisa, foram consultados e incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: As diversas pesquisas coincidem na afirmação de uma associação entre transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e criminalidade. O que é possível constatar é a alta proporção de atos violentos quando o álcool ou as drogas ilícitas estão presentes entre agressores, suas vítimas ou em ambos. Quando se realiza um exame pericial em autores que alegam alguma relação do ato praticado com consumo de álcool/drogas, esta perícia deve levar em consideração a substância em uso, o quadro clínico por ela causado, bem como verificar a presença de um diagnóstico, a existência de nexo causal e possíveis alterações na capacidade de entendimento e/ou determinação do agente.OBJECTIVE: This article describes two complex and doubly preoccupying situations in terms of public health, either, for its high prevalence and/or its consequences. These problems are the psychoactive substance use disorder and crime. The form will be told as diverse researchers associate them, as well as the situation of the exam of users and alcohol dependents and drugs. METHOD: A revision of publications was become fulfilled on the

  4. TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstration project: Environmental and economic benefits by environmental management in freight transportation. Main report; TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstrationsprojekt: Miljoemaessige og oekonomiske benefits ved miljoestyring i godstransport. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the transECO{sub 2} project has was to carry out cooperation projects between companies in order to demonstrate an effect for the environment and for the economy of the companies (earnings and costs) of environmental management related to transportation of goods. 10 demonstration projects were carried thorugh in cooperation with 14 companies. 8 subjects were analysed through the transECO{sub 2} project: 1. Environmental data; 2. Benefits from the environmental management work; 3. Use of new technology; 4. Cooperation; 5. Environment and logistics; 6. Education and competence; 7. Environment and business strategy; 8. Environmental statement/tagging. (EHS)

  5. Air pollution and climate change co-benefit opportunities in the road transportation sector in Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran T, Diab RD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the road transportation sector to emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases is a growing concern in developing countries. Emission control measures implemented within this sector can have varying counteracting influences...

  6. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  7. INVESTIMENTOS EM TRANSPORTE INTERMODAL NO BRASIL PODERIA BENEFICAR O CRESCIMENTO DO PIB / INVESTMENT IN INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION IN BRAZIL COULD BENEFIT THE COUNTRY’S AGRIBUSINESS GDP GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garcia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brasil é um dos países em desenvolvimento que faz parte dos BRICS, os quais juntos têm um potencial de crescimento e consumo de mais de 50% do PIB global. A distribuição de bens produzidos no território brasileiro requer um gerenciamento complexo devido a suas dimensões continentais. Uma rede de transporte mais eficiente e integrado deve reduzir os preços e trazer competitividade aos produtos brasileiros. A solução não é única e requer um planejamento global dos transportes, incluindo o uso de vários meios, transportes intermodais, o que reduzirá custos e tempo de entrega. Optou-se por um estudo qualitativo de banco de dados de agências governamentais e análise de estudos publicados sobre o tema. Este estudo apresenta os dados de custos baseado em preços internacionais. O Brasil tem adotado, tradicionalmente, o transporte rodoviário, apesar de ter outras opções disponíveis, como ferrovias ou hidrovias. Os resultados indicam que se o país não faz os investimentos necessários em modais adequados, perderá competitividade internacional levando à diminuição do PIB. Estudos de simulação de investimentos em modos de transporte e suas implicações sobre o crescimento do PIB seria o curso natural deste estudo. A importância deste trabalho é apontar para a necessidade urgente de investigar e investir outros meios de transporte nos países em desenvolvimento.

  8. The Legal Framework Of Human Rights Crime As An Extraordinary Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Siswadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.

  9. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  10. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  11. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareck Martine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed

  12. Perspectives from mexico to achieve more with less: Alternative transport modes and their social and environmental benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The discussion presented below focuses on improving the decision-making process as the true challenge of mobility we face. It proposes a way of thinking about some of the key topics within each of the layers involved in decision-making at the strategic level, including attributes of the transport system and regulatory frameworks.

  13. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  14. Ancillary health effects of climate mitigation scenarios as drivers of policy uptake: a review of air quality, transportation and diet co-benefits modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelly M.; Hess, Jeremy J.; Balbus, John M.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Cleveland, David A.; Grabow, Maggie L.; Neff, Roni; Saari, Rebecca K.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodward, Alistair; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Significant mitigation efforts beyond the Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) coming out of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement are required to avoid warming of 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. Health co-benefits represent selected near term, positive consequences of climate policies that can offset mitigation costs in the short term before the beneficial impacts of those policies on the magnitude of climate change are evident. The diversity of approaches to modeling mitigation options and their health effects inhibits meta-analyses and syntheses of results useful in policy-making. Methods/Design: We evaluated the range of methods and choices in modeling health co-benefits of climate mitigation to identify opportunities for increased consistency and collaboration that could better inform policy-making. We reviewed studies quantifying the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation related to air quality, transportation, and diet published since the 2009 Lancet Commission ‘Managing the health effects of climate change’ through January 2017. We documented approaches, methods, scenarios, health-related exposures, and health outcomes. Results/Synthesis: Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Air quality, transportation, and diet scenarios ranged from specific policy proposals to hypothetical scenarios, and from global recommendations to stakeholder-informed local guidance. Geographic and temporal scope as well as validity of scenarios determined policy relevance. More recent studies tended to use more sophisticated methods to address complexity in the relevant policy system. Discussion: Most studies indicated significant, nearer term, local ancillary health benefits providing impetus for policy uptake and net cost savings. However, studies were more suited to describing the interaction of climate policy and health and the magnitude of potential outcomes than to providing specific accurate estimates of health co-benefits. Modeling

  15. The effect of football matches on crime patterns in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...

  16. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ... adult criminal treatment among both Lagos and Enugu prisoners that summarized ... Keywords: Imprisonment, Sanctions, Crimes, Rehabilitation, Recidivism.

  17. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  18. South African Crime Quarterly - Vol 42 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Dip me in Chocolate and Thow me to the Lesbians": Homophobic hate crimes, the state and civil society · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Williams, 39-46 ...

  19. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...

  20. Workshop on Wildlife Crime: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Wildlife crime, computation, conservation, criminology , conservation biology, risk, poaching REPORT...Action items? Conference on “Conservation, Computation, Criminology ” C^3? Technology Transfer

  1. Introduction: Urban Crime and Poverty Nexus

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    1Institute of Statistical, Social & Economic Research (ISSER)/Department of ... nor democratic: unregulated, informal economic activities are very common in .... with crime in urban Ghana based on a household survey and a qualitative study.

  2. Nations Hospitable to Organized Crime and Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, LaVerle; Curtis, Glenn E; Gibbs, John N; Hudson, Rex A; Karacan, Tara; Kollars, Nina; Miro, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    .... Although the focus of the report is on transnational activity, domestic criminal activity is recognized as a key foundation for transnational crime, especially as the forces of globalization intensify...

  3. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  4. The Migrant Smuggling Crime in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2018-01-01

    The study below is meant to focus on the migrant smuggling crime in Romania, especially analysis of the migrant smuggling infraction provided in the Romanian Criminal Code. Being a component of the human trafficking activity, the illegal migration is a phenomenon that is continuously extending and harder to stop due to the involvement of the organized crime networks and also due the ingenuousness and maliciousness of the people and the criminals. Therewith, the migrant smuggling is highly con...

  5. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  6. On the behavioral economics of crime

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, F.; Ash, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the behavioral approach, a criminal is not irrational but rather ‘ecologically rational’, outfitted with evolutionarily conserved decision modules adapted for survival in the human ancestral environment. Se...

  7. Physics in the prevention of crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.

    1976-01-01

    Physics is playing a significant role, particularly in Europe and North America, both as an aid to detect and prevent crime and also to assist in the provision of more precise information about crimes committed. Advances have resulted from fundamental studies in several fields. Among methods described are those of neutron activation analysis and proton microbeam X-ray production which show promise in the field of forensic science where the detection of minute quantities of trace elements may be of significance. (author)

  8. Development of user guidelines for ECAS display design. Volume 2: Tasks 9 and 10. [educating the public to the benefits of spacelab and the space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathurst, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Lay-oriented speakers aids, articles, a booklet, and a press kit were developed to inform the press and the general public with background information on the space transportation system, Spacelab, and Spacelab 1 experiments. Educational materials relating to solar-terrestrial physics and its potential benefits to mankind were also written. A basic network for distributing audiovisual and printed materials to regional secondary schools and universities was developed. Suggested scripts to be used with visual aids describing materials science and technology and astronomy and solar physics are presented.

  9. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  10. Crime: impacts of urban design and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Santana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The criminal research has confirmed that there are clear patterns of crime, with concentrations in specific places at specific times. That is to say, incidence of crime are not distributed randomly; rather, there are certain areas in cities that are relatively small, but where crimes occur much more frequently than elsewhere (the so-called “hotspots”, making them highly vulnerable and predictable. Urban design and environment may play a part in the decision of whether or not to commit a crime; for example, the lack of natural vigilance, poor lighting and other variables mean that a small area may easily be transformed into a potential crime hotspot. The relationship between specific aspects of urban design and the formation of “hotspots” is present in the theory of “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design” (CPTED. This paper examines the relationship between the “hotspots” and the characteristics of the environment, in accordance with CPTED Index, in one city from the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Amadora. The results highlight the need to reassess specific elements of urban design. This fact has drawn attention to the study of localities and urban design.

  11. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  12. For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Caroline; Andersson, Mika; Ivert, Anna-Karin

    2017-12-01

    Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders' hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students' exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non-hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non-hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.

  13. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  14. Application of crime countermeasures for the protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, C.H.

    1975-01-01

    Federal regulations prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and published in the Federal Register require licensees to take appropriate action to protect the health and safety of the public from unauthorized use of special nuclear material (SNM), which includes plutonium, uranium-233, and highly enriched uranium. Crime countermeasures for compliance with these regulations are an important part of the guidance that is provided by the NRC's Office of Standards Development. The use of crime countermeasures and protective devices is intended to prevent the unauthorized diversion of material and to aid in the detection of diversion should it be attempted. Plant and equipment designs should incorporate both electronic and physical security measures for protection of SNM. This applies to facilities and equipment for reprocessing, fabrication, and transportation of SNM. The protection systems include physical barriers, access controls, intrusion detection devices, surveillance devices, central alarm stations, communications, and response capability. Acceptable security measures and devices applicable to protected areas, material access areas, vital areas, vital equipment, and transportation vehicles have been presented in Regulatory Guides. (U.S.)

  15. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  16. Forensic Evidence and Criminal Investigations: The Impact of Ballistics Information on the Investigation of Violent Crime in Nine Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William R; Campbell, Bradley A; Matusiak, Matthew C; Katz, Charles M

    2017-07-01

    We explore the impact of information from ballistics imaging hit reports on the investigation into violent crimes. Ballistics imaging hits link two crimes involving the same firearm by forensically matching tool marks on the fired bullets or cartridge cases. Interview data collected from detectives who received a hit report were used to explore the relationship between the presence of a hit report and outcomes in 65 gun-related violent crime investigations in nine U.S. police agencies. Findings indicate hit reports rarely contribute to identification, arrest, charging, or sentencing of suspects, because of delays in producing hit reports. On average, hit reports were completed 181.4 days after the focal crime. This delay forces investigations to proceed without the benefit of information from ballistics analysis. Additionally, hit reports rarely contained detailed information that was immediately useful to investigators. Instead, hit reports required additional research by the investigator to unlock useful information. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. A Crime Analysis Decision Support System for Crime Report Classification and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…

  18. Generic and crime type specific correlates of youth crime: a Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of various crime types among adolescent males born in Finland in 1981. Data on crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001 were received for 2,866 boys, of whom 81% (n = 2,330) filled in a questionnaire at obligatory military call-up at age 18 in 1999. Crime was divided into five types: drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offences. Of the 2,866 boys, 23% had been registered for offending; 4% for drug, 7% for violent, 11% for property, 11% for traffic, and 5% for drunk driving offences during the 4-year period in late adolescence. All the crime types correlated with each other and shared many of the psychosocial problems. Small community size, parents' divorce, aggressiveness, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness were generic correlates of crime, being independently related to various crime types. The results support general rather than specific accounts of youth crime. In particular, measures moderating the adverse effects of divorce, alleviating parental adversities and supporting parenthood, and tackling substance abuse seem relevant in social and criminal policy because they address psychosocial problems characterizing youth crime in general.

  19. The Symbiosis of War Crime and Organized Crime in the Former Yugoslavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    The growth of organized crime and its interconnection with European organized crime both presaged and informed the collapse of the Yugoslav state in the early 1990s.  A tight nexus emerged between state security services and militaries and organized criminal gangs who converged to enjoy parasitic...... significant challenges that these societies still confront on their road to European Union membership....

  20. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Thomas C., E-mail: tcj@transport.dtu.d [Department of Transport, Danish Technical University, Bygningstorvet 116 Vest, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Flemming [National Environmental Research Institute, Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-01-15

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  2. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis. An application to oil prices in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Thomas C. [Department of Transport, Danish Technical University, Bygningstorvet 116 Vest, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Moeller, Flemming [National Environmental Research Institute, Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-01-15

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn. (author)

  3. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis. An application to oil prices in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Thomas C.; Moeller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn. (author)

  4. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  5. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  6. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  7. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  8. Hazardous waste transportation risk assessment: Benefits of a combined deterministic and probabilistic Monte Carlo approach in expressing risk uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Cowen, M.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Dunn, W.E.; Brown, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a combined deterministic and probabilistic methodology for modeling hazardous waste transportation risk and expressing the uncertainty in that risk. Both the deterministic and probabilistic methodologies are aimed at providing tools useful in the evaluation of alternative management scenarios for US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD). The probabilistic methodology can be used to provide perspective on and quantify uncertainties in deterministic predictions. The methodology developed has been applied to 63 DOE shipments made in fiscal year 1992, which contained poison by inhalation chemicals that represent an inhalation risk to the public. Models have been applied to simulate shipment routes, truck accident rates, chemical spill probabilities, spill/release rates, dispersion, population exposure, and health consequences. The simulation presented in this paper is specific to trucks traveling from DOE sites to their commercial TSD facilities, but the methodology is more general. Health consequences are presented as the number of people with potentially life-threatening health effects. Probabilistic distributions were developed (based on actual item data) for accident release amounts, time of day and season of the accident, and meteorological conditions

  9. CORPORATION CRIME LIABILITY OF PERSPECTIVE PENAL REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Siku

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The setting of the responsibility criminal against corporations in Indonesia starting from the inception of the emergency law number 7 of 1955 on Economic Crime, then followed by some of the last act is Act No. 8 of 2010 on prevention and eradication of the crime of money laundering. In the framework of the renewal of national criminal law and the draft law on The Criminal law (Criminal Code systematically have set the criminal liability of corporations, whether incorporated corporation law and Corporation who is not a legal entity. Although there have been laws governing corporate crime responsibility about but are still have problems in its application. It can be seen from the lack of a corporate criminal sentenced by the Court.

  10. Promoting health equity to prevent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-05-17

    Traditionally, research activities aimed at diminishing health inequalities and preventing crime have been conducted in isolation, with relatively little cross-fertilization. We argue that moving forward, transdisciplinary collaborations that employ a life-course perspective constitute a productive approach to minimizing both health disparities and early delinquent involvement. Specifically, we propose a multidimensional framework that integrates findings on health disparities and crime across the early life-course and emphasizes the role of racial and socioeconomic disparities in health. Developing the empirical nexus between health disparities research and criminological research through this multidimensional framework could fruitfully direct and organize research that contributes to reductions in health inequalities and the prevention of crime during the early life course. We also propose that this unified approach can ultimately enhance public safety policies and attenuate the collateral consequences of incarceration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attributes which evoke ‘fear of crime’ and to determine the defensive behaviour among the urban park users. Findings are based on qualitative studies undertaken in the city of Kuala Lumpur among the park and non-park users (N = 19) by means of semi......-structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  12. FINANCIAL CRIME IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA DRAGNE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The crime in the financial and banking system, through the disasters it produces, damages and large amount of victims, generates the largest economy damages, both national and international level. This phenomenon occurs and is manifested in a specific environment, the economy and finances one, takes different forms and operates with appropriate techniques. Most of the times, the banking system from Romania, has been used for personal grounds, which leads to serious damage of the Romanian economy. Insufficiently matured economic or imperfect judicial environments are only some of the factors that led to the commission of crimes in this area. Also, this type of crime has been determined, among other things, by the economic status, the social structure or the stage of development of the society.

  13. Public Danger of Ecological Crime: Criminological Aspect​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Natalya I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the characteristics of public danger of ecological crime. Specific features that distinguish it from other types of criminality are analyzed. Identified and justified are such features of environmental crime as an increased level of public danger, a wider range of victims, the continuing and deferred nature of the negative consequences, their transboundary nature, the irreversibility of the consequences, causing significant harm to the economic interests of the state, expressed in the withdrawal from the legal turnover of huge amounts of valuable natural resources. On the basis of the conducted research the author suggests wide use of the integrated criminological approach to studying the public danger of environmental crime taking into account its quantitative and qualitative characteristics.

  14. Crime Modeling using Spatial Regression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Adiatma; Kasim Aidid, M.

    2018-01-01

    Act of criminality in Indonesia increased both variety and quantity every year. As murder, rape, assault, vandalism, theft, fraud, fencing, and other cases that make people feel unsafe. Risk of society exposed to crime is the number of reported cases in the police institution. The higher of the number of reporter to the police institution then the number of crime in the region is increasing. In this research, modeling criminality in South Sulawesi, Indonesia with the dependent variable used is the society exposed to the risk of crime. Modelling done by area approach is the using Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) and Spatial Error Model (SEM) methods. The independent variable used is the population density, the number of poor population, GDP per capita, unemployment and the human development index (HDI). Based on the analysis using spatial regression can be shown that there are no dependencies spatial both lag or errors in South Sulawesi.

  15. Crime Control Act of 1990 [29 November 1990]. [Summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In the US, the Crime Control Act of 1990 was approved on November 29, 1990. This various titles of this Act include provisions relating to the following: 1) international money laundering; 2) child abuse; 3) child pornography; 4) kidnapping, abducting, or unlawfully restraining a child; 5) the protection of crime victims; 6) funding for local law enforcement agencies; 7) funding for federal law enforcement; 8) rural drug enforcement assistance; 9) mandatory detention for certain criminals; 10) juvenile justice; 11) penalties for use of certain firearms; 12) improvements in miscellaneous criminal law; 13) disability benefits for public safety officers; 14) money laundering; 15) drug-free school zones; 16) miscellaneous amendments to the federal judicial and criminal codes; 17) general provisions; 18) grants for correctional options; 19) control of anabolic steroids; 20) asset forfeiture; 21) student loan cancellation for law enforcement officers; 22) firearms provisions; 23) chemical diversion and trafficking; 24) drug paraphernalia; 25) banking law enforcement; 26) licit opium imports; 27) sentencing for methamphetamine offenses; 28) drug enforcement grants; 29) prisons; 30) shock incarceration (prison boot camps); 31) bankruptcy and restitution; 32) appropriations for law and drug enforcement agencies; 33) anti-drug programs; 34) support of law enforcement; 35) technical and minor substantive amendments to the federal criminal code; 36) federal debt collection; and 37) national child search assistance (for missing children).

  16. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  17. 246 CONCEPT OF CRIME IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF PENAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    There are various definitions of crime from the perspectives of moralists, ... only precise and administrative applicable definition and that sociologist may strive to .... moralist position on crimes, the libertarians put forward another view that self-.

  18. The Association between Fear of Crime and Social Cohesion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in its own right, with a notable share of citizens ... windows theory', which maintains that minor signs ... Fear of crime, like crime itself, is thought to be a factor that constrains efforts by .... variables: province, gender, population group and age.

  19. Crime and poverty in urban Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... The ways in which crime and poverty interact have been much studied and ... Social and Economic Research, on the relationship between poverty and crime in ... Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities.

  20. Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime Menace ... Again he innovates, introducing new products & technologies by the ... Keywords: Cyber-crimes, entrepreneurs, compupreneur, firewalls, computer forensics, ICT, ...

  1. Perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Vieira Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available É verdade que o idoso, muitas vezes, é vítima de diversas formas de agressões, mas também é agente da prática de delitos. Por meio de pesquisa documental realizada em 2013 com todos os boletins de ocorrência registrados na delegacia de polícia de Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, realizamos análise estatística e evidenciamos o perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime e os tipos de crimes cometidos. No período pesquisado, 3,28% do total de idosos de Imbé foi acusado de cometer algum tipo de crime. Este artigo recomenda uma ação contínua e integrada da rede de saúde e de segurança pública com as demais áreas sociais para antecipar situações de risco para idosos (e comunidade em geral, de modo a promover a cidadania, gerenciar conflitos e reduzir a violência urbana. It is genuine that the elderly frequently are victims of several kinds of hostility, but the fact remains that he or she, too, is also an agent of the committal of criminal offenses. Through documentary research realized in 2013 with the total occurrences bulletins registered in police stations in Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we realize statistical analysis and show the profile of the elderly accused of committing crime and the types of crimes committed. In the period surveyed, 3.28% of the total number of elderly of Imbé was accused of committing some type of crime. Profile of the Elderly Accused of Committing Crime recommends a continuous and integrated action of the health and public safety network with the other social areas to anticipate risk situations for the elderly (and the community in general, in order to promote citizenship, manage conflicts and reduce urban violence. Keywords: violence, seniors, aging, public health, crime

  2. The Effect of Workfare on Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part...... of this decline can be identified as a direct effect of workfare participation. Moreover, we find that criminal activity was also reduced during weekends, when the workfare programs were closed, allowing us to distinguishing the pure program effect from the incapacitation effect. These results imply a strong...

  3. ORGANIZED CRIME IN ALGERIA: TYPOLOGIES AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem BENAZOUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyse the phenomenon of national and transnational organized crime, which focuses the attention of several countries, governments, security and judicial apparatus throughout the world, on its threat to world stability and its destructive impact on the economic, social and security plans. The various aspects of this phenomenon are described through the follow-up of the various stages in which organized crime in Algeria developed. Its impact on the stability of neighbour countries is also worth mentioning, because is increasing in intensity and diversifying national and transnational criminal activities.

  4. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  5. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...

  6. Book review: Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz Rozas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Hb 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Pb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (eBook 76.99€.Reseña. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Td 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Tb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (e-Libro 76.99€.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3092188

  7. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available the period of analysis. Each segment of a pie chart represents a selected part of the day (eg: a two- or three-hour period) or a day of the week. The first and last segments in the day or week are then adjacent, ensuring that there is no artificial break... clocks We have also used crime clocks to map the proportion of crimes that occur during normal police working hours (07:00 to 16:00, Monday to Friday, in the case of the Johannesburg Area), against those that occur outside these hours. 3. Target...

  8. A Simple Test of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Joyce

    2009-01-01

    I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...

  9. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    in the way that the certain actions and events which have taken place have left a variety of marks and traces which may be read and interpreted. Traces of blood, nails, hair constitutes (DNA)codes which can be decrypted and deciphered, in the same way as traces of gun powder, bullet holes, physical damage...... and interpretation. During her investigation the detective's ability to make logical reasoning and deductive thinking as well as to make use of her imagination is crucial to how the crime scene is first deconstructed and then reconstructed as a setting for the story (that is the actions of crime). By decoding...

  10. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group, property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short run or in the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather affects criminal activity through other channels (e...

  11. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  12. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  13. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    the most celebrated political revolutions within the European tradition, including the French and the Russian Revolutions, are critically tied to the emergence of new forms of political crime originating in crowd behavior. The framework elaborated throughout the article relies on contributions of classical......” and the “political”. In the second part, I will discuss how the social sciences emerged in the late 19th century as a reflection on the nature of crime in the transition to modernity. The importance of some almost forgotten “classical traditions” will be stressed. In the third part I will briefly indicate how...

  14. Weighing up crime: the over estimation of drug-related crime

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is generally accepted that harms from crime cause a very large part of the total social harm that can be attributed to drug use. For example, crime harms accounted for 70% of the weighting of the British Drug Harm Index in 2004. This paper explores the linkage of criminal harm to drug use and challenges the current overestimation of the proportion of crime that can be causally attributed to drug use. It particularly examines the use of data from arrested drug users to estimate ...

  15. CCD imaging technology and the war on crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Glenn E.

    1992-08-01

    Linear array based CCD technology has been successfully used in the development of an Automatic Currency Reader/Comparator (ACR/C) system. The ACR/C system is designed to provide a method for tracking US currency in the organized crime and drug trafficking environments where large amounts of cash are involved in illegal transactions and money laundering activities. United States currency notes can be uniquely identified by the combination of the denomination serial number and series year. The ACR/C system processes notes at five notes per second using a custom transport a stationary linear array and optical character recognition (OCR) techniques to make such identifications. In this way large sums of money can be " marked" (using the system to read and store their identifiers) and then circulated within various crime networks. The system can later be used to read and compare confiscated notes to the known sets of identifiers from the " marked" set to document a trail of criminal activities. With the ACR/C law enforcement agencies can efficiently identify currency without actually marking it. This provides an undetectable means for making each note individually traceable and facilitates record keeping for providing evidence in a court of law. In addition when multiple systems are used in conjunction with a central data base the system can be used to track currency geographically. 1.

  16. Distinguishing the roles of meteorology, emission control measures, regional transport, and co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks in ;APEC Blue;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yuesi; Lu, Xiao; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Meng; Wang, Zifa; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2017-10-01

    Air quality are strongly influenced by both emissions and meteorological conditions. During the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) week (November 5-11, 2014), the Chinese government implemented unprecedented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding provinces, and then a phenomenon referred to as ;APEC Blue; (rare blue sky) occurred. It is challenging to quantify the effectiveness of the implemented strict control measures solely based on observations. In this study, we use the WRF-Chem model to distinguish the roles of meteorology, emission control measures, regional transport, and co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks during APEC week. In general, meteorological variables, PM2.5 concentrations and PM2.5 chemical compositions are well reproduced in Beijing. Positive weather conditions (lower temperature, lower relative humidity, higher wind speeds and enhanced boundary layer heights) play important roles in ;APEC Blue;. Applying strict emission control measures in Beijing and five surrounding provinces can only explain an average decrease of 17.7 μg/m3 (-21.8%) decreases in PM2.5 concentrations, roughly more than half of which is caused by emission controls that implemented in the five surrounding provinces (12.5 μg/m3). During the APEC week, non-local emissions contributed to 41.3% to PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, and the effectiveness of implementing emission control measures hinges on dominant pathways and transport speeds. Besides, we also quantified the contribution of reduced aerosol feedbacks due to strict emission control measures in this study. During daytime, co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks account for about 10.9% of the total decreases in PM2.5 concentrations in urban Beijing. The separation of contributions from aerosol absorption and scattering restates the importance of controlling BC to accelerate the effectiveness of aerosol pollution control.

  17. THE CRIME OF UNJUSTIFIED ABSENCE IN THE ROMANIAN CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code of Romania regulates in Title XI of its Special Part the crimes against the combat capability of the military forces. Under this title, Chapter I is dedicated to the crimes committed by the military and defines the crime of unjustified absence. In this study, the author analysed the specific elements of this crime, including: the specific legal object - military discipline, the field of the active subject and the essential requirements imposed by its objective side.

  18. The Impact of Legalized Casino Gambling on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W. Nichols; Mehmet Serkan Tosun

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of legalized casino gambling, including Indian casinos, on crime. Using county-level data between 1994 and 2009, the impact that casino legalization had on crime is examined. Our results show an increase in crime associated with casinos in some circumstances, but not others. Crime impact results are quite sensitive to data, sample periods and econometric specifications. In addition to known Part 1 offenses (assault, burglary, larceny, robbery, rape, and auto theft), we a...

  19. Bilateral Cooperation Between Indonesia and Malaysia in Combating Transnational Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mustofa, Prof. Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This paper us discuss that bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and Malaysia in combating transnational crime or trans-border crime. First of all, it should be based on understanding the root of the problem in trans-border crime problems. Furthermore, the effective bilateral cooperation can occur when notice the same aspects in the definition of the crime, the existence of law, the recognition of the evidence, extradition agreement, and the network information between the states.

  20. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and

  1. The effect of police on crime, disorder and victim precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Koning, P.W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Using individual data from a large-scale Dutch crime victimization survey, we are able to expand the analysis of the effect of police on crime to crimes types that do not easily find their way into police statistics, and to public disorder and victim precaution. To address heterogeneity and

  2. Forty years of crime prevention in the Dutch Polder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.J.M.; de Waard, J.; Crawford, A.

    2009-01-01

    For the past two decades the growth of public policies and strategies aimed at crime prevention and community safety has constituted one of the major innovations in crime control, with significant implications for the manner in which crime and safety are governed. But how has 'the preventive turn'

  3. Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Today's Courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Samuel M., Ed.

    The application of the principles of chemistry both for committing crimes and for tracking down criminals interests audiences of all ages and walks of life. This interest is the reason for the long-standing popularity of fictional works that describe crimes made possible by the criminal's knowledge of chemistry and crimes solved by the sleuth's…

  4. Natural Born Killers? Preventing the Coming Explosion of Teenage Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the rise of juvenile crime in the United States, explores the failure of the juvenile justice system to stem the tide of youth crime, and examines the issue of prevention. The author argues the need to always hold youth offenders accountable for the crimes they commit and suggests several means by which restitution may be made. (GR)

  5. 76 FR 20827 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... victims of crime each year. For many citizens, a sense of security remains painfully elusive, and we must... survivors. We have shined a light on hidden crimes like cyberbullying, online child sexual exploitation, and... working to prevent and prosecute financial crimes. My Administration's Financial Fraud Enforcement Task...

  6. Students Perception of Cyber Crime in Edo State: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the perception of students toward committing cyber crime the study will determine the level of success and the gender mostly prone to commit this crime. The study employed the use of descriptive survey to find out students perception towards cyber crime in Edo State. A sample of 500 students ...

  7. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDIA: A NEW FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiu Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Organized Crimes are no longer confined to geographical jurisdictions or national boundaries; instead, they have become transnational problems. Such crimes have existed in different forms, but the contemporary patterns are more complex that they have been in history. Transnational Organized Crimes (TOCs) affect almost every country, and are promoted by various factors including globalization, poverty and unequal wealth distribution, technological innovations, corruption, inadequate governance...

  8. Poverty and crime: Uncovering the hidden face of sexual crimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Key words: gender; poverty; sexual crimes; urban low-income communities; Ghana. 1Charlotte .... juvenile offences, and child delinquency cases. ... In effect, vulnerability has now become an integral aspect of poverty analysis and is looked.

  9. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME. AN (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stoica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.

  10. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  11. Corporate Crime and Crisis: Causation Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines four possible relationships between the credit crunch and corporate crime. A first relation is that cases of accounting fraud have contributed to the causes of the crisis. Because of these accounting scandals, the trust in large corporations and the financial sector possibly

  12. Honor crimes: review and proposed definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elakkary, S.; Franke, B.; Shokri, D.; Hartwig, S.; Tsokos, M.; Puschel, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is every reason to believe that honor based violence is one of the forms of domestic violence that is being practiced against females all over the world. This type of violence includes a wide range of crimes, the severest of which is honor killing. Many studies have adopted different

  13. PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE INTAKE AND GENDER ON CRIME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Knudten (1970) see crime as a conduct or an action that is defined ..... Among heavy consumers of alcohol (15.79%) were: (6.84%), 5.79% .... Rather than promoting drug use through advertisement, the media also should be used to enlighten ...

  14. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from...

  15. Crime-social risk in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime, as a form of violation of law (A. Giddens, is one of the social risks. One of the negative consequences of the development of a modern, global society is the globalization of criminality (M. Kostić & F. Mirić. Criminality can only be discussed with the development and elaboration of the legal system in the modern sense of the word (including criminal law, but in societies there have always been certain types of norms and beliefs that have influenced human behavior and against which (in correctness (M. Ivanović. Unlike a positive right that cannot fully follow the dynamics of change in society that influence the definition of a crime, sociology should constantly seek new elements that extend this notion (new, unpredictable, unlimited. The paper analyzes the causes of criminality, its distribution, types (violent, property, etc., relation to other notions (deviance, delinquency and crime and its consequences in contemporary society, in order to look at the risk of crime, to seek an adequate social response to This negative phenomenon, and provides an analysis of the penal policy and the role of a prison institution for the offender's conversion (M. Foucault.

  16. Indicators of School Crime Safety, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael

    Providing the latest data, this report on school safety presents a mixed picture: while overall crime has declined, violence, gangs, and drugs remain at some schools. Victimization at school declined from 1995-99, though rates for fighting and weapon threats remain steady. Students seem more secure, and gang activity decreased; however, in grades…

  17. Entrepreneurs' Responses to Organized Crime and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Gómez, Sergio Manuel Madero; Muñiz, Carlos

    This research aims to investigate the various direct and indirect impacts of organized violence and crime on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as entrepreneurs’ responses to violent acts. A mixed-method design based on a quantitative content analysis of 204 news stories found in ...

  18. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Al Neyadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being greedy and not being content also some of them have financial troubles these reasons usually exploited by criminals. Thus the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any others private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. In addition at the present time with the most detailed new cybercrime law that can be used to prove found guilty. As well the author discusses that the new cyber-crime law provides protection of personal information including banking information credit cards and electronic payment information.

  19. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  20. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  1. Review of "Overcoming the insider: reducing employee computer crime through situational crime prevention, Willison R., Siponen M."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    Situational crime prevention (SCP) is a criminological theory, proposed by Ronald Clarke in the 1980s and developed over the last 30 years, that focuses on the crime event rather than the criminal. A number of highly effective crime prevention techniques in the physical world have been developed

  2. Hate crimes: American and Balkan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.

  3. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...... to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...

  4. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDONESIA: THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mitchell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.

  5. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  6. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20 th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.

  7. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle’s downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990’s, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980’s showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990’s showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed. PMID:25505350

  8. Entering the Black Hole: The Taliban, Terrorism, and Organised Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Phillips

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'

  9. How to become a victim of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1 the emergence of criminal threats; 2 increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3 the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations; 4 increase the number of victims of crimes as registered and latent, which helps re-victimization of some of them. As a result of our Internet survey of more than 3002 people (2015 defined the proportion of citizens who every year are victims of crime. By 2015 it is 37 %. However, one in seven respondents already had experience of victimization before. In our view, there is a threshold of permissible viktymizovanosti population not exceeding 40 % and is independent of the level of crime in a calendar year or an. Typically, victims of crime every year are new faces. Re-victimization experiences 15 % of citizens. The risk of becoming a victim of crime depends on the accuracy and timeliness of recognition of sources and types of criminal threats. Showed a rather stereotypical ideas of the criminal threat and showed a disorientation in identifying their sources. The last mentioned some time. Traditionally people cautious attitude to strangers, suspicious issued and may bear criminal intent (62 %; alarming stay at poorly attended locations in the dark (67 % and likelihood of falling into unpredictable situations (44 %. Only 15% of respondents sees the source of victimization in their own dangerous behavior. While the public understanding of the sources of victimization are largely abstract and false character. So, to our knowledge, most people are afraid of violent crime (64 %, but actually experiencing mercenary crimes (60 %. In the context of what has been said quite expected the place called criminal

  10. Corporate crime: Criminological and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of economic transition in Serbia has highlighted the problem of socially responsible behavior of corporations and especially the growing phenomenon of corporate crime. The consequences of corporate wrongdoing are almost everywhere and cannot be overseen. The most tremendous ones are those related to human casualties, environmental disasters, long-term negative health effects and great material budget losses on local and state levels. The fact that corporations are profiting from criminal activity which causes enormous damage to society and individuals makes public policy makers face the ultimate choice - either to devise new effective measures for reducing and controlling this phenomenon or to retain the standard model of crime control, in accordance with the principles of classical criminal law. The first choice would require one of the pillars of criminal law - the principle of individual and subjective guilt of physical persons as the exclusive grounds for imposing criminal liability - to be either modified and widened in order to be used as a base for imposing corporate criminal liability or partially changed by new criminal law categories which would introduce different grounds for imposing criminal liability on an organization. The second choice would require the decision-makers to refuse to change old and well-established principles. The criminal reality, however, has made most legislatures in Europe and around the world choose the first option and introduce different forms of corporate criminal liability. Serbian criminal legislation has been headed in the same direction since 2008, when it was changed in order to enable the imposing of liability for criminal acts on corporations. However, although corporate criminal liability is becoming the European legislative standard, one question remains - Is this the only measure of criminal politics which can be used as a means of reducing and preventing corporate crime? The authors

  11. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2009-05-20

    Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; Pgenetic or early environmental) confounding of the

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Crime Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Collins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information is limited on how firearms move from legal possession to illegal possession and use in criminal activities, largely because of data collection capacity and a lack of recent, exhaustive recovery data across jurisdictions. This article includes both an analysis of firearms trace data and prisoner interviews across multiple jurisdictions: New Orleans, Louisiana, Prince George’s County, Maryland, and Chicago, Illinois. Findings indicate that recoveries and trace successes vary across jurisdictions and by type of crime. Jurisdiction regulations were associated with the proportion of guns purchased in state and time to recovery but not with purchaser characteristics. Interviews from imprisoned offenders in two jurisdictions revealed the most common method of obtaining a crime gun was to steal it or buy it off the street.

  13. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  14. Emotional reactions to crime across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2015-10-01

    Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  16. Issues surrounding the money laundering crime

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Money laundering took advantage of the increasing openness and expanding markets to improve their techniques, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the weaker countries. In an evolutionary perspective, we understand how this phenomenon has progressed and how countries and referenced organizations have an important role to play in its prevention. This crime was defined and framed in an evolutionary perspective, whether legislative, or jurisprudential doctrine in order to better understand t...

  17. Some Problems of Pedophilia Crimes Delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova I. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the changes contributed by the lawmaker to the RF Criminal Code. Here are distinguished contradictory and collision norms, the problems of their qualification. Some scientific points of view are quoted. The authors offer the ways of solving problematic issues connected with strengthening of the responsibility for crimes of sexual character committed in relation to non-adults

  18. Entrepreneurs’ Responses to Organized Crime and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Gómez, Sergio Manuel Madero; Muñiz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the various direct and indirect impacts of organized violence and crime on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as entrepreneurs’ responses to violent acts. A mixed-method design based on a quantitative content analysis of 204 news stories found in the international press and a multi-case study covering 10 SMEs operating in Monterrey, Mexico, is used to explore entrepreneurs’ responses to the direct and indirect effects of viol...

  19. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  20. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  1. Status and tendencies in combating computer crime at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Without certain adjustments to specifics of computer crime, as to a phenomenon of global proportions, detection, investigation and prosecution of this type of crime is almost impossible. Therefore, the need for setting up a legal framework for combating cyber crime has been identified, in order to define which activities related to information systems are considered computer crime; to determine the specific procedural rules, which would enable the access to data, computer and networks during investigating and prosecuting computer crime and to provide continuous training of members of the institutions responsible for countering this form of crime. This legal framework should consist of substantive and procedural rules adapted to this type of crime due its aim is the improvement of international cooperation in the framework of global and regional approach to combating cyber crime. In this this paper the current situation of strategic and legal framework of countering cyber crime is presented (at the level of the Council of Europe and of the European Union as well as trends in the development of systematic approach towards countering the mentioned abuses within these regional organizations. At the European level, the legal framework to combat cyber crime is set in the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime and the Council of EU Framework Decision on attacks against information systems. In a series of documents organs of EU confirmed the strategic support of COE Convention and the encouragement of Member States to ratify the Convention. In addition, the Convention represent the base of the said Framework Decision. These two legal instruments have the same goal - removing the differences between national legislation, the introduction of new powers in the discovery and evidence of computer crime and improvement of the international cooperation in combating cyber crime. Although their legal nature and scope vary, its objectives will be achieved

  2. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  3. Risk of Being Subjected to Crime, Including Violent Crime, After Onset of Mental Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Kimberlie; Laursen, Thomas M; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2018-01-01

    Importance: People with mental illness are more likely to have contact with the criminal justice system, but research to date has focused on risk of offense perpetration, while less is known about risk of being subjected to crime and violence. Objectives: To establish the incidence of being...... subjected to all types of criminal offenses, and by violent crimes separately, after onset of mental illness across the full diagnostic spectrum compared with those in the population without mental illness. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a longitudinal national cohort study using...... of mental illness, recorded as first contact with outpatient or inpatient mental health services. Diagnoses across the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses were considered separately for men and women. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated for first subjection to crime...

  4. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  5. HATE CRIMES DI INDONESIA DALAM PERSPEKTIF PERBANDINGAN HUKUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widati Wulandari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the deficiency of the Indonesian criminal law with regard to the criminalization of hate crimes. Taking into consideration the fact that Indonesia faces a high incidence of social conflict due to rising intolerance and discrimination targeting minority groups.  The combination of (racial-ethnic-religious discrimination and hatred against minority groups in most cases results in various forms of common crimes which generally is known as hate crimes. Using a comparative law method, by and between Indonesian criminal law and the criminal law of other countries experiencing hate crimes, the author highlights options for eradicating hate crimes. One important finding is the tendency of a number of countries to perceive hatred or prejudice which motivate the perpetrator of hate crimes as aggravating factor and not to as as separate substantive offence.

  6. The Impact of Racial Slurs and Racism on the Perceptions and Punishment of Violent Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Donald A.; Hockett, Jericho M.; Wallenberg, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    When a crime is committed by an individual of one race against an individual of another race, there is the possibility that the crime is a hate crime. Legislation often mandates harsher penalties for perpetrators convicted of crimes determined to be hate crimes, yet this determination is difficult to make. This study used vignettes of violent…

  7. Benefits and Harms of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluud, Lise L.; Bennett, Cathy; Grøndahl, Magnus F.; Christensen, Mikkel B.; Knop, Filip K.; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a novel drug class for the treatment of diabetes. We aimed at describing the maximal benefits and risks associated with SGLT2-i for patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources and Study Selection We included double-blinded, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating SGLT2-i administered in the highest approved therapeutic doses (canagliflozin 300 mg/day, dapagliflozin 10 mg/day, and empagliflozin 25 mg/day) for ≥12 weeks. Comparison groups could receive placebo or oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) including metformin, sulphonylureas (SU), or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4-i). Trials were identified through electronic databases and extensive manual searches. Primary outcomes were glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, serious adverse events, death, severe hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis and CVD. Secondary outcomes were fasting plasma glucose, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, lipids, liver function tests, creatinine and adverse events including infections. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Results Meta-analysis of 34 RCTs with 9,154 patients showed that SGLT2-i reduced HbA1c compared with placebo (mean difference -0.69%, 95% confidence interval -0.75 to -0.62%). We downgraded the evidence to ‘low quality’ due to variability and evidence of publication bias (P = 0.015). Canagliflozin was associated with the largest reduction in HbA1c (-0.85%, -0.99% to -0.71%). There were no differences between SGLT2-i and placebo for serious adverse events. SGLT2-i increased the risk of urinary and genital tract infections and increased serum creatinine, and exerted beneficial effects on bodyweight, blood pressure, lipids and alanine aminotransferase (moderate to low quality evidence). Analysis of 12 RCTs found a beneficial effect of SGLT2-i on HbA1c compared with OAD (-0.20%, -0.28 to -0.13%; moderate quality evidence). Conclusion

  8. Analysis of Increasing Malwares and Cyber Crimes Using Economic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Asgher, Umer; Dar, Fahad Moazzam; Hamza, Ali; Paracha, Abdul Moeed

    2014-01-01

    The economics of an internet crime has newly developed into a field of controlling black money. This economic approach not only provides estimated technique of analyzing internet crimes but also gives details to analyzers of system dependability and divergence. This paper will highlight on the subject of online crime, which has formed its industry since. It all started from amateur hackers who cracked websites and wrote malicious software in pursuit of fun or achieving limited objectives to p...

  9. Crime, Inequality and Unemployment in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Dongxu Wu; Zhongmin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A model of crime is developed based on principles from the existing literature with some original insight. The implications of the model are that income inequality and unemployment are important explanatory variables for crimes motivated by economic gain, but do not offer much explanatory power for other types of crime. A panel data of UK regions over the years from 2002 to 2007 is then used to test these predictions. The empirical results strongly support the hypothesis t...

  10. Crime, perceived safety, and physical activity: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Punia, Erika; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Gay, Jennifer L

    2018-06-01

    Perceived safety from crime and objectively-measured crime rates may be associated with physical inactivity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the odds of accumulating high levels of physical activity (PA) when the perception of safety from crime is high and when objectively-measured crime is high. Peer-reviewed studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest Criminal Justice, and ScienceDirect from earliest record through 2016. Included studies measured total PA, leisure-time PA, or walking in addition to perceived safety from crime or objective measures of crime. Mean odds ratios were aggregated with random effects models, and meta-regression was used to examine effects of potential moderators: country, age, and crime/PA measure. Sixteen cross-sectional studies yielded sixteen effects for perceived safety from crime and four effects for objective crime. Those reporting feeling safe from crime had a 27% greater odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=1.27 [1.08, 1.49]), and those living in areas with higher objectively-measured crime had a 28% reduced odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=0.72 [0.61, 0.83]). Effects of perceived safety were highly heterogeneous (I 2 =94.09%), but explored moderators were not statistically significant, likely because of the small sample size. Despite the limited number of effects suitable for aggregation, the mean association between perceived safety and PA was significant. As it seems likely that perceived lack of safety from crime constrains PA behaviors, future research exploring moderators of this association may help guide public health recommendations and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Safer communities: investigating the international response to knife crime

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols-Drew, L.

    2018-01-01

    The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences Annual Conference 2018 Violent crime is a frequent occurrence in the UK, predominantly due to knives, with both urban and rural areas significantly impacted. Personal casework experience of the author has involved the forensic laboratory examination of bladed weapons from including murder, sexual offences, armed robberies, aggravated burglaries, wildlife crime, cold case reviews and terrorism offences. The September 2017 Crime Survey of England...

  12. A theory of organized crime, corruption and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, MP; Blackbourn, K; Neanidis, KC

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined effects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative effect ...

  13. 'Organized Crime, Corruption and Growth: Theory and Evidence'

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Blackburn; Kyriakos C. Neanidis; Maria Paola Rana

    2015-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined effects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative e¤ect o...

  14. A Theory of Organized Crime, Corruption and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Neanidis, Kyriakos; Rana, Maria Paola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined e¤ects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative e¤ect on...

  15. Evaluation procedures for drug crimes, the Iranian legal system

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Hariri; Saeid Darougari

    2014-01-01

    Today, drug trafficking, transnational organized crime of, comes into account. Distributors and consumers of drugs, distribution and consumption gradually, the traditional process lubricants Battalion (mechanical and chemical), and this would have altered, requires the development of formal and substantial rights.  The law of success in fighting crime, completely dependent on the integrity, transparency and efficiency of criminal procedure, and the amount of punishment that fits the crime app...

  16. Subject description form of crime prevention (morphological analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Валерій Федорович Оболенцев

    2016-01-01

    Activities of the National Crime Prevention is a system object. Therefore, it should be improving on the basis of systems analysis techniques. The practice of systematic approach was realized in the works of  N. F. Kuznetsova, A. I. Dolgova, D. O. Li, V. M. Dryomin, O. Y. Manokha, O. G. Frolova. Crime models developed C. Y. Vitsin, Y. D. Bluvshteyn, N. V. Smetanina. We previously disclosed basic principles of system analysis system to prevent crime and its genetic and prognostic aspec...

  17. Toward Understanding the Biology of Crime in Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, D

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serious crime is a scourge within Trinidad and Tobago's borders and seems to be escalating yearly with no resolution in sight. It is commonplace for governments to view/implement policies targeting crime based on sociological and psychological paradigms. What is most often overlooked, however, is that crime has unique biological underpinnings, which, if characterized, could lead toward clinical interventions that could mitigate its incidence within the population. PMID:25803384

  18. Crime, poverty and police corruption: a review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Andvig, Jens Chr.; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge

    2008-01-01

    Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development - including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...

  19. Identifying irregularly shaped crime hot-spots using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Grubesic, Tony H.

    2010-12-01

    Spatial cluster detection techniques are widely used in criminology, geography, epidemiology, and other fields. In particular, spatial scan statistics are popular and efficient techniques for detecting areas of elevated crime or disease events. The majority of spatial scan approaches attempt to delineate geographic zones by evaluating the significance of clusters using likelihood ratio statistics tested with the Poisson distribution. While this can be effective, many scan statistics give preference to circular clusters, diminishing their ability to identify elongated and/or irregular shaped clusters. Although adjusting the shape of the scan window can mitigate some of these problems, both the significance of irregular clusters and their spatial structure must be accounted for in a meaningful way. This paper utilizes a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to find clusters with maximum significance while quantitatively tracking their geographic structure. Crime data for the city of Cincinnati are utilized to demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and highlight its benefits versus more traditional scan statistics.

  20. Crime Forecasting System (An exploratory web-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Ahmed Meenai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.

  1. Antiterrorism in the context of the war against organised crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Šegvić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenological picture of crime is constantly changing. In modern times an increase in criminal behaviour as a whole and in the number of new forms of crimes, in particular grave criminal offences, has been noted. New and especially dangerous forms of crime are considered to be: organised crime, terrorism, business crime, corruption, illegal trafficking of drugs, weapons and people, and grave forms of violence. Recently, the particular attention of all democratic world powers and their special services has been seized by the ever increasing and more intensive collusion of organised crime and terrorism. This is a symbiosis which, apart from the need to create new and specialised services, could even result in some changes to criminal legal theory and practice. In this paper, within the analysis of the collusion between terrorism and organised crime, only one aspect is problematised. This aspect deals with financing terrorism and the measures which the international community and national legislation undertake in the fight against terrorism. The intention of the measures is to prevent not only the collusion of terrorist groups and organised crime in the commission of criminal offences but also the disposal of funds acquired by such means as financial transactions and ‘money laundering’. These measures do not only have a direct effect on the survival and activity of future terrorist groups. They also have a direct influence on the comprehensive fight against organised crime which poses fundamental threats to contemporary civilisation.

  2. Crimes In New York And Seoul A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia G. Patino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Across the world highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper we look at two highly-urbanized areas New York City and Seoul South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..

  3. Does the Magnitude of the Link between Unemployment and Crime Depend on the Crime Level? A Quantile Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Entorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two alternative hypotheses – referred to as opportunity- and stigma-based behavior – suggest that the magnitude of the link between unemployment and crime also depends on preexisting local crime levels. In order to analyze conjectured nonlinearities between both variables, we use quantile regressions applied to German district panel data. While both conventional OLS and quantile regressions confirm the positive link between unemployment and crime for property crimes, results for assault differ with respect to the method of estimation. Whereas conventional mean regressions do not show any significant effect (which would confirm the usual result found for violent crimes in the literature, quantile regression reveals that size and importance of the relationship are conditional on the crime rate. The partial effect is significantly positive for moderately low and median quantiles of local assault rates.

  4. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program. The definitions for murder; robbery; aggravated... person through gross negligence. Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter The willful...

  5. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  6. Prevenção ao crime e teoria social Crime prevention and social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Trajano Sento-Sé

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estabelece um diálogo entre a criminologia positivista e algumas correntes contemporâneas da prevenção ao crime inspiradas em teorias sociológicas. Através desse exercício, busca-se evidenciar que algumas das formulações focadas no campo da prevenção já aparecem, em estado embrionário, na agenda teórica positivista. Do mesmo modo, torna-se possível explicitar que alguns postulados empíricos e práticos do positivismo são menos estranhos às teorias contemporâneas de prevenção ao crime do que se costuma reconhecer.The article establishes a dialogue between positivist criminology and some contemporary currents on crime prevention inspired in sociological theories. Through this exercise, we seek to highlight that some of the formulations focused in the preventions field appear, in embryonic state, in the positivist theoretical agenda. Likewise, it is possible to explicit that some empirical and practical tenets of positivism are less foreign to contemporary theories of crime prevention than is usually recognized.

  7. Crime story: the role of crime and immigration in the anti-immigration vote

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinas, E.; van Spanje, J.

    2011-01-01

    Some scholars have found that mass immigration fuels the success of anti-immigration parties, whereas others have found that it does not. In this paper, we propose a reason for these contradictory results. We advance a set of hypotheses that revolves around a commonly ignored factor, crime. To test

  8. Poverty and crime: Uncovering the hidden face of sexual crimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the debate about the link between poverty and the incidence of urban crime in developing countries is complex, nowhere is the link more persuasive than in the urban low-income communities of these countries. Based on official police data, key informant interviews (KIIs), and focus group discussions (FGDs) from ...

  9. Estate Society: Crime and Power Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Manente Melhem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through literature review and qualitative analysis the work deals with the category "stand society" in Faoro, relating to the Ideology of Social Defense, treated in the marxist context presented by Baratta as the dominant discourse on crime in capitalism and has among its postulates the claim that the conduct is considered criminal because of social interest, and the law is the expression of the general will. It seeks to demonstrate that the law does not actually represent the interests of society but of the influential groups in the legislative process, here called: “stands”.

  10. Chemistry and crime detection: application to NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Swain, K.K.; Kayasth, S.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is extensively used for the analysis of gun shot residues (GSR). But the analysis becomes increasingly difficult when the exhibits collected from the scene of crime are contaminated with various contaminants. During this work, systematic experiments were carried out to study the interferences from various common contaminants like soil, rust, grease, blood, etc., along with difficulties in the determination of GSR elements in presence of these contaminants. An attempt has been made to demonstrate in this paper how contaminations can mislead the investigation. In such cases careful analysis followed by proper evaluation of the analytical data of control and also exhibits can provide meaningful results

  11. Crimes contra o mercado de capitais

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Alonso

    2009-01-01

    A necessidade de tutela eficiente do Mercado de Capitais é, atualmente, indiscutível. O advento de novas tecnologias e o tráfego internacional de capital cada vez maior; tornam o Mercado de Capitais, contemporaneamente, sujeito a amplos riscos e danos. Nesse contexto, o legislador tem respondido com a incriminação de condutas ofensivas ao mercado, contudo a formulação de tipos penais nem sempre se mostra adequada. Dessa forma, questiona-se qual o bem juridicamente tutelado pelos crimes contra...

  12. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  13. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Jenny; Groombridge, Daniel; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Palmer, Darren; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Miller, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Bars, pubs and taverns in cities are often concentrated in entertainment precincts that are associated with higher rates of alcohol-related crime. This study assessed public perception and experiences of such crime in two city entertainment precincts, and support for alcohol-related crime reduction strategies. A cross-sectional household telephone survey in two Australian regions assessed: perception and experiences of crime; support for crime reduction strategies; and differences in such perceptions and support. Six hundred ninety-four people completed the survey (32%). Most agreed that alcohol was a problem in their entertainment precinct (90%) with violence the most common alcohol-related problem reported (97%). Almost all crime reduction strategies were supported by more than 50% of participants, including visitors to the entertainment precincts, with the latter being slightly less likely to support earlier closing and restrictions on premises density. Participants in one region were more likely to support earlier closing and lock-out times. Those at-risk of acute alcohol harm were less likely to support more restrictive policies. High levels of community concern and support for alcohol harm-reduction strategies, including restrictive strategies, provide policy makers with a basis for implementing evidence-based strategies to reduce such harms in city entertainment precincts. [Tindall J, Groombridge D, Wiggers J, Gillham K, Palmer D, Clinton-McHarg T, Lecathelinais C, Miller P. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:263-272]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Participatory mapping for crime prevention in South Africa - local solutions to local problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liebermann, S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available . suburban parts or the central business districts in urban areas is property- related.(3) Links between land use and crime types became apparent when crime statistics were broken down by location at the local scale. Adirect link between undeveloped... step involves setting the scene and discussing crime, place and crime prevention. Many of the resident community participants have never heard of crime prevention, therefore this introductory step outlines the three factors necessary for a crime...

  15. A comparative study of urban crime between Malaysia and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Abubakar Ghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has created numerous social problems, among which is crime that became a common phenomenon to all urban areas in both developed and developing nations. Recent unimaginable levels of the world urbanization coincides with rise in urban crimes in many parts of the world, as the rate of unemployment had been on the increase and coupled with increased poverty among the urban poor. Nature of crime is not uniform but varies from one geographical region to another. In some areas, property crime is more common while in others, crime on person (violent is prevalent. Crime is not being plagued by a singular factor anywhere it occurred, there are variant factors that influence criminal activities. However, key factors that persuade criminal behaviours of potential offenders includes: unemployment, poverty, bad governance and weaknesses in law enforcement or crime-control agencies. These four key factors were discussed in this paper with hope of bringing out nature of urban crimes that bedevilled properties and people safety for taking management and prevention measures.

  16. Introduction: Urban Crime and Poverty Nexus | Owusu | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key issue that has attracted the attention of criminologists and others in the field of crime studies is the extent to which crime influence poverty and vis-à-vis. While this debate has extensively engaged the attention of criminologists and other social scientists in the developed world, little academic attention has been given to ...

  17. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... our criminal justice system, and preventing crimes before they occur. The incidence of crime in the.... Moreover, women suffer the vast majority of intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and rape. These... violence in communities across our Nation. We are partnering with organizations and agencies at every level...

  18. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima-Knijff, M.J.; van Oorsouw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims

  19. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Donnay, Karsten; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  20. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  1. Vioent Crimes, Economic Development and the Morality of Capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violent crimes such as murder, armed robbery, kidnapping and terrorism are the cruelest, most inhuman and disparaging crimes plaguing Nigeria today. Lately, kidnapping and terrorism have taken the centre stage leading to horrible bloodshed and serious economic set-backs. For this reason, many civilized nations ...

  2. Schizophrenia and Crime: How Predictable Are Charges, Convictions and Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.

    2012-01-01

    The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…

  3. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  4. Xenophobia: A crime against humanity and its attendant implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and in conclusion, it puts forward amongst other recommendations that the provisions of Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court should be enlarged to provide for xenophobia as a crime against humanity. Keywords: Xenophobia, Duty of State, Crime against Humanity, Migrants, Rights, Aliens ...

  5. The Impact of a Casino on Education and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Milo

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the Las Vegas-style casino opened by the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska on crime and education. Since the opening of the casino in 1992, the Tribe significantly reduced unemployment, upgraded and modernized its entire education system, and reduced crime by 67% in one year. Contains 11 references. (VWC)

  6. Aspects of the crime geography of Calabar urban | Afangideh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this research is to established, through an objective empirical process, the spatial pattern and trend with regards to the crime geography of Calabar Urban. Six, of the Police posts in the town, two from each of the three zones into which the town has been sub-divided became the sample points. The crime ...

  7. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  8. Translating guilt: Identifying leadership liability for mass atrocity crimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steer, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    The truism that crimes of mass atrocity are by definition collective may be one of the greater banes of criminal law lawyers attempting to solve the problem of liability. Collective crimes are familiar to all domestic criminal law systems, however the context in which mass atrocity takes place is

  9. Motivation of Crime in A Study in Scarlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Li

    2016-01-01

    Stories of Sherlock Holmes is the classic leader of detective literature. At the present time, most readers and writers put their focus on Sherlock Holmes, and they ignore another important role—the criminals. Motivation of crime is an attractive subject. Studying the psychological motivation of crime in A Study in Scarlet has realistic meaning on modern society.

  10. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  11. Crime Victims and Offenders: A Question of Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, B.J.; Smith, Willy Demarcell

    1981-01-01

    This study of the interactive effects of race and sex on crime reaffirms previous conclusions that Black males are disproportionately and adversely affected by crime and the administration of criminal law. Interpretations of statistical data on victimization and imprisonment rates are presented. (JCD)

  12. Effects of prior interpretation on situation assessment is crime analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Eikelboom, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate the effects of prior case knowledge on the judgement of crime analysts. Design/methodology/approach - Explains that crime analysts assist when an investigation team has converged/agreed on a probable scenario, attributes this convergence to group-think, but points out this

  13. How Algorithms Inscribe the Understanding of Crime in Police Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, L.; Sergeeva, A.; Huysman, Marleen

    2018-01-01

    This research focuses on the consequences of the shift to data-driven work for daily police work. Our ongoing ethnographic field study of a team of police officers shows that predictive policing algorithms inscribe a different crime theory-in-use – i.e., the understanding of why crime occurs and how

  14. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Perc

    Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  15. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2018-01-01

    significant effects: in our preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.7 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of clearing the crime. We find stronger effects for thefts than for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We find suggestive evidence...

  16. [Crime-related amnesia: real or feigned?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, P; Merten, T; Merckelbach, H

    2012-07-01

    In the context of criminal forensic evaluations, experts are often confronted with the problem of offenders' claims of crime-related amnesia. Because of the far-reaching legal consequences of the expert opinion, the nature of the suspected memory disorder has to be investigated with special care and due consideration of differential diagnoses. While the diagnosis of organic amnesia is comparatively easy to make, the same is not true for dissociative amnesia. Despite existing theoretical explanations such as stress, peritraumatic dissociation or repression, to date there is no sound, scientifically based and empirically supported explanation for the occurrence of genuine, non-organic crime-related amnesia. In the criminal context of claimed amnesia, secondary gain is usually obvious; thus, possible malingering of memory loss has to be carefully investigated by the forensic expert. To test this hypothesis, the expert has to resort to methods based on a high methodological level. The diagnosis of dissociative amnesia cannot be made by mere exclusion of evidence for organic amnesia; instead, malingering has to be ruled out on an explicit basis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Decision to commit crime: rational or nonrational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Walters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.

  18. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  19. The Dynamic Relationship between Crime and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekoya Adenuga Fabian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a major impediment to economic growth and development in Nigeria despite measures taken to reduce it. There is, however, currently no major statistical analysis of how crime affects economic growth in that country. This study examines the link between crime and growth based on the theory of rational choice and empirical data. Exogenous and endogenous growth models are employed, and include deterrence variables. The period examined is 1970–2013 and estimation is done using the autoregressive distributed lag model. The results of our study show that crime affects economic growth at a 1% and 10% level of significance. In other words, crime imposes the costs of prosecution and punishment on the citizens and country, which influences the growth of the economy. Given our results, we suggest that police and the system of justice should be strengthened. Indeed, this may be necessary if the development target stated in Nigeria vision 20: 2020 is to be reached.

  20. Tests of Theories of Crime in Female Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Adkins, Ashtin; Cook, Kelsey

    2017-02-01

    Several general theories of crime were tested with path models on 293 female prisoners in a U.S. State prison. The theories tested included Social Bond and Control, Thrill/Risk Seeking, and a new attachment-based Developmental Dynamic Systems model. A large battery of different instruments ranging from measures of risk taking, to a crime addiction scale, to Childhood Adverse Events, to attachments and clinical issues were used. The older general theories of crime did not hold up well under the rigor of path modeling. The new dynamic systems model was supported that incorporated adverse childhood events leading to (a) peer crime, (b) crime addiction, and (c) a measure derived from the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ) that takes individual differences in attachments and clinical issues into account. The results were discussed in terms of new approaches to Research Defined Criteria of Diagnosis (RDoC) and new approaches to intervention.

  1. Brazil in regional cooperation over the fight against violence and organised crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1980s, organised crime and urban violence were not considered a major political challenge in Brazil. This belief was encouraged by a great reluctance to introduce coercive police measures that might act as reminders of the repression experienced under the dictatorial government of the 1960s and 70s. At present, however, the collective strategy for the fight against transnational crime represents a fundamental challenge. Brazil’s domestic successes and its growing influence as a global actor could be tarnished if the country does not succeed in containing the presence of drug trafficking and related crime. The costs of insecurity, furthermore, are calling into question Brazil’s ability to constitute itself as a platform for South American development. The creation of Unasur and its South American Council on the World Drug Problem reflect South America’s commitment to support a forum for dialogue on the subject, and point to the way ahead: consolidating regional multilateralism. More than four years later, effective instruments are still being sought, but the successful experience of collaboration with Bolivia is being presented as a model for future actions. Strengthening coordination in Unasur will bring the added benefit of the ability to make progress in a more mature and balanced dialogue with the United States with respect to a joint hemispheric agenda.

  2. Nuclear crime - a threat? Trade with nuclear explosives in Europe, political and social background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.; Becker, D.; Brunner, H.; Fechner, J.; Frenzel, E.; Kaul, A.; Kesten, J.; Koschel, P.; Mattausch, E.; Mertens, D.; Nosske, D.; Stoll, W.; Willuhn, K.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Crime defined as illegal trade, transport and possession of fissille and other radioactive material, increasingly keeps government and public in suspense. As shown already by the two parts of the term, both Radiation Protection and Prosecution Authorities are concerned. In the focal theme of this issue, their opinions and experiences will be compiled with the aim of treating this really explosive topic critically, but factually correct from all sides. This intention requires answering several broad questions: -Where does the nuclear material come from? - What experiences with nuclear crime do exist? - What countermeasures are we able and ready to take? - What measurement techniques are at hand to recognize and avert the danger? and, with particular reference to the nuclear weapons material Plutonium: - Who is producing Pu, and in what shape and mixtures? - What is the real radiological risk of the 'ultra-poison' Pu? - What possibilities exist to remove Pu contaminations, and to decomparate it? The following contributions of competent authors from Germany and Switzerland convey a comprehensive picture of the present situation demonstrating equally that means and knowledge exist in both countries to efficiently overt the threat of Nuclear Crime. (orig.) [de

  3. Legal nature of the crimes at Paris. Terrorism or war crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl F. Campusano Droguett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this text we analyse from a legal point of view, the crimes committed in Paris on November 13th of 2015 by the criminal organization ISIS. As a general perception, these acts are understood as “acts of terrorism”, witch we think it is not the best option, not only because there is not an international definition of “acts of terrorism”, but also because the definitions domestic legislation use for such kind of acts are technically wrong and usually affect the due process of law. We think, as a second option, that these acts are actually war crimes under the Rome Statute of 1998 and the Geneva Convention with their Additional Protocols, which could become an effective option under procedure law.

  4. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ferwerda

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is modelled, assuming rational behaviour of criminals, following the law and economics strand of the literature which is described as the economics of crime. The theoretical model shows that a) the prob...

  5. Situational Crime Prevention in Nightlife Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we present a brief introduction to SCP and ANT, followed by ANT analyses of two crime prevention strategies: Passive Alert Detection (PAD) dogs at music festivals (Case I) and “doorwork” (Case II) at licensed venues. The first case examines the use of PAD, or sniffer, dogs to assist...... police in detecting illicit drugs at music festivals in Australia, whereby police display law enforcement as a strategy to prevent illicit drug use and possession. The case extends the analysis of nightlife spaces into the daytime and rather different venues, recognizing festivals as sites of leisure...... pursuits commonly associated with nightlife. The case examines how the use of PAD dogs at festival entrances influences police, young people, drug use, and the entrance space, such that the agencies and actions of each are transformed. The analysis also highlights the lasting effects of such prevention...

  6. Crime prevention through sports and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the definition of sport, the author has presented the possibilities its application in the prevention of crime and delinquency. In that context, the author analyzes the rate of juvenile delinquency in specific countries, such as Canada, and underlines the fact that the classical criminal measures do not give adequate results. The author points out that it is, therefore, necessary to apply some other preventive measures, which embody the application of sports and physical activity. The author provides examples of good practice in the states which has achieved the best results in the development of such programs. Finally, in view of the increasing number of reported criminal offences committed by both juveniles and adults, the author highlights the need for developing such programs in the Republic of Serbia.

  7. Variations autour d’un crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Vân Ton-That

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une lecture des Châtiments et d’autres textes en prose autour du même thème, nous étudierons les variations de genres et d’écritures de Hugo qui en prose comme en poésie entend dénoncer et émouvoir. L’écriture semble dépasser les cloisonnements génériques et formels dans une prose aux inflexions poétiques et dans des vers où se mêlent narration, description et condamnation d’un crime qui prend alors une valeur universelle.On the basis of the reading of Les Châtiments and other prose texts centered on the same theme, we shall study Hugo’s genre and writing variations. In prose as well as in poetry, he intends to expose and to move. The way in which he writes seems to defy formal and generic classifications through a form of prose which is characterized by poetic overtones, and in lines in which narration and description intermingle with the exposition of a crime which takes on a universal meaning.A partir de una lectura de Châtiments y otros textos en prosa sobre el mismo tema, estudiaremos las variaciones de géneros y escrituras en Hugo quien, en prosa como en poesίa, pretende denunciar y conmover. La escritura parece superar las fronteras genéricas y formales en una prosa llena de inflexiones poéticas y en versos en los que se mezclan narración, descripción y condenación de un crimen que se viste por ende de un valor universal.

  8. A spatial approach to combatting wildlife crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, S C; Stevens, M C A; Romañach, S S; Lindsey, P A; Le Comber, S C

    2018-06-01

    Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. We used data from an 8-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe, to show how geographic profiling-a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology-can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime. The data set contained information on over 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals. We used a subset of data for which the illegal hunters' identities were known. Our model identified the illegal hunters' home villages based on the spatial locations of the hunting incidences (e.g., snares). Identification of the villages was improved by manipulating the probability surface inside the conservancy to reflect the fact that although the illegal hunters mostly live outside the conservancy, the majority of hunting occurs inside the conservancy (in criminology terms, commuter crime). These results combined with rigorous simulations showed for the first time how geographic profiling can be combined with GIS data and applied to situations with more complex spatial patterns, for example, where landscape heterogeneity means some parts of the study area are less likely to be used (e.g., aquatic areas for terrestrial animals) or where landscape permeability differs (e.g., forest bats tend not to fly over open areas). More broadly, these results show how geographic profiling can be used to target antipoaching interventions more effectively and more efficiently and to develop management strategies and conservation plans in a range of conservation scenarios. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. An analysis of the benefits of using underground tanks for the storage of stormwater runoff generated at Virginia Department of Transportation maintenance facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) collects millions of gallons of runoff at its nearly 300 salt storage : facilities each year, with some portion of this water being reused for the generation of salt brine. Storing this collected storm...

  10. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  11. Penitentiary crime as an object of legal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Khokhrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on statistical data and generalized empirical material to study the structure and dynamic properties of the penitentiary crime which are necessary to elaborate measures to prevent crimes involving the penitentiary system. Methods comparativelegal logicaljuridical analysis of documents survey results statistics and litigation. Results basing on the analysis of more than 1400 convictions for committing crimes by convicts while being imprisoned as well as statistical indicators of crime in penitentiary institutions since 2005 it is proposed to divide all the recorded facts of crime into categories. This will allow to define some categories of crimes committed in penitentiary institutions. Comparing the results of the analysis of judicial practice the survey of the staff and the statistical reports suggests that convicts with two or three convictions are most likely to commit crimes in the penitentiary institution. In our view an effective incentive to forgo crimes and resocialize may be a legal norm regulating sentencing for offences committed during the period of serving the sentence Article 68 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation quotSentencing for the offence during the period of serving the sentence quot. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the need to extinguish the risk groups by committing crimes in penitentiary institutions. The proposals are formulated to supplement the criminal law. Practical significance the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity for the development of draft laws on amendments and additions to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in scientific work in the preparation of the dissertation research monographs textbooks and articles teaching the courses quotCriminal lawquot and quotCriminologyquot as well as courses for qualificationnbsp promotion. nbsp

  12. Green Space, Violence, and Crime: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, Sandra; Beyer, Kirsten M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the state of evidence on relationships among urban green space, violence, and crime in the United States. Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria. Additional studies were culled from study references and authors' personal collections. Comparison among studies was limited by variations in study design and measurement and results were mixed. However, more evidence supports the positive impact of green space on violence and crime, indicating great potential for green space to shape health-promoting environments. Numerous factors influence the relationships among green space, crime, and violence. Additional research and standardization among research studies are needed to better understand these relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Cruise Crimes: Economic-Legal Issues and Current Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas R Panko; Babu P George; Tony L Henthorne

    2009-01-01

    Cruise tourism is one of the sunshine sectors of international tourism and is growing rapidly in many parts of the world. It is estimated that the growth rate of cruise tourism is twice the rate of tourism overall. Notwithstanding all the positives that accompany this growth, many critics have drawn attention to the “dark side” of cruise crimes. The eco-system aboard the cruise ship offers a fertile ground for the occurrence of crimes. The present paper examines the issue of crimes onboard fr...

  14. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  15. Immigration and crime in early 20th century America

    OpenAIRE

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  16. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Landerso, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting...

  17. Crime against property and labor insertion in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bergman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the relationship between crime against property and labor markets. Drawing on various sources, the author analyzes the hypothesis that weaknesses in labor markets spur a surge in criminality, and he specially tests the hypothesis that unemployed people are those who commit most crimes against property. Based on aggregated data about tendencies in Mexico, and more specifi cally using data from surveys of prison population, it is shown that a majority of those who commit more crimes also work regularly. An econometric estimate identifi es some of the factors explaining to what extent these criminals can be called “professional criminals”. It

  18. Crime and immigration: evidence from large immigrant waves

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Stephen Machin; Francesco Fasani

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between immigration and crime in a setting where large migration flows offer an opportunity to carefully appraise whether the populist view that immigrants cause crime is borne out by rigorous evidence. We consider possible crime effects from two large waves of immigration that recently occurred in the UK. The first of these was the late 1990s/early 2000s wave of asylum seekers, and the second the large inflow of workers from EU accession countries that to...

  19. Subject description form of crime prevention (morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерій Федорович Оболенцев

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Activities of the National Crime Prevention is a system object. Therefore, it should be improving on the basis of systems analysis techniques. The practice of systematic approach was realized in the works of  N. F. Kuznetsova, A. I. Dolgova, D. O. Li, V. M. Dryomin, O. Y. Manokha, O. G. Frolova. Crime models developed C. Y. Vitsin, Y. D. Bluvshteyn, N. V. Smetanina. We previously disclosed basic principles of system analysis system to prevent crime and its genetic and prognostic aspects, classification features, systemic factors latentyzatsiyi criminogenic factors - object protective activity, the amount of protected public relations. In order to investigate the systemic properties of the system of crime prevention in Ukraine we have defined objectives of the study - to its morphological analysis. Elements of a specialized system of crime prevention - a prosecution, Interior, Security Service, the Military Service of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine, bodies of state border protection agencies revenues and fees, enforcement and penal institutions, remand centers, public financial control, fisheries, the state forest protection. We determined depth analysis of your system functions at the level of law enforcement agencies. Intercom system to prevent crime is information links between elements of the system (transfer of information on crimes and criminals current activity. External relations systems provide processes of interaction with the environment. For crime prevention system external relations are relations of elements (law enforcement society. In the system of crime prevention implemented such coordination links: 1 Departmental coordination meeting of law enforcement agencies; 2 inter-agency coordination meeting of law enforcement agencies (Prosecutor General of Ukraine, the State Border Service of Ukraine and others. 3 mutual exchange of information; 4 order the prosecution, SBU on other agencies

  20. Understanding Vehicle Related Crime to Elaborate on Countermeasures Based on ADAS and V2X Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Müller, Maik; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous types of criminal activities, vehicle related crime contributes to personal injury as well as to economic losses. Over the last 10 years vehicle related crime continuously constitutes over 10% of all crime in Germany. However, vehicle related crime is not particularly a German

  1. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the ...

  2. On the Sanctioning of Economic Crime in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    present a theoretical framework that allows for a determination of optimal levels of sanctions and enforcement of crime. In the second part, I compare actual levels of sanctions in Denmark for various kinds of crime involving either economic or bodily harm, and discuss whether differences can be explained......This article - written for a symposium on comparative criminal law - discusses whether sanctions for economic crime have become excessive in the Danish context either in absolute terms or in comparison with sanctions for crimes involving physical harm. The text has three parts. In the first part, I...... by the theory. In the third part, I compare a recent increase in the level of the sanction for breach of competition law and for insider trading with the theoretically optimal levels and I tentatively suggest that the increase may well have been warranted from a deterrence perspective. However, I stress...

  3. Security and Crime Challenges in Academic Libraries in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Security and prevention of crimes in academic libraries is essential library duties .... From the earliest time to the present, librarians are bothered on how to ensure the protection ..... OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) computer system etc.

  4. Crime and Punishment in Igbo Customary Law: The Challenge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crime and Punishment in Igbo Customary Law: The Challenge of Nigerian ... has its own means of controlling the social behaviour of its citizens in order to reach ... of the customary practices are immersed gives an added fillip to this disregard.

  5. Making Central American cities safer: Community response to crime ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... ... similar conditions of social exclusion experience different levels of violence? ... answers to this question and what it means for reducing crime and violence. ... But how does the relationship play out in the domestic sphere?

  6. geo-spatial analysis of crime in kaduna metropolis, nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool can be used by relevant agencies such as ... enforcement, information about the location of a crime incident, suspect, or victim is ..... Development Report in Nigeria. Available at:.

  7. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  8. The contemporary foreclosure crisis and US crime rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnio, Ashley N; Baumer, Eric P; Wolff, Kevin T

    2012-11-01

    Foreclosure rates in America reached unprecedented levels during the last half of the 2000s, and many observers have speculated that elevated crime rates were one of the probable negative collateral consequences of this trend. We examine this issue with a comprehensive county-level analysis of the role of foreclosure in shaping contemporary crime patterns, highlighting the possibility of theoretically informed non-linear and conditional relationships. Multivariate regression models that account for the well-documented spatial autocorrelation of crime rates and the possible endogeneity of foreclosure reveal a positive association between rates of foreclosure and property crime that accelerates significantly once foreclosure rates attain historically high levels. Multiplicative models indicate that this pattern holds for burglary across diverse county conditions, but the observed non-linear effect of foreclosure on robbery rates is limited primarily to areas that also exhibit relatively high levels of resource deprivation and limited new housing construction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genderedperceptionof crime and safety: Insights from different socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    each role affect the crime rates of males and females and that females are less ..... higher in their communities certainly has implications for safety and feelings of ..... Heimer, K. & De Coster, S. (1999): The gendering of violent delinquency.

  10. Forensic Accounting and Financial Crimes: Adopting the Inference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    , payroll frauds, fraudulent billing systems, ... the effects of financial crimes in corporate organizations are very grave ..... internal controls, poor management oversight, among others; while ... evidence and facts in legal matters.

  11. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Caulfield, Laura S

    2017-08-01

    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  12. Testing the Perturbation Sensitivity of Abortion-Crime Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Brzeziński

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that the legalisation of abortion contributed significantly to the reduction of crime in the United States in 1990s is one of the most prominent ideas from the recent “economics-made-fun” movement sparked by the book Freakonomics. This paper expands on the existing literature about the computational stability of abortion-crime regressions by testing the sensitivity of coefficients’ estimates to small amounts of data perturbation. In contrast to previous studies, we use a new data set on crime correlates for each of the US states, the original model specifica-tion and estimation methodology, and an improved data perturbation algorithm. We find that the coefficients’ estimates in abortion-crime regressions are not computationally stable and, therefore, are unreliable.

  13. Crime and the “poverty penalty” in urban Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    difficult to draw, among the related social, psychological, and economic factors ... Children are forced to sleep outside which makes them more vulnerable ... through official police data, analysis of media reporting of crime, and a survey of more ...

  14. Transnational Crime and the U.S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, David

    1997-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union and other communist regimes in Eurasia contributed significantly to a dramatic increase in the national security threat, especially to European states, from transnational crime...

  15. Forensic challenges for handling incidents and crime in cyberspace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available their goals. Who will bring law and order to cyberspace? This presentation focuses on the technology challenges for dealing with digital forensics and the time factor in dealing with incidents and crime in cyberspace....

  16. Sexual murderers of children: developmental, precrime, crime, and postcrime factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Stone, Maryann R; Proulx, Jean; Michaud, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    The amount of empirical research on men who commit sexual murders is scarce, and no distinction has been made between those who have victimized adults and those who have victimized children. Therefore, to better understand specifically sexual murderers of children (n = 11), comparisons were performed with a group of sexual murderers of adult women (n = 66) on developmental, precrime, crime, and postcrime factors. It appears that sexual murderers of children are more often victims of sexual abuse during childhood and present more often deviant sexual fantasies as compared to sexual murderers of women. The results show also that sexual murderers of children more often use pornography prior to crime, have contact with the victim prior to crime, and commit a crime more often characterized by premeditation, strangulation, the hiding of the body, and its dismemberment than the sexual murderers of women.

  17. Foreign Nationals as Offenders and Victims in Malaysian Crime News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misman Norealyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign nationals in Malaysia come from all corners of the world. They are here as migrant labour, highly skilled and professional migrants (expatriates, illegal migrants, refugees, asylum-seekers (Burmese asylum seekers with UNHCR card, forced migrants (human trafficking victims, students, and tourists. The influx of foreign nationals residing in Malaysia coincides with greater number of crime news featuring foreign nationals. This study explores the social construction of foreign nationals as the ‘other’ in the local crime news published by Malaysian newspapers. 94 news headlines and lead sentences of local crime news involving foreign nationals were identified and analysed for this study. Findings suggest that Malaysian newspapers magnify foreign nationals’ migration status in each crime news.

  18. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  19. The commerce crime and ways of conducting a financial security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Milica D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It's well-known that the developing countries such as Republic of Serbia lose many funds through the financial crime. The corruption and bribe, industrial frauds, money laundering, organized crime, insider's threats and much more are some of the examples of well-planned and conducted crimes within the commerce and financial sector. What drags our attention here are socio-economical consequences of those activities. In this paper, we would talk a bit more about how to prevent and effectively resolve such cases. It's quite clear that it's not all about the rising a competitiveness of domestic economy, but rather it's about the saving the already existing resources. Finally, this paper would bring a brief overview of typical commerce crimes as well as the measures of assuring the financial sector.

  20. Femicide. Violent deaths of women as gender-specific crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Inés Munevar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss femicide as a gender-specific crime. It affords a feminist analysis on the conceptual dimensions of the crime; it includes the main arguments explored in Latin America, examines different aspects defended by feminists and women movement activists, discusses some reactions to the crime and considers the general structure of this crime in six countries: Costa Rica (special law, 2007, Guatemala (special law, 2008, Mexico (general law, 2007, El Salvador (special and integral law, 2010, Colombia and Chile (reforms to criminal laws, 2008 and 2010. The criminal issue has provoked numerous debates in the judicial and legislatives bodies and it has opened new ways to continue the critical research of this kind of gender violence against women’s bodies and women’s right to live their lives without violence.

  1. THE NECESSITY AND IMPORTANCE OF PREVENTING CRIME IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MITRA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime and criminality are undisputed socio-legal phenomena, existing in human society since ancient times. Each of us has a social behavior, according to or inconsistent with the general value system imposed by the dominant social group leader. No matter how optimistic we are, no matter how inventive and visionary we become, we must be realistic and objective and realize that the danger of crime will never go away, and that it is our duty to identify the best measures on reducing crime. We must not think that being visionary and shaping a society without crime, a society where the rule of law and the respect of social values are a way of life for us all, is a utopia. A safe society, a higher life quality, should be our target and we should make everything in order to achieve it.

  2. Common misperceptions: the press and Victorian views of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    After a string of successes in the early nineteenth century, the Victorian movement to reform criminal punishment began to falter. Despite evidence to the contrary, the populace grew convinced that violent crime was on the rise. A frequency analysis of The Times and The Manchester Guardian suggests that this misperception was due to a drastic increase in crime coverage by the periodicals of the day.

  3. The Prevalence of Organized Retail Crime in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Dabil

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, clea...

  4. The Significance of Mandatory Data Breach Warnings to Identity Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Holm; Geraldine Mackenzie

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between data breaches and identity crime has been scarcely explored in current literature. However, there is an important relationship between the misuse of personal identification information and identity crime as the former is in many respects the catalyst for the latter. Data breaches are one of the ways in which this personal identification information is obtained by identity criminals, and thereby any response to data breaches is likely to impact the incidence of identit...

  5. CIVIL ACTION SETTLEMENT IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS THE DANGER RELATED CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Viorel IUGAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Article 1357 para. (1 Civil Code stipulates that “one that causes harm to another by an unlawful act committed with guilt is obliged to repair it”. In this study, we propose to analyze whether and to what extent, a danger related crime can generate a prejudice, and if for committing such a crime, civil action may be exercised in criminal proceedings.

  6. [Personality traits of perpetrators of various types of crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczek, Adrianna; Gancarczyk, Urszula; Prochownik, Paweł; Sobień, Bartosz; Podolec, Piotr; Komar, Monika

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted in Nowy Wiśnicz, with prisoners sentenced for: murders, sex crimes, theft and robbery, maintenance, bullying. A Polish adaptation of PAI test, made by the author of the study, was used. The study results and its statistical analysis showed characteristic personality features of particular criminal groups can be used in rehabilitation of disturbed people, addicts, and become the basis for preparing actions reducing frequency of committing crimes.

  7. An android application for crime analysis in San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchikara, Likhita

    Over the past few years, smartphone adoption has increased worldwide. In this era of smartphones, one of the easiest ways to make this information available to many users is through smartphone applications. Smartphone applications can provide requested information in a readable and user friendly format. Information related to data such as real estate, property, post offices, crime locations and many others can be very useful. Such information helps city planners, residents, students and commuters to identify and communicate trends and patterns about places. ESRI`s ARCGIS provides various services and tools which help visualize real-world features, discover patterns, obtain information, and communicate that information to others. When these services work in conjunction with GPS based location services in smartphones, they create new avenues for applications. This thesis implements an Android smartphone application with features to analyze location based crime data. The user of this application can view crime data in a region and filter different crime types. The application allows the user to query and analyze crimes that have occurred near his location or at a location of interest. The application includes features to measure distance between crime spots and also measure area on the map. The user can also switch the base-map from street map to NatGeo map. Powered with this information, renters and home buyers can ensure that their new home is in a safe location. Real estate agents can buy or sell property in safer locations. Commuters can find routes which avoid crime spots. Tourists can find accommodation in safer places. Students can be aware of the high crime rate areas around the school campus. This application uses ArcGIS feature service by ESRI to render all data on the map.

  8. Counterfeiting as corporate externality: intellectual property crime and global insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Corporate negative externalities occur when corporations place some of the costs of their profit-seeking activity onto society. This paper suggests that the current global problem of intellectual property crime is such an externality, and that it has not been recognised as such because corporations present product counterfeiting and piracy as crimes which reduce their revenue, rather than as predictable side effects of corporate production and merchandising, including bran...

  9. Sexual crime in India: Is it influenced by pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Bada Math; Biju Viswanath; Ami Sebastian Maroky; Naveen C Kumar; Anish V Cherian; Maria Christine Nirmala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studies on whether pornography poses a greater risk for sexually aggressive behavior have revealed conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of pornography and the subsequent increase in sexual violence, thus testing the hypothesis that increase in consumption of pornography is related to increased sexual crime, in the Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: The current study explored the association between reported incidence of crime o...

  10. GEOINFORMATION ANALYSIS OF CRIME IN THE STAVROPOL REGION

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Mahmudov; O. A. Gorban

    2015-01-01

    In nowadays community we can clearly see the growth of criminality. Recent data on occured crimes helps to effectively locate a criminal, and inform people of a potential threat. Moreover, this information can be used to allocate problem territories and puposes of criminality. Taking into account that 80% of information on crimes have its' geographical component, the process of defining location will take important part in work of law enforcement agencies. The use of Geo-Informational Systems...

  11. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighbor...

  12. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport...

  13. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  14. Failure to report a crime and its problems in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besiana Muka (Petanaja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime being a social and economic phenomenon constitutes a serious threat to democratic values, not just one country or region, but beyond. Its prevention and detection constitutes the most important challenge dealing with the criminal investigation organs, where the underlying investigative process at any time should remain the utmost respect for human rights, particularly care to crime victims. The process of crime prevention should be more efficient, first there must be a spirit of close cooperation between police officers, prosecution authorities and community in order to guarantee the rule of security for citizens. This is due to the fact that all citizens are concerned about the safety of their family and the environment where they live. Through their individual skills they react to the actions and behaviors that affect the interests, values and legal norms prescribed (Nasufi & Yzeiri, 2004, 162. Besides civic reaction, criminal legislation provides for the rights and duties to citizens to denounce criminal acts. Under the criminal code, every citizen is obliged to speak of a crime that is being committed or has been committed, the bodies of prosecution, court, law enforcement bodies, government or administration, otherwise the risk is connected with a sanction of a fine or imprisonment up to three years. 1 To better understand the problems of non testifying crime and discrepancy it is important to analyze the criminal Offense of non testifying crime and Characteristics of the Offense under the Albanian criminal code.

  15. Criminalistic characteristics and detection of crimes related to prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvalova D.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminalistic characteristic of crimes related to prostitution is given (Articles 240, 241 of the RF Criminal Code. Sex industry is represented by three groups of subjects: organizers, perpetrators, services consumers. However, not all these individuals are criminally liable for their actions. Bringing a criminal case is preceded by detection of elements of crime, which is often carried out by a test purchase. Underworld evolution dictates the need for active use of other crime detection actions. The role of rapid and well-coordinated work of the inquiry body, its interaction with the preliminary investigation agency at the stage of detection of these crimes is emphasized. The attributes of these crimes are: advertisements on the recruitment of women to work in the service (leisure sector and personal vehicles drivers; advertisements on the services of an intimate nature; business cards and leaflets advertising the services of an intimate nature (directly or covertly; Internet advertisements offering the services of an intimate nature; groups of girls, constantly residing in baths and saunas, headed by young men or their presence at the same locations along the main streets or busy highways; information received on the law enforcement bodies hotlines; statements and complaints of the people against girls of easy virtue living in adjacent apartments. The issue of the moment of test purchase completion (transfer of money is considered. The problem of proving guilt in cases of reporting involvement in prostitution to the police is analyzed. Information verification is proposed to be implemented by experiment in crime detection.

  16. Feigning Amnesia Moderately Impairs Memory for a Mock Crime Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mangiulli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that feigning amnesia for a crime impairs actual memory for the target event. Lack of rehearsal has been proposed as an explanation for this memory-undermining effect of feigning. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend previous research adopting a mock crime video instead of a narrative story. We showed participants a video of a violent crime. Next, they were requested to imagine that they had committed this offense and to either feign amnesia or confess the crime. A third condition was included: Participants in the delayed test-only control condition did not receive any instruction. On subsequent recall tests, participants in all three conditions were instructed to report as much information as possible about the offense. On the free recall test, feigning amnesia impaired memory for the video clip, but participants who were asked to feign crime-related amnesia outperformed controls. However, no differences between simulators and confessors were found on both correct cued recollection or on distortion and commission rates. We also explored whether inner speech might modulate memory for the crime. Inner speech traits were not found to be related to the simulating amnesia effect. Theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.

  17. Sexual Crime in India: Is it Influenced by Pornography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Viswanath, Biju; Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Kumar, Naveen C.; Cherian, Anish V.; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studies on whether pornography poses a greater risk for sexually aggressive behavior have revealed conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of pornography and the subsequent increase in sexual violence, thus testing the hypothesis that increase in consumption of pornography is related to increased sexual crime, in the Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: The current study explored the association between reported incidence of crime over a period of four decades - 1971-2008 (time periods being divided into: Pre-liberalization and post-liberation - India adopted liberalization policy in 1992) and availability of pornography over internet with a particular focus on crime against women (such as rape, sexual harassment, and crime against women). Results: Comparison of pre-liberalization and post-liberalization growth of rape rates was not significant. Though there were statistically significant positive correlations between the number of internet users and sexual crime rates, the association was non-significant after controlling for the effects of population growth using regression analysis. Conclusion: Results presented needs to be interpreted with extreme care and caution. Nevertheless, the results from this study suggest that easy access to pornography did not have a significant impact on rape rates and crime rate against women. PMID:24860215

  18. Sexual Crime in India: Is it Influenced by Pornography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Viswanath, Biju; Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Kumar, Naveen C; Cherian, Anish V; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2014-04-01

    Studies on whether pornography poses a greater risk for sexually aggressive behavior have revealed conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of pornography and the subsequent increase in sexual violence, thus testing the hypothesis that increase in consumption of pornography is related to increased sexual crime, in the Indian scenario. The current study explored the association between reported incidence of crime over a period of four decades - 1971-2008 (time periods being divided into: Pre-liberalization and post-liberation - India adopted liberalization policy in 1992) and availability of pornography over internet with a particular focus on crime against women (such as rape, sexual harassment, and crime against women). Comparison of pre-liberalization and post-liberalization growth of rape rates was not significant. Though there were statistically significant positive correlations between the number of internet users and sexual crime rates, the association was non-significant after controlling for the effects of population growth using regression analysis. Results presented needs to be interpreted with extreme care and caution. Nevertheless, the results from this study suggest that easy access to pornography did not have a significant impact on rape rates and crime rate against women.

  19. Feigning Amnesia Moderately Impairs Memory for a Mock Crime Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiulli, Ivan; van Oorsouw, Kim; Curci, Antonietta; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies showed that feigning amnesia for a crime impairs actual memory for the target event. Lack of rehearsal has been proposed as an explanation for this memory-undermining effect of feigning. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend previous research adopting a mock crime video instead of a narrative story. We showed participants a video of a violent crime. Next, they were requested to imagine that they had committed this offense and to either feign amnesia or confess the crime. A third condition was included: Participants in the delayed test-only control condition did not receive any instruction. On subsequent recall tests, participants in all three conditions were instructed to report as much information as possible about the offense. On the free recall test, feigning amnesia impaired memory for the video clip, but participants who were asked to feign crime-related amnesia outperformed controls. However, no differences between simulators and confessors were found on both correct cued recollection or on distortion and commission rates. We also explored whether inner speech might modulate memory for the crime. Inner speech traits were not found to be related to the simulating amnesia effect. Theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.

  20. Legal implications of genetics and crime research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two controversial topics dominate discussions of the legal implications of genetics and crime research; (1) the viability and politics of such research, which has sparked fervent debate in the USA; and (2) the current status of new or atypical criminal law defences, which would include a genetic-defect defence to criminal behaviour. This chapter begins by examining the scientifically discredited XYY chromosome syndrome defence, the major genetic-defect defence that defendants have attempted, albeit unsuccessfully. It then focuses on attorneys' efforts to test for evidence of genetic abnormality in the recent and highly publicized case involving convicted murderer Stephen Mobley, whose family history reveals four generations of violent, aggressive and behaviourally disordered men and women. Mobley is currently appealing his death sentence before the Georgia Supreme Court on the basis that the trial court denied his request both to have genetic testing performed and to have such testing allowed as evidence into court. This chapter concludes by emphasizing that the question is not whether genetic evidence will ever be admitted into court, but when and under what kinds of circumstances. No doubt, genetic evidence, and comparable kinds of biological evidence, will have a major impact on juries when such evidence is more fully accepted by the legal and scientific communities.

  1. Y chromosome STR typing in crime casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties the field of forensic Y chromosome analysis has been successfully developed to become commonplace in laboratories working in crime casework all over the world. The ability to identify male-specific DNA renders highly variable Y-chromosomal polymorphisms, the STR sequences, an invaluable addition to the standard panel of autosomal loci used in forensic genetics. The male-specificity makes the Y chromosome especially useful in cases of male/female cell admixture, namely in sexual assault cases. On the other hand, the haploidy and patrilineal inheritance complicates the interpretation of a Y-STR match, because male relatives share for several generations an identical Y-STR profile. Since paternal relatives tend to live in the geographic and cultural territory of their ancestors, the Y chromosome analysis has a potential to make inferences on the population of origin of a given DNA profile. This review addresses the fields of application of Y chromosome haplotyping, the interpretation of results, databasing efforts and population genetics aspects.

  2. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  3. Benefits of mitigated ambient air quality due to transportation control on childhood asthma hospitalization during the 2002 summer Asian games in Busan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Tae; Son, Ji-Young; Cho, Yong-Sung

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study is to see whether there were any health benefits of mitigated air pollution concentration due to reduced traffic flow during a citywide intervention for the 2002 Summer Asian Games. Relative risks of hospitalization for childhood asthma during the post-Asian Game period compared with the baseline period were estimated using a time-series analysis of the generalized additive Poisson model. Fourteen consecutive days of traffic volume control in Busan during the Games reduced all regulated air pollutant levels by 1-25%. The estimated relative risk of hospitalization during the post-Games period over the baseline period was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49, 1.11). We observed that this reduced air pollution was unique in 2002 when the traffic volume reduction program was applied during the Games period. This empirical data provides epidemiologic evidence of the health benefits resulting from environmental interventions to reduce ambient air pollution.

  4. Impact of a Participatory Cyber Crime Prevention Programme on Secondary School Students' Attainment in Crime Prevention Concepts in Civic Education and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosun, Peter Adewale; Ige, Olugbenga Adedayo; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is considered by many to be a cyber crime hot spot, and is often ranked among the world's top cyber crime committing countries (e.g. advanced fee fraud is also known as Nigerian scams and 419 scams--419 is a section under the Nigerian Criminal Code Act that prohibits obtaining goods by false pretences). We designed a cyber crime prevention…

  5. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Tulsa Universal Pre-K Program. Upjohn Institute Working Paper 16-261

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…

  6. The clinical benefit of imaging striatal dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT SPET in differentiating patients with presynaptic parkinsonism from those with other forms of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Speelman, J.DE.; Horstink, M. W.I.M.; Wolters, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    [ 123 I]FP-CIT (N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane) has been developed successfully as a radioligand for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of dopamine transporters, which are situated in the membrane of dopaminergic neurons. Imaging of these transporters has shown promise as a clinical tool to detect degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. Several ''presynaptic parkinsonian'' syndromes, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy, are characterised by degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET imaging studies have shown the ability to detect loss of striatal dopamine transporters in such syndromes. However, in clinical practice it is sometimes difficult, but important, to discriminate patients with ''presynaptic parkinsonism'' from those with other forms of parkinsonism not characterised by loss of presynaptic dopaminergic cells (e.g. psychogenic parkinsonism or drug-induced postsynaptic parkinsonism). In these inconclusive cases, it may be of value to confirm or exclude the existence of degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells by using imaging techniques such as [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET. Using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET, we have imaged the striatal dopamine transporters in a group of patients with inconclusive forms of parkinsonism, and, moreover, have been able to perform clinical follow-up of these patients 2-4 years after imaging. In 33 inconclusive cases, ratios of specific to non-specific binding were calculated for the caudate nucleus and putamen following [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET imaging and compared with ratios obtained in healthy controls. In nine of the patients, degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway was found scintigraphically and in all these cases, presynaptic parkinsonism was confirmed by clinical follow-up. In the other 24 subjects no degeneration was found scintigraphically. Forms of parkinsonism other than the presynaptic were confirmed at follow-up in 19 cases

  7. Benefits of Vocational Education and Training in Europe for People, Organisations and Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giovanni; Bainbridge, Steve; Dunkel, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    People, organisations and governments invest in vocational education and training (VET) because of its positive outcomes, such as higher wages, improved productivity and economic growth. But VET also brings non-economic benefits, such as lower absenteeism and less crime. Research on VET's benefits has focused on specific relationships, such its…

  8. Book Review: The dotCrime Manifesto: How to Stop Internet Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hallam-Baker, P. (2008. The dotCrime Manifesto: How to Stop Internet Crime. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. 415 + xxix pages, ISBN: 0-321-50358-9, US$29.99.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduAt the beginning of each fall semester, an e-mail routinely circulates around university campuses recounting those technologies that this year's incoming class grew up with and, therefore, for which they have no memory of a time before those technologies existed -- such as a ubiquitously available Internet, GPS satellite technology, CallerID, and karaoke. Most of today's freshmen (in fact, most of today's user community mistake their familiarity with using a technology as actually understanding how that technology works; not only do most users not really understand the workings, they also don't know the history, background, and evolution of these technologies. Nevertheless, many of our incoming students consider themselves experts.(see PDF for full review

  9. Perceptions of Police Legitimacy and Citizen Decisions to Report Hate Crime Incidents in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Wiedlitzka

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the importance of perceptions of police legitimacy in the decision to report hate crime incidents in Australia. It addresses an identified gap in the literature by analysing the 2011-2012 National Security and Preparedness Survey (NSPS results to not only explore differences between hate crime and non-hate crime reporting but also how individual characteristics and perceptions of legitimacy influence decisions about reporting crime to police. Using the NSPS survey data, we created three Generalised Linear Latent and Mixed Models (Gllamm, which explore the influence of individual characteristics and potential barriers on the decision to report crime/hate crime incidents to police. Our results suggest that hate crimes are less likely to be reported to police in comparison to non-hate crime incidents, and that more positive perceptions of police legitimacy and police cooperation are associated with the victim’s decision to report hate crime victimisation.

  10. A double-edged sword: Benefits and pitfalls of heterogeneous punishment in evolutionary inspection games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2015-06-01

    As a simple model for criminal behavior, the traditional two-strategy inspection game yields counterintuitive results that fail to describe empirical data. The latter shows that crime is often recurrent, and that crime rates do not respond linearly to mitigation attempts. A more apt model entails ordinary people who neither commit nor sanction crime as the third strategy besides the criminals and punishers. Since ordinary people free-ride on the sanctioning efforts of punishers, they may introduce cyclic dominance that enables the coexistence of all three competing strategies. In this setup ordinary individuals become the biggest impediment to crime abatement. We therefore also consider heterogeneous punisher strategies, which seek to reduce their investment into fighting crime in order to attain a more competitive payoff. We show that this diversity of punishment leads to an explosion of complexity in the system, where the benefits and pitfalls of criminal behavior are revealed in the most unexpected ways. Due to the raise and fall of different alliances no less than six consecutive phase transitions occur in dependence on solely the temptation to succumb to criminal behavior, leading the population from ordinary people-dominated across punisher-dominated to crime-dominated phases, yet always failing to abolish crime completely.

  11. A double-edged sword: Benefits and pitfalls of heterogeneous punishment in evolutionary inspection games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2015-06-05

    As a simple model for criminal behavior, the traditional two-strategy inspection game yields counterintuitive results that fail to describe empirical data. The latter shows that crime is often recurrent, and that crime rates do not respond linearly to mitigation attempts. A more apt model entails ordinary people who neither commit nor sanction crime as the third strategy besides the criminals and punishers. Since ordinary people free-ride on the sanctioning efforts of punishers, they may introduce cyclic dominance that enables the coexistence of all three competing strategies. In this setup ordinary individuals become the biggest impediment to crime abatement. We therefore also consider heterogeneous punisher strategies, which seek to reduce their investment into fighting crime in order to attain a more competitive payoff. We show that this diversity of punishment leads to an explosion of complexity in the system, where the benefits and pitfalls of criminal behavior are revealed in the most unexpected ways. Due to the raise and fall of different alliances no less than six consecutive phase transitions occur in dependence on solely the temptation to succumb to criminal behavior, leading the population from ordinary people-dominated across punisher-dominated to crime-dominated phases, yet always failing to abolish crime completely.

  12. Psychosocial and environmental correlates of active and passive transport behaviors in college educated and non-college educated working young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Dorien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; De Cocker, Katrien; de Geus, Bas; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine potential differences in walking, cycling, public transport and passive transport (car/moped/motorcycle) to work and to other destinations between college and non-college educated working young adults. Secondly, we aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with the four transport modes and whether these associations differ between college and non-college educated working young adults. In this cross-sectional study, 224 working young adults completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables (8 items), psychosocial variables (6 items), environmental variables (10 items) and transport mode (4 types) and duration to work/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed in R. A trend (pyoung adults participated in cycling and public transport. However, another trend indicated that cycle time and public transport trips were longer and passive transport trips were shorter in non-college compared to college educated working young adults. In all working young adults, high self-efficacy towards active transport, and high perceived benefits and low perceived barriers towards active and public transport were related to more active and public transport. High social support/norm/modeling towards active, public and passive transport was related to more active, public and passive transport. High neighborhood walkability was related to more walking and less passive transport. Only in non-college educated working young adults, feeling safe from traffic and crime in their neighborhood was related to more active and public transport and less passive transport. Educational levels should be taken into account when promoting healthy transport behaviors in working young adults. Among non-college educated working young adults, focus should be on increasing active and public transport participation and on increasing neighborhood safety to increase active and public

  13. Crime-Reporting Practices Among Market Women in Oyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime surveys of businesses have revealed that while crimes in which men were victims tend to be reported, those in which women were victims are likely to go unreported to the police. Understanding the reasons behind male reporting and female non-reporting is useful not only for collection of crime statistics but also for improving crime control competences of law enforcement agencies. This article examines the impact of crime involving market women on their crime-reporting practices in Oyo town, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative and qualitative approaches. Copies of a questionnaire were administered to collect quantitative data from randomly selected 210 market women at Akesan, Sabo, and Mosadoba markets in Oyo town. Five focus group discussions, in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted to complement quantitative data. Both data were analyzed. The study found that cultural considerations stand between crime events that hurt the economic interests of women and their readiness to report to the police. Due to the very low confidence that market women have in the ability and willingness of the police to apprehend criminals, they prefer to internalize their losses, take their cases to traditional rulers who use “oro cult” to protect them against criminals, or approach available faith-based options such as churches and mosques. The article concludes that women have economy-enriching roles to play in the context of sustainable security. It therefore suggests that the government should address public safety to enable market women make their modest contribution to Nigeria’s economic development.

  14. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  16. A spatial approach to combatting wildlife crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sally C.; Stevens, Michael C.A.; Romañach, Stephanie; Lindsey, Peter A.; LeComber, Steven C.

    2018-01-01

    Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Here, we show how geographic profiling – a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology – can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime, using data from an eight-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe that in total includes more than 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals. Using a subset of these data for which the illegal hunters’ identities are known, we show that the model can successfully identify the illegal hunters’ home villages using the spatial locations of hunting incidences (for example, snares) as input, and show how this can be improved by manipulating the probability surface inside the Conservancy to reflect the fact that – although the illegal hunters mostly live outside the Conservancy, the majority of hunting occurs inside (in criminology, ‘commuter crime’). The results of this analysis – combined with rigorous simulations – show for the first time how geographic profiling can be combined with GIS data and applied to situations with more complex spatial patterns – for example, where landscape heterogeneity means that some parts of the study area are unsuitable (e.g. aquatic areas for terrestrial animals, or vice versa), or where landscape permeability differs (for example, forest bats tending not to fly over open areas). More broadly, these results show how geographic profiling can be used to target anti-poaching interventions more effectively and more efficiently, with important implications for the development of management strategies and conservation plans in a range of conservation scenarios.

  17. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  18. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

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    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  19. Benefits estimation framework for automated vehicle operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Automated vehicles have the potential to bring about transformative safety, mobility, energy, and environmental benefits to the surface transportation : system. They are also being introduced into a complex transportation system, where second-order i...

  20. Compensatory function of crime fiction texts in mass culture

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    G. O. Krapivnyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical and anthropological analysis allowed to confirm that the compensatory function is one of the basic functions of formulaic crime fiction texts in mass culture. It closely interacts and has no clear borderlines with other anthropological functions of the crime fiction genre. Structuring and systematizing human consciousness, entertaining and educating the recipient, the compensatory function positively influences the addresser, the addressee and the modern society. In the mass culture the function under consideration has a number of aspects, in particular, therapeutic, entertaining, educating etc. It transforms into a mechanism of regulating mental state when life processes are becoming more complicated and human psyche needs regular training and relaxation (including the creation of virtual situations in the crime fiction world, associated with crime, violence, aggression and their effects for all the related parties. However, the compensatory function of crime fiction texts also follows classical traditions, oriented on rationalism and enlightenment, as well as encourages regulation of moral and legal state system in the times of Modernity and Postmodernity, that is promotes moral and legal culture in the society.

  1. Exploring and analyzing Internet crimes and their behaviours

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    Bhavna Arora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The world today is experiencing an exponential growth in cyberspace. Nevertheless, India too has witnessed a significant ascend in Internet activities and it is quite assertive to say that such phenomenal growth in access to information on one hand leads to empowered individuals and organization and on the other hand also poses new challenges to government and citizens. To make the cyber world safe is the need of the hour. Putting up deterrent measures against cybercrime is essential to national cyber security in protecting critical infrastructure of the nation as well as for individuals. In this regard, the prime objective of the government is to prevent cyber attacks and to protect the country's critical infrastructure. It also focuses on reducing vulnerability to cyber attacks so as to reduce and minimize damage and recovery time. To prevent the cyber crimes, individuals and governments need to clearly understand the crime schemes in the cyberspace and the contemporary and continuing Internet trends and behaviours of these criminals. This paper gives a brief outline of categories of cybercrimes. These crimes are categorized as crimes against individuals, property, organizations and governments. Various Internet crime scheme are evaluated and behaviour of criminals to perform the cybercrimes has been analyzed. A critical evaluation of report of cybercrime complaints under IT Act 2000 has been presented.

  2. MONEY LAUNDERING OR LAUNDERING OF THE PROCEEDS OF CRIME?

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    ANA ALINA DUMITRACHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyses which of the phrases money laundering or laundering the proceeds of crime is more appropriate to describe the crime provided by art. 23 of Law no. 656/2002 on prevention and sanctioning money laundering, as well as for setting up some measures for prevention and combating terrorism financing. In this respect, the article includes a survey of the important international documents in this matters ratified by Romania - United Nations Vienna Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (the Vienna Convention, the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds of Crime, The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime,Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism. To remove any ambiguities arising from the approach of the money laundering concept and to reach a conclusion, there are also presented the controversial views regarding the use of the expression money laundering in both Title and content of Law, views expressed in specialized literature.

  3. Crime and Violence among MDMA Users in the United States

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    Michael G. Vaughn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether MDMA use is associated with increased crime and violence has not been adequately explored especially in nationally representative samples. This study used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC to assess the association between MDMA use and violent and non-violent antisocial behavior while controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifetime psychiatric, alcohol and drug use disorders, and family history of antisocial behavior. MDMA users, both male and female, were involved in a number of crimes in acts of violence including drunk driving, shoplifting, theft, intimate partner violence, and fighting. Notably, female MDMA users were more antisocial than male non-MDMA users. Although adjusting the results for numerous confounds attenuated the relationships, MDMA users were still at significantly greater odds of engaging in violent and nonviolent crime than non-MDMA users. Although MDMA has been considered a facilitator of empathy and closeness, the current study suggests a dark side as MDMA is associated with a broad array of crimes and transgressions. Additional tests of the MDMA-crime link are needed to properly inform policy.

  4. Cyber-Dependent Crime Victimization: The Same Risk for Everyone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Dreißigacker, Arne; von Skarczinski, Bennet; Wollinger, Gina Rosa

    2018-02-01

    The Internet has simplified daily life activities. However, besides its comfortability, the Internet also presents the risk of victimization by several kinds of crimes. The present article addresses the question of which factors influence cyber-dependent crime and how they vary between three kinds of cyber-dependent offences: malware infection, ransomware infection, and misuse of personal data. According to the Routine Activity Approach, it is assumed that crime is determined by a motivated offender, the behavior of the Internet user, and the existence of prevention factors. Our analyses were based on a random sample of 26,665 Internet users in two federal states in Germany, aged 16 years and older; 16.6 percent of the respondents had experienced at least one form of cyber-dependent victimization during the year 2014. The results indicate that individual and household factors, as well as online and prevention behavior, influence the risk of cyber-dependent victimization. Furthermore, the effects differ between the three types of offences. In conclusion, the risk of being victimized by cyber-dependent crime is not the same for anyone, but depends on multivariate factors according to the idea of Routine Activity Approach. However, in view of the fact that crime-related factors also matter, studying different cybercrime offences separately seems to be an appropriate research approach.

  5. Age at immigration and crime in Stockholm using sibling comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L

    2015-09-01

    Past Swedish research has shown that immigrants arriving in the receiving country at an older age are less likely to commit crime than immigrants arriving at a younger age. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the family and neighborhood may be important factors affecting how age at immigration and crime are related to one another. This study used population-based register data on foreign-background males from Stockholm to test the effect of age at immigration on crime. Potential confounding from the family and neighborhood was addressed using variables and modeling strategies. Initial results, using variables to control for confounding, showed that people who immigrated around age 4 were the most likely to be suspected of a crime. When controlling for unmeasured family characteristics, it seemed that a later age at immigration was tied to a lower likelihood of crime, which does not corroborate past research findings. The effect of age at immigration, however, was not statistically significant. The results imply that future research on entire families may be a worthwhile endeavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbec, Enrique; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2016-03-02

    There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options. Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court.

  7. Crimes against the elderly in Italy, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Bevilacqua, Greta; Zen, Margherita; Montisci, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Crimes against the elderly have physical, psychological, and economic consequences. Approaches for mitigating them must be based on comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon. This study analyses crimes against the elderly in Italy during the period 2007-2014 from an epidemiological viewpoint. Data on violent and non-violent crimes derived from the Italian Institute of Statistics were analysed in relation to trends, gender and age by linear regression, T-test, and calculation of the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Results show that the elderly are at higher risk of being victimized in two types of crime, violent (residential robbery) and non-violent (pick-pocketing and purse-snatching) compared with other age groups during the period considered. A statistically significant increase in residential robbery and pick-pocketing was also observed. The rate of homicide against the elderly was stable during the study period, in contrast with reduced rates in other age groups. These results may be explained by risk factors increasing the profiles of elderly individuals as potential victims, such as frailty, cognitive impairment, and social isolation. Further studies analysing the characteristics of victims are required. Based on the results presented here, appropriate preventive strategies should be planned to reduce crimes against the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. European standards in the field of combating cyber crime

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    Matijašević-Obradović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber crime is a phenomenon which is often written and spoken about, ever since its inception, in theory, judicial and legislative practice of developed countries and international institutions. It had rapidly developed in the last decade of the 20th century, and in the 21st century its evolution has become even more evident. Countries have responded by introducing new measures in their criminal legislation, in an effort to reconcile traditional criminal law with the demands for perception, investigation and demonstration of new criminal acts. This paper presents and analyzes the most significant European standards adopted in order to create more effective national legislation in the field of combating cyber crime. Standards given in the Convention of the Council of Europe but also the European Union Directives have to a large extent been a guide for national legislations in order to regulate the new situations regarding the misuse of information and communication technologies in the most adequate manner. Among other things, this paper pays special attention to the most important Convention in the field of combating cyber crime, which is the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime, whose objectives include: harmonization of national legislations with regard to substantive provisions in the field of cyber crime, introduction of adequate instruments in national legislations with regard to process provisions in order to create the necessary basis for investigation and prosecution of offenders in this field and establishment of quick and efficient institutions and procedures for international cooperation.

  9. Individual psychological features of law enforcement officers convicted of crimes

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    Lyutykh V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is caused by a significant number of crimes committed by law enforcement officers and the necessity of active prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes. The hypothesis was suggested that the main difference of individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes from individual psychological characteristics of law-abiding law enforcement officers is the difference between the principal values of the person both the main motives of activity adopted by an individual and the structure and the hierarchy of these values. This article describes the progress and results of empirical research conducted on the materials of psychodiagnostic examination of: employees who have been convicted of intentional crimes; law-abiding employees; people entering an internal affairs agency. Test subjects - men 18-46 years old, 90 people. Recommendations for practical psychologist of internal affairs agencies on detection of individual psychological personality features typical for law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes are formulated based on the obtained results.

  10. CRIMES AGAINST OFFICIAL DUTY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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    Darko Majhosev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal provisions of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia relating to crimes against official duty. Crimes against official duty represent a group of criminal offenses that occupy a special place in criminal law. This kind of crimes is also called civil servants crimes, that is, they are defined as a violation of duty made by an official in performing his/her official duty. In this paper we will analyze all articles of the Criminal Code that regulate the group of criminal offenses against official duty. Most frequent cases of misuse of official duty are cases of misuse of official position and authorization, unprincipled operation within the service, defraud in the service, receiving a bribe, giving a bribe, unlawful mediation, disclosing an official secret, falsifying an official document and other. The paper will define the terms official and responsible person. In the context of the paper we will show the research referring to the number of registered and accused of crimes against official duty in the Republic of Macedonia in the period from 2004 to 2013.

  11. Una introduzione ai software per il crime mapping / Observations préliminaires sur les logiciels du mappage du crime / Some introductory notes on crime mapping software

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    Ummarino Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RiassuntoIl Crime Mapping più che una disciplina a se stante non è altro che l’applicazione di tecniche di analisi statistico-geografica allo studio dei reati. Grazie all’utilizzo dei software GIS (Geographic Information System, all’esponenziale sviluppo dell’informatica e alla facile accessibilità al web, la produzione di mappe di qualità è ormai alla portata di un qualunque utente medio. La possibilità di applicare tali tecniche di analisi è offerta in modo efficace da software GIS commerciali e da software GIS free e open source. Chi si vuole avvicinare a questa disciplina, sia che intenda procedere con applicazioni di tipo tattico (pianificazione dei controlli, attività di prevenzione, investigazioni giudiziarie, etc. sia che intenda svolgere degli studi di tipo sociologico (criminalità, devianza, illegalità diffusa, percezione della sicurezza, etc., deve comunque acquisire una solida preparazione di base nell’utilizzo di programmi GIS prima di inferire generalizzazioni dai risultati utilizzando chiavi di lettura provenienti dalle scienze sociali. Il Crime Mapping può trovare una valida applicazione nell’ambito di una generale attività di polizia, soprattutto a livello locale, per la gestione delle risorse destinate alla sicurezza, per la programmazione dei servizi di polizia e soprattutto quale supporto di tipo tattico nell’ambito di attività mirate alla repressione e alla prevenzione di specifici atti criminosi e illeciti. Le mappage du crime n’est pas simplement une discipline en soi, mais une application de techniques d’analyse statistiques et géographiques à l’étude du crime. Grâce au développement exponentiel de l’informatique et à l’accessibilité du Web , tous les utilisateurs moyens ont désormais la possibilité de produire des cartes des crimes de qualité avec le logiciel SIG (système d'information géographique (GIS - Geographic Information System. Aujourd’hui la possibilité de se

  12. Characteristics of young offenders depending on the type of crime

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    Keren Cuervo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define a profile of juvenile offenders depending on the type of crime (againstproperty or against persons, according to several socio?demographic variables, and a number of indicatorsof juvenile risk. Participants were 395 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 with a criminal record inthe juvenile court over a two-year follow-up period. Results showed that in property-related offences theoffender is more likely to be male, from an Eastern European country, and with inconsistent parenting. Onthe other hand, crimes against persons would be committed mostly by girls, Latin American or Africanjuveniles, and with individual factors such as aggressive behaviour, outbursts of anger, poor frustrationtolerance, or little concern for others. These results may be useful in designing crime prevention andoffender intervention programmes.

  13. Theorizing Surveillance in the UK Crime Control Field

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    Michael McCahill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, this paper argues that the demise of the Keynesian Welfare State (KWS and the rise of neo-liberal economic policies in the UK has placed new surveillance technologies at the centre of a reconfigured “crime control field” (Garland, 2001 designed to control the problem populations created by neo-liberal economic policies (Wacquant, 2009a. The paper also suggests that field theory could be usefully deployed in future research to explore how wider global trends or social forces, such as neo-liberalism or bio-power, are refracted through the crime control field in different national jurisdictions. We conclude by showing how this approach provides a bridge between society-wide analysis and micro-sociology by exploring how the operation of new surveillance technologies is mediated by the “habitus” of surveillance agents working in the crime control field and contested by surveillance subjects.

  14. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.

  15. Analysis on the crime model using dynamical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Fazliza; Roslan, Ummu'Atiqah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A research is carried out to analyze a dynamical model of the spread crime system. A Simplified 2-Dimensional Model is used in this research. The objectives of this research are to investigate the stability of the model of the spread crime, to summarize the stability by using a bifurcation analysis and to study the relationship of basic reproduction number, R0 with the parameter in the model. Our results for stability of equilibrium points shows that we have two types of stability, which are asymptotically stable and saddle node. While the result for bifurcation analysis shows that the number of criminally active and incarcerated increases as we increase the value of a parameter in the model. The result for the relationship of R0 with the parameter shows that as the parameter increases, R0 increase too, and the rate of crime increase too.

  16. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

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    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  17. Linguistic spatial classifications of event domains in narratives of crime

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    Blake Stephen Howald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Structurally, formal definitions of the linguistic narrative minimally require two temporally linked past-time events. The role of space in this definition, based on spatial language indicating where events occur, is considered optional and non-structural. However, based on narratives with a high frequency of spatial language, recent research has questioned this perspective, suggesting that space is more critical than may be readily apparent. Through an analysis of spatially rich serial criminal narratives, it will be demonstrated that spatial information qualitatively varies relative to narrative events. In particular, statistical classifiers in a supervised machine learning task achieve a 90% accuracy in predicting Pre-Crime, Crime, and Post-Crime events based on spatial (and temporal information. Overall, these results suggest a deeper spatial organization of discourse, which not only provides practical event resolution possibilities, but also challenges traditional formal linguistic definitions of narrative.

  18. Use of AFIS for linking scenes of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz, Ido; Liptz, Yakir; Vaturi, Shaul; Attias, David

    2016-05-01

    Forensic intelligence can provide critical information in criminal investigations - the linkage of crime scenes. The Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is an example of a technological improvement that has advanced the entire forensic identification field to strive for new goals and achievements. In one example using AFIS, a series of burglaries into private apartments enabled a fingerprint examiner to search latent prints from different burglary scenes against an unsolved latent print database. Latent finger and palm prints coming from the same source were associated with over than 20 cases. Then, by forensic intelligence and profile analysis the offender's behavior could be anticipated. He was caught, identified, and arrested. It is recommended to perform an AFIS search of LT/UL prints against current crimes automatically as part of laboratory protocol and not by an examiner's discretion. This approach may link different crime scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of social factors in explaining crime

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    Siti Nur Zahara HAMZAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing Malaysia data from 1973 to 2008, the study reveals that crime can be influenced by population, fertility, unemployment, and GDP in either the long-run or short-run period. This study also further analysed beyond sample estimations of the variables involved and found that although violent crime can be explained in the short-run only from the VECM analysis, it is found to be explained by other explanatory variables in the long-run of beyond sample for at least 50 years ahead. It is important for policy makers to focus in both social structure and economic conditions to help prevent crime in the long-run.

  20. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-11-15

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.