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Sample records for transplanted chorionic girdle

  1. Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-03-16

    A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy. Also, potential risks including uncontrolled growth of stem cells could be disastrous. In our novel protocol, we used basal forebrain cholinergic progenitor cells (BFCN) derived from human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hC-MSCs) which made it possible to obtain high-quality population of cholinergic neurons and in vivo in much shorter time period than previous established methods. Remarkably, the transplanted progenitors fully differentiated to cholinergic neurons which in turn integrated in higher cortical networks of host brains, resulting in significant improvement in cognitive assessments. This method may have profound implications in cell therapies for any other neurodegenerative disorders. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Chorionic villus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003406.htm Chorionic villus sampling To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have ...

  3. Evaluation of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2A (Calpain-3 Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2B (Miyoshi Myopathy, Dysferlin Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2I (FKRP-deficiency)

  4. Limb girdle muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical spectrum of limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs), the pitfalls of the current classification system for LGMDs, and emerging therapies for these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Close to half of all LGMD subtypes have been...... or are registered in other classification systems for muscle disease. On the contrary, diseases that fulfill classical criteria for LGMD have found no place in the LGMD classification system. These shortcomings call for revision/creation of a new classification system for LGMD. The rapidly expanding gene sequencing...... capabilities have helped to speed up new LGMD discoveries, and unveiled pheno-/genotype relations. Parallel to this progress in identifying new LGMD subtypes, emerging therapies for LGMDs are under way, but no disease-specific treatment is yet available for nonexperimental use. SUMMARY: The field of LGMD...

  5. Morphological variation in the girdled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-10-18

    Oct 18, 1990 ... A.g.v. corvleueling in hierdie eien- skappe word aparte taksonomiese status vir eksemplare buite die tipelokaliteit nie oorweag nie. Die stel diagnostiese eienskappe vir die spesie word op datum gebring en aanvul- lende ekologiese inligting word verskaf. Mouton (1986) described a new girdled lizard, ...

  6. Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, Bruno; Tului, Lucia

    2005-04-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of common invasive methods for prenatal diagnosis are presented in light of new investigations. Several aspects of first-trimester chorionic villus sampling and mid-trimester amniocentesis remain controversial, especially fetal loss rate, feto-maternal complications, and the extension of both sampling methods to less traditional gestational ages (early amniocentesis, late chorionic villus sampling), all of which complicate genetic counseling. A recent randomized trial involving early amniocentesis and late chorionic villus sampling has confirmed previous studies, leading to the unquestionable conclusion that transabdominal chorionic villus sampling is safer. The old dispute over whether limb reduction defects are caused by chorionic villus sampling gains new vigor, with a paper suggesting that this technique has distinctive teratogenic effects. The large experience involving maternal and fetal complications following mid-trimester amniocentesis allows a better estimate of risk for comparison with chorionic villus sampling. Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling, which appears to be the gold standard sampling method for genetic investigations between 10 and 15 completed weeks, permits rapid diagnosis in high-risk cases detected by first-trimester screening of aneuploidies. Sampling efficiency and karyotyping reliability are as high as in mid-trimester amniocentesis with fewer complications, provided the operator has the required training, skill and experience.

  7. -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Russell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of “heterologous” lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. There have been six previously reported examples of leiomyosarcomas associated with high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG production, comprised of cases originating from the retroperitoneum, spermatic cord, small intestine, and uterus. This report describes the first example of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that combined both of the aforementioned features: extensive heterologous (leiomyosarcomatous differentiation and -hCG production (maximum serum levels 1046 mIU/ml, reference <5 mIU/ml. The tumor, which originated in the retroperitoneum in the region of the right kidney, was rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal within three months of its diagnosis. In addition to characteristic morphologic features, lipogenic and smooth muscle differentiation were confirmed with immunohistochemical stains for MDM2 and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The tumor also displayed diffuse immunoreactivity for -hCG in both primary and metastatic sites. This case further expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of lipogenic tumors.

  8. [Chorionicity and adverse perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Laureano, Carla; Branco, Miguel; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Pinheiro, Adelaide; Silva, Maria Isabel; Almeida, Maria Céu

    2005-01-01

    Considering the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in diamniotic monochorionic twins, the authors evaluated and compared the adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. A retrospective study was conducted in all twin deliveries that occurred in the Obstetric Unit of Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto, for a period of tree years (from the 1st of January 1999 until the 31st of December 2001). From de 140 diamniotic twin pregnancies studied, we considered two groups according to the chorionicity: monochorionic and dichorionic. We compared multiple parameters as, epidemiologic data, adverse obstetric outcome, gestacional delivery age, type of delivery and the morbidity, the mortality and the follow-up of the newborn. The statistic tests used were the X2 and the t student. From the 140 twin pregnancies included in the study, 66% (92 cases) presented dichorionic placentation and 34% (48 cases) were monochorionic. In the group of monochorionic pregnancies, we observed highly difference related to pathology of amniotic fluid (14.5% vs 2.2%), discordant fetal growth (41.6% vs 22.8%) and rate of preterm delivery (66.6% vs 32.6%). Related to the newborn we verified that they had a lower average birth weight (1988g vs 2295g), a highly rate of weight discordancy (23% vs 15.3%), intraventricular haemorrhage (2.2% vs 0%) and IUGR (6.6% vs 1.6%), statistically significant in the monochorionic group. Also the perinatal mortality rate was significantly higher in the monochorionic pregnancies (93.7 per thousand vs 21.7 per thousand). The high rate of morbidity and mortality related to the monochorionic twin pregnancies, implies the need of a correct identification of the type of chorionicity and also a high standard of prenatal surveillance in prenatal specialised health centers.

  9. Transabdominal Chorionic Villous Sampling in Nigeria: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: transabdominal chorionic villous sampling is generally preferred to the transvaginal approach. The procedure may, however, be associated with complcations due to a number of factors. OBJECTIVES: to review the relationship between the number of cases and other variables in transabdominal chorionic ...

  10. TRANSPLANTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage ... renal artery thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, ureteric leak or stenosis ... alternative organ source for patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney ... status.27,28 Post-transplant acute tubular necrosis is caused by ischaemic injury to the ...

  11. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A nested...... case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). METHODS: This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16....... The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per...

  12. Interobserver reliability of physical examination of shoulder girdle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomden, Jettie G.; Slagers, Anton J.; Bergman, Geert; Winters, Jan C.; Kropmans, Thomas J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    The object of this study was to assess interobserver reliability in 23 tests concerning physical examination of the shoulder girdle. A physical therapist and a physical therapist/manual therapist independently performed a physical examination of the shoulder girdle in 91 patients with shoulder

  13. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: The Pregnancy Hormone and More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Theofanakis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To thoroughly review the uses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG related to the process of reproduction and also assess new, non-traditional theories. Review of the international literature and research studies. hCG and its receptor, LH/CGR, are expressed in numerous sites of the reproductive tract, both in gonadal and extra-goanadal tissues, promoting oocyte maturation, fertilization, implantation and early embryo development. Moreover, hCG seems to have a potential role as an anti-rejection agent in solid organ transplantation. Future research needs to focus extensively on the functions of hCG and its receptor LH/CGR, in an effort to reveal known, as well as unknown clinical potentials.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of chorionicity in twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound scan in predicting chorionicity in twin pregnancies in our unit. The presence or absence of lambda sign, T-sign, dividing membrane thickness and number of placentae were used to determine chorionicity. We retrospectively analysed these antenatal markers in 268 sets of twins delivered over a 5 year period and compared it with the postpartum placental histology and neonatal gender. Of 268 twin deliveries, 204 (76%) had both chorionicity and placental histology to compare. 67 of 84 (80%) were correctly diagnosed antenatally as monochorionic and 137 of 151 (91%) as dichorionic. In 31 cases (15%) the ultrasound diagnosis of chorionicity didn\\'t match placental histology. Seventeen were thought to be monochorionic antenatally but were confirmed dichorionic on placental histology. Overall chorionicity was correctly diagnosed in 171\\/204 (84%) using transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS) in all trimesters. However the sensitivity and specificity of USS was much higher for dichorionic twins when carried out before 14 weeks of gestation.

  15. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marceau, K.; McMaster, M.T.; Smith, T.F.; Daams, J.G.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Knopik, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order

  16. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  17. Fractures due to insufficient pelvic girdle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aguayo, F.J.; Martinez Almagro, A.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven cases are presented of postmenopausal women with a total of 37 fractures due to insufficient pelvic girdle: 15 located in sacrum, ten in the pubic rami, four in ilium proximal to the sacroiliac joint, three in iliac fossa, two in iliac tuberosity and three in the public body. Eight of the patients were diagnosed over a period of six years when seeking medical attention for bone pain. The other three were diagnosed retrospectively among a group of 33 cancer patients (the majority having having breast cancer) who presented positive pelvic radionuclide bone scan. CT was superior to conventional radiology in detecting fractures of this type, especially those of sacrum and ilium. Radionuclide bone scan was highly sensitive but its specificity was low, requiring back-up radiology and above all CT to establish the differential diagnosis with respect to other types of lesions, especially metastases. (Author) 14 refs

  18. On the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Takechi, Masaki; Sato, Noboru; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    The shoulder girdle in turtles is encapsulated in the shell and has a triradiate morphology. Due to its unique configuration among amniotes, many theories have been proposed about the skeletal identities of the projections for the past two centuries. Although the dorsal ramus represents the scapular blade, the ventral two rami remain uncertain. In particular, the ventrorostral process has been compared to a clavicle, an acromion, and a procoracoid based on its morphology, its connectivity to the rest of the skeleton and to muscles, as well as with its ossification center, cell lineage, and gene expression. In making these comparisons, the shoulder girdle skeleton of anurans has often been used as a reference. This review traces the history of the debate on the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles. And based on the integrative aspects of developmental biology, comparative morphology, and paleontology, we suggest acromion and procoracoid identities for the two ventral processes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. DNA Extraction from Chorionic Villi for Prenatal Diagnosis of Foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Extraction of DNA from the chorionic villi is the first major step in the molecular determination of foetal haemoglobin genotype. There are few reports on DNA extraction from the chorionic villi. A desired method should be simple to conduct, reliable and cost effective. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to ...

  20. Clinical and laboratory experience of chorionic villous sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chorionic villous sampling is a first trimester invasive diagnosis procedure that was introduced in Nigeria <2 decades ago. Objective: The objective of the following study is to review experience with chorionic villous sampling in relation to clinical and laboratory procedures, including general characteristics of ...

  1. Review of chorionic Villus sampling in prenatal diagnosis | Oloyede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis continues to be gold standard in pregnancies at increased risk of congenital abnormalities with chorionic villus sampling being one of the principal methods of prenatal diagnosis. Although not widely available in most developing countries, chorionic villus sampling is the procedure of choice for ...

  2. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy due to mutations in POMT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Sofie Thurø; Johnson, Katherine; Stojkovic, Tanya

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene coding for protein O-mannosyl-transferase 2 (POMT2) are known to cause severe congenital muscular dystrophy, and recently, mutations in POMT2 have also been linked to a milder limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) phenotype, named LGMD type 2N (LGMD2N). Only four...

  3. Bole girdling affects metabolic properties and root, trunk and branch hydraulics of young ponderosa pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Pruyn, Michele L

    2008-10-01

    Effects of trunk girdling on seasonal patterns of xylem water status, water transport and woody tissue metabolic properties were investigated in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws.) trees. At the onset of summer, there was a sharp decrease in stomatal conductance (g(s)) in girdled trees followed by a full recovery after the first major rainfall in September. Eliminating the root as a carbohydrate sink by girdling induced a rapid reversible reduction in g(s). Respiratory potential (a laboratory measure of tissue-level respiration) increased above the girdle (branches and upper trunk) and decreased below the girdle (lower trunk and roots) relative to control trees during the growing season, but the effect was reversed after the first major rainfall. The increase in branch respiratory potential induced by girdling suggests that the decrease in g(s) was caused by the accumulation of carbohydrates above the girdle, which is consistent with an observed increase in leaf mass per area in the girdled trees. Trunk girdling did not affect native xylem embolism or xylem conductivity. Both treated and control trunks experienced loss of xylem conductivity ranging from 10% in spring to 30% in summer. Girdling reduced xylem growth and sapwood to leaf area ratio, which in turn reduced branch leaf specific conductivity (LSC). The girdling-induced reductions in g(s) and transpiration were associated with a decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance. Two years after girdling, when root-to-shoot phloem continuity had been restored, girdled trees had a reduced density of new wood, which increased xylem conductivity and whole-tree LSC, but also vulnerability to embolism.

  4. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism treated with human chorionic gonadotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a young competitive body-builder who abused anabolic steroid drugs and developed profound symptomatic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. With the help of prescribed testosterone (Sustanon) he stopped taking anabolic drugs, and later stopped Sustanon also. Hypogonadism returned, but was successfully treated with weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin for three months. Testicular function remained normal thereafter on no treatment. The use of human chorionic gonad...

  5. An Experimental Comparison of Two Methods on Photosynthesis Driving Soil Respiration: Girdling and Defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yanli; Guan, Dexin; Wu, Jiabing; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie; Yuan, Fenghui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies with different experimental methods have demonstrated that photosynthesis significantly influences soil respiration (RS). To compare the experimental results of different methods, RS after girdling and defoliation was measured in five-year-old seedlings of Fraxinus mandshurica from June to September. Girdling and defoliation significantly reduced RS by 33% and 25% within 4 days, and 40% and 32% within the entire treatment period, respectively. The differential response of RS to girdling and defoliation was a result of the over-compensation for RS after girdling and redistribution of stored carbon after defoliation. No significant effect on RS was observed between girdling and defoliation treatment, while the soluble sugar content in fine roots was higher in defoliation than in girdling treatment, indicating that defoliation had less compensation effect for RS after interrupting photosynthates supply. We confirm the close coupling of RS with photosynthesis and recommend defoliation for further studies to estimate the effect of photosynthesis on RS.

  6. Resistance training in patients with limb-girdle and becker muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Søren P; Ingelsrud, Lina H

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of strength training in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD).......In this study we investigated the effect of strength training in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)....

  7. Cone and seed production of western larch in response to girdling and nitrogen fertilization - an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Jonalea R. Tonn; Theresa B. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) is a sporadic cone and seed producer. Because the species is such an important component of the -Northern Rocky Mountain forests, methods of increasing seed production are needed. Girdling, fertilizing, and a combination of the two were used on 75-year-old western larch in northern Idaho. Girdling at the base of the live crown...

  8. A tree girdling beetle in Korogwe District: its potential risk to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify and assess damage of an insect pest girdling young Eucalypts in Korogwe Forest Plantation, Tanga. Purposive sampling was employed to establish 10 plots of 10m by 10m. A total of 90 trees were sampled. Insect pest specimens were collected and girdled trees counted in each plot. The

  9. Clinical and molecular characterization of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy due to LAMA2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavassini, Bruno F; Carboni, Nicola; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations.......In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations....

  10. Physiological girdling of pine trees via phloem chilling: proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Chris Maier; Felipe Sanchez; Peter Anderson; John Butnor; Richard Waring; Sune Linder

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying below-ground carbon (C) allocation is particularly difficult as methods usually disturb the root– mycorrhizal–soil continuum. We reduced C allocation below ground of loblolly pine trees by: (1) physically girdling trees and (2) physiologically girdling pine trees by chilling the phloem. Chilling reduced cambium temperatures by approximately 18 °C. Both...

  11. The effect of smoking on early chorionic villous vascularisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oppenraaij, R. H. F.; Koning, A. H. J.; van den Hoff, M. J. B.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Exalto, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim aim of the study was to investigate whether first trimester chorionic villous vascularisation is different in women who smoked cigarettes before and during pregnancy in comparison with women who did not smoke. Placentas of smoking (>10 cigarettes/day, n = 13) and non-smoking women (n = 13),

  12. Influence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Fertility Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out on the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) on the fertility rate of rabbit does under artificial insemination. The rabbit does (7-8 months old) were used for the trial. The hCG was administered to the rabbit does at varying doses: 0, 50, 100 and 150 I.U representing ...

  13. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  14. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  15. Pelvic girdle pain affects the whole life--a qualitative interview study in Norway on women's experiences with pelvic girdle pain after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeset, Jorun; Stuge, Britt; Fegran, Liv

    2014-10-03

    The aim of this study was to explore how pelvic girdle pain after delivery influences women's daily life in Norway. Knowledge about living with post-partum pelvic girdle pain is lacking. A phenomenological-hermeneutical design with qualitative semi-structured interviews was used. A strategic selection procedure was chosen to recruit participants from physiotherapy clinics and a regional hospital in Norway. Five women with clinically verified pelvic girdle pain after delivery were included. Data were imported into NVivo9 and analysed in three steps: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding of the text. Three themes influencing the women's daily life were identified: 1) activity and pain, 2) lack of acknowledgment of pain and disability, and 3) changed roles. A daily life with pain and limited physical activity was difficult to accept and made some of the women feel discouraged, isolated and lonely. Despite this, the women had a positive attitude to their problems, which may have positively increased their ability to cope. The findings also revealed the importance of a reciprocal influence between the woman and her environment, and that social support was crucial. Pelvic girdle pain may influence women's lives for months and years after delivery. Health care professionals should appreciate and focus on the patient's knowledge and skills. Understanding the daily experiences of women with pelvic girdle pain might help improve rehabilitation strategies for these patients.

  16. Thyrotropic action of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Hershman, J M

    1995-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism or increased thyroid function has been reported in many patients with trophoblastic tumors. In these cases, greatly increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and suppressed TSH levels suggest that hCG has thyrotropic activity. Recent investigations have clarified the structural homology not only in the hCG and TSH molecules but also in their receptors, and this homology suggests the basis for the reactivity of hCG with the TSH receptor. The clinical significance of the thyrotropic action of hCG is now also recognized in normal pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Highly purified hLH binds to recombinant hTSH receptor and is about 10 times as potent as purified hCG in increasing cAMP. The beta-subunits of hCG and hLH share 85% sequence identity in their first 114 amino acids but differ in the carboxy-terminal peptide because hCG beta contains a 31-amino acid extension (beta-CTP). A recombinant mutant hCG that lacks beta-CTP showed almost identical potency to LH on stimulation of recombinant hTSH receptor. If intact hCG were as potent as hLH in regard to its thyrotropic activity, most pregnant women would become thyrotoxic. One of the roles of the beta-CTP may be to prevent overt hyperthyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy when a large amount of hCG is produced by the placenta. Nicked hCG preparations, obtained from patients with trophoblastic disease or by enzymatic digestion of intact hCG, showed approximately 1.5- to 2-fold stimulation of recombinant hTSH receptor compared with intact hCG. This suggests that the thyrotropic activity of hCG may be influenced by the metabolism of the hCG molecule itself. Deglycosylation and/or desialylation of hCG enhances its thyrotropic potency. Basic hCG isoforms with lower sialic acid content extracted from hydatidiform moles were more potent in activating adenylate cyclase, and showed high bioactivity/immunoactivity (B/I) ratio in CHO cells expressing human TSH receptors. This is consistent

  17. Common recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies differential diagnosis: why and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cotta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limb girdle muscular dystrophies are heterogeneous autosomal hereditary neuromuscular disorders. They produce dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy and they are associated with mutations in several genes involved in muscular structure and function. Detailed clinical, laboratorial, imaging, diagnostic flowchart, photographs, tables, and illustrated diagrams are presented for the differential diagnosis of common autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtypes diagnosed nowadays at one reference center in Brazil. Preoperative image studies guide muscle biopsy site selection. Muscle involvement image pattern differs depending on the limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtype. Muscle involvement is conspicuous at the posterior thigh in calpainopathy and fukutin-related proteinopathy; anterior thigh in sarcoglycanopathy; whole thigh in dysferlinopathy, and telethoninopathy. The precise differential diagnosis of limb girdle muscular dystrophies is important for genetic counseling, prognostic orientation, cardiac and respiratory management. Besides that, it may probably, in the future, provide specific genetic therapies for each subtype.

  18. Chemical-Free Cotton Defoliation by; Mechanical, Flame and Laser Girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew G. Pelletier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel new way to achieve chemical-free defoliation of cotton is discussed. The research found that by severing the phloem tissue on the main stalk, via a girdling operation, the operation stimulated the cotton plant to alter its growth into an early senescence pathway that resulted in the plant shedding its leaves and opening up all its bolls, leaving the plant in the perfect state for machine harvesting. Even with follow-up rains, zero regrowth occurred in the treated plants, unlike the untreated control plots where significant regrowth did occur. This report compares the results of greenhouse and field trials where the girdling operation was performed by hand, flame, mechanical and via a CO2 laser to achieve phloem tissue severance. Design parameters for a prototype laser girdling system are also provided. Results suggest that for deficit irrigated cotton, girdling can provide an alternative means to defoliate cotton.

  19. A newly recognized autosomal dominant limb girdle muscular dystrophy with cardiac involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, A. J.; Ledderhof, T. M.; de Voogt, W. G.; Res, C. J.; Bouwsma, G.; Troost, D.; Busch, H. F.; Becker, A. E.; de Visser, M.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-five members of three families with limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) underwent neurological, cardiological, and ancillary investigations. Thirty-five individuals were diagnosed as having slowly progressive autosomal dominant LGMD. Symmetrical weakness started in the proximal lower limb

  20. Bethlem myopathy is not allelic to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, M.C.; Yamaoka, L.H.; Stajich, J.; Lewis, K. [and others

    1995-08-28

    The Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal-dominant myopathy, shows a distribution of proximal muscle weakness similar to that observed in dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Yet the Bethlem myopathy differs from most limb-girdle dystrophies in two important regards. First, the Bethlem myopathy presents with joint contractures most commonly observed at the elbows, ankles, and neck. Secondly, disease onset in the Bethlem myopathy is in early childhood, while most dominant LGMDs present with adult onset. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  1. The girdles of the oldest fossil turtle, Proterochersis robusta, and the age of the turtle crown

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Walter G; Schoch, Rainer R; Lyson, Tyler R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Proterochersis robusta from the Late Triassic (Middle Norian) of Germany is the oldest known fossil turtle (i.e. amniote with a fully formed turtle shell), but little is known about its anatomy. A newly prepared, historic specimen provides novel insights into the morphology of the girdles and vertebral column of this taxon and the opportunity to reassess its phylogenetic position.Results: The anatomy of the pectoral girdle of P. robusta is similar to that of other primitive turtle...

  2. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  3. Dual function of the pectoral girdle for feeding and locomotion in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Scott, Bradley; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-07-26

    Positioned at the intersection of the head, body and forelimb, the pectoral girdle has the potential to function in both feeding and locomotor behaviours-although the latter has been studied far more. In ray-finned fishes, the pectoral girdle attaches directly to the skull and is retracted during suction feeding, enabling the ventral body muscles to power rapid mouth expansion. However, in sharks, the pectoral girdle is displaced caudally and entirely separate from the skull (as in tetrapods), raising the question of whether it is mobile during suction feeding and contributing to suction expansion. We measured three-dimensional kinematics of the pectoral girdle in white-spotted bamboo sharks during suction feeding with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology, and found the pectoral girdle consistently retracted about 11° by rotating caudoventrally about the dorsal scapular processes. This motion occurred mostly after peak gape, so it likely contributed more to accelerating captured prey through the oral cavity and pharynx, than to prey capture as in ray-finned fishes. Our results emphasize the multiple roles of the pectoral girdle in feeding and locomotion, both of which should be considered in studying the functional and evolutionary morphology of this structure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  5. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles

  6. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  7. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells in human placental chorionic villi reside in a vascular Niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrechini, N. M.; Murthi, P.; Gude, N. M.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Gronthos, S.; Zannettino, A.; Brennecke, S. R.; Kalionis, B.; Brennecke, S.P.

    The chorionic villi of human term placentae are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) The stem cell "niche" within the chorionic villi regulates how PMSCs participate in placental tissue generation, maintenance and repair, but the anatomic location of the niche has not been defined A

  9. Bacteria Localization and Chorion Thinning among Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Kimberly B.; Grotegut, Chad A.; Ransom, Carla E.; Bentley, Rex C.; Feng, Liping; Lan, Lan; Heine, R. Phillips; Seed, Patrick C.; Murtha, Amy P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. Study Design Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant) were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8), preterm no labor (PTNL = 8), term labor (TL = 10), and term no labor (TNL = 8), subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC). Results In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, prupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning. Although cause or consequence is uncertain, bacterial presence is greatest and inversely correlated with chorion thinning among PPROM subjects. PMID:24421883

  10. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    How trees sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four tree species in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all species by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one species by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four species by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen species, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback

  11. Syndecan expressions in the human amnion and chorionic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lorenzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour depending on the cellular microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 are expressed in fetal membrane tissue with different immunolocalizations. Syndecan-1 is expressed in the amniotic epithelium, localizing at basolateral cell surfaces. Syndecan-2 and syndecan-4, in contrast, are mostly localized in intracellular compartments, in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells and in some fibroblasts of the chorionic plate as well as in the amniotic epithelial cells. In the latter, syndecan-4 is mainly localized in the apical part of the cells. Our results strongly suggest a key role of syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 in the determination of structural and functional characteristics of human amnion and chorionic plate. Since the solute exchanges between fetus and mother take place in fetal membranes, our data suggest that syndecans are important players in the placenta for the establishment of the fetal-maternal inter-communication.

  12. Human chorionic gonadotropin, angiogenic factors, and preeclampsia risk: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvold, Bjørn O; Eskild, Anne; Vatten, Lars J

    2014-05-01

    To study whether human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations during pregnancy or combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin and other angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and placental growth factor (PlGF), are associated with preeclampsia risk. Nested case-control study. Population cohort of pregnant women. A total of 121 cases of preterm (cases of term preeclampsia (≥37 weeks of gestation) and 356 women without preeclampsia (controls). Women with preeclampsia were identified by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and PlGF were measured in maternal serum samples collected in each trimester of pregnancy. Odds ratios of preterm and term preeclampsia. High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (highest quartile) in the first trimester were associated with reduced risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9), compared with low human chorionic gonadotropin (lowest quartile), whereas high human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the second trimester were associated with increased risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-8.9). High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the third trimester were associated with increased risk for term preeclampsia (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-13.3). Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin above the median value combined with PlGF below the median in the second trimester were associated with very high risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 36.9, 95% CI 8.2-165.8). The results suggest an important role of human chorionic gonadotropin in the pathophysiological processes that lead to preeclampsia. The combined association of human chorionic gonadotropin and PlGF indicates a possible synergism between underlying biological pathways. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Intestine Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  14. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  15. Cardiac involvement in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 and Becker muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Marie-Louise; Thune, Jens Jakob; Køber, Lars

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of cardiac involvement in patients with 1 of the 12 groups of recessively inherited limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2A-L) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). DESIGN: Prospective screening. SETTING: Neuromuscular Clinic and Department of Cardiology...

  16. Body weight-supported training in Becker and Limb Girdle 2I muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Berthelsen, Martin Peter; Husu, Edith

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We studied the functional effects of combined strength and aerobic anti-gravity training in severely affected patients with Becker and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies. METHODS: Eight patients performed 10-week progressive combined strength (squats, calf raises, lunges) and aerobic...

  17. Progression of cardiac involvement in patients with limb-girdle type 2 and Becker muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Helle; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Thune, Jens Jakob

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the degree and progression of cardiac involvement in patients with limb-girdle type 2 (LGMD2) and Becker muscular dystrophies (BMD). METHODS: A follow-up study of 100 LGMD2 (types A-L) and 30 BMD patients assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography, supplemented...

  18. Contractile properties are disrupted in Becker muscular dystrophy, but not in limb girdle type 2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a linear relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) is preserved in calf muscles of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, n = 14) and limb-girdle type 2I muscular dystrophy (LGMD2I, n = 11), before and after correcting for muscle fat...

  19. Clinical and genetic spectrum in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semplicini, Claudio; Vissing, John; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical spectrum of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2E (LGMD2E) and to investigate whether genetic or biochemical features can predict the phenotype of the disease. METHODS: All LGMD2E patients followed in participating centers were included. A specific clinical protoc...

  20. Predictors for postpartum pelvic girdle pain in working women: the Mom@Work cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomp-van den Berg, G.M.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Poppel, M.N.M. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine which factors during pregnancy and postpartum predict pelvic girdle pain (PGP) at 12 weeks postpartum among working women. A total of 548 Dutch pregnant employees were recruited in 15 companies, mainly health care, child care, and supermarkets. The

  1. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...

  2. HEMIPELVECTOMY AND INTRAOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY FOR BONE AND SOFT-TISSUE SARCOMAS OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, HJ; SINDELAR, WF; SZABO, BG; KINSELLA, TJ

    1995-01-01

    Current treatment of locally advanced bone and soft tissue sarcomas of the pelvic girdle are associated with a high local and distant failure rate, and local tumor control after hemipelvectomy can be a significant problem. IORT has been used in conjunction with hemipelvectomy, both conventional

  3. External and internal hemipelvectomy for sarcomas of the pelvic girdle : consequences of limb-salvage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, SJ; Veth, RPH; van Horn, [No Value; Eisma, WH; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1997-01-01

    The outcome of different Limb-saving treatment modalities for pelvic girdle sarcoma is controversial. The oncological and functional results after 11 external and 10 internal hemipelvectomies and the consequences of limb-salvage treatment were studied in 21 consecutive patients with primary bone (19

  4. Myocytes of chorionic vessels from placentas with meconium-associated vascular necrosis exhibit apoptotic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin L; Redline, Raymond W; Smith, Steven D; Kraus, Frederick T; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael

    2004-04-01

    Meconium-associated vascular necrosis (MAVN) is a histological abnormality of human placental chorionic vessels that is associated with poor neonatal outcome. We tested the hypothesis that MAVN shows apoptosis in the walls of chorionic vessels. Archival placental specimens with MAVN (n = 5) were compared with specimens from uncomplicated pregnancies at term (n = 5) and from placentas with intense chorionic vasculitis associated with acute chorioamnionitis with (n = 5) or without (n = 5) a clinical history of meconium in the amniotic fluid. Sections from all placentas were processed by the TUNEL method, and 2 observers who were blinded to specimen diagnosis quantified the immunofluorescent TUNEL staining in both the amnion-facing and villous-facing walls of the larger chorionic vessels in each specimen. Compared with the other 3 groups, only the amnion-facing wall of chorionic vessels in MAVN showed a significantly greater number of apoptotic cells. This was verified by morphological criteria and caspase 3 staining. There were limited or no detectable TUNEL-stained cells in either the villous-facing walls of vessels in the MAVN specimens or in any of the vessels of the placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies. There was a negligible level of apoptosis in chorionic vessels of placentas with intense chorionic vasculitis, with or without meconium, despite the inflammatory response or presence of meconium. We conclude that apoptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of MAVN.

  5. Effect of high doses of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Key words: Equine chorionic gonadotrophin, follicular, ovulation, pregnancy, estrus synchronization, goat. ... This requires that the management practices take into account .... MOET, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer; PASW®, predictive analytics software; PMSG, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin.

  6. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on in vitro oocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... In vitro exposure of Barilius vagra ovarian follicles to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) .... breakdown (GVBD) by treating them with egg clearing solution ..... trihydroxy-5Я-pregnen-20-one, in female plaice (Pleuronectes.

  7. Bacteria localization and chorion thinning among preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B Fortner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8, preterm no labor (PTNL = 8, term labor (TL = 10, and term no labor (TNL = 8, subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC. RESULTS: In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, p<0.0001. Further, chorion thinning was greatest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups combined, regardless of site sampled [PPROM(114.9 vs. PTL(246.0 vs. PTNL(200.8 vs. TL(217.9 vs. TNL(246.5]. Bacteria counts were highest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups regardless of site sampled or histologic infection [PPROM(31 vs. PTL(9 vs. PTNL(7 vs. TL(7 vs. TNL(6]. Among all subjects at both sites, bacterial counts were inversely correlated with chorion thinning, even excluding histologic chorioamnionitis (p<0.0001 and p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal chorion was uniformly thinner at rupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning

  8. Effects of cane girdling on yield, fruit quality and maturation of (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Flame Seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of cane girdling on coloration, maturation, yield and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Flame Seedless table grape variety. Cane girdling practices were treated at pea-size stage (G2 and veraison period (G1 over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the canes after first shoot was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife. On the other hand control vines were left untouched. Statistical analyses showed that TSS, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of Flame Seedless was significantly affected by the cane girdling treatments in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, titrable acidity and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value than control vines although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed 9 and 12 days earliness with G2 treatments compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Chorionic Gonadotrophin pada Medium Maturasi terhadap Kemampuan Maturasi, Fertilisasi, dan Perkembangan Embrio secara In Vitro Kambing Peranakan Ettawa (The Effect of Chorionic Gonadotrophin Addition Into Maturation Medium on The Abili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurvina Septi Adifa

    2012-02-01

    the values of 40.8%, 11.4%, and 12.2% respectively. Based on the result it could be concluded that chorionic gonadotrophin addition into maturation medium had not increased ettawa crossbred oocytes maturation, fertilization, and in vitro cleavage rate. The best maturation, fertilization, and in vitro cleavage rate were found using maturation medium without any addition of chorionic gonadotrophin. (Key words: Does oocyte, Chorionic gonadotrophin, In vitro maturation, In vitro fertilization, In vitro embryo development

  10. CT findings of muscular dystrophy; Limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Hiroshi (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    CT scans of muscles in patients with limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD) dystrophies were obtained at five different body levels: the neck, L3 vertebral body, pelvic girdle, thigh and lower leg. CT numbers, cross sectional areas (CSA) and %CSA of muscle or fat were evaluated in each muscle. The characteristic CT patterns for each type of muscular dystrophy were obtained. Compared with DMD, the gracilis and soleus were more severely damaged in LG and the biceps femoris remained relatively preserved among the hamstrings. In addition, the multifidus of the neck and sternocleidomastoid also were more severely damaged in MYD. This study suggests that CT scan will be useful in the differential diagnosis of these types of muscular dystrophy as well as in planning appropriate rehabilitation and detecting damaged muscles. (author).

  11. A new mutation of the fukutin gene causing late-onset limb girdle muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Maria; Duno, M; Hansen, Flemming Juul

    2013-01-01

    to aberrations of FKTN is rare, with only eight reported cases of limb girdle phenotype (LGMD2M). We describe the mildest affected patient outside Japan with genetically confirmed LGMD2M and onset of symptoms at age 14. She was brought to medical attention at age 12, not because of muscle weakness, but due...... to episodes of tachycardia caused by Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. On examination, she had rigid spine syndrome, a typical limb girdle dystrophy pattern of muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and serum CK levels >2000 IU/L (normal G; p.Y306C mutation in the FKTN gene was found. The case confirms FKTN mutations...... as a cause of LGMD2M without mental retardation and expands the phenotypic spectrum for LGMD2M to include cardiomyopathy and rigid spine syndrome in the mildest affected non-Japanese patient reported so far....

  12. Complex surgery for locally advanced bone and soft tissue sarcomas of the shoulder girdle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenský, Jan; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Matejovsky, Zdenek; Nemec, Karel; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Fabbri, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    Surgical management of primary musculoskeletal tumors of the shoulder girdle is cognitively and technically demanding. Over the last decades, advances in the medical treatments, imaging and surgical techniques have fostered limb salvage surgery and reduced the need for amputation. Despite well-accepted general principles, an individualized approach is often necessary to accommodate tumor extension, anatomical challenges and patient characteristics. A combination of techniques is often required to achieve optimal oncologic and durable functional outcome. Goal of this article is to review approach and management of patients with locally advanced sarcomas of the shoulder girdle requiring major tumor surgery, to illustrate principles of surgical strategy, outcome and complications, and to provide useful guidelines for the treating physicians.

  13. Bone anatomy of the pelvic girdle, the thigh and the leg of Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Myrmecophagidae: Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is the largest anteater species in the world. It is an animal of terrestrial habits, however, it has some ability to climb tall trees and termite mounds. The hard skeletal structures are of crucial importance, since they join and protect the soft organs and help support the body, shape, and get involved in movement. The appendicular skeleton is an important part of the locomotor apparatus, whose anatomical information in wild species is scarce, making it difficult to interpret data on these bones. This paper aims to describe the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg skeleton in the giant anteater. We used two specimens of Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (1758, fixed in a 3.7% aqueous formaldehyde solution. At first, the limbs were disjointed and we removed the skin, viscera, and muscles associated to the bones of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg in the specimens. Then, they were macerated in boiling water, and, subsequently, placed in a hydrogen peroxide solution. Once clean and dry, the bones were identified and described. The pelvic girdle skeleton in the giant anteater consists of the hip bone, formed by the ilium, pubis, and ischium bones; the thigh consists of the femur bone, and the leg consists of the tibia and fibula bones. In the knee joint region there is the patella, a relatively small sesamoid bone, considering the large size of this animal. The giant anteater have osteological features of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg similar to those in domestic carnivores, however, some morphological differences are made evident, something which may reflect differences in locomotor patterns.

  14. Women's experiences of pregnancy related pelvic girdle pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jo; Murray, Esther; Lusher, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    to systematically review the available studies which relay the experience of pregnancy related pelvic girdle pain and how this affects women psychologically and emotionally. a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the experiences of pregnancy related pelvic girdle pain was conducted for qualitative studies dated between 2005 and 2016. Predefined terms were used to search nine central databases and hand searches of two reference lists of identified studies were carried out. 614 records were identified, eight studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Pain from pelvic girdle pain impacted on women's daily lives both at home and the workplace. This had a negative emotional and psychological impact on women as it took away their feeling of independence. Women reported feelings of frustration, guilt, irritability and upset at being unable to carry out their normal roles. Pelvic girdle pain also affected the women's sense of identity and ability to care for their children. Health professionals working with pregnant and postnatal women need to be aware of the anger, frustration and negative emotions resulting from PGP. These women may become socially isolated and there is a risk they could abuse analgesics in attempt to manage the pain especially if they do not have the social support. For women with young children, it is important to be aware of safety issues they face with carrying babies and controlling toddlers. It is therefore important that health professionals recognise PGP as a serious health issue, approach this condition sensitively and refer to appropriate treatment as soon as PGP is suspected. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chorionic gonadotropin and uterine dialogue in the primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strakova Zuzana

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implantation is a complex spatio-temporal interaction between the growing embryo and the mother, where both players need to be highly synchronized to be able to establish an effective communication to ensure a successful pregnancy. Using our in vivo baboon model we have shown that Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG, as the major trophoblast derived signal, not only rescues the corpus luteum but also modulates the uterine environment in preparation for implantation. This response is characterized by an alteration in both the morphological and biochemical activity in the three major cell types: luminal and glandular epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CG and factors from the ovary have a synergistic effect on the receptive endometrium. Novel local effects of CG which influence the immune system to permit the survival of the fetal allograft and prevent endometrial cell death are also discussed in this review. An alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation pathway observed in epithelial endometrial cells and the possibility of differential expression of the CG/LH-R isoforms during gestation, open many questions regarding the mechanism of action of CG and its signal transduction pathway within the primate endometrium.

  16. Human chorionic ganodotropin binding sites in the human endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, J.; Sen, S.; Manna, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of high-affinity and low-capacity specific binding sites for luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been reported in porcine, rabbit and rat uteri. The authors have identified the hCG binding sites in the human endometrium collected from 35-42-year-old ovulatory and anovulatory women. The binding characteristics of hCG to endometrial tissue preparations from ovulatory and anovulatory women showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed the dissociation constant of specific binding sites in the ovulatory women to be 3.5x10 -10 mol/l and in anovulatory women to be 3.1x10 -10 mol/l. The maximum binding capacity varied considerably between ovulatory and anovulatory endometrium. Among the divalent metal ions tested Zn 2+ effected a remarkable increase in [ 125 I]hCG binding to the endometrium, whereas Mn 2+ showed a marginal increase and other metal ions did not have any effect. Data obtained with human endometrium indicate an influence of the functional state of the ovary on [ 125 I]hCG binding to endometrium. 14 refs., 3 figs

  17. Comparison of Complications of Chorionic Villus Sampling and Amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Shahbazian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant number of pregnancies are associated with the cytogenetic abnormalities of the fetus. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS are procedures used for prenatal genetic diagnosis. In this study, we compare the safety and complications of mid-trimester amniocentesis and transabdominal CVS.Materials and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was performed in 308 patients from2.11.2007 to 26.10.2009. We had 155 cases of amniocentesis, which we performed in weeks 15-23 of pregnancy; and 153 cases of CVS, which we performed during weeks 10-14 of pregnancy.Results: There were 2 cases (1.2% of premature rupture of membrane (PROM in amniocentesis which occurred 1 and 10 days after the procedure and caused pregnancy loss before 20 weeks. We had 1 case (0.7% of abortion in CVS, which occurred 10 days after the procedure. Additionally, there was 1 case of amniotic fluid leakage (0.7% in which, after admission to the hospital and observation, leakage was stopped and the pregnancy continued normally.Conclusion: In this study, we had more complications with amniocentesis cases than CVS. CVS is a procedure performed in the earlier stages of pregnancy and its complications are less than amniocentesis. We suggest CVS to be the procedure of choice for genetic diagnosis.

  18. Etiology and prognosis of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain; design of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroese Mariëlle EAL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absence of knowledge of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPGP has prompted the start of a large cohort study in the Netherlands. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of PPGP, to identify risk factors involved in the onset and to determine the prognosis of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. Methods/design 7,526 pregnant women of the southeast of the Netherlands participated in a prospective cohort study. During a 2-year period, they were recruited by midwives and gynecologists at 14 weeks of pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire at baseline, at 30 weeks of pregnancy, at 2 weeks after delivery, at 6 months after delivery and at 1 year after delivery. The study uses extensive questionnaires with questions ranging from physical complaints, limitations in activities, restriction in participation, work situation, demographics, lifestyle, pregnancy-related factors and psychosocial factors. Discussion This large-scale prospective cohort study will provide reliable insights in incidence, prevalence and factors related to etiology and prognosis of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain.

  19. Preliminary diffusion tensor imaging studies in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tobon, S.; Hernandez-Salazar, G.; Vargas-Cañas, S.; Marrufo-Melendez, O.; Solis-Najera, S.; Taboada-Barajas, J.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Delgado-Hernandez, R.

    2012-10-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a group of autosomal dominantly or recessively inherited muscular dystrophies that also present with primary proximal (limb-girdle) muscle weakness. This type of dystrophy involves the shoulder and pelvic girdles, distinct phenotypic or clinical characteristics are recognized. Imaging experiments were conducted on a 1.5T GE scanner (General Electric Medical Systems. Milwaukee. USA), using a combination of two eight-channel coil array. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data were acquired using a SE-EPI sequence, diffusion weighted gradients were applied along 30 non-collinear directions with a b-value=550 s/mm2. The connective tissue content does not appear to have a significant effect on the directionality of the diffusion, as assessed by fractional anisotropy. The fibers of the Sartorius muscle and gracilis showed decreased number of tracts, secondary to fatty infiltration and replacement of connective tissue and muscle mass loss characteristic of the underlying pathology. Our results demonstrated the utility of non-invasive MRI techniques to characterize the muscle pathology, through quantitative and qualitative methods such as the FA values and tractrography.

  20. [The diagnostic value of human chorionic gonadotrophin ratio compared to single measurements of S-human chorionic gonadotrophin on the outcome of pregnancy of unknown location].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Huda Galib; Lyngsø, Julie; Bor, Pinar

    2014-10-13

    Pregnancy of unknown location is defined by a positive pregnancy test, without visualizing of the intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy by transvaginal sonography. We present the advantages of using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) ratio instead of single measurements of S-hCG for predicting the outcomes of pregnancies of unknown location.

  1. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; Brossa, Ricard; Gil, Luis; Pita, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of abscisic acid found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN) and stomatal conductance (gS) in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM) and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  2. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana eLópez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of ABA found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN and stomatal conductance (gS in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m-2 s-1 AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  3. MR Imaging of Brachial Plexus and Limb-Girdle Muscles in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Agosta, Federica; Riva, Nilo; Spinelli, Edoardo G; Pagani, Elisabetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Chaabane, Linda; Copetti, Massimiliano; Quattrini, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    To assess brachial plexus magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities as signs of muscle denervation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study was approved by the local ethical committees on human studies, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before enrollment. By using an optimized protocol of brachial plexus MR imaging, brachial plexus and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were evaluated in 23 patients with ALS and clinical and neurophysiologically active involvement of the upper limbs and were compared with MR images in 12 age-matched healthy individuals. Nerve root and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were visually evaluated by two experienced observers. A region of interest-based analysis was performed to measure nerve root volume and T2 signal intensity. Measures obtained at visual inspection were analyzed by using the Wald χ(2) test. Mean T2 signal intensity and volume values of the regions of interest were compared between groups by using a hierarchical linear model, accounting for the repeated measurement design. The level of interrater agreement was very strong (κ = 0.77-1). T2 hyperintensity and volume alterations of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots were observed in patients with ALS (P < .001 to .03). Increased T2 signal intensity of nerve roots was associated with faster disease progression (upper-limb Medical Research Council scale progression rate, r = 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.001, 0.73). Limb-girdle muscle alterations (ie, T2 signal intensity alteration, edema, atrophy) and fat infiltration also were found, in particular, in the supraspinatus muscle, showing more frequent T2 signal intensity alterations and edema (P = .01) relative to the subscapularis and infraspinatus muscles. Increased T2 signal intensity and volume of brachial nerve roots do not exclude a diagnosis of ALS and suggest involvement of the peripheral nervous system in the ALS pathogenetic cascade. MR

  4. Some biological properties of human chorionic follicle stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojo, Shimpei; Ashitaka, Yoshihiko; Maruo, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The biological properties of human chorionic FSH (hCFSH) for rat ovaries were investigated. Highly purified hCFSH had similar response to the ovarian augmentation test as bovine FSH and significantly enhanced 3 H-thymidine uptake by granulosa cells and theca cells in the ovary of hypophysectomized rat. In contrast, highly purified hCG little responded to the ovarian augmentation test and had no effect on 3 H-thymidine uptake by the ovary. These results indicate that hCFSH may promote the follicular growth of ovary resulting from granulosa cell proliferation and its enlargement. In addition, freshly harvested porcine granulosa cells were employed in an in vitro system to investigate specific binding of hCFSH to ovarian receptor. Radioiodinated hCFSH ( 125 I-hCFSH) and hCG ( 125 I-hCG) were respectively incubated with cell suspensions. Binding of these hormone preparations was proportional to the cell number and increased with the time of incubation through 120 minutes. The binding ability of 125 I-hCFSH to the cells was greater than that of 125 I-hCG. Increasing concentrations of unlabeled hCFSH in the incubation mixture progressively inhibited the uptake of 125 I-hCFSH by granulosa cells. Unlabeled hCG was not able to compete with 125 I-hCFSH binding. The similar phenomenon to inhibit the binding of 125 I-hCG to the cells was also recognized in the presence of unlabeled hCG. These findings suggest that granulosa cell has at least two different types of receptor sites: one for hCFSH and the other for hCG. (auth.)

  5. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  6. Carinal transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, H; Shirakusa, T

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current techniques of management of carinal lesions are not always satisfactory. Carinal transplantation, if feasible, would be valuable in certain circumstances. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carinal transplantation experiments were performed in dogs. In early cross transplant experiments there were problems in controlling ventilation and in obtaining satisfactory anastomoses, and the animals failed to live for even a few days. In seven subsequent experiments the carinal graft was removed...

  7. Comparative analysis of phenotypes features in two common genetic variants of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sharkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of differential diagnosis of the two most common genetic variants the limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A and DMD, developed on the basis of a comprehensive survey of 85 patients with a diagnosis specification using techniques of DNA analysis. It is shown that the accurate diagnosis of LGMD genetic types should be based on the results of the clinical and genealogical, biochemical and molecular genetic analysis. The proposed algorithm will significantly reduces the economic and time costs with expensive DNA testing.

  8. Progressive dysphagia in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Dysphagia has not been reported in genetically confirmed limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). A 40-year-old woman reported exercise-induced calf pain at age 34, followed by progressive lower and upper limb weakness. At age 38, progressive dysphagia for solids, and subsequently liquids, ensued. Endoscopic and videofluoroscopic-radiological findings indicated a myopathic swallowing disorder. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed two dysferlin gene mutations consistent with a compound heterozygote state. Progressive dysphagia should be considered as part of the expanding dysferlinopathy phenotype.

  9. Transcriptomes of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Litchi Host Interaction after Tree Girdling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Li, Weicai; Liu, Liqin; Wei, Yongzan; Shi, Shengyou

    2016-01-01

    Trunk girdling can increase carbohydrate content above the girdling site and is an important strategy for inhibiting new shoot growth to promote flowering in cultivated litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). However, girdling inhibits carbohydrate transport to the root in nearly all of the fruit development periods and consequently decreases root absorption. The mechanism through which carbohydrates regulate root development in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) remains largely unknown. Carbohydrate content, AM colonization, and transcriptome in the roots were analyzed to elucidate the interaction between host litchi and AM fungi when carbohydrate content decreases. Girdling decreased glucose, fructose, sucrose, quebrachitol, and starch contents in the litchi mycorrhizal roots, thereby reducing AM colonization. RNA-seq achieved approximately 60 million reads of each sample, with an average length of reads reaching 100 bp. Assembly of all the reads of the 30 samples produced 671,316 transcripts and 381,429 unigenes, with average lengths of 780 and 643 bp, respectively. Litchi (54,100 unigenes) and AM fungi unigenes (33,120 unigenes) were achieved through sequence annotation during decreased carbohydrate content. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid are the main factors that regulate AM colonization in litchi. However, flavonoids may play a role in detecting the stage at which carbohydrate content decreases; alpha-linolenic acid or linoleic acid may affect AM formation under the adaptation process. Litchi trees stimulated the expression of defense-related genes and downregulated symbiosis signal-transduction genes to inhibit new AM colonization. Moreover, transcription factors of the AP2, ERF, Myb, WRKY, bHLH families, and lectin genes altered maintenance of litchi mycorrhizal roots in the post-symbiotic stage for carbohydrate starvation. Similar to those of the litchi host, the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex

  10. Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Bushby, Kate; Ricci, Enzo; Birchall, Daniel; Pane, Marika; Kinali, Maria; Allsop, Joanna; Nigro, Vincenzo; Sáenz, Amets; Nascimbeni, Annachiara; Fulizio, Luigi; Angelini, Corrado; Muntoni, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and early contractures. All patients showed a striking involvement of the posterior thigh muscles. The involvement of the other thigh muscles was variable and was related to clinical severity. Young patients with minimal functional motor impairment showed a predominant involvement of the adductors and semimembranosus muscles while patients with restricted ambulation had a more diffuse involvement of the posterolateral muscles of the thigh and of the vastus intermedius with relative sparing of the vastus lateralis, sartorius and gracilis. At calf level all patients showed involvement of the soleus muscle and of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with relative sparing of the lateral head. MRI findings were correlated to those found in two patients with the phenotype of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A without early contractures and the pattern observed was quite similar. However, the pattern observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is different from that reported in other muscle diseases such as Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy which have a significant clinical overlap with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A once early contractures are present. Our results suggest that muscle MRI may help in recognising patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A even when the clinical presentation overlaps with other conditions, and may therefore, be used as an additional investigation to target the appropriate biochemical and genetic tests.

  11. Carinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Shirakusa, T

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current techniques of management of carinal lesions are not always satisfactory. Carinal transplantation, if feasible, would be valuable in certain circumstances. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carinal transplantation experiments were performed in dogs. In early cross transplant experiments there were problems in controlling ventilation and in obtaining satisfactory anastomoses, and the animals failed to live for even a few days. In seven subsequent experiments the carinal graft was removed from one dog and transplanted into a second dog. Two dogs lived for over four months with immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that carinal transplantation can succeed if (1) the calibre of the graft is matched with that of the recipient; (2) there is an abundant blood supply to the graft; (3) appropriate immunosuppression is provided; (4) ventilation is adequate during surgery. Images PMID:1465758

  12. Application of radioreceptor assay for chorionic gonadotropin in diagnosis of normal and disturbed pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Nevinny-Stickel, J.

    1977-01-01

    For diagnoses of normal and disturbed pregnancy, a radioreceptor assay (RRA) for the detection of chorionic gonadotropin (HLG) has been developed. The hormone was labelled with 125 I. Compared with biological and immunological methods, the RRA has a higher sensitivity and a shorter evaluation time. (orig./VJ) [de

  13. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response to chemo...

  14. Complex shoulder girdle injuries following mountain bike accidents and a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Matthew Alexander; Makaram, Navnit; Srinivasan, Makaram S

    2016-01-01

    Background Mountain and road bike accidents are particularly common with the increased popularity of the sport. We reviewed the attendances in our emergency department over a 4-year period looking at cycling injuries to detect the level and grade of these injuries and their outcomes. Method Royal Blackburn Hospital caters for a population of 550 000. A search through the Hospital information system revealed 104 patients with fractures following mountain bike injuries. These were looked at in more detail. We present a series of 5 severe shoulder girdle injuries following mountain bike accidents in this cohort, to highlight the serious level of injury sustained in this sport. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases over the past 10 years using the keywords, mountain, biking and fracture. This yielded 7 papers. We compared our series with the literature. Results 104 fractures following mountain bike accidents between 2008 and 2011. Fractures of the upper limb were the most common (88.5%) with the clavicle being the most commonly fractured bone (28.8%). Conclusions Major scapular injuries with destruction or disruption of the four bar linkage of the shoulder girdle are very common following mountain accidents. Clavicular fractures are the commonest upper limb injury. It is easy to miss a disruption to the four-bar linkage associated with a clavicular injury. This paper highlights the severity of the injuries sustained in mountain bike accidents of the upper limb and requirement of adequate protection in this exhilarating sport. PMID:27900147

  15. Comparison of different patient positioning strategies to minimize shoulder girdle artifacts in head and neck CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stefan; Meindl, Thomas; Treitl, Marcus; Pfeifer, Klaus-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze different patient positioning strategies for minimizing artifacts of the shoulder girdle in head and neck CT. Standardized CT examinations of three positioning groups were compared (P: patients pushed their shoulders downwards; D: similar optimization by a pulling device; N: no particular positioning optimization). Parameters analyzed were the length of the cervical spine not being superimposed by the shoulder girdle as well as noise in the supraclavicular space. In groups P and D, the portion of the cervical spine not superimposed was significantly larger than in group N (P: 10.4 cm; D: 10.6 cm; N: 8.5 cm). At the supraclavicular space, noise decreased significantly (P: 12.5 HU; D: 12.1 HU; N: 17.7 HU). No significant differences between the two position-optimized groups (P and D) were detected. Optimized shoulder positioning by the patient increases image quality in CT head and neck imaging. The use of a pulling device offers no additional advantages.

  16. The girdles of the oldest fossil turtle, Proterochersis robusta, and the age of the turtle crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G; Schoch, Rainer R; Lyson, Tyler R

    2013-12-06

    Proterochersis robusta from the Late Triassic (Middle Norian) of Germany is the oldest known fossil turtle (i.e. amniote with a fully formed turtle shell), but little is known about its anatomy. A newly prepared, historic specimen provides novel insights into the morphology of the girdles and vertebral column of this taxon and the opportunity to reassess its phylogenetic position. The anatomy of the pectoral girdle of P. robusta is similar to that of other primitive turtles, including the Late Triassic (Carnian) Proganochelys quenstedti, in having a vertically oriented scapula, a large coracoid foramen, a short acromion process, and bony ridges that connect the acromion process with the dorsal process, glenoid, and coracoid, and by being able to rotate along a vertical axis. The pelvic elements are expanded distally and suturally attached to the shell, but in contrast to modern pleurodiran turtles the pelvis is associated with the sacral ribs. The primary homology of the character "sutured pelvis" is unproblematic between P. robusta and extant pleurodires. However, integration of all new observations into the most complete phylogenetic analysis that support the pleurodiran nature of P. robusta reveals that this taxon is more parsimoniously placed along the phylogenetic stem of crown Testudines. All current phylogenetic hypotheses therefore support the basal placement of this taxon, imply that the sutured pelvis of this taxon developed independently from that of pleurodires, and conclude that the age of the turtle crown is Middle Jurassic.

  17. CLINICAL TESTS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE PAIN IN PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Šćepanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PGP refers to the pain in the lumbosacral region, the sacroiliac joints and the symphysis pubis joint. The results of the high methodological quality studies indicate that the point prevalence of pregnant women suffering from PGP is about 20 %. Pregnancy-related PGP requires a comprehensive physiotherapy assessment in order to make or confirm a diagnosis, plan the treatment and evaluate the patient’s condi- tion. Physiotherapy assessment includes clinical diagnostic tests which should satisfy the criteria of safety, feasibility, reliability, sensitivity, specificity and validity. The aim of the present paper was to systematically review the literature on clinical diagnostic tests of PGP in order to determine which clinical tests meet the necessary criteria and are appropriate for clinical examination of PGP in pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: PubMed, Cinahl, Embase, Index Medicus databases and the Cochrane controlled trials reg- ister from 1980 to 2008 were searched using the key words, pregnancy/pelvic girdle pain, pregnancy/clinical tests/sacroiliac joint/symphysis pubis. Only the articles/texts in English and Slovene were reviewed unless translated abstract was available. Additional manual searches of the reference lists in books and review articles were undertaken. Along with the randomized clinical studies the literature search encompassed also the basic studies. Results: Nine studies evaluating the tests for clinical examination of the pregnancy-related PGP met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The studies evaluated and analysed six provocation tests for the sacroiliac joint, namely, the Posterior pelvic pain provocation test (P4, Patrick’s Faber test, palpation of the long dorsal ligament, compression test, separation test, Menell’s test as well as two provocation tests for the symphysis pubis joint (pain palpation and a modified Trendelenburg test and one functional

  18. Function and failure of the fetal membrane: Modelling the mechanics of the chorion and amnion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan W Verbruggen

    Full Text Available The fetal membrane surrounds the fetus during pregnancy and is a thin tissue composed of two layers, the chorion and the amnion. While rupture of this membrane normally occurs at term, preterm rupture can result in increased risk of fetal mortality and morbidity, as well as danger of infection in the mother. Although structural changes have been observed in the membrane in such cases, the mechanical behaviour of the human fetal membrane in vivo remains poorly understood and is challenging to investigate experimentally. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop simplified finite element models to investigate the mechanical behaviour and rupture of the fetal membrane, particularly its constituent layers, under various physiological conditions. It was found that modelling the chorion and amnion as a single layer predicts remarkably different behaviour compared with a more anatomically-accurate bilayer, significantly underestimating stress in the amnion and under-predicting the risk of membrane rupture. Additionally, reductions in chorion-amnion interface lubrication and chorion thickness (reported in cases of preterm rupture both resulted in increased membrane stress. Interestingly, the inclusion of a weak zone in the fetal membrane that has been observed to develop overlying the cervix would likely cause it to fail at term, during labour. Finally, these findings support the theory that the amnion is the dominant structural component of the fetal membrane and is required to maintain its integrity. The results provide a novel insight into the mechanical effect of structural changes in the chorion and amnion, in cases of both normal and preterm rupture.

  19. Internal hemipelvectomy with intraoperative and external beam radiotherapy in the limb-sparing treatment of a pelvic girdle chondrosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, HJ; Szabo, BG

    The case of a patient with an extensive pelvic girdle chondrosarcoma treated with internal hemipelvectomy and intraoperative radiotherapy, followed by adjuvant high-dose external beam radiotherapy, with a successful attempt in achieving long-term local tumor control and limb-sparing treatment is

  20. Variation in the pelvic and pectoral girdles of Australian Oligo–Miocene mekosuchine crocodiles with implications for locomotion and habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Stein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Australian Oligo–Miocene mekosuchines (Crocodylia; Crocodyloidea display wide diversity in cranial shape and inferred hunting strategies. Terrestrial habitus has been inferred for these distinctive predators. A direct morphological signal for locomotion can be expected in the postcrania, particularly the pelvic and pectoral girdles. Here we describe fossil materials of the girdles, which chart their morphological variation in the subfamily from Eocene through to Middle Miocene. Over this period, both girdles undergo significant morphological changes. Notably, an enclosed, ventrally orientated acetabulum in the ilium is developed in one lineage. This recapitulates the erect parasagittal configuration of the pelvic limb seen in many Mesozoic crocodylomorph lineages, suggesting consistent use of erect high-walking in these mekosuchines. Other pelves from the same Oligo–Miocene deposits display morphology closer to modern crocodilians, suggesting a partitioning of locomotory strategy among sympatric mekosuchines. Plesiomorphic and derived pelvic girdles are distinguishable by parsimony analysis, and the earliest examples of the mekosuchine pelvis more closely resemble gavialids and alligatorids while latter forms converge on crown group crocodylids in the morphology of the iliac crest. This suggests that a revaluation of the base relationship of Mekosuchinae within Eusuchia is necessary.

  1. Effect of giberellic acid (GA4/7) and girdling on induction of reproductive structures in Pinus patula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Hernandez, J.J.; Vargas-Abonce, J.I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. Seed production in forest tree species commonly takes a long time due to the length of the juvenile stage. Even though several treatments have been used to induce early flowering in conifer species, experience on their use in subtropical Pinus species is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of GA4/7 dose (0, 1.27 and 2.54 mg cm-2) and application time (July-October), alone or in combination with partial stem girdling, on male and female strobili production in young Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. clones. Area of study: Nine clones with different flowering background of high-elevation Pinus patula growing in a six-year old seed orchard established in Central México (Aquixtla, Puebla) at 2,800 m elevation. Material and methods: Two independent flowering trials (FT1 and FT2) were carried out in the seed orchard during the 2009 and 2010 flowering cycles; similar factors were evaluated at both trials but time of application, clones tested, and experimental design used varied for each of them. Partial stem girdling was done at the base of the trunk and the GA4/7 solution was injected into the xylem above the point of girdling. The following spring, the percentage of trees with strobili and the number of strobili per tree were determined for both male and female structures. Main results: Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among clones in flowering capacity were found at both trials. None of the treatments applied in FT1 resulted in an increase of strobili formation, most probably because they were applied too late in the growing season. In FT2, however, application of GA4/7 combined with partial stem girdling increased the percentage of trees with strobili and the number of strobili of both sexes, particularly when applied in early July. Partial stem girdling was more effective on promoting male strobili than female ones in gibberellin-treated grafts. Research highlights: Timing of GA4/7 application and stem girdling was

  2. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  3. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  4. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  5. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the primary problems with hepatitis C patients was universal recurrence of the virus after transplantation. However, with ... Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now ...

  6. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  7. Transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antibodies References Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Transplantation immunology. In: Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 17. ...

  8. Pancreas Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  9. Asymmetries of the shoulder and pelvic girdles in girls with scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research: To evaluate the asymmetries of the shoulder and pelvic girdles in girls aged 7–18 with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. Material and methods: The children were enrolled at the Międzyszkolny Ośrodek Gimnastyki Korekcyjnej i Kompensacyjnej (Interschool Corrective and Compensatory Gymnastics Centre in Starachowice. The research was carried out in June 2011. 3D digital photogrammetry using the moiré effect was adopted in the research. Depending on the conformity of the variables’ distributions with the normal distribution, and the values of skewness and kurtosis, parametric or non-parametric tests were adopted. The variables were verified in terms of normal distribution with the Shapiro-Wilk test. A screening analysis of the parameters of physiological curvatures of the spine in age groups was also carried out. The relation between the frequency and type of disorders in the frontal plane and age was determined using the χ 2 test. Value of p ≤ 0.05 was assumed as the level of significance. Results: Based on the size of the angle of the curvature of the spine the following were singled out scoliotic posture (1–9° and idiopathic scoliosis (≥ 10°. There were 21 (75% children with the scoliotic posture and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. The frequency and type of disorders in the frontal plane does not depend on the age of the examined. Asymmetry of the shoulders and shoulder blades was found in all of the examined. The left shoulder along with the left shoulder blade were raised more often. The right side of the pelvis was lowered in most of the examined. Posterior rotation of the left hip bone occurred more often. Conclusions: The values of WBM, WBK and WBC asymmetry coefficients confirm the asymmetry of the shoulder and hip girdles. Analysis of variance did not show any significant relations of asymmetry of the shoulder and hip girdles and the age of the examined.

  10. Increasing Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Dose Alters Oligodendroglial and Neuronal Differentiation after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja M. Piltti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells transplanted at doses ranging from 10,000 (low to 500,000 (very high cells differentiated predominantly into the oligodendroglial lineage. However, while the number of engrafted cells increased linearly in relationship to increasing dose, the proportion of oligodendrocytic cells declined. Increasing dose resulted in a plateau of engraftment, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and increased distal migration caudal to the transplantation sites. Dose had no effect on terminal sensory recovery or open-field locomotor scores. However, total human cell number and decreased oligodendroglial proportion were correlated with hindlimb girdle coupling errors. Conversely, greater oligodendroglial proportion was correlated with increased Ab step pattern, decreased swing speed, and increased paw intensity, consistent with improved recovery. These data suggest that transplant dose, and/or target niche parameters can regulate donor cell engraftment, differentiation/maturation, and lineage-specific migration profiles.

  11. Contractile properties are disrupted in Becker muscular dystrophy, but not in limb girdle type 2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether a linear relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) is preserved in calf muscles of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, n = 14) and limb-girdle type 2I muscular dystrophy (LGMD2I, n = 11), before and after correcting for muscle fat infiltration. The Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to quantify fat and calculate a fat-free contractile CSA. Strength was assessed by dynamometry. Muscle strength/CSA relationships were significantly lower in patients versus controls. The strength/contractile-CSA relationship was still severely lowered in BMD, but was almost normalized in LGMD2I. Our findings suggest close to intact contractile properties in LGMD2I, which are severely disrupted in BMD. Ann Neurol 2016;80:466-471. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  12. Diagnosis of tumors in the shoulder girdle by means of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, I.; Gaffke, G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Felix, R.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the value of MRI for evaluation of tumors of the shoulder girdle. We diagnosed respectively 13 patients with lesions in the shoulder region. The imaging has been done with a 'Magnetom SP 63' (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The protocol consisted of T1- and T2-based SE-sequences in axial slice orientation, T1-based imaging in coronary respectively in sagittal slice orientation as well as T1-based sequences after application of contrast medium. The evaluation of the tumor expansion within the soft tissue was possible. The exact diagnosis in some individual cases - neurinoma, cyst of the synovia - could be found by MRI. Estimation of the dignity in the case of infiltrative growth was possible in most cases. To assess the exact type of tumor was often difficult. Especially the dignity of the cartilaginous tumors could not be precisely described. (orig.) [de

  13. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Veloso de Albuquerque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calpainopathy is an autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A caused by mutations in CAPN3 gene. Objective To present clinical and histological findings in six children with a molecular diagnosis of LGMD2A and additionally the MRI findings in two of them. Method We retrospectively assessed medical records of 6 patients with mutation on CAPN3 gene. Results All patients were female (three to 12 years. The mean of age of disease onset was 9 years. All of them showed progressive weakness with predominance in lower limbs. Other findings were scapular winging, joint contractures and calf hypertrophy. One female had a more severe phenotype than her dizygotic twin sister that was confirmed by muscle MRI. Muscle biopsies showed a dystrophic pattern in all patients. Conclusion In this cohort of children with LGMD2A, the clinical aspects were similar to adults with the same disorder.

  14. Gene expression profiling in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amets Sáenz

    Full Text Available Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A is a recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3. Calpain 3 plays different roles in muscular cells, but little is known about its functions or in vivo substrates. The aim of this study was to identify the genes showing an altered expression in LGMD2A patients and the possible pathways they are implicated in. Ten muscle samples from LGMD2A patients with in which molecular diagnosis was ascertained were investigated using array technology to analyze gene expression profiling as compared to ten normal muscle samples. Upregulated genes were mostly those related to extracellular matrix (different collagens, cell adhesion (fibronectin, muscle development (myosins and melusin and signal transduction. It is therefore suggested that different proteins located or participating in the costameric region are implicated in processes regulated by calpain 3 during skeletal muscle development. Genes participating in the ubiquitin proteasome degradation pathway were found to be deregulated in LGMD2A patients, suggesting that regulation of this pathway may be under the control of calpain 3 activity. As frizzled-related protein (FRZB is upregulated in LGMD2A muscle samples, it could be hypothesized that beta-catenin regulation is also altered at the Wnt signaling pathway, leading to an incorrect myogenesis. Conversely, expression of most transcription factor genes was downregulated (MYC, FOS and EGR1. Finally, the upregulation of IL-32 and immunoglobulin genes may induce the eosinophil chemoattraction explaining the inflammatory findings observed in presymptomatic stages. The obtained results try to shed some light on identification of novel therapeutic targets for limb-girdle muscular dystrophies.

  15. The role of abnormal fetal heart rate in scheduling chorionic villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagel, S; Anteby, E; Ron, M; Hochner-Celnikier, D; Achiron, R

    1992-09-01

    To assess the value of fetal heart rate (FHR) measurements in predicting spontaneous fetal loss in pregnancies scheduled for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). A prospective descriptive study. Two hospital departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Israel. 114 women between 9 and 11 weeks gestation scheduled for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Fetal heart rate was measured by transvaginal Doppler ultrasound and compared with a monogram established from 75 fetuses. Whenever a normal FHR was recorded, CVS was performed immediately. 106 women had a normal FHR and underwent CVS; two of these pregnancies ended in miscarriage. In five pregnancies no fetal heart beats could be identified and fetal death was diagnosed. In three pregnancies an abnormal FHR was recorded and CVS was postponed; all three pregnancies ended in miscarriage within 2 weeks. Determination of FHR correlated with crown-rump length could be useful in predicting spontaneous miscarriage before performing any invasive procedure late in the first trimester.

  16. Tissue-specific expression of silkmoth chorion genes in vivo using Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a transducing vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrou, K; Meidinger, R G

    1990-01-01

    A pair of silkmoth chorion chromosomal genes, HcA.12-HcB.12, was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, pBmp2, derived from the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Bombyx mori. This vector, which permits the insertion of foreign genetic material in the vicinity of a mutationally inactivated polyhedrin gene, was used to acquire the corresponding recombinant virus. Injection of mutant silkmoth pupae that lack all Hc chorion genes with the recombinant virus resulted in the infection of all internal organs including follicular tissue. Analysis of RNA from infected tissues has demonstrated that the two chorion genes present in the viral genome are correctly transcribed under the control of their own promoter in follicular cells, the tissue in which chorion genes are normally expressed. The chorion primary transcripts are also correctly processed in the infected follicular cells and yield mature mRNAs indistinguishable from authentic chorion mRNAs present in wild-type follicles. These results demonstrate that recombinant nuclear polyhedrosis viruses can be used as transducing vectors for introducing genetic material of host origin into the cells of the organism and that the transduced genes are transiently expressed in a tissue-specific manner under the control of their resident regulatory sequences. Thus we show the in vivo expression of cloned genes under cellular promoter control in an insect other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach should be applicable to all insect systems that are subject to nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection. Images PMID:2187186

  17. Physical-chemical and biological characterization of different preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Rafael Herrera; Natal, Fabio Luis Nogueira; Ribela, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto; de Almeida, Beatriz Elane; de Oliveira, Jo?o Ezequiel; Bartolini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation with commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) produces extremely variable responses in domestic animals, ranging from excessive stimulation to practically no stimulation, when applied on the basis of their declared unitage. This study was conducted to analyze four commercial preparations from different manufacturers via reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) in comparison with a reference preparation and an official International Standard from the World Health...

  18. Generation of iPSC lines from primary human chorionic villi cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Lichtner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary human chorionic villi (CV cells were used to generate the iPSC line by retroviral transduction of the four Yamanaka-factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptomes of the CV-derived iPSC lines and the human embryonic stem cell lines—H1 and H9 have a Pearson correlation of 0.929 and 0.943 respectively.

  19. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for human chorionic somatomammotropin using the avidin-biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappuoli, R.; Leoncini, P.; Tarli, P.; Neri, P.

    1981-01-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) is determined by an enzyme immunoassay where HCS competes with biotin-labeled HCS for insolubilized anti-HCS antibodies. Enzyme-labeled avidin is then used to reveal the amount of bound HCS. The system proves to be sensitive (1 ng/ml of HCS can be detected) and results agree with radioimmunoassay determinations (correlation coefficient = 0.979). Kinetics of the avidin-biotin reaction and coating of polystyrene wells are also investigated

  20. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  1. [Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle: pregnancy outcomes by technique used].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallina, J; Anselem, O; Haddad, B; Touboul, C; Tsatsaris, V; Le Ray, C

    2014-11-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle. Retrospective bicentric study including all women who had a transabdominal chorionic villus sampling between 2005 and 2009 (172 using biopsy forceps and 160 using needle). The primary endpoint was the rate of fetal loss, after excluding medical abortion due to the result of the biopsy. The secondary endpoint was the rate of premature rupture of the membrane. All cases were reviewed to try to determine the responsibility of the biopsy. The pregnancy outcomes were not different between the two groups: 4 (4.4%) fetal losses in the biopsy forceps group and 6 (7.4%) in the needle group (P=0.52). Only one case (1.2%) of fetal loss can be attributed to the biopsy, using a needle, and none (0%) following a forceps biospy (P=0.29). The rate of premature rupture of the membrane was comparable in the two groups. The pregnancy outcomes following chorionic villus sampling using a biopsy forceps or a needle seem comparable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of β sub unit HCG following hydatidiform mole or chorionic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherne, G.; Puerstner, P.

    1979-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of Beta Sub Unit HCG in the serum heralds a marked improvement in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease. In nine cases of hydatidiform mole and three cases of chorionic carcinoma serial examinations of the Beta Sub Unit HCG were performed. When the immunologic pregnancy test became negative following a hydatidiform mole or following treatment of chorionic carcinoma, the HCG excretion remained above detectable values for several more weeks. The decrease of Beta Sub Unit serum HCG was either linear or in fluctuations. The detection of fluctuations or a secondary rise in the Beta Sub Unit HCG titre permits the early diagnosis of invasive trophoblastic disease following hydatidiform mole or of insufficient treatment or recurrence in cases of chorionic carcinoma. Our results suggest that the optimal follow-up with Beta Sub Unit serum HCG is by weekly determinations until four consecutive determinations remained negative. This is followed by two determinations at bi-weekly intervals and thereafter monthly follow-up examinations. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  3. Pancreas transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V.; Anderson, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  4. Pancreas transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Anderson, E.M. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ewan.anderson@orh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  5. Pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation can be complicated by vascular thrombosis, stenosis, or anastomotic leak, complications that predispose to transplant pancreatectomy. The relative roles of noninvasive radiologic studies in such vascular complications have been correlated with angiographic or pathologic data. The results of 54 scintigraphic studies, 25 CT studies, 16 sonograms, and 23 color Doppler examinations have been correlated with those of 40 angiograms and 28 pathologic studies in a population of 185 recipients. CT (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 75%; accuracy, 92%) and US (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 80%; accuracy, 85%) were most helpful in noninvasive screening for vascular complications, while angiography remains nearly definite in the radiographic diagnosis of these problems

  6. Glu20Ter Variant in PLEC 1f Isoform Causes Limb-Girdle Muscle Dystrophy with Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Deev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plectinopathies are orphan diseases caused by PLEC gene mutations. PLEC is encoding the protein plectin, playing a role in linking cytoskeleton components in various tissues. In this study, we describe the clinical case of a 26-year-old patient with an early onset plectinopathy variant “limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2Q,” report histopathological and ultrastructural findings in m. vastus lateralis biopsy and a novel homozygous likely pathogenic variant (NM_201378.3:c.58G>T, NP_958780.1:p.Glu20Ter in isoform 1f of the gene PLEC. The patient had an early childhood onset with retarded physical development, moderate weakness in pelvic girdle muscles, progressive weakening of limb-girdle muscles after the age of 21, pronounced atrophy of axial muscles, and hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius, deltoid, and triceps muscles, intermittent dyspnea, and no skin involvement. Findings included: non-infectious bronchiolitis and atelectasis signs, biopsy revealed myodystrophal pattern without macrophage infiltration, muscle fiber cytoskeleton disorganization resulted from the plectin loss, incomplete reparative rhabdomyogenesis, and moderate endomysial fibrosis. We have determined a novel likely pathogenic variant in PLEC 1f isoform that causes limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2Q and described the third case concerning an isolated myodystrophic phenotype of LGMD2Q with the likely pathogenic variant in PLEC 1f isoform. In addition, we have demonstrated the presence of severe lung injury in a patient and his siblings with the same myodystrophic phenotype and discussed the possible role of plectin deficiency in its pathogenesis.

  7. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation.

  8. Homology of the enigmatic nuchal bone reveals novel reorganization of the shoulder girdle in the evolution of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Bever, Gabe S; Joyce, Walter G; de Queiroz, Kevin; Abzhanov, Arhat; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2013-01-01

    The turtle shell represents a unique modification of the ancestral tetrapod body plan. The homologies of its approximately 50 bones have been the subject of debate for more than 200 years. Although most of those homologies are now firmly established, the evolutionary origin of the dorsal median nuchal bone of the carapace remains unresolved. We propose a novel hypothesis in which the nuchal is derived from the paired, laterally positioned cleithra-dorsal elements of the ancestral tetrapod pectoral girdle that are otherwise retained among extant tetrapods only in frogs. This hypothesis is supported by origin of the nuchal as paired, mesenchymal condensations likely derived from the neural crest followed by a unique two-stage pattern of ossification. Further support is drawn from the establishment of the nuchal as part of a highly conserved "muscle scaffold" wherein the cleithrum (and its evolutionary derivatives) serves as the origin of the Musculus trapezius. Identification of the nuchal as fused cleithra is congruent with its general spatial relationships to other elements of the shoulder girdle in the adult morphology of extant turtles, and it is further supported by patterns of connectivity and transformations documented by critical fossils from the turtle stem group. The cleithral derivation of the nuchal implies an anatomical reorganization of the pectoral girdle in which the dermal portion of the girdle was transformed from a continuous lateral-ventral arc into separate dorsal and ventral components. This transformation involved the reduction and eventual loss of the scapular rami of the clavicles along with the dorsal and superficial migration of the cleithra, which then fused with one another and became incorporated into the carapace. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  10. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... happens after I go home? Once you are home from the hospital, the most important work begins—the follow-up. For your transplant to ... possible. Are there disadvantages to living donation? A ... returning to work and other activities. However, recent advances in surgery ( ...

  11. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  12. Corneal Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard

    with less risk of rejection episodes. Besides covering updated chapters on penetrating keratoplasty, and anterior and posterior lamellar procedures, this textbook also gives a thorough overview of the history of corneal transplantation and a detailed presentation of the microstructural components...... and to assist fellows and corneal surgeons in their advice and selection of patients for the best surgical procedure considering benefi ts and risks....

  13. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  14. Stem girdling affects the quantity of CO2 transported in xylem as well as CO2 efflux from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Agneessens, Laura; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Aubrey, Doug P; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    There is recent clear evidence that an important fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported upward in the transpiration stream in tree stems rather than fluxing to the soil. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of root-respired CO2 to both soil CO2 efflux and xylem CO2 transport by manipulating the autotrophic component of belowground respiration. We compared soil CO2 efflux and the flux of root-respired CO2 transported in the transpiration stream in girdled and nongirdled 9-yr-old oak trees (Quercus robur) to assess the impact of a change in the autotrophic component of belowground respiration on both CO2 fluxes. Stem girdling decreased xylem CO2 concentration, indicating that belowground respiration contributes to the aboveground transport of internal CO2 . Girdling also decreased soil CO2 efflux. These results confirmed that root respiration contributes to xylem CO2 transport and that failure to account for this flux results in inaccurate estimates of belowground respiration when efflux-based methods are used. This research adds to the growing body of evidence that efflux-based measurements of belowground respiration underestimate autotrophic contributions. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Calpain 3 is important for muscle regeneration: Evidence from patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauerslev Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how mutations in the four functional domains of calpain 3 affect muscle regeneration. Methods We studied muscle regeneration in 22 patients with LGMD2A with calpain 3 deficiency, in five patients with LGMD2I, with a secondary reduction in calpain 3, and in five patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD with normal calpain 3 levels. Regeneration was assessed by using the developmental markers neonatal myosin heavy chain (nMHC, vimentin, MyoD and myogenin and counting internally nucleated fibers. Results We found that the recent regeneration as determined by the number of nMHC/vimentin-positive fibers was greatly diminished in severely affected LGMD2A patients compared to similarly affected patients with LGMD2I and BMD. Whorled fibers, a sign of aberrant regeneration, was highly elevated in patients with a complete lack of calpain 3 compared to patients with residual calpain 3. Regeneration is not affected by location of the mutation in the CAPN3 gene. Conclusions Our findings suggest that calpain 3 is needed for the regenerative process probably during sarcomere remodeling as the complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe phenotypes.

  16. Body weight-supported training in Becker and limb girdle 2I muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bente R; Berthelsen, Martin P; Husu, Edith; Christensen, Sofie B; Prahm, Kira P; Vissing, John

    2016-08-01

    We studied the functional effects of combined strength and aerobic anti-gravity training in severely affected patients with Becker and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies. Eight patients performed 10-week progressive combined strength (squats, calf raises, lunges) and aerobic (walk/run, jogging in place or high knee-lift) training 3 times/week in a lower-body positive pressure environment. Closed-kinetic-chain leg muscle strength, isometric knee strength, rate of force development (RFD), and reaction time were evaluated. Baseline data indicated an intact neural activation pattern but showed compromised muscle contractile properties. Training (compliance 91%) improved functional leg muscle strength. Squat series performance increased 30%, calf raises 45%, and lunges 23%. Anti-gravity training improved closed-kinetic-chain leg muscle strength despite no changes in isometric knee extension strength and absolute RFD. The improved closed-kinetic-chain performance may relate to neural adaptation involving motor learning and/or improved muscle strength of other muscles than the weak knee extensors. Muscle Nerve 54: 239-243, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Classification, Natural History and Treatment of the Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexander Peter; Straub, Volker

    2015-07-22

    Over sixty years ago John Walton and Frederick Nattrass defined limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) as a separate entity from the X-linked dystrophinopathies such as Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. LGMD is a highly heterogeneous group of very rare neuromuscular disorders whose common factor is their autosomal inheritance. Sixty years later, with the development of increasingly advanced molecular genetic investigations, a more precise classification and understanding of the pathogenesis is possible.To date, over 30 distinct subtypes of LGMD have been identified, most of them inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. There are significant differences in the frequency of subtypes of LGMD between different ethnic populations, providing evidence of founder mutations. Clinically there is phenotypic heterogeneity between subtypes of LGMD with varying severity and age of onset of symptoms. The first natural history studies into subtypes of LGMD are in process, but large scale longitudinal data have been lacking due to the rare nature of these diseases. Following natural history data collection, the next challenge is to develop more effective, disease specific treatments. Current management is focussed on symptomatic and supportive treatments. Advances in the application of new omics technologies and the generation of large-scale biomedical data will help to better understand disease mechanisms in LGMD and should ultimately help to accelerate the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches.

  18. Relevance of discrete traits in forensic anthropology: From the first cervical vertebra to the pelvic girdle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Adalian, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    In forensic anthropology, identification begins by determining the sex, age, ancestry and stature of the individuals. Asymptomatic variations present on the skeleton, known as discrete traits, can be useful to identify individuals, or at least contribute to complete their biological profile. We decided to focus our work on the upper part of the skeleton, from the first vertebra to the pelvic girdle, and we chose to present 8 discrete traits (spina bifida occulta, butterfly vertebra, supraclavicular nerve foramen, coracoclavicular joint, os acromiale, suprascapular foramen, manubrium foramen and pubic spine), because they show a frequency lower than 10%. We examined 502 anonymous CT scans from polytraumatized individuals, aged 15 to 65 years, in order to detect the selected discrete traits. Age and sex were known for each subject. Thin sections in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes and 3D volume rendering images were created and examined for the visualization of the selected discrete traits. Supraclavicular foramina were found only in males and only on the left clavicle. Coracoclavicular joints were observed only in males. The majority of individuals with a suprascapular foramen were older than 50 years of age. Pubic spines were observed mostly in females. Other traits did not present significant association with sex, age and laterality. No association between traits was highlighted. Better knowledge of human skeletal variations will help anthropologists come closer to a positive identification, especially if these variations are rare, therefore making them more discriminant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The pelvic fin and girdle of Panderichthys and the origin of tetrapod locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Catherine A

    2005-12-22

    One of the most marked transformations in the vertebrate transition to land was that of fins to limbs. This transformation involved not only the generation of morphological novelties (digits, sacrum) but also a shift in locomotory dominance from the pectoral to the pelvic appendage. Despite its importance, the transformation from pelvic fin to hindlimb is the least studied and least well-documented part of this transformation, which is bracketed by the osteolepiform Eusthenopteron and the early tetrapods Ichthyostega and Acanthostega, but is not directly illuminated by any intermediate form. Panderichthys is the closest tetrapod relative currently represented by complete fossils, but its pelvic fin skeleton has not been described. Here, I present the only known articulated pelvic fin endoskeleton and associated partial pelvis of Panderichthys. The pelvic girdle is even less tetrapod-like than that of the osteolepiform Eusthenopteron, but the pelvic fin endoskeleton shares derived characteristics with basal tetrapods despite being more primitive than the pectoral fin of Panderichthys. The evolution of tetrapod locomotion appears to have passed through a stage of body-flexion propulsion, in which the pelvic fins played a relatively minor anchoring part, before the emergence of hindlimb-powered propulsion in the interval between Panderichthys and Acanthostega.

  20. The effect of squash training on shoulder girdle mobility and frequency of injury among player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Gajewski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Squash is a relatively new field in the Polish sports market. Its specification is based primarily on dynamic movements, often taking place at the end of its scope. This condition is an increased risk of injury as well as numerous compensations throughout the body. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of squash training on shoulder mobility of active athletes and to identify factors likely to increase trauma among players. Does squash game cause hypermobility in all dimension? Do long-term breaks in squash training increase the frequency of injuries? Does pre-training warm up affect trauma? Material and method: The study consists 110 active players: 19 women (17% and 91 men (83% age between 17 and 50 years. The research tool was an author’s questionnaire consisting of metrics and closed questions, which examined the problem and testing the mobility of the shoulder girdle using  an inclinometer and functional tests. Descriptive statistics were made. The greatest limitation of the range of motion in the shoulder joint is observed in the sagittal plane - flexion. No injury was associated with a prolonged break from training. Conclusion: Squash players did not have hypomobility in the shoulder joint and even had a limited range of motion. Long-term breaks in squash training do not increase the level of trauma.

  1. Shoulder Girdle Muscles Endurance in Subjects with and without Impingement Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoun Nodehi-Moghadam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Any minimal alteration in performance and coordination of scapular and glenohumeral muscles has the potential to lead to shoulder joint dysfunction. The impingement syndrome has been reported as is the most common diagnosis of shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endurance deficits could be detected in patients with shoulder impingement. Materials & Methods: By convenient sampling 15 patients with impingement syndrome at average of 45.3 years of age and 15 healthy persons (age 45.8 years through a case–control design participated in the study. Endurance of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic muscles were tested with a hand held dynamometer. Independent t–test was used to statistically analyze different groups. Results: Compared to non–impaired subjects, those with impingement syndrome demonstrated a significantly lower endurance of external rotation, scaption and scapular abduction and upward rotation movements (P<0.05. In impingement syndrome patients, the external–to–internal rotator muscles endurance ratio was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The result of the study suggests that endurance deficit of rotator cuff and scapular upward rotator muscles may be an important aspect of the impingement syndrome. Shoulder girdle muscles endurance should be considered in evaluation and physical therapy of impingement syndrome patients.

  2. Gorham-Stout syndrome of the pelvic girdle treated by radiation therapy. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, Reinhard; Tselis, Nikolaos; Zamboglou, Nikolaos; Rabeneck, Daniela; Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main; Doernenburg, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS) is a rare, benign idiopathic and progressive disorder causing massive osteolysis due to a vascular hyperproliferation replacing the bony structure. Clinical experience concerning the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) is limited to about 50 of an overall 200 cases reported worldwide. Case Report: A 24-year-old bedridden woman had histologically proven GSS with destruction of the anterior pelvic girdle and received RT for a total dose of 45.0 Gy applied in 5 weekly fractions of 1.8 Gy. In addition, the patient received intravenously 4 mg zoledronic acid once a month. One year after the combined treatment, complete pain relief occurred, and the patient was able to walk without the use of appliances. Imaging studies revealed no progression of the osteolysis but only minimal signs of remineralization. Conclusion: Combined treatment with RT and bisphosphonate administration can prevent the progression of osteolysis in GSS. Total doses of 40-45 Gy are recommended. (orig.)

  3. Gorham-Stout syndrome of the pelvic girdle treated by radiation therapy. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, Reinhard; Tselis, Nikolaos; Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Strahlenklinik; Rabeneck, Daniela [Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Strahlenklinik; Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie; Doernenburg, Oliver [Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-02-15

    The Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS) is a rare, benign idiopathic and progressive disorder causing massive osteolysis due to a vascular hyperproliferation replacing the bony structure. Clinical experience concerning the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) is limited to about 50 of an overall 200 cases reported worldwide. Case Report: A 24-year-old bedridden woman had histologically proven GSS with destruction of the anterior pelvic girdle and received RT for a total dose of 45.0 Gy applied in 5 weekly fractions of 1.8 Gy. In addition, the patient received intravenously 4 mg zoledronic acid once a month. One year after the combined treatment, complete pain relief occurred, and the patient was able to walk without the use of appliances. Imaging studies revealed no progression of the osteolysis but only minimal signs of remineralization. Conclusion: Combined treatment with RT and bisphosphonate administration can prevent the progression of osteolysis in GSS. Total doses of 40-45 Gy are recommended. (orig.)

  4. Clinical and muscle biopsy findings in Norwegian paediatric patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Magnhild; Scheie, David; Breivik, Noralv; Mork, Marit; Lindal, Sigurd

    2014-05-01

    To describe patients diagnosed with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I) in our paediatric departments between 2004 and 2012. The hospital charts of 17 patients presenting for evaluation at a mean age of 7.8 years (range 1-13 years) were retrospectively reviewed. With one exception, all patients were homozygous for the common mutation c.826C>A in the FKRP gene. Three patients experienced transient pronounced weakness as toddlers. Fatigue and muscle pain were most prominent, weakness less so, in children presenting at an older age. The degree of severity varied substantially. In certain cases, increased creatine kinase was an incidental finding. All walked independently by 18 months. When last evaluated at a mean age of 14.3 years (range 3.5-18 years), five patients were part-time wheelchair users. One patient was then treated for a cardiomyopathy. Creatine kinase was consistently increased, except presymptomatic in one patient. Muscle biopsies showed focal acute and chronic myopathic changes and pathological expression of α-dystroglycan. No consistent relationship between clinical function and the degree of morphological pathology was found. LGMD2I is a relevant differential diagnosis when creatine kinase is increased in children presenting with fatigue, muscle pain and sometimes weakness. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Probable high prevalence of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Chou, Po-Ching; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Su, Yi-Ning; Kan, Tsu-Min; Chen, Wan-Zi; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2016-03-15

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D), an autosomal-recessive inherited LGMD, is caused by the mutations in SGCA. SGCA encodes alpha-sarcoglycan (SG) that forms a heterotetramer with other SGs in the sarcolemma, and comprises part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. The frequency of LGMD2D is variable among different ethnic backgrounds, and so far only a few patients have been reported in Asia. We identified five patients with a novel homozygous mutation of c.101G>T (p.Arg34Leu) in SGCA from a big aboriginal family ethnically consisting of two tribes in Taiwan. Patient 3 is the maternal uncle of patients 1 and 2. All their parents, heterozygous for c.101G>T, denied consanguineous marriages although they were from the same tribe. The heterozygous parents of patients 4 and 5 were from two different tribes, originally residing in different geographic regions in Taiwan. Haplotype analysis showed that all five patients shared the same mutation-associated haplotype, indicating the probability of a founder effect and consanguinity. The results suggest that the carrier rate of c.101G>T in SGCA may be high in Taiwan, especially in the aboriginal population regardless of the tribes. It is important to investigate the prevalence of LGMD2D in Taiwan for early diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius; the shoulder girdle and the spine, a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganseman, Y; Broos, P

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo Da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius were two important renaissance persons; Vesalius was a surgeon-anatomist who delivered innovative work on the study of the human body, Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who delivered strikingly accurate and beautiful drawings on the human body. Below we compare both masters with regard to their knowledge of the working of the muscles, their method and system of dissection and their system and presentation of the drawings. The investigation consisted of a comparison between both anatomists, in particular concerning their study on the shoulder girdle and spine, by reviewing their original work as well as already existing literature on this subject. The investigation led to the conclusion that the drawings mentioned meant a change in history, and were of high quality, centuries ahead of their time. Both were anatomists, both were revolutionary, only one changed history at the moment itself, while the other changed history centuries later. Leonardo has made beautiful drawings that are at a match with the drawings of today or are even better. Vesalius set the start for medicine as a science as it is until this day. Their lives differed as strongly as their impact. In the light of their time, the achievement they made was extraordinary.

  7. Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  8. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Tadhg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. Study Design Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. Results Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  9. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  10. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Kedige, Suresh D; Jain, Kanu

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to human chorionic gonadotropin and their application to two-site sandwich radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuchi, A.; Iio, M.; Miyachi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). One monoclonal antibody recognized a conformational determinant expressed only on native HCG molecule and another monoclonal antibody had the specificity for the epitopes located on the β-subunit of HCG. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with different antigenic determinants on the HCG molecule were used to develop a simplified 2-site sandwich radioimmunoassay in which one monoclonal antibody was immobilized and another labeled with 125 iodine. This assay was highly specific for HCG and there was no cross-reactivity with α,β-subunit of HCG, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. (Auth.)

  12. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, A J; Jensen, P K; Hertz, Jens Michael

    1988-01-01

    First trimester prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was attempted in 350 pregnancies after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling. The cytogenetic investigation was performed using both a short-term method (24 h incubation) and cell culture. Adequate samples were obtained in 99.1 per cent and in all...... of 181 cases where the 24 h incubation revealed a male karyotype. Studies of culture morphology showed that colonies of convoluted cells may serve as a marker for contamination with maternal cells in culture. For the present, we recommend using a short-term method as well as cell culture for cytogenetic...

  13. After the Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  14. Choosing a Transplant Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... for transplant costs. Location – You might have to travel to receive a transplant. Consider how far the ...

  15. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  16. Correction to: Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-04-26

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistake in the affiliation. Affiliation 1 should be read as "Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran". The original article has been corrected.

  17. The Influence of Chorion Type on Health Measures at Birth and Dental Development in Australian and Dutch Twins: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailidis, S.; Bockmann, M.; McConnell, E.; Hughes, T.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; McMaster, M.T.; Townsend, G.

    2015-01-01

    Chorion type may significantly influence the prenatal environment of twins. This study explored the associations between chorion type and gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and the timing of emergence of the first primary tooth in two populations of twins, Australian and Dutch.

  18. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  19. Use of a caudoventral-craniodorsal oblique radiographic view made at 45° to the frontal plane to evaluate the pectoral girdle in raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marike; Hespel, Adrien-Maxence; de Swarte, Marie; Bellah, Jamie R

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate use of a caudoventral-craniodorsal oblique radiographic view made at 45° to the frontal plane (H view) for assessment of the pectoral (thoracic) girdle in raptors. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. 24 raptors suspected to have a fracture of the thoracic girdle. Standard ventrodorsal and H views were obtained for all birds. Radiographs were evaluated twice by a radiologist blinded to the final diagnosis, with each view first evaluated independently and views then evaluated in combination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated, with results of surgery or necropsy used as the gold standard. 9 birds had thoracic girdle fractures; fractures were correctly identified in 8 of these 9 birds on the ventrodorsal view alone, 7 of these 9 birds on the H view alone, and all 9 birds on the 2 views in combination. Fifteen birds did not have thoracic girdle fractures; radiographs were correctly classified in 12 of these 15 birds when the ventrodorsal view was evaluated alone, all 15 birds when the H view was evaluated alone, and 14 of these 15 birds when the 2 views were evaluated in combination. Results suggested that the H view or the addition of the H view to the VD view could be useful in raptors suspected to have fractures of the thoracic girdle. Agreement with the gold standard (ie, fracture present or absent) was higher with the H view and combination of views than with the ventrodorsal view alone.

  20. Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin as a Possible Mediator of Leiomyoma Growth during Pregnancy: Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarais, Veronica; Cermisoni, Greta Chiara; Schimberni, Matteo; Alteri, Alessandra; Papaleo, Enrico; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vigano', Paola

    2017-09-20

    Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic benign tumors. Studies supporting a strong pregnancy-related growth of leiomyomas generally claimed a crucial role of sex steroid hormones. However, sex steroids are unlikely the unique actors involved as estrogen and progesterone achieve a pick serum concentration in the last trimester while leiomyomas show a typical increase during the first trimester. Given the rapid exponential raise in serum human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) at the beginning of gestation, we conducted a review to assess the potential role of hCG in the striking growth of leiomyomas during initial pregnancy. Fibroid growth during initial pregnancy seems to correlate to the similar increase of serum hCG levels until 12 weeks of gestation. The presence of functional Luteinizing Hormone/human Chorionic Gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptors was demonstrated on leiomyomas. In vitro treatment of leiomyoma cells with hCG determines an up to 500% increase in cell number after three days. Expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was significantly increased in leiomyoma cells by hCG treatment. Moreover, upon binding to the receptor, hCG stimulates prolactin secretion in leiomyoma cells, promoting cell proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Fibroid enlargement during initial pregnancy may be regulated by serum hCG.

  1. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Brazilian children: clinical, histological and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Veloso Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscular dystrophies, involving 16 autosomal recessive subtypes and eight autosomal dominant subtypes. Autosomal recessive dystrophy is far more common than autosomal dominant dystrophy, particularly in children. The clinical course in this group is characterized by progressive proximal weakness, initially in pelvic and after in shoulder-girdle musculature, varying from very mild to severe degree. Significant overlap of clinical phenotypes, with genetic and clinical heterogeneity, constitutes the rule for this group of diseases. Muscle biopsies are useful for histopathologic and immunolabeling studies, and DNA analysis is the gold standard to establish the specific form of muscular dystrophy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical, histological and molecular aspects in children with LGMD who attend a big public neuromuscular centre in our country to determine the frequency of different forms. Method: Thirty seven patients were classified as LGMD and included in this analysis. The study period extended from 2009-2012. The female to male ratio was 3:1. The age of onset ranged from two to 13 years, mean 7,5 years. Onset in the first decade was seen in 90%. Results: The initial clinical signs included: frequent falls (22 cases, difficulty in climbing stairs (13 cases, walk on tip toes (2 cases, difficulty in rising from the floor (2 cases and difficulty on walking (1 case. The serum CK levels were high in all cases. Among the 37 patients, 15 (40,5% were classified as sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD2C-F, five (13,5% as dysferlinopathy (LGMD2B, five (13,5% as calpainopathy (LGMD2A. Mutations in LMNA gene (LGMD1B, FKRP gene (LGMDI and caveolin gene (LGMD 1C were identified in two (5,5%, two (5,5% and one patient (2,5%, respectively. In seven of 37 cases (19% it was impossible to determine specific diagnosis. Calf hypertrophy, scapular winging and scoliosis

  2. Anatomical basics, variations, and degenerative changes of the shoulder joint and shoulder girdle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescher, Andreas E-mail: dkeyserlingk@post.klinikum.rwth-aachen.de

    2000-08-01

    -lesions may occur and at the glenoid rim, where the labrum is often not fixed to the bony margin, avulsions of the labrum may occur. This well-established anatomical condition must not be mistaken for a manifest Bankart-lesion. The glenohumeral ligaments, which are located in the ventral articular capsule, have a stabilizing function for the ventral part of the glenoid labrum. The glenohumeral ligaments lift the articular lip where it crosses the glenoid notch. This 'labrum-lift effect' supports the stabilizing features of the articular lip and the glenohumeral ligaments. The rotator cuff is composed of the tendons of the teres minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles. This cuff has a poorly vascularized area, due to mechanical conditions, about 1.5 cm from the major tubercle, which causes degenerative changes and eventually may lead to ruptures. Results of the impingement-syndrome and the osteoarthrotic changes of the shoulder and acromioclavicular joint are also presented and discussed. Finally, the coracoclavicular joint, which probably represents no congenital entity but appears due to a changed, lowered position of the shoulder girdle, is discussed. The paper also presents instructive figures of anatomical preparations that can be used to make more precise radiological and differential diagnoses. All preparations were done by the author and are part of a series of more than 300 preparations of the shoulder joint and girdle.

  3. Percutaneous CT and Fluoroscopy-Guided Screw Fixation of Pathological Fractures in the Shoulder Girdle: Technical Report of 3 Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: Guillaume.koch@gmail.com [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: Nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: caudjean@yahoo.fr [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com [University of Strasbourg, ICube (France); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: Georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: Afshin.gangi@chru-strasbourg.fr [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2016-09-15

    ObjectiveTo review our initial experience with percutaneous CT and fluoroscopy-guided screw fixation of pathological shoulder-girdle fractures.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2014 and June 2015, three consecutive oncologic patients (mean age 65 years; range 57–75 years) with symptomatic pathological shoulder-girdle fractures unsuitable for surgery and radiotherapy underwent percutaneous image-guided screw fixation. Fractures occurred through metastases (n = 2) or a post-ablation cavity (n = 1). Mechanical properties of osteosynthesis were adjudged superior to stand-alone cementoplasty in each case. Cannulated screws were placed under combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance with complementary radiofrequency ablation or cementoplasty to optimise local palliation and secure screw fixation, respectively, in two cases. Follow-up was undertaken every few weeks until mortality or most recent appointment.ResultsFour pathological fractures were treated in three patients (2 acromion, 1 clavicular, 1 coracoid). Mean size of associated lesion was 2.6 cm (range 1–4.5 cm). Technical success was achieved in all cases (100 %), without complications. Good palliation and restoration of mobility were observed in two cases at 2–3 months; one case could not be followed due to early post-procedural oncologic mortality.ConclusionPercutaneous image-guided shoulder-girdle osteosynthesis appears technically feasible with good short-term efficacy in this complex patient subset. Further studies are warranted to confirm these promising initial results.

  4. Percutaneous CT and Fluoroscopy-Guided Screw Fixation of Pathological Fractures in the Shoulder Girdle: Technical Report of 3 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnon, Julien; Koch, Guillaume; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Caudrelier, Jean; Rao, Pramod; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Gangi, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo review our initial experience with percutaneous CT and fluoroscopy-guided screw fixation of pathological shoulder-girdle fractures.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2014 and June 2015, three consecutive oncologic patients (mean age 65 years; range 57–75 years) with symptomatic pathological shoulder-girdle fractures unsuitable for surgery and radiotherapy underwent percutaneous image-guided screw fixation. Fractures occurred through metastases (n = 2) or a post-ablation cavity (n = 1). Mechanical properties of osteosynthesis were adjudged superior to stand-alone cementoplasty in each case. Cannulated screws were placed under combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance with complementary radiofrequency ablation or cementoplasty to optimise local palliation and secure screw fixation, respectively, in two cases. Follow-up was undertaken every few weeks until mortality or most recent appointment.ResultsFour pathological fractures were treated in three patients (2 acromion, 1 clavicular, 1 coracoid). Mean size of associated lesion was 2.6 cm (range 1–4.5 cm). Technical success was achieved in all cases (100 %), without complications. Good palliation and restoration of mobility were observed in two cases at 2–3 months; one case could not be followed due to early post-procedural oncologic mortality.ConclusionPercutaneous image-guided shoulder-girdle osteosynthesis appears technically feasible with good short-term efficacy in this complex patient subset. Further studies are warranted to confirm these promising initial results.

  5. Botulinum toxin type a injections for cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain using an enriched protocol design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Andrea L; Wu, Irene I; Ferrante, F Michael

    2014-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional condition of muscle pain and stiffness and is classically characterized by the presence of trigger points in affected musculature. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been shown to have antinociceptive properties and elicit sustained muscle relaxation, thereby possibly affording even greater relief than traditional strategies. Our goal was to determine whether direct injection of BoNT-A into painful muscle groups is effective for cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain. An enriched protocol design was used, wherein 114 patients with cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain underwent injection of BoNT-A to determine their response to the drug. Fifty-four responders were then enrolled in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain scales and quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at routine follow-up visits until completion of the study after 26 weeks. Injection of BoNT-A into painful muscle groups improved average visual numerical pain scores in subjects who received a second dose of BoNT-A compared to placebo (P = 0.019 [0.26, 2.78]). Subjects who received a second dose of BoNT-A had a reduced number of headaches per week (P = 0.04 [0.07, 4.55]). Brief Pain Inventory interference scores for general activity and sleep were improved (P = 0.046 [0.038, 3.700] and 0.02 [0.37, 4.33], respectively) in those who received a second dose of BoNT-A. BoNT-A injected directly into painful muscle groups improves average pain scores and certain aspects of quality of life in patients experiencing severe cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain.

  6. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ono, Seiji; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tohru

    1994-01-01

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author)

  7. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ono, Seiji; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tohru [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1994-02-01

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author).

  8. Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Garth L.; Rajotte, Ray V.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing tissue offers a physiologic approach to restoration of glycemic control. Whereas transplantation of vascularized pancreatic grafts has recently achieved encouraging results, pancreatic islet cell transplantation holds the promise of low morbidity and reduced requirements for agressive immunosuppression for recipients. Islet cell transplantation was recently demonstrated to induce euglycemia with insulin independence. Imagesp1656-a PMID:21221366

  9. Morphologic alterations and immunohistochemical analysis of alpha-fetoprotein and CD34 in chorionic villi of anembryonic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, S.; Yenilmez, E.; Yulug, E.; Arvas, H.; Ozeren, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the morphology of chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy, especially the expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in trophoblastic cells and the process of maturation and margination vasculogenesis proper using CD34 immunohistochemistry in tissues from the first trimester of pregnancy loss due to anembryonic pregnancy in comparison with embryonic pregnancy. The study consisted of 2 groups: 9 patients with anembryonic pregnancies and 9 patients with embryonic pregnancies between 6 and 10 weeks of gestational age registered at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey, from March 2003 to December 2004. We examined the chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy. For immunohistochemical staining, we used AFP and CD 34. Microscopically, pathologic changes were shown in syncytiotrophoblast cells of anembryonic pregnancies and AFP was strongly expressed by villous trophoblastic cells compared to embryonic pregnancies. We determined the CD34 positivity in both groups. In anembryonic pregnancies, vascular elements were much fewer in number compared with embryonic pregnancies (p<0.001) and were located in the formed of hemangioblastic cords. Placental vasculogenesis is a basic feature in all types of pregnancy and a relationship exists between trophoblast cells and vessels in the chorionic villi with the potential to influence each other's functions. Defective chorionic villus vascularization is associated with embryonic death. This study may support the hypothesis, as suggested by previous studies, that anembryonic pregnancy results from early embryonic death and subsequent reabsorption rather than from the nondevelopment of an embryo. (author)

  10. Inhibition of septic shock in mice by an oligopeptide from the beta-chain of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2002-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a heterodimeric placental glycoprotein hormone required in pregnancy. In human pregnancy urine and in commercial hCG preparations (c-hCG) it occurs in a variety of forms, including breakdown products. Several reports have suggested modulation of the immune

  11. Recessive variants of MuSK are associated with late onset CMS and predominant limb girdle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David; Töpf, Ana; Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Vroling, Bas; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Dias-Tosta, Elza; Geraldo, Argemiro; Polavarapu, Kiran; Nashi, Saraswati; Cox, Daniel; Evangelista, Teresinha; Dawson, John; Thompson, Rachel; Senderek, Jan; Laurie, Steven; Beltran, Sergi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Nalini, Atchayaram; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2018-04-28

    Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a heterogeneous disorder that causes fatigable muscle weakness. CMS has been associated with variants in the MuSK gene and, to date, 16 patients have been reported. MuSK-CMS patients present a different phenotypic pattern of limb girdle weakness. Here, we describe four additional patients and discuss the phenotypic and clinical relationship with those previously reported. Two novel damaging missense variants are described: c.1742T > A; p.I581N found in homozygosis, and c.1634T > C; p.L545P found in compound heterozygosis with p.R166*. The reported patients had predominant limb girdle weakness with symptom onset at 12, 17, 18, and 30 years of age, and the majority exhibited a good clinical response to Salbutamol therapy, but not to esterase inhibitors. Meta-analysis including previously reported variants revealed an increased likelihood of a severe, respiratory phenotype with null alleles. Missense variants exclusively affecting the kinase domain, but not the catalytic site, are associated with late onset. These data refine the phenotype associated with MuSK-related CMS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Muscle recruitment patterns of the subscapularis, serratus anterior and other shoulder girdle muscles during isokinetic internal and external rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.

  13. Effect of BAP, ethrel and stem girdling on growth and partitioning of photosynthates in Y-shaped mungbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, J.D.S.; Abbas, S.; Sita Ram; Sirohi, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    During early vegetative growth, pots grown mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek cv. Pusa 105) were forced to develop a Y-shaped stem consisting of two symmetrical branches. At preflowering stage, the plants were treated with 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP-20 ppm) and ethrel (500 ppm). Stem girdling was also done just below the junction of the two symmetrical branches and hormonal application (BAP) was done on one of the branches and its effect was observed on other branch of the same plant. Suitable controls were kept. BAP delayed the leaf senescence, enhanced photosynthetic rate and its duration on the treated as well as untreated leaf, whereas ethrel enhanced leaf senescence, reduced photosynthetic rate and its duration. 14 C studies indicated that the translocation of photosynthates was diverted differentially to other plant parts through hormonal application. Girdling on main stem affected the remote effects of hormones and about 98% 14 C remained on the applied branch itself indicating that growth regulators showed their effect on the other branch through roots only. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Predictive value of plasma human chorionic gonadotropin measured 14 days after Day-2 single embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Oldenburg, Anna; Toftager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prediction of pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilization is important for patients and clinicians. Early plasma human chorionic gonadotropin (p-hCG) levels are the best known predictor of pregnancy outcome, but no studies have been restricted to single embryo transfer (SET) of Day......-2 embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of p-hCG measured exactly 14 days after the most commonly used Day-2 SET on pregnancy, delivery, and perinatal outcome. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 466 women who had...... p-hCG measured exactly 14 days after Day-2 SET during a randomized trial including 1050 unselected women (aged 18–40 years) undergoing their first in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. Results: The p-hCG predicted clinical pregnancy [area under the curve (AUC) 0.953; 95...

  15. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a very minor role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant......Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture...... of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due...

  16. DNA-methylation profiling of fetal tissues reveals marked epigenetic differences between chorionic and amniotic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Eckmann-Scholz

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS and 16 amniotic cell (AC samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  17. Determination of chorionic gonadotrophin. Comparison of biological, immunological and radioimmunological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, M.-P.

    1978-07-01

    Three types of analysis were used to quantify chorionic gonadotrophic hormone: biological determination (rana-reaction); immunological determination (simplified pregnosticon test of the Organon Teknika laboratories); radioimmunological determination (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA kits). While the immunochemical technique is specially suited to analysis of the urine, the radioimmunological measurement is carried out on the plasma. This method is extremely sensitive; when traditional biological and immunological methods are used the quantity of CGH detectable is of the order of some hundreds or at best a few tens of international units. The radioimmunological method is a thousand times more sensitive and can therefore measure CGH in amounts of the milli-unit order. Until recently it was not specific enough to differentiate between CGH and LH, but not long ago a β CGH-specific antibody was discovered and it is now possible to detect small amounts of CGH in the presence of LH [fr

  18. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. Fretes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  19. Fibrous soft tissue tumor of neck and shoulder girdle: MR and CT characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yajia; Peng Weijun; Wang Peihua; Wang Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate MR and CT imagings of desmoplastic fibroblastoma (DF) and aggressive fibromatosis (AF) in neck and shoulder girdle, and to emphasis upon the MRI findings with pathological correlation. Methods: MR and CT appearances of DFs (4 cases) and AFS (3 cases) confirmed by surgical and pathologic findings were retrospective analysed, which were correlated to the pathologic features. Four cases of DF were male patients, with a median age at 48 years. Two cases of AF were female (20, 29 years respectively), and another AF patient was male (79 years). Results: (1) Four DFs were round mass located in the inter muscle space of neck, and the margins were mostly well-circumscribed. Envelope was seen in one lesion on MRI. On unenhanced CT, the masses showed homogeneous low attenuation (2 cases) or slightly low attenuation with several heterogeneous areas in it (1 cases). Enhancement was not obvious on post-contrast CT images. MRI studies were done in two patients. Signal intensity (SI) on MR was homogeneous and heterogeneous one lesion respectively on unenhanced T 1 -weighted images. Mixed SI as low or high SI nodes within isointense compared with muscle on T 2 -weighted images. No evident enhancing was noted after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine. (2) All three lesions of aggressive fibromatosis arose from musculoaponeurotic structures. The masses were irregular margin and appeared elongated, which oriented in the direction of the muscle bundle. On unenhanced CT examination, the masses had poorly defined and isodense relative to adjacent musculature (2 cases). On T 1 -weighted images, three masses consisted of poormargination and isointensity relative to adjacent muscle. On T 2 -weighted images, two lesions were heterogeneity of signal, which predominantly slightly high in SI with strip-or node-shape low SI, and one lesion had homogeneous high SI. On post-contrast T 1 -weighted images, all lesions showed marked enhancement, heterogeneity of signal

  20. The relationship between the variants in the 5′-untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShuQin Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG genes and the serum eCG levels. Methods SNPs in 5′-UTR of eCG genes were screened across 10 horse breeds, including 7 Chinese indigenous breeds and 3 imported breeds using iPLEX chemistry, and the association between the serum eCG levels of 174 pregnant Da’an mares and their serum eCG levels (determined with ELISA was analyzed. Results Four SNPs were identified in the 5′-UTR of the eCGα gene, and one of them was unique in the indigenous breeds. There were 2 SNPs detected at the 5′ end of the eCGβ subunit gene, and one of them was only found in the Chinese breeds. The SNP g.39948246T>C at the 5′-UTR of eCGα was associated significantly with eCG levels of 75-day pregnant mare serum (pC mutation causes appearance of the specific binding site of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 forkhead homolog 2 (HFH-2, which is a transcriptional repressor belonging to the forkhead protein family of transcription factors. Conclusion The SNP g.39948246T>C at the 5′-UTR of eCGα is associated with eCG levels of 75-day pregnant mare serum (p<0.05.

  1. The health-seeking behaviours of first-time mothers with persistent pelvic girdle pain after childbirth in Ireland: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Francesca; Curtis, Elizabeth; Begley, Cecily

    2015-11-01

    to explore the health-seeking behaviours of primiparous women with pelvic girdle pain persisting for more than three months post partum. a descriptive qualitative design involving face-to-face semi-structured interviews following institutional ethical approval. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. an urban hospital in Ireland. a purposive sample of 23 consenting first-time mothers with pelvic girdle pain persisting for at least three months post partum. 'they didn't ask, I didn't tell' was a key theme, which included emerging categories of a perceived lack of follow-up post partum, and feeling ignored by healthcare professionals. The theme 'Seeking advice and support' describes women's role of talking to others, and triggers and barriers to getting help. 'Coping strategies' was the third theme emerging from the interviews, whereby participants described different strategies they used to deal with their symptoms, although many expressed uncertainty about what to do or who to see. our findings show the importance of appropriate information and follow-up care for women with pelvic girdle pain and highlight barriers they encounter in seeking help. They also question the duration of postnatal care as participants felt that postnatal care was stopped too early. The findings may assist maternity care providers in addressing mothers' expectations and needs related to persistent pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomy of Shoulder Girdle Muscle Modifications and Walking Adaptation in the Scaly Chinese Pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla Pentadactyla: Pholidota) Compared with the Partially Osteoderm-Clad Armadillos (Dasypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Chen, Yen-Jean; Sato, Fumi

    2015-07-01

    Because pangolins are unique mammals with a body and limbs almost entirely sheathed in hard keratinous overlapping scales and with digging and climbing abilities, the shoulder girdle muscles may differ significantly from those of other mammals including the partially osteoderm-clad armadillos. Therefore, we conducted a functional anatomical study of the shoulder girdle muscles in Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla, Pholidota) and some armadillo species (Dasypodidae). Our CT scans revealed that the pangolin's overlapping scales are hard structures completely encasing the limbs. The armadillo's limbs, however, are covered with small relatively soft non-overlapping scales embedded in the skin, and articulate completely free of the hard osteodermal carapace. The attachments of some shoulder girdle muscles in the pangolin have moved from the surrounding edges of the scapula to the spine, and they, therefore, fully cover the scapula. In addition, some pangolin shoulder girdle muscles cross the shoulder joint to insert on the distal humerus, but this does not occur in armadillos. We cannot rule out the possibility that these muscle modifications represent adaptations for digging and/or climbing in pangolins. Our results and previous literature do not establish specific links between them and locomotive modes. However, we propose that the Chinese pangolin may use its derived muscular features when walking to move its armor-restricted forelimbs more effectively by swinging its head from side to side. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A mitochondrial tRNA(Met) mutation causing developmental delay, exercise intolerance and limb girdle phenotype with onset in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten; Rafiq, Jabin

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with exercise intolerance, learning difficulty, and muscle weakness in a limb girdle distribution. She had delayed achievement of motor milestones and difficulties with social interaction at pre-school age. Muscle biopsy showed no myopathic or dystrophic features...

  4. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Avanços da biotecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novas drogas imunossupressoras melhoraram os resultados do transplante de intestino delgado. Esse transplante é atualmente indicado para casos especiais da falência intestinal. OBJETIVO: A presente revisão realça os recentes desenvolvimentos na área do transplante de intestino delgado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Mais de 600 publicações de transplante de intestino delgado foram revisadas. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa, novas estratégias de imunossupressão, monitorização do enxerto e do receptor, e avanços na técnica cirúrgica são discutidos. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se cerca de 700 transplante de intestino delgado em 55 centros: 44% intestino-fígado, 41% enxerto intestinal isolado e 15% transplante multivisceral. Rejeição e infecção são as principais limitações desse transplante. Sobrevida de 5 anos na experiência internacional é de 46% para o transplante de intestino isolado, 43% para o intestino-fígado e de cerca de 30% para o transplante multivisceral. Sobrevidas prolongadas são mais freqüentes nos centros com maior experiência. Em série de 165 transplantes intestinais na Universidade de Pittsburgh, PA, EUA, foi relatada sobrevida do paciente maior do que 75% no primeiro ano, 54% em 5 anos e 42% em 10 anos. Mais de 90% desses pacientes assumem dieta oral irrestrita. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado evoluiu de estratégia experimental para uma alternativa viável no tratamento da falência intestinal permanente. Promover o refinamento da terapia imunossupressora, do manejo e prevenção de infecções, da técnica cirúrgica e da indicação e seleção adequada dos pacientes é crucial para melhorar a sobrevida desse transplante.BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in clinical small bowel transplantation over the last decade mainly due advances in biotechnology and new immunosuppressive regiments. This transplantation has now been indicated

  5. transplanted organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Szadujkis-Szadurski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rho-kinase and GTP-ase Rho are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rho-kinase in artery reactions induced by angiotensin II (ANG II and the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the function of intra- and extracellular calcium in these reactions. Experiments were performed on mesenteric superior arteries procured from cadaveric organ donors and conserved under the same conditions as transplanted kidneys. The vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II was measured in the presence of Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632, after ischemia and reperfusion, in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. The maximal response to ANG II was reduced after ischemia, while an increase was observed after reperfusion. Vascular contraction induced by ANG II was decreased by Y-27632. Y-27632 reduced vascular contraction after reperfusion, both in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. Reperfusion augments vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 reduces the hypersensitivity to ANG II after reperfusion mediated by both intra- and extracellular calcium. These results confirm the role of Rho-kinase in receptor-independent function of ANG II and in reperfusion-induced hypersensitivity.

  6. Concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen alpha-fetoprotein and beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the serum of coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snit, M. [Silesian Medical Academy, Zabrze (Poland)

    1993-01-01

    Increased levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and {alpha}-fetoprotein were found in blood serum of coke oven workers, and also to some extent in smokers and in residents of industrial cities. The {beta} subunit of chorionic gonadotropin was barely detectable.

  7. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expanded and updated to reflect today's thinking, this brand-new edition offers crucial, real-life direction on ... reduced rates in countries with emerging economies • Build awareness of World Organ Day, Transplant Games, and Transplant ...

  8. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007703.htm Fecal microbiota transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) helps to replace some of the " ...

  9. Chorion gene activation and repression is dependent on BmC/EBP expression and binding to cognate cis-elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonis, Argyris; Sourmeli, Sissy; Lecanidou, Rena

    2008-05-09

    From the different cis-elements clustered on silkmoth chorion gene promoters, C/EBP binding sites predominate. Their sequence composition and dispersal vary amongst promoters of diverse developmental specificity. Occupancy of these sites by BmC/EBP was examined through Southwestern and ChIP assays modified to suit ovarian follicular cells. For the genes studied, binding of BmC/EBP coincided with the respective stages of transcriptional activation. However, the factor was reloaded on promoter sequences long after individual gene repression. Furthermore, suppression of BmC/EBP transcription in developing follicles resulted in de-regulation of chorion gene expression. A biphasic function of BmC/EBP, according to which it may act as both an activator and a repressor during silkmoth choriogenesis, is considered under the light of the presented data.

  10. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.

  11. The effect of administering equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) post artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, J A; Wallace, S Perez; de la Sota, R L; Thatcher, W W

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and hCG post artificial insemination (AI) on fertility of lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (400 IU; n = 80) or left untreated (n = 84). On Day 29, pregnant cows were either treated with hCG (2500 IU; n = 32) or left untreated (n = 36). Pregnancy and progesterone were evaluated on Days 29 and 45. In Experiment 2, cows (n = 28) were either treated with eCG on Day 22 (n = 13) or left untreated (n = 15) and either treated with hCG on Day 29 (n = 14) or left untreated (n = 14). Blood sampling and ultrasonography were conducted between Days 22 and 45. In Experiment 3, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (n = 229) or left untreated (n = 241). Pregnancy was evaluated on Days 36 and 85. In Experiment 1, eCG on Day 22 increased (P cows on Day 29 (50.0 vs. 33.3%) and on Day 45, the increase was higher (P cows with timed AI (41.2 vs. 6.5%) than in cows AI at detected estrus (50.0 vs. 37.8%). Pregnancy losses were reduced by eCG and hCG, but increased in cows that did not receive eCG but were given hCG (P cows, but not in cows treated with eCG. In Experiment 2, hCG increased (P cows (P cows with low body condition (eCG = 45.6 and 43.5%; Control = 22.9 and 22.9%). In conclusion, eCG at 22 days post insemination increased fertility, primarily in cows with low body condition and reduced pregnancy losses when given 7 days before hCG; hCG induced accessory CLs and slightly increased progesterone, but hCG given in the absence of a prior eCG treatment reduced fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein and genetic diagnosis of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A: The yield and the pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, Marina; Angelini, Corrado

    2015-08-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is the most frequent form of LGMD worldwide. Comprehensive clinical assessment and laboratory testing is essential for diagnosis of LGMD2A. Muscle immunoblot analysis of calpain-3 is the most useful tool to direct genetic testing, as detection of calpain-3 deficiency has high diagnostic value. However, calpain-3 immunoblot testing lacks sensitivity in about 30% of cases due to gene mutations that inactivate the enzyme. The best diagnostic strategy should be determined on a case-by-case basis, depending on which tissues are available, and which molecular and/or genetic methods are adopted. In this work we survey the current knowledge, advantages, limitations, and pitfalls of protein testing and mutation detection in LGMD2A and provide an update of genetic epidemiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Identification of Fetal Inflammatory Cells in Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Philip J; Li, LiQiong; Wang, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an inflammatory lesion of placental fetal vessels. In contrast to acute chorionic vasculitis, inflammation in ETCV is seen in chorionic vessel walls opposite the amnionic surface. It is not known whether inflammation in ETCV consists of maternal cells from the intervillous space or fetal cells migrating from the vessel. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to differentiate fetal versus maternal cells in ETCV. Placentas with ETCV, previously identified for a published study, were used. Infant sex in each case was identified using the electronic medical record. For male infants, 3-μm sections were cut from archived tissue blocks from placentas involving ETCV and stained with fluorescent X- and Y-chromosome centromeric probes. A consecutive hematoxylin/eosin-stained section was used for correlation. FISH analysis was performed on 400 interphase nuclei at the site of ETCV to determine the proportion of XX, XY, X, and Y cells. Of 31 ETCV cases, 20 were female and 10 were male (1 sex not recorded). Six of 10 cases with male infants had recuts with visible ETCV. In these 6 cases the average percentages (ranges) of XY cells, X-only cells, and Y-only cells in the region of inflammation were 81 (70-90), 11 (6-17), and 8 (2-14), respectively. There was a 2:1 female:male infant ratio in ETCV. Similar to acute chorionic vasculitis, the inflammation in ETCV is of fetal origin. It is still unknown, however, whether the stimulus for ETCV is of fetal or maternal origin.

  14. Chorionic villi derived mesenchymal like stem cells and expression of embryonic stem cells markers during long-term culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiani, E; Garas, A; Skentou, C; Tsezou, A; Messini, C I; Dafopoulos, K; Daponte, A; Messinis, I E

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from a variety of human tissues. MSCs derived from placental chorionic villi of the first trimester are likely to resemble, biologically, embryonic stem cells (ESC), due to the earlier development stage of placenta. In the present study long-term cultures of MSC-like cells were assessed in order to evaluate MSCs multipotent characteristics and molecular features during the period of culture. CV-cells obtained from 10 samples of chorionic villus displayed typical fibroblastoid morphology, undergone 20 passages during a period of 120 days, maintaining a stable karyotype throughout long term expansion. The cells were positive, for CD90, CD73, CD105, CD29, CD44, HLA ABC antigens and negative for CD14, CD34, AC133, and HLA DR antigens as resulted from the flow cytometry analysis. CV-cells were differentiated in adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and neuronal cells under specific culture conditions. The expression of the ESC-gene markers POU5F1 (Oct-4) and NANOG was observed at earliest stages (4-12 passages) and not at the late stages (14-20 passages) by RT-PCR analysis. ZFP42 and SOX2 expression were not detected. Moreover, CV-cells were found to express GATA4 but not NES (Nestin). Chorionic villi-derived cells possess multipotent properties, display high proliferation rate and self-renew capacity, share common surface antigens with adult MSCs and express certain embryonics stem cells gene markers. These characteristics highlight chorionic villi as an attractive source of MSCs for the needs of regenerative medicine.

  15. Chorionic villus sampling for beta-thalassemia: the first report of experience in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2006-12-01

    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Iran. The prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia is part of a control program in our country and it began 13 years ago. During the past 8 years the number of procedures has increased significantly as also the legal abortions. This is the first report made on the CVS program in Iran. One thousand six hundred and sixty-one cases of transabdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) have been retrospectively evaluated. Among them 1381 cases had inclusion criteria. CVS results, complications and fetal loss rate were evaluated. The distributions of the population at risk were divided between eight regions that have been proposed for beta-thalassemia mapping previously. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 +/- 5.2 years with mean gestational age of 11.4 +/- 1.4 weeks. CVS was successful in all the patients (100%) although 1% required a second procedure. Post CVS fetal loss was 1.45%. Other minor complications were bleeding or spotting (1.81%), amniotic fluid leak (0.5%), small sub-chorionic hematoma (0.58%), severe abdominal pain (0.6%) and severe vasovagal reaction (0.14%). Late complications were seen in 0.21% (oligohydraminos). Approximately 2/3 of the patients were referred from three regions of the country, North (26.8%), South West (22.4%), Central (19.5%) and the remainder (31.3%) were from the other five regions. CVS is a safe and effective method for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in countries with a high prevalence as in Iran. The overall complication rate is quite low and acceptable. Fortunately the recent acceptance of legal abortion with respect to Muslim rules has increased the effectiveness of the procedure and made great advances in its application in Iran. Correspondingly, social knowledge has also improved but still there is a gap between the population at risk and the required prenatal diagnosis laboratories and sampling centers. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Growth of the pectoral girdle in a sample of juveniles from the kellis 2 cemetery, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuze, Michele M; Wheeler, Sandra M; Williams, Lana J; Dupras, Tosha L

    2016-09-10

    This study investigates growth patterns in the scapula and clavicle in a cross-sectional juvenile skeletal sample ranging from 20 weeks gestation to 8.5 years of age from the Kellis 2 cemetery, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. The primary goal is to quantify growth patterns and growth velocities in the scapula and clavicle to better understand the development of the pectoral girdle. A series of low-order polynomial regression models was used to examine growth curves in clavicle diaphyseal length, scapular height, and scapular width. Incremental growth and relative percent increase were examined among successive age groups as a proxy measure of growth velocity. Scapular body proportions were assessed with the scapular index and compared across age groups using a Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc tests. A third-order polynomial best describes growth in clavicle diaphyseal length and scapular height, and a second-order polynomial best describes growth in scapular width. Growth velocity patterns are similar among clavicle diaphyseal length, scapular height, and scapular width particularly from birth until the end of early childhood. Clavicle diaphyseal length decelerates during middle childhood while scapular height and width accelerate during this time. With increasing age, the scapular body proportionately increases more in height than in width. The relatively narrow scapular body characteristic of adult scapulae is first evident during early childhood. Changes in scapular body shape during ontogeny may be a reflection of the greater alterations taking place in the integrated morphology of the pectoral girdle during the biomechanical shift from crawling to bipedalism. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:636-645, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Young adults' experiences of living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy from a salutogenic orientation: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Anna Carin; Hultsjö, Sally; Hjelm, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    To describe young adults' experiences of living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2) from a salutogenic orientation. A qualitative explorative interview study, including 14 participants aged 20-30 years, was performed focusing on comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness in daily life. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Living with LGMD2 not only implies learning to live with the disease and the variations between good and bad periods but also means trying to make sense of a progressive disease that brings uncertainty about future health, by striving to make the best of the situation. Disease progression involves practical and mental struggle, trying to maintain control over one's life despite vanished physical functions that require continual adjustments to the body. Restrictions in a double sense were described, not only due to the disease but also due to poor comprehension of the disease in society. Lack of knowledge about LGMD2 among professionals often results in having to fight for the support needed. In order to manage daily life, it is important to be seen and understood as an individual in contacts with professionals and in society in general, to have informal social support and meaningful activities as well as access to personal assistance if necessary. Recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2) is a group of progressive disorders, which manifest in physical and psychological consequences for the individual. According to the salutogenic orientation, people need to find life comprehensible, manageable and meaningful, i.e. to achieve a sense of coherence (SOC), but living with LGMD2 may recurrently challenge the individual's SOC. Through the holistic view of the individual's situation that the salutogenic orientation provides, professionals may support the individual to strengthen SOC and thereby facilitate the movement towards health.

  18. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suping; Wu Xiaohua; Li Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E 2 , progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E 2 , and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  19. Partial hydatidiform mole with false-negative urine human chorionic gonadatropin test in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundangepfupfu, Tichaendepi; Waseem, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Hydatidiform mole (molar pregnancy) is a benign tumor of placental trophoblastic cells, which release human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Several case reports have described complete hydatidiform moles with false-negative urine qualitative hCG tests. These negative pregnancy tests have been attributed to the hook effect. We report an unusual presentation of a partial mole and review an alternative explanation for the negative hCG test. As partial moles are usually not associated with a large proliferation of trophoblastic cells, levels of hCG are commonly negative and serum quantitative hCG was 1,094,950 mIU/mL. Pelvic ultrasonography showed a uterine cavity containing a soft-tissue mass with multiple cystic lesions and the hydatidiform mole was extracted with suction curettage. Tissue pathology confirmed partial hydatidiform mole. In addition to the hook effect, we present another possible explanation for the false-negative test; namely the inability of some assays to detect hCG-degradation products, which may be higher in clinical samples from patients with hydatidiform mole. This case underscores the importance of knowing the limitations of the commonly used hCG assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a radioreceptorassay of human chorionic gonadotropin for the diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, B.B.; Landesman, R.

    1975-01-01

    The radioreceptorassay of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), with a sensitivity of 50 pg or 3 mIU/ml of plasma, has provided almost 100 percent reliability in detecting pregnancy after the first missed cycle. This test may be performed within 1 hour and is ideally suited to the clinical detection of ectopic pregnancy, especially in patients who require immediate surgical intervention. Thirteen patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy were evaluated by the radioreceptorassay, one of whom was followed with four separate determinations. The results of the assay were subsequently compared with those of hemagglutination pregnancy tests, clinical symptoms, and pathologic findings. All of the patients were diagnosed accurately by the radioreceptorassay, even when hemagglutination tests yielded a false indication of pregnancy. By this assay, the hCG levels during ectopic pregnancies are generally lower than those found during a normal intrauterine pregnancy; in addition, pregnancy may be detected much earlier (prior to the rupture) than is possible by hemagglutination tests. Furthermore, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy may be excluded for patients admitted to the hospital with acute abdominal emergencies

  1. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M.; Khalid, M. M.; Hassan, A.; Ali, N. I.; Khalid, A. SH.; Abdelhadi, H. A.; Khair, L. A. M.; Almahi, W. A.; Gaafar, A.; Abdalla, H.; Basheer, H.

    2004-12-01

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p=0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p>0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values.(Author)

  2. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  3. [Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Renli; Han, Dong; Liu, Caixia; Cai, Jiajie; Bi, Yanling; Wen, Anmin; Quan, Song

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.

  4. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following molar pregnancy evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Antonio; Maestá, Izildinha; Matos, Michelle; Elias, Kevin M; Rizzo, Julianna; Viggiano, Maurício Guilherme Campos

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization in postmolar follow-up. Retrospective chart review of 2284 consecutive cases of hydatidiform mole with spontaneous normalization of hCG following uterine evacuation treated at one of five Brazilian reference centers from January 2002 to June 2013. After hCG normalization, GTN occurred in 10/2284 patients (0.4%; 95% CI 0.2%-0.8%). GTN developed in 9/1424 patients (0.6%; 95% CI 0.3%-1.2%) after a complete hydatidiform mole, in 1/849 patients (0.1%; 95% CInormalization was 18months, and no diagnoses were made before six months of postmolar surveillance. Patients who required more than 56days to achieve a normal hCG value had a ten-fold increased risk of developing GTN after hCG normalization (9/1074; 0.8%; 95% CI 0.4%-1.6%) compared to those who reached a normal hCG level in fewer than 56days (1/1210;0.08%; 95% CInormalization following molar pregnancy is exceedingly rare, and the few patients who do develop GTN after achieving a normal hCG value are likely to be diagnosed after completing the commonly recommended six months of postmolar surveillance. Current recommendations for surveillance after hCG normalization should be revisited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hakeim Hussein K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in Sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M.; Khalid, M. M.; Hassan, A.; Ali, N. I.; Khalid, A. SH.; Abdelhadi, H. A.; Khair, L. A. M.; Almahi, W. A.; Gaafar, A.; Abdalla, H.; Basheer, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p= 0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p> 0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since Sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values. (Authors)

  7. Rosiglitazone attenuates transplant arteriosclerosis after allogeneic aorta transplantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onuta, Geanina; Rienstra, Heleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Boer, Mark Walther; Roks, Anton J. M.; Klatter, Flip A.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2007-01-01

    Background. Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of chronic transplant dysfunction and is characterized by occlusive neointima formation in intragraft arteries. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and adequate therapy is not

  8. Imaging in pancreatic transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, Matthew T; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic transplantation, performed alone or in conjunction with kidney transplantation, is an effective treatment for advanced type I diabetes mellitus and select patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Following advancements in surgical technique, postoperative management, and immunosuppression, pancreatic transplantation has significantly improved the length and quality of life for patients suffering from pancreatic dysfunction. While computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have more limited utility, ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality to evaluate the transplanted pancreas; gray-scale assesses the parenchyma and fluid collections, while Doppler interrogation assesses vascular flow and viability. Ultrasound is also useful to guide percutaneous interventions for the transplanted pancreas. With knowledge of the surgical anatomy and common complications, the abdominal radiologist plays a central role in the perioperative and postoperative evaluation of the transplanted pancreas

  9. Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A M James; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Ricordi, Camillo

    2017-05-01

    Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation can be considered one of the safest and least invasive transplant procedures. Remarkable progress has occurred in both the technical aspects of islet cell processing and the outcomes of clinical islet transplantation. With >1,500 patients treated since 2000, this therapeutic strategy has moved from a curiosity to a realistic treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (that is, those with hypoglycaemia unawareness, severe hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic lability). This Review outlines the techniques required for human islet isolation, in vitro culture before the transplant and clinical islet transplantation, and discusses indications, optimization of recipient immunosuppression and management of adjunctive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies. The potential risks, long-term outcomes and advances in treatment after the transplant are also discussed to further move this treatment towards becoming a more widely available option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and eventually a potential cure.

  10. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  11. Impact of carbohydrate supply on stem growth, wood and respired CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C : assessment by experimental girdling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury-Danger, F. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Paul Verlaine-Metz Univ., Metz (France). Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes; Fresneau, C.; Eglin, T.; Berveiller, D.; Francois, C.; Damesin, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Lelarge-Trouverie, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Inst. de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome

    2010-07-15

    In trees, carbohydrate storage and remobilization may affect the carbon isotope signals of sugars exported from leaves, tree organic matter and respired carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study characterized the impact of a change in the carbon (C) source used for stem functioning on the {delta}{sup 13} C of stem organic matter and respired CO{sub 2}. Girdling experiments were carried out on 2-year old oaks that consisted in removing the bark and phloem around the stem so that the sap would cease to flow. The stem was therefore forced to use its own C reserves to maintain metabolic activity. Trees were girdled at 3 different periods, notably just after budburst, during stem growth, and just after cessation of stem radial growth. Stem radial growth and respiration rate were measured throughout the year. Other measured variables included {delta}{sup 13} C of respired CO{sub 2} and contents of starch and water-soluble fraction in stems and leaves. The study showed that girdling stopped growth, even early in the growing season, leading to a decrease in stem CO{sub 2} efflux. The study demonstrated that leaf carbohydrate supply versus reserve use could be an important factor controlling stem growth and {delta}{sup 13} C of both ring and stem CO{sub 2} efflux. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. CDK1 inhibition facilitates formation of syncytiotrophoblasts and expression of human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    KAUST Repository

    Ullah, Rahim

    2018-05-17

    Aims The human placental syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells play essential roles in embryo implantation and nutrient exchange between the mother and the fetus. STBs are polyploid which are formed by fusion of diploid cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells. Abnormality in STBs formation can result in pregnancy-related disorders. While a number of genes have been associated with CTB fusion the initial events that trigger cell fusion are not well understood. Primary objective of this study was to enhance our understanding about the molecular mechanism of placental cell fusion. Methods FACS and microscopic analysis was used to optimize Forskolin-induced fusion of BeWo cells (surrogate of CTBs) and subsequently, changes in the expression of different cell cycle regulator genes were analyzed through Western blotting and qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the first trimester placental tissue sections to validate the results in the context of placental tissue. Effect of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1 (CDK1) inhibitor, RO3306, on BeWo cell fusion was studied by microscopy and FACS, and by monitoring the expression of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) by Western blotting and qPCR. Results The data showed that the placental cell fusion was associated with down regulation of CDK1 and its associated cyclin B, and significant decrease in DNA replication. Moreover, inhibition of CDK1 by an exogenous inhibitor induced placental cell fusion and expression of hCG. Conclusion Here, we report that the placental cell fusion can be induced by inhibiting CDK1. This study has a high therapeutic significance to manage pregnancy related abnormalities.

  13. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilés-Salas Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ≥ 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ≥ 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ≥ 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

  14. Use of equine chorionic gonadotropin to control reproduction of the dairy cow: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; López-Gatius, F

    2014-04-01

    Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a member of the glycoprotein family of hormones along with LH, FSH and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In non-equid species, eCG shows high LH- and FSH-like activities and has a high affinity for both FSH and LH receptors in the ovaries. On the granulosa and thecal cells of the follicle, eCG has long-lasting LH- and FSH-like effects that stimulate oestradiol and progesterone secretion. Thus, eCG administration in dairy cattle results in fewer atretic follicles, the recruitment of more small follicles showing an elevated growth rate, the sustained growth of medium and large follicles and improved development of the dominant and pre-ovulatory follicle. In consequence, the quality of the ensuing CL is improved, and thereby progesterone secretion increased. Based on these characteristics, eCG treatment is utilized in veterinary medicine to control the reproductive activity of the cow by i) improving reproductive performance during early post-partum stages; ii) increasing ovulation and pregnancy rates in non-cyclic cows; iii) improving the conception rate in cows showing delayed ovulation; and finally, iv) eCG is currently included in protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination since after inducing the synchrony of ovulation using a progesterone-releasing device, eCG has beneficial effects on embryo development and survival. The above effects are not always observed in cyclic animals, but they are evident in animals in which LH secretion and ovarian activity are reduced or compromised, for instance, during the early post-partum period, under seasonal heat stress, in anoestrus animals or in animals with a low body condition score. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Association of luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene polymorphism (rs2293275) with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Addepally, Uma; Qurratulain, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovaries and irregular menstruation/anovulation are important diagnostic criteria along with hyperandrogenism as per the Androgen Excess Society-2006 criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In the etiopathogenesis of PCOS, one of the candidate genes causing ovarian failure is the luteinizing hormone (LH) chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR). Our aim was to study the association of LHCGR polymorphism (rs2293275) with PCOS in our study population. Genetic case-control study from multiple gynecological centers from Hyderabad, a cosmopolitan city in South India. The study involved 204 women with PCOS and 204 healthy, sex-, and age-matched controls. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were taken in a well-designed pro forma. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genotype analysis were done for the entire study population using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method followed by 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In this study, we have demonstrated an association between LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism and PCOS. The frequency of the G allele was 0.60 in PCOS and 0.49 in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.531, confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.01, and p-value=0.0026), which indicates that the G allele is associated with PCOS in our population. The GG genotype conferred a significant risk of developing PCOS (OR 3.36, CI 1.96-5.75, and p-value<0.0001). We found a significant association of the GG allele with body-mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance, LH, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio in PCOS when compared with controls. The AA allele showed high basal FSH levels. This study suggests that LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism is associated with PCOS and could be used as a relevant molecular marker to identify women with the risk of developing PCOS in our population and may provide an understanding about the etiology of PCOS.

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin to enhance reproductive performance in aged rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa E. Elkomy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty low-conception rate does aged 18 to 24 months (in four groups were used to determine the effect of replacement of prostaglandin (PG F2α (PGF2α injection by oral administration with sunflower oil (Sun (rich in omega 6 or linseed oil (Lin (rich in omega 3 on reproductive and productive performance. Group 1 was injected with 20 U of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 54 h before artificial insemination (AI and used as reference group. Group 2 was injected with 20 U of eCG+0.5 mg of PGF2α, 54 h before AI. Group 3 was orally given 3 mL of Sun/doe/day, for seven consecutive days before AI+20 U of eCG, 54 h before AI. Group 4 was treated like Group 3 except that the oil was Lin. Aged does treated with eCG+Sun had elevated blood 17-β estradiol concentration (P≤0.01 accompanied with a decrease of progesterone concentrations compared to the other experimental groups. Contrarily, no significant differences were found between eCG+Lin and eCG+PGF2α treatments on the previous two hormones. Likewise, aged does treated with eCG+Sun and eCG+Lin were statistically similar to those injected with ECG+synthetic PGF2α on blood prostaglandin profile, but still significantly higher than the control group. Treatment with eCG+Sun increased the percentage of fertile does (P≤0.01 and the litter size at birth compared to the other experimental groups. In conclusion, replacement of the PGF2α injection by oral administration of Sun or Lin to aged does improved sexual hormone synthesis and secretion, litter size and bunny body weight at birth.

  17. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin does not increase progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, John R; Shah, Anish A; Schomberg, David W; Price, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Trophoblast-derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) promotes corpus luteum progesterone (P4) production, and wide ranges of serum P4 levels are noted in various pregnancy outcomes, despite similar hCG concentrations. There are five unique biologically active hCG variants in human pregnancy urine, and previous studies of P4 production in response to hCG have used only preparations containing all isoforms. Understanding exactly which hCG variant is primarily responsible for stimulating corpus luteum steroidogenesis may have great clinical and diagnostic implications, including in the setting of ectopic pregnancy. Our objective was to delineate the role of the standard and hyperglycosylated (H)-hCG isoforms in stimulating P4 production by luteinized granulosa cells. Cell culture, ELISA, and fluorometric-based protein assays were done at Duke University Medical Center. Patients were anonymous oocyte donors. Cultured luteinized granulosa cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ng/ml total hCG, which contains all isoforms, purified standard hCG (37.1 kDa), and purified H-hCG (42.8 kDa). P4 produced per total cellular protein (nanograms per microgram) was measured via ELISA and fluorometric protein determination kits. Both total hCG (P = 0.0003) and purified standard hCG (P production. Purified H-hCG did not change the P4 produced per total cellular protein response (P value not significant). Standard hCG stimulated P4 production by cultured granulosa cells and likely supports corpus luteum function via interactions with the LH/hCG receptor. In contrast, H-hCG did not increase P4 production, which indicates a nonsteroidogenic role for this protein during early gestation.

  18. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in cervicovaginal secretions in preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talip Gül

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate beta-human corionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels in cervicovaginal secretions as an early marker for preterm delivery.Methods: The study included 55 patients at 25-36 of gestational weeks with preterm delivery risk factors including a history of preterm labor in a previous pregnancy or history of second trimester abortion. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels of cervicovaginal secretions were measured in all patients by the radioimmunoassay method using a commercial kit.Results: Preterm delivery was observed in 25 patients and 30 patients gave term delivery. No significant differences were found between preterm and term delivery groups in age, gravidity and parity (P>0.05. APGAR scores and anthropometric measurements of newborns were significantly lower in preterm delivery group (P<0.001. Preterm delivery group had significantly higher cervicovaginal β-hCG levels compared with normal controls (94.7±37.7 vs. 35.5±14.8 mIU/ml, respectively, P<0.001. When 75 mIU/ml value of β-hCG level was taken as cut-off value; the sensitivity of the test was found as 76%, specifity 91.6%, positive predictive value 95.0% and negative predictive value as 79.9%.Conclusion: Concentrations of β-hCG in cervicovaginal secretions may be a useful early biochemical marker to detect preterm. Based on β-hCG levels in cervicovaginal secretions a closer follow-up may decrease some complications of preterm delivery. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(1: 16-20

  19. The transabdominal chorionic villus sampling puncture guided by color Doppler ultrasound during early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Weixiang; Chen Zhiyi; Yuan Wenlin; Cai Kuan; Zhu Junlin; Wang Weiqun; Chen Xia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the operation of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) guided by color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) via abdomen puncture during early pregnancy and investigate the advertences during the operation. Methods: CVS guided by CDU probe via abdomen puncture were operated on 28 pregnant women who had the indications of antenatal diagnosis. CDU was used to observe the implantation position of the fo1iaceous villis and help setting mark of the puncture point and puncture range on body surface before operation. The needle was punctured under real-time ultrasound guidance and villis were aspirated during the operation: The choice of the right time of puncture and the operation skills were emphasized in the study. Results: The CVS puncture approach should be set through CDU ob servation, which attend to avoid the surrounding blood vessels, intestinal canal and surrounding important organs. The puncture point should be chosen in a point where lobif0rmed villis distributed wider and with a larger scope. The operations were performed from 10 to13 weeks of pregnancy, with an average of 11 weeks. Among these 28 cases, 9.6 were successfully drawn materials in one time, 1 in twice and l failure, with the total ratio of achievement was 96.4%. For all the cases, fetal heart pulsating could be seen by real-time CDU observation fight after the operation, and no larger hematoma echo in the placental site occurred. Ultrasound reexamined one week after the operation, fetal heart pulsation could be found in all cases, and no abortion cases occurred after regular follow-up in 25 continued pregnant patients. Conclusion: Abdominal CVS puncture guided by CDU probe is conveniently operated, safe and available in clinic. It is an important method for antenatal diagnosis during early pregnancy. The puncture localization, skills and the time are the key points for the success in obtaining the materials. (authors)

  20. Risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta, Jaroslaw; Lesmes-Heredia, Cristina; Bedetti, Chiara; Akolekar, Ranjit

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the risk of miscarriage after amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) based on a systematic review of the literature. A search of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library (2000-2017) was carried out to identify studies reporting complications following CVS or amniocentesis. The inclusion criteria for the systematic review were studies reporting results from large controlled studies (N.≥1000 invasive procedures) and those reporting data for pregnancy loss prior to 24 weeks' gestation. Data for cases that had invasive procedure and controls were inputted in contingency tables and risk of miscarriage was estimated for each study. Summary statistics were calculated after taking into account the weighting for each study included in the systematic review. Procedure-related risk of miscarriage was estimated as a weighted risk difference from the summary statistics for cases and controls. The electronic search from the databases yielded 2465 potential citations of which 2431 were excluded, leaving 34 studies for full-text review. The final review included 10 studies for amniocentesis and 6 studies for CVS, which were used to estimate risk of miscarriage in pregnancies that had an invasive procedure and the control pregnancies that did not. The procedure-related risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis was 0.35% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07 to 0.63) and that following CVS was 0.35% (95% CI: -0.31 to 1.00). The procedure-related risks of miscarriage following amniocentesis and CVS are lower than currently quoted to women.

  1. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  2. Late-onset hypogonadism: the advantages of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin rather than testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Cimino, Laura; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    The traditional pharmacological treatment of patients with late onset hypogonadism (LOH) is represented by different formulations of testosterone (T) or alternatively by the extractive human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). The hormone replacement treatment (HRT) is associated with the potential increase of hematocrit, serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume. Moreover, the gynecomastia represent a condition frequently associated with HRT. Recent evidences showed the role of leydig cells in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D and the elevated frequency of hypovitaminosis D among LOH patients. Finally, another important aspect of LOH is represented by the frequency of secondary infertility due to age or to traditional HRT. This study evaluated 40 LOH patients treated for 6 months with extractive HCG (n = 10 patients) and three different formulations of T: transdermal (n = 10 patients), undecaonate (n = 10 patients) and enantate (n = 10 patients). Hormonal, anthropometric, metabolic and sperm parameters were evaluated and compared. Moreover, the main safety parameters and the results of the main questionnaires were evaluated. After treatment, HCG group showed serum concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D significantly higher (p < 0.05) and serum concentrations of oestrogens significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Moreover, they showed a mean value of hematocrit, PSA and prostate volume significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Finally, all the groups treated with T showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of sperm density and of percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility compared with HCG group.

  3. About the Operation: Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  4. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  5. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  6. History of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Gül; Şenbaklavacı, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    History of lung transplantation in the world can be traced back to the early years of the 20 th century when experimental vascular anastomotic techniques were developed by Carrel and Guthrie, followed by transplantation of thoracic organs on animal models by Demikhov and finally it was James Hardy who did the first lung transplantation attempt on human. But it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine and development of better surgical techniques that success could be achieved in that field by the Toronto Lung Transplant Group led by Joel Cooper. Up to the present day, over 51.000 lung transplants were performed in the world at different centers. The start of lung transplantation in Turkey has been delayed for various reasons. From 1998 on, there were several attempts but the first successful lung transplant was performed at Sureyyapasa Hospital in 2009. Today there are four lung transplant centers in Turkey; two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and another one in Izmir. Three lung transplant centers from Istanbul which belong to private sector have newly applied for licence from the Ministry of Health.

  7. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  8. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HE. Overview and choice of donor of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein ... lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Graft-versus-host ...

  9. The association between pelvic girdle pain and sick leave during pregnancy; a retrospective study of a Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Stefan; Kjaermann, Inger; Andersen, Knut; Økland, Inger; Larsen, Jan Petter; Brønnick, Kolbjørn

    2015-10-05

    The incidence of pelvic girdle pain (PGP) in pregnancy is wide ranged depending on definition, the utilised diagnostic means, and the design of the studies. PGP during pregnancy has negative effects on activities of daily living and causes long sick leave, which makes it a major public health issue. Our objectives were to explore the frequency of sick leave in pregnancy due to PGP, assess the relationship between different types of pain-related activities of daily living, examine physical workload, type of work in relation to sick leave, and to explore factors that make women less likely to take sick leave for PGP. All women giving birth at the maternity ward of Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, were asked to participate and complete a questionnaire on demographic features, PGP, pain-related activities of daily living, sick leave in general and for PGP, frequency of exercising before and during pregnancy. Drawings of pelvic girdle and low back area were used for the localization of pain. PGP intensity was then rated retrospectively on a numerical rating scale. Non-parametric tests, multinomial logistic regression and sequential linear regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. PGP is a frequent and major cause of sick leave during pregnancy among Norwegian women, which is also reflected in activities of daily living as measured with scores on all Oswestry disability index items. In the multivariate analysis of factors related to sick leave and PGP we found that work satisfaction, problems with lifting and sleeping, and pain intensity were risk factors for sick leave. In addition, women with longer education, higher work satisfaction and fewer problems with sitting, walking and standing, were less likely to take sick leave in pregnancy, despite the same pain intensity as women being on sick leave. A coping factor in pregnant women with PGP was discovered, most likely dependant on education, associated with work situation and/or work posture

  10. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate.

  11. Significance of radioimmunoassay of human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausitz, J.; Hupka, S.; Cerny, V.; Bohunicky, L.; Korec, S.

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) made in 49 patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors showed that these investigations make the diagnosis more precise, permit to follow up the dynamics of the course of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment and may help to reveal the presence of otherwise undetectable tumorous metastases. The significance of these assays is enhanced if the two tumorous proteins are investigated in parallel. The results proved positive in 43 (87.8%) and false negative in 6 (12.2%) of the patients. The absence of HCG and AFP production in some patients with active disorder has not as yet been elucidated. (author)

  12. Significance of radioimmunoassay of human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausitz, J.; Hupka, S. (Institute for Postgradual Training of Physicians and Pharmaceutists, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Cerny, V.; Bohunicky, L.; Korec, S. (Ustav Klinickej Onkologie, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) made in 49 patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors showed that these investigations make the diagnosis more precise, permit to follow up the dynamics of the course of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment and may help to reveal the presence of otherwise undetectable tumorous metastases. The significance of these assays is enhanced if the two tumorous proteins are investigated in parallel. The results proved positive in 43 (87.8%) and false negative in 6 (12.2%) of the patients. The absence of HCG and AFP production in some patients with active disorder has not as yet been elucidated.

  13. Cardiac transplantation in South Carolina: 300 transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, A J; Odom, Sylvia; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Pereira, Naveen; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott; Kratz, John M; Sade, Robert M; Uber, Walt; Stroud, Martha R; Crawford, Fred A

    2006-02-01

    For nearly 20 years, the Medical University's Heart Transplant Program has been providing the citizens of South Carolina with excellent results with a minimum of delay. We present here the results of our first 300 heart transplants, spanning the first 18 years of the Cardiac Transplant Program at the Medical University. Overall survival has been very good, with one, five and ten year survival rates in the adults being 92 +/- 2%, 78 +/- 3%, and 58 +/- 4%. The children's group showed survival rates of 94 +/- 5%, 79 +/- 11%, and 79 +/- 11% over the same lengths of time. Most recently, the federally sponsored Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (www.ustransplant.org, July 2005) reports for MUSC a one-year survival of 97.67% and three-year survival of 90.74%; both leading the Southeast. We attribute this success to the dedicated work of health care workers at all levels who believe in attention to detail and that the patient always comes first. It is our hope that we will be able to continue to provide expert, state-of-the-art, cardiac transplant services long into the future, while continuing to expand our heart failure management program as dictated by further developments in this rapidly evolving specialty.

  14. Comparative study of P19 EC stem cell differentiation in between conventional hanging drop and the zebrafish chorion as a bio-derived material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae Seok Na; Lee, Hwang; Sun Uk Kim; Chang Nam Hwang; Sang Ho Lee; Ji Yoon Kang; Jai Kyeong Kim; James Jungho Pak

    2008-07-01

    Various materials including glass and polymers have been widely used for stem cell culture due to their biocompatibility. However, the roles of these materials are fundamentally limited because they cannot realize or imitate the complex biological functions of living tissues, except in very simple cases. Here, the development of a bio-derived material suitable for stem cell culture and improvement of differentiation efficiency to specific cell lineages with no stimulating agents by using a chorion obtained from a fertilized zebrafish egg through the removal of the yolk and embryonic cell mass from the egg is reported. Mouse P19 EC stem cells introduced into the empty chorion form a uniform embryoid body (EB) without addition of any inducing agent. It is demonstrated that the zebrafish chorion with nanopores improves efficiencies greatly in the EB formation, cell proliferation, and lineage-specific differentiations compared to those of the conventional hanging drop culture method.

  15. Satellite cell senescence underlies myopathy in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Elena; Kramerova, Irina; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing 32 (TRIM32) are responsible for the disease limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H (LGMD2H). Previously, we generated Trim32 knockout mice (Trim32–/– mice) and showed that they display a myopathic phenotype accompanied by neurogenic features. Here, we used these mice to investigate the muscle-specific defects arising from the absence of TRIM32, which underlie the myopathic phenotype. Using 2 models of induced atrophy, we showed that TRIM32 is dispensable for muscle atrophy. Conversely, TRIM32 was necessary for muscle regrowth after atrophy. Furthermore, TRIM32-deficient primary myoblasts underwent premature senescence and impaired myogenesis due to accumulation of PIAS4, an E3 SUMO ligase and TRIM32 substrate that was previously shown to be associated with senescence. Premature senescence of myoblasts was also observed in vivo in an atrophy/regrowth model. Trim32–/– muscles had substantially fewer activated satellite cells, increased PIAS4 levels, and growth failure compared with wild-type muscles. Moreover, Trim32–/– muscles exhibited features of premature sarcopenia, such as selective type II fast fiber atrophy. These results imply that premature senescence of muscle satellite cells is an underlying pathogenic feature of LGMD2H and reveal what we believe to be a new mechanism of muscular dystrophy associated with reductions in available satellite cells and premature sarcopenia. PMID:22505452

  16. Life's pregnant pause of pain: pregnant women's experiences of pelvic girdle pain related to daily life: a Swedish interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, Helen; Lundgren, Ingela; Robertson, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a universally disabling condition affecting three of 10 pregnant women. Qualitative studies on the subject are lacking. To describe pregnant women's experiences of PGP as related to daily life. In all, 27 women with PGP participating in a randomised controlled study were interviewed during 2010-2011. Qualitative content analysis was used. Five main categories emerged: PGP affects the ability to cope with everyday life; Coping with motherhood; Relationships between partners often reached the breaking point; Questioning one's identity as defined by profession and work, and Lessons learned from living with PGP. The categories illustrate how women's everyday lives were interrupted. Their inability to meet their own and others' expectations put a strain on their lives causing disappointment, sadness and frustration. It made them question and doubt their roles and identities as mothers, partners and professionals, and kept them from looking forward to future pregnancies, in the absence of effective treatment for PGP. Knowledge gained was that women with PGP should seek help immediately, listen to their bodies, and acknowledge their limitations. PGP severely affects pregnant women's everyday lives. There appears to be a lack of knowledge and awareness in general, as well as among caregivers and employers of PGP that needs to be highlighted and rectified. There is also a great need to learn how to support those suffering from it. Appropriate support during this important and rare phase in a woman's life is highly warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of the musculoskeletal assessments of the shoulder girdles of professional rugby players and professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsley Ian G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To identify posture types that exist in professional rugby players, and compare them with a population of non-overhead athletes in order to identify possible relationships towards the potential for shoulder injuries. Design Observational design Setting: Sports Medicine Clinic Participants: Convenience sample Methodology: Static assessment of posture was carried out in standing, active and passive range of glenohumeral motion, and isometric strength was carried out in accordance with previously recorded protocols. Interventions Nil Outcome Measures: Observational classification of posture, active and passive range of glenohumeral joint range of motion, isometric strength of selected muscle groups, selected muscle flexibility and Hawkins and Neer impingement tests. Results There was a significant difference on range of motion between the two groups (0.025–0.000, isometric middle (0.024–0.005, and lower trapezius (0.01–0.001. Conclusion: There were significant differences between strength and flexibility of muscles around the shoulder girdle between professional rugby players and a control group of professional non-overhead athletes.

  18. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I: a multinational cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey A Willis

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective multinational study of muscle pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I. Thirty eight adult ambulant LGMD2I patients (19 male; 19 female with genetically identical mutations (c.826C>A in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP gene were recruited. In each patient, T1-weighted (T1w imaging was assessed by qualitative grading for 15 individual lower limb muscles and quantitative Dixon imaging was analysed on 14 individual lower limb muscles by region of interest analysis. We described the pattern and appearance of muscle pathology and gender differences, not previously reported for LGMD2I. Diffuse fat infiltration of the gastrocnemii muscles was demonstrated in females, whereas in males fat infiltration was more prominent in the medial than the lateral gastrocnemius (p = 0.05. In the anterior thigh of males, in contrast to females, median fat infiltration in the vastus medialis muscle (45.7% exceeded that in the vastus lateralis muscle (11.2% (p<0.005. MRI is non-invasive, objective and does not rely on patient effort compared to clinical and physical measures that are currently employed. We demonstrated (i that the quantitative Dixon technique is an objective quantitative marker of disease and (ii new observations of gender specific patterns of muscle involvement in LGMD2I.

  19. Primary central chondrosarcoma of long bone, limb girdle and trunk: Analysis of 174 cases by numerical scoring on histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Eiichi; Nakashima, Yasuaki; Mano, Masayuki; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Nagasaki, Ikumitsu; Kubo, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuhito; Haga, Hironori; Toguchida, Junya; Ueda, Takafumi; Sakuma, Toshiko; Imahori, Masaya; Morii, Eiichi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Futani, Hiroyuki; Wakasa, Kenichi; Hoshi, Manabu; Hamada, Shinshichi; Takeshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Aono, Masanari; Kawabata, Kenji; Murata, Hiroaki; Katsura, Kanade; Urata, Yoji; Ueda, Hideki; Yanagisawa, Akio

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to elucidate clinicopathological characteristics of pcCHS of long bones (L), limb girdles (LG) and trunk (T) in Japan; (ii) to investigate predictive pathological findings for outcome of pcCHS of L, LG and T, objectively; and (iii) to elucidate a discrepancy of grade between biopsy and resected specimens. Clinicopathological profiles of 174 pcCHS (79 male, 95 female), of L, LG, and T were retrieved. For each case, a numerical score was given to 18 pathological findings. The average age was 50.5 years (15-80 years). Frequently involved sites were femur, humerus, pelvis and rib. The 5-year and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates [follow-up: 1-258 months (average 65.5)] were 87.0% and 80.4%, respectively. By Cox hazards analysis on pathological findings, age, sex and location, histologically higher grade and older age were unfavorable predictors, and calcification was a favorable predictor in DSS. The histological grade of resected specimen was higher than that of biopsy in 37.7% (26/69 cases). In conclusion, higher histological grade and older age were predictors for poor, but calcification was for good prognosis. Because there was a discrepancy in grade between biopsy and resected specimens, comprehensive evaluation is necessary before definitive operation for pcCHS. © 2015 The Authors. Pathology International published by Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Organ transplantation and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerilli, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 49 chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular, Genetic, and Clinical Aspects of the HLA System; The Normal Immune Response; Significance of the ABO Antigen System; The Role of Dialysis in the Management of End-Stage Renal Disease; Access for Dialysis; Patient Selection for Renal Transplantation; The Living Donor in Kidney Transplantation; and Kidney Preservation by Cold Storage.

  1. Customizing Fair Use Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, policymakers and commentators across the world have called for the introduction of copyright reform based on the fair use model in the United States. Thus far, Israel, Liberia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka and Taiwan have adopted the fair use regime or its close variants. Other jurisdictions such as Australia, Hong Kong and Ireland have also advanced proposals to facilitate such adoption. This article examines the increasing efforts to transplant fair use into the copyright system based on the U.S. model. It begins by briefly recapturing the strengths and weaknesses of legal transplants. The article then scrutinizes the ongoing effort to transplant fair use from the United States. Specifically, it identifies eight modalities of transplantation. This article concludes with five lessons that can be drawn from studying the ongoing transplant efforts.

  2. Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation: A new era in transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, Garth L.; Rajotte, Ray V.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing tissue offers a physiologic approach to restoration of glycemic control. Whereas transplantation of vascularized pancreatic grafts has recently achieved encouraging results, pancreatic islet cell transplantation holds the promise of low morbidity and reduced requirements for agressive immunosuppression for recipients. Islet cell transplantation was recently demonstrated to induce euglycemia with insulin independence.

  3. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH, hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta. This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent

  4. Oxygen-Sensitive K+ Channels Modulate Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion from Human Placental Trophoblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Paula; Sibley, Colin P.; Greenwood, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a key autocrine/paracrine regulator of placental syncytiotrophoblast, the transport epithelium of the human placenta. Syncytiotrophoblast hCG secretion is modulated by the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) channels. Here we test the hypothesis that K+ channels mediate the effects of pO2 and ROS on hCG secretion. Placental villous explants from normal term pregnancies were cultured for 6 days at 6% (normoxia), 21% (hyperoxia) or 1% (hypoxia) pO2. On days 3–5, explants were treated with 5mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or tetraethylammonium (TEA), blockers of pO2-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, or ROS (10–1000μM H2O2). hCG secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a marker of necrosis, were determined daily. At day 6, hCG and LDH were measured in tissue lysate and 86Rb (K+) efflux assessed to estimate syncytiotrophoblast K+ permeability. hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux were significantly greater in explants maintained in 21% pO2 than normoxia. 4-AP/TEA inhibited hCG secretion to a greater extent at 21% than 6% and 1% pO2, and reduced 86Rb efflux at 21% but not 6% pO2. LDH release and tissue LDH/hCG were similar in 6%, 21% and 1% pO2 and unaffected by 4-AP/TEA. H2O2 stimulated 86Rb efflux and hCG secretion at normoxia but decreased 86Rb efflux, without affecting hCG secretion, at 21% pO2. 4-AP/TEA-sensitive K+ channels participate in pO2-sensitive hCG secretion from syncytiotrophoblast. ROS effects on both hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux are pO2-dependent but causal links between the two remain to be established. PMID:26863525

  5. Expression of β human chorionic gonadotropin in the placenta of gestational diabetic mothers: an immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Muhammed Erdal; Deveci, Engin; Evsen, Mehmet Siddik; Kalkanhi, Sevgi; Baran, Ozlem; Ozekinci, Selver; Seker, Uğur

    2013-02-01

    To investigate morphologic differences of the placenta in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes compared to nondiabetic pregnancies. This was a comparative morphological study of the placentas from 20 women with gestational diabetes and 20 healthy pregnancies at 28-35 weeks of gestation. The presence of lesions such as fibrinoid necrosis, villous edema, syncytial knot and vascular lesions like chorangiosis was apparent, mainly in the diabetes group. There was an apparent decrease in the intensity of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) immunostaining in the syncytiotrophoblast from the 28th to 35th weeks of gestation in the placentas of the healthy control group. No hCG immunostaining was observed in the villous or intervillous areas of any of the placentas. In diabetic placentas the expression of hCG was homogeneous with a moderate to intense immunoreactivity in the syncytiotrophoblast. Several syncytiotrophoblast cells showed dilations of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and loss and alteration of microvilli, and large vacuoles were observed just below the plasma membrane, as well as irregularities in the mitochondria. Syncytial cells play an important role in the placental transition. Increased expression of beta-hCG, deterioration, degeneration of organelles and cell structure and the basal membrane disorder in chorionic vessels were seen in placentas with gestational diabetes. These changes can affect placental transfer. However, further studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  6. Exercise level before pregnancy and engaging in high-impact sports reduce the risk of pelvic girdle pain: a population-based cohort study of 39 184 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, Katrine Mari; Bjelland, Elisabeth K; Stuge, Britt; Orsini, Nicola; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Vangen, Siri

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether an association exists between exercise levels pre-pregnancy and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy has been associated with physical inactivity, a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used data from a population-based cohort study including 39 184 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Pre-pregnancy exercise frequency and types were assessed by questionnaire in pregnancy week 17. Pelvic girdle pain, defined as combined pain in the anterior pelvis and in the posterior pelvis bilaterally, was self-reported in pregnancy week 30. Multivariable Poisson regression estimated risks of pelvic girdle pain associated with pre-pregnancy exercise. We examined a dose-response association of prepregnancy exercise frequency using restricted cubic splines. A test for non-linearity was also conducted. Final models were adjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, history of low back pain and history of depression. 4069 women (10.4%) reported pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy and the prevalence among women who were non-exercisers prepregnancy was 12.5%. There was a non-linear association for pre-pregnancy exercise and risk of pelvic girdle pain (test for non-linearity, p=0.003). Compared to non-exercisers, women exercising 3-5 times weekly pre-pregnancy had a 14% lower risk of developing pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96). Taking part in high-impact exercises such as running, jogging, orienteering, ballgames, netball games and high-impact aerobics were associated with less risk of pelvic girdle pain. Women who exercise regularly and engage in high-impact exercises before the first pregnancy may have a reduced risk of pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerull, Sabine; Stern, Martin; Apperley, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is usually treated with immunosuppression or allogeneic transplant, depending on patient and disease characteristics. Syngeneic transplant offers a rare treatment opportunity with minimal transplant-related mortality, and offers an insight into disease mechanisms. We present here...... a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin...

  8. Pancreatic islet transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa-Giannella Maria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No formulation of exogenous insulin available to date has yet been able to mimic the physiological nictemeral rhythms of this hormone, and despite all engineering advancements, the theoretical proposal of developing a mechanical replacement for pancreatic β cell still has not been reached. Thus, the replacement of β cells through pancreas and pancreatic islet transplantation are the only concrete alternatives for re-establishing the endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Since only 1 to 1.5% of the pancreatic mass corresponds to endocrine tissue, pancreatic islets transplantation arises as a natural alternative. Data from the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR from 1983 to December 2000 document a total of 493 transplants performed around the world, with progressively worse rates of post-transplant insulin independence. In 2000, the "Edmonton Protocol" introduced several modifications to the transplantation procedure, such as the use of a steroid-free immunosuppression regimen and transplantation of a mean islet mass of 11,000 islet equivalents per kilogram, which significantly improved 1-year outcomes. Although the results of a 5-year follow-up in 65 patients demonstrated improvement in glycemic instability in a significant portion of them, only 7.5% of the patients have reached insulin independence, indicating the need of further advances in the preservation of the function of transplanted islet. In addition to the scarcity of organs available for transplantation, islets transplantation still faces major challenges, specially those related to cell loss during the process of islet isolation and the losses related to the graft site, apoptosis, allorejection, autoimmunity, and immunosuppression. The main strategies to optimize islet transplantation aim at improving all these aspects. Conclusion Human islet transplantation should be regarded as an intervention that can decrease the frequency of

  9. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  10. Diagnosis of tumors in the shoulder girdle by means of MRI; Diagnostik von Tumoren des Schulterguertelbereichs in der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlecht, I.; Gaffke, G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Felix, R. [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the value of MRI for evaluation of tumors of the shoulder girdle. We diagnosed respectively 13 patients with lesions in the shoulder region. The imaging has been done with a 'Magnetom SP 63' (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The protocol consisted of T1- and T2-based SE-sequences in axial slice orientation, T1-based imaging in coronary respectively in sagittal slice orientation as well as T1-based sequences after application of contrast medium. The evaluation of the tumor expansion within the soft tissue was possible. The exact diagnosis in some individual cases - neurinoma, cyst of the synovia - could be found by MRI. Estimation of the dignity in the case of infiltrative growth was possible in most cases. To assess the exact type of tumor was often difficult. Especially the dignity of the cartilaginous tumors could not be precisely described. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, den Stellenwert der MRT zur Beurteilung von Raumforderungen im Schulterguertelbereich zu evaluieren. Wir konnten retrospektiv 13 Patienten mit Laesionen in der Schulterregion evaluieren. Die Untersuchungen erfolgten an einem 1,5 T supraleitenden Magneten ('Magnetom SP 63', Firma Siemens, Erlangen Deutschland). Das Untersuchungsprotokoll umfasste T1- und T2-gewichtete SE-Sequenzen in axialer Schnittfuehrung und T1-gewichtete Aufnahmen in schraeg koronarer bzw. schraeg sagittaler Schnittfuehrung sowie T1-gewichtete Sequenzen nach Kontrastmittelgabe. Die Beurteilung der Tumorausdehnung in die Weichteile ist mittels der MRT moeglich. Eine Diagnose ist in Einzelfaellen - Neurinom und Synovialzyste - erst mit der Kernspintomographie sicher zu stellen. Ein infiltratives Wachstum laesst sich in der Regel nachweisen, eine Artdiagnose ist jedoch haeufig nicht moeglich. Die Dignitaet konnte insbesondere bei cartilaginaeren Tumoren nicht eindeutig festgelegt werden. (orig.)

  11. Precise Correction of Disease Mutations in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived From Patients With Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Soeren; Farruggio, Alfonso P; Srifa, Waracharee; Day, John W; Calos, Michele P

    2016-04-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophies types 2B (LGMD2B) and 2D (LGMD2D) are degenerative muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dysferlin and alpha-sarcoglycan genes, respectively. Using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we corrected the dysferlin nonsense mutation c.5713C>T; p.R1905X and the most common alpha-sarcoglycan mutation, missense c.229C>T; p.R77C, by single-stranded oligonucleotide-mediated gene editing, using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system to enhance the frequency of homology-directed repair. We demonstrated seamless, allele-specific correction at efficiencies of 0.7-1.5%. As an alternative, we also carried out precise gene addition strategies for correction of the LGMD2B iPSC by integration of wild-type dysferlin cDNA into the H11 safe harbor locus on chromosome 22, using dual integrase cassette exchange (DICE) or TALEN-assisted homologous recombination for insertion precise (THRIP). These methods employed TALENs and homologous recombination, and DICE also utilized site-specific recombinases. With DICE and THRIP, we obtained targeting efficiencies after selection of ~20%. We purified iPSC corrected by all methods and verified rescue of appropriate levels of dysferlin and alpha-sarcoglycan protein expression and correct localization, as shown by immunoblot and immunocytochemistry. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time precise correction of LGMD iPSC and validation of expression, opening the possibility of cell therapy utilizing these corrected iPSC.

  12. Natural disease history of mouse models for limb girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putker, K.; Tanganyika-de Winter, C. L.; Boertje-van der Meulen, J. W.; van Vliet, L.; Overzier, M.; Plomp, J. J.; Aartsma-Rus, A.; van Putten, M.

    2017-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F (LGMD 2D and 2F) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the alpha- and delta sarcoglycan genes, respectively, leading to severe muscle weakness and degeneration. The cause of the disease has been well characterized and a number of animal models are available for pre-clinical studies to test potential therapeutic interventions. To facilitate transition from drug discovery to clinical trials, standardized procedures and natural disease history data were collected for these mouse models. Implementing the TREAD-NMD standardized operating procedures, we here subjected LGMD2D (SGCA-null), LGMD2F (SGCD-null) and wild type (C57BL/6J) mice to five functional tests from the age of 4 to 32 weeks. To assess whether the functional test regime interfered with disease pathology, sedentary groups were taken along. Muscle physiology testing of tibialis anterior muscle was performed at the age of 34 weeks. Muscle histopathology and gene expression was analysed in skeletal muscles and heart. Muscle histopathology and gene expression was analysed in skeletal muscles and heart. Mice successfully accomplished the functional tests, which did not interfere with disease pathology. Muscle function of SGCA- and SGCD-null mice was impaired and declined over time. Interestingly, female SGCD-null mice outperformed males in the two and four limb hanging tests, which proved the most suitable non-invasive tests to assess muscle function. Muscle physiology testing of tibialis anterior muscle revealed lower specific force and higher susceptibility to eccentric-induced damage in LGMD mice. Analyzing muscle histopathology and gene expression, we identified the diaphragm as the most affected muscle in LGMD strains. Cardiac fibrosis was found in SGCD-null mice, being more severe in males than in females. Our study offers a comprehensive natural history dataset which will be useful to design standardized tests and future pre

  13. Effect of a Home Based Exercise Program on Postmenopausal Women’s Shoulder Girdle Muscle Strength for Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akoochakian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Reducing in muscle strength of the shoulder girdle is a side effect of breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of resistance and mobility training on the shoulder girdle strength of women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study twenty-seven postmenopausal women with breast cancer (mean age, 51±5.96 years, (mean height, 158.08±7.2 cm, (mean weight, 63.08±11.06 kg who underwent surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, were purposefully selected and divided into two groups of intervention and control. Intervention group performed 4 weeks (4 sessions per week of resistance training with flex-band and stretch training at home, but the control group did not participate in any sports or physical program. Muscle strength before and after intervention was measured using a handheld dynamometer. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: Significant differences were seen between intervention and control groups in shoulder flexion, scapula abduction and upward rotation, shoulder internal rotation, shoulder external rotation, shoulder horizontal adduction and scapula depression and adduction strength, as all strength variables increased after 4 weeks exercise. Conclusion: Since strength plays an important role in ADL performance and shoulder girdle function in breast cancer survivors, it seems that muscle strength improvement following combined home based exercise program can help patients after treatment to easier and faster rehabilitation. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (3: 185-195

  14. INCREASED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN IN COMPROMISED PREGNANCIES OTHER THAN FOR NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS OR DOWN-SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLITH, JMM; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    Intrauterine fetal death occurred in four women who were 'screen-positive' in a screening programme for neural tube defects (NTDs) and Down syndrome (DS). These women had very high levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG). Therefore,

  15. ABNORMAL LEVELS OF MATERNAL SERUM HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN AND ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN THE 2ND-TRIMESTER - RELATION TO FETAL WEIGHT AND PRETERM DELIVERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORSSINK, LP; KORNMAN, LH; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    The aim of this prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was to examine the clinical significance of abnormal maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) in the second trimester of pregnancy. The study group comprised 8892 women with a singleton pregnancy,

  16. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have

  17. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on Serum E2, FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonggang, Huang; Xiaosheng, Lu; Zhaoxia, Huang; Yilu, Chen; Jiqiang, Lv; Huina, Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome were analyzed. 90 patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome treated from January 2015 to March 2016 were randomly and evenly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in the control group were only treated with clomiphene. On the basis of the treatment in control group, human chorionic gonadotropin was added in the treatment of observation group. The changes of E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL levels were compared between two groups before and after the treatment. Clinical curative effects of patients in the two groups was evaluated. Adverse reactions during treatment in two groups were observed and recorded. The incidence of adverse reactions was calculated. Serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in the two groups decreased significantly after treatment compared with that before treatment. The difference is statistical significant ( P   0.05). Combined use of human chorionic gonadotropin can significantly reduce serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels, improve clinical curative effects and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions. Human chorionic gonadotropin has high application value on the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. The human chorionic gonadotropin-beta arginine68 to glutamic acid substitution fixes the conformation of the C-terminal peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charrel-Dennis, Marie; Terrazzini, Nadia; McBride, Jeffrey D

    2005-01-01

    Wild-type human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used as a contraceptive vaccine. However, extensive sequence homology with LH elicits production of cross-reactive antibodies. Substitution of arginine(68) of the beta-subunit (hCG(beta)) with glutamic acid (R68E) profoundly reduces the cross...

  19. The effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome of the second twin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Sofie; Nickelsen, Carsten; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome in the second twin. Additionally, to investigate predictors of adverse outcome in both twins. Methods: Data included vaginally delivered twins (≥ 36 weeks) from Copenhagen ...

  20. Intérêt pronostique de l’infiltration du chorion dans les tumeurs vésicales pT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zakhama

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Le classement des ces tumeurs en fonction de l’importance d’envahissement du chorion et de l’infiltration de la musculaire muqueuse a prouvé son efficacité à travers les taux de récidive et de progression tumorale chez nos malades.

  1. Imaging in transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankier, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers all topics related to the imaging of organ transplantation. An introductory section addresses such issues as organ procurement, patient selection, immune responses, and ethical and economic considerations. The main part of the book then offers in-depth coverage of heart, renal, liver, lung, bone marrow and pancreatic and intestinal transplantation. Each of these topics is discussed firstly in a clinical chapter and then in a radiological chapter. The clinical chapters detail the epidemiology, clinical background, and surgical procedures, as well as any clinically relevant issues of which the radiologist should be aware. The radiological chapters describe and depict the imaging manifestations of specific organ transplantations, document the normal radiological appearance of transplanted organs and consider both early and late complications. This is a unique, superbly illustrated volume that will be of great assistance to all who work in this field. (orig.)

  2. Post-transplant Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others in similar situations. Get a feeling of security and belonging. Learn about transplant-related issues. Get help in dealing with emotions and stress. Share helpful information with other patients. Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know ...

  3. Life After Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... Copyright © 1996-2018 National Marrow Donor Program. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  5. Treatment Before Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talk about donating their baby's cord blood College football player stays true to his commitment Be the ... before transplant depend on your disease and health history. They also may vary from hospital to hospital. ...

  6. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  7. Neurologic Complications of Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rajat

    2018-02-01

    Neurologic disturbances including encephalopathy, seizures, and focal deficits complicate the course 10-30% of patients undergoing organ or stem cell transplantation. While much or this morbidity is multifactorial and often associated with extra-cerebral dysfunction (e.g., graft dysfunction, metabolic derangements), immunosuppressive drugs also contribute significantly. This can either be through direct toxicity (e.g., posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome from calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus in the acute postoperative period) or by facilitating opportunistic infections in the months after transplantation. Other neurologic syndromes such as akinetic mutism and osmotic demyelination may also occur. While much of this neurologic dysfunction may be reversible if related to metabolic factors or drug toxicity (and the etiology is recognized and reversed), cases of multifocal cerebral infarction, hemorrhage, or infection may have poor outcomes. As transplant patients survive longer, delayed infections (such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and post-transplant malignancies are increasingly reported.

  8. Rabies in Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-19

    Dr. Richard Franka, a CDC scientist, discusses rabies in organ transplant recipients.  Created: 9/19/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/19/2016.

  9. Pancreas transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100129.htm Pancreas transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It ...

  10. Faecal microbiota transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon M D; Hansen, Mette Mejlby; Erikstrup, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening, laborat......BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening...

  11. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clea...

  12. Gorham-Stout disease of the shoulder girdle and cervico-thoracic spine: fatal course in a 65-year-old woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode-Lesniewska, B.; Hochstetter, A. von; Exner, G.U.; Hodler, J.

    2002-01-01

    A case of Gorham-Stout disease of the shoulder girdle and cervico-thoracic spine in a 65-year-old woman is described. The patient presented with progressive neurologic symptoms, pain, and deformities of the cervico-thoracic spine as well as of her left shoulder following a traumatic shoulder luxation. Since the patient had a history of uterine carcinoma, the current disease was clinically difficult to differentiate from osteolytic metastases. The results of the clinical, radiological and histopathologic examination leading to the diagnosis of Gorham-Stout disease are described. Neither attempted surgery nor radiotherapy produced clinical improvement and the patient died 1 year after the first clinical evaluation. (orig.)

  13. CT scan-guided percutaneous osteosynthesis of a complex, multifocal fracture of the pelvic girdle in a 14-year-old adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Pierre-Thomas; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie; Caudal, Amandine; El Hayek, Tony; Amoretti, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 14-year-old girl with minimally displaced pelvic girdle and acetabular roof fracture following motor vehicle trauma, treated percutaneously under CT and C-arm fluoroscopic guidance by an interventional radiologist. After informed consent from the patient's parents, under surgical aseptic conditions and under general anesthesia, three screws were positioned adequately under dual guidance by a radiologist and without immediate or long-term complication. The patient was mobilized 48 h after the procedure and resumed normal activities after 1 month. Even though the technique has been described before on adults, to our knowledge this is the first time it has been described on a pediatric patient. (orig.)

  14. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kamrul; Suhail, Ahmed; Pan, Genhua

    2017-07-12

    We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG), as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp² lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC) readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL -1 . The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  15. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Islam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG, as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp2 lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL−1. The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  17. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  18. Radiosteriometric analysis of movement in the sacroiliac joint during a single-leg stance in patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Röhrl, Stephan M; Stuge, Britt

    2014-04-01

    Chamberlain's projections (anterior-posterior X-ray of the pubic symphysis) have been used to diagnose sacroiliac joint mobility during the single-leg stance test. This study examined the movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance test with precise radiostereometric analysis. Under general anesthesia, tantalum markers were inserted into the dorsal sacrum and the ilium of 11 patients with long-lasting and severe pelvic girdle pain. After two to three weeks, a radiostereometric analysis was conducted while the subjects performed a single-leg stance. Small movements were detected in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance. In both the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac join, a total of 0.5 degree rotation was observed; however, no translations were detected. There were no differences in total movement between the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac joint. The movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance is small and almost undetectable by the precise radiostereometric analysis. A complex movement pattern was seen during the test, with a combination of movements in the two joints. The interpretation of the results of this study is that, the Chamberlain examination likely is inadequate in the examination of sacroiliac joint movement in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction is Present Without Histopathology in a Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy-2F and is Prevented after Claudin-5 Virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Milani-Nejad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMutations in several members of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex lead to skeletal and cardiomyopathies. Cardiac care for these muscular dystrophies consists of management of symptoms with standard heart medications after detection of reduced whole heart function. Recent evidence from both Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and animal models suggests that myocardial dysfunction is present before myocardial damage or deficiencies in whole heart function, and that treatment prior to heart failure symptoms may be beneficial. To determine whether this same early myocardial dysfunction is present in other muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathies, we conducted a physiological assessment of cardiac function at the tissue level in the δ-sarcoglycan null mouse model (Sgcd-/- of Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F. Baseline cardiac contractile force measurements using ex vivo intact linear muscle preparations, were severely depressed in these mice without the presence of histopathology. Virotherapy with claudin-5 prevents the onset of cardiomyopathy in another muscular dystrophy model. After virotherapy with claudin-5, the cardiac contractile force deficits in Sgcd-/- mice are no longer significant. These studies suggest that screening Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients using methods that detect earlier functional changes may provide a longer therapeutic window for cardiac care.

  20. B4GALNT2 (GALGT2) Gene Therapy Reduces Skeletal Muscle Pathology in the FKRP P448L Mouse Model of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul J; Xu, Rui; Martin, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Overexpression of B4GALNT2 (previously GALGT2) inhibits the development of muscle pathology in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy 1A, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2D. In these models, muscle GALGT2 overexpression induces the glycosylation of α dystroglycan with the cytotoxic T cell glycan and increases the overexpression of dystrophin and laminin α2 surrogates known to inhibit disease. Here, we show that GALGT2 gene therapy significantly reduces muscle pathology in FKRP P448Lneo(-) mice, a model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. rAAVrh74.MCK.GALGT2-treated FKRP P448Lneo(-) muscles showed reduced levels of centrally nucleated myofibers, reduced variance, increased size of myofiber diameters, reduced myofiber immunoglobulin G uptake, and reduced muscle wasting at 3 and 6 months after treatment. GALGT2 overexpression in FKRP P448Lneo(-) muscles did not cause substantial glycosylation of α dystroglycan with the cytotoxic T cell glycan or increased expression of dystrophin and laminin α2 surrogates in mature skeletal myofibers, but it increased the number of embryonic myosin-positive regenerating myofibers. These data demonstrate that GALGT2 overexpression can reduce the extent of muscle pathology in FKRP mutant muscles, but that it may do so via a mechanism that differs from its ability to induce surrogate gene expression. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Vase, Maja Ølholm; Kampmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    after long-term post-transplantation follow-up. A retrospective population-based cohort study including all kidney transplant recipients at two Danish centres (1990-2011; population covered 3.1 million; 2175 transplantations in 1906 patients). Pathology reports were reviewed for all patient biopsies...

  2. Overview of marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references

  3. Pancreas transplantation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ibrahim David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreas transplantation is the only treatment able to reestablish normal glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without the use of exogenous insulin. The evolution of pancreas transplantation in treatment of diabetes was determined by advances in the fields of surgical technique, organ preservation and immunosuppressants. The main complication leading to graft loss is technical failure followed by acute or chronic rejection. Technical failure means graft loss within the first three months following transplantation due to vascular thrombosis (50%, pancreatitis (20%, infection (18%, fistula (6.5% and bleeding (2.4%. Immunological complications still affect 30% of patients, and rejection is the cause of graft loss in 10% of cases. Chronic rejection is the most common late complication. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of late mortality in pancreas transplantation, so it remains the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes patients. There is a significant improvement in quality of life and in patient’s survival rates. The development of islet transplantation could eliminate or minimize surgical complications and immunosuppression.

  4. Predicting Alloreactivity in Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Geneugelijk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte Antigen (HLA mismatching leads to severe complications after solid-organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The alloreactive responses underlying the posttransplantation complications include both direct recognition of allogeneic HLA by HLA-specific alloantibodies and T cells and indirect T-cell recognition. However, the immunogenicity of HLA mismatches is highly variable; some HLA mismatches lead to severe clinical B-cell- and T-cell-mediated alloreactivity, whereas others are well tolerated. Definition of the permissibility of HLA mismatches prior to transplantation allows selection of donor-recipient combinations that will have a reduced chance to develop deleterious host-versus-graft responses after solid-organ transplantation and graft-versus-host responses after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Therefore, several methods have been developed to predict permissible HLA-mismatch combinations. In this review we aim to give a comprehensive overview about the current knowledge regarding HLA-directed alloreactivity and several developed in vitro and in silico tools that aim to predict direct and indirect alloreactivity.

  5. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  6. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  7. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Transplants Transplantation Recovery Coping Print en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in ... finding a match is called tissue typing (or HLA [human leukocyte antigen] typing). HLA is a protein ...

  8. Intrauterine administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos; Coomarasamy, Arri; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2016-05-20

    Subfertility affects 15% of couples and represents the inability to conceive naturally following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Assisted reproduction refers to procedures involving the in vitro handling of both human gametes and represents a key option for many subfertile couples. Most women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET) but the proportion of embryos that successfully implant following ET has remained small since the mid-1990s. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone synthesised and released by the syncytiotrophoblast and has a fundamental role in embryo implantation and the early stages of pregnancy. Intrauterine administration of synthetic or natural hCG via an ET catheter during a mock procedure around the time of ET is a novel approach that has recently been suggested to improve the outcomes of assisted reproduction. To investigate whether the intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET improves the clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We performed a comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, registers of ongoing trials andreference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews (from inception to 10 November 2015), in consultation with the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET in this review irrespective of language and country of origin. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, extracted data from studies and attempted to contact the authors where data were missing. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager 5 in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of

  9. Gaming the Liver Transplant Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Snyder

    2010-01-01

    The liver transplant waiting list is designed to allocate livers to the sickest patients first. Before March 1, 2002, livers were allocated to patients based on objective clinical indicators and subjective factors. In particular, a center placing a prospective transplant recipient in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to a higher position on the liver transplant waiting list. After March 1, 2002, a policy reform mandated that priority on the liver transplant waiting list no longer be influen...

  10. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  11. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  12. [Transplantation-associated infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzner, R

    2004-01-01

    Transplantation-associated infections are caused by an infected transplanted organ or the endogenic or exogenic environment of the recipient in a state of induced immunodeficiency. The best therapy would be to reconstitute the immunodeficiency, but this is usually impossible as it endangers the transplanted organ. Thus, a specific, standardised anti-infectious therapy is needed even in the absence of clearly identified micro-organisms [bacteria (in two thirds gram-positive rods), parasites (in central Europe predominantly Toxoplasma), fungi (especially Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp.) or viruses (such as Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus)]. Origins of infection (e.g., hygiene), types of infection (e.g., reactivation), typical localisations, diagnostic tools (e.g., blood cultures, antigenic tests, PCR, CT, advantages and disadvantages of antibody assays) and possible therapies are briefly discussed. The take home messages are to avoid economy measures in microbial diagnostics and to use CMV-seronegative donors whenever possible.

  13. Scintigraphy of renal transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramackers, J.M.; Marrast, A.C.; Touraine, J.L.; Peyrin, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Scintigraphy is useful for monitoring perfusion and function of renal transplant, as well as for diagnosing miscellaneous surgical. This non-invasive imaging technique, which uses no deleterious products, is an attractive alternative for patients. This is especially true for those patients in early post-transplant course, with immunity depression and often impairment of renal function. Otherwise, multiple indices with a large range of inter-patient values has not favoured a methodological and interpretative consensus. Furthermore, the poor specificity of renogram patterns does not allow for discrimination of all etiologies with only one scintigraphy. Nevertheless, follow-up with iterative scintigraphy may be helpful due to the high intra-patient reproducibility and to the early appreciate change of parameters, according to clinical and histological renal post-transplant outcome. (authors). 43 refs., 8 figs

  14. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  15. Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    Allograft thrombosis is a devastating early complication of renal transplantation that ultimately leads to allograft loss. We report here on our experience of nine cases of immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis at a single centre between January 1990 and June 2009. The mean age was 42.9 years at time of transplant. For seven patients, the allograft thrombosis was their first kidney transplant and seven of the nine cases had a deceased donor transplant. The initial transplants functioned for a mean of 1.67 days and the patients received a second allograft at a mean of 3.1 days after graft failure. All of the re-transplants worked immediately. Four allografts failed after a mean of 52.5 months (2-155 months). Two of these died with a functioning allograft, one failed owing to chronic allograft nephropathy and one owing to persistent acute cellular rejection. The remaining five patients still have a functioning allograft after a mean of 101.8 months (7-187 months). One year allograft and patient survival after re-transplantation were 87.5% and 100% respectively (after 5 years, both were 57%). Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis can be a success. It may be considered in selected cases after allograft thrombosis.

  16. Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    Allograft thrombosis is a devastating early complication of renal transplantation that ultimately leads to allograft loss. We report here on our experience of nine cases of immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis at a single centre between January 1990 and June 2009. The mean age was 42.9 years at time of transplant. For seven patients, the allograft thrombosis was their first kidney transplant and seven of the nine cases had a deceased donor transplant. The initial transplants functioned for a mean of 1.67 days and the patients received a second allograft at a mean of 3.1 days after graft failure. All of the re-transplants worked immediately. Four allografts failed after a mean of 52.5 months (2-155 months). Two of these died with a functioning allograft, one failed owing to chronic allograft nephropathy and one owing to persistent acute cellular rejection. The remaining five patients still have a functioning allograft after a mean of 101.8 months (7-187 months). One year allograft and patient survival after re-transplantation were 87.5% and 100% respectively (after 5 years, both were 57%). Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis can be a success. It may be considered in selected cases after allograft thrombosis.

  17. Sporotrichosis in Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gewehr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current report describes two renal transplant recipients who presented with sporotrichosis. In addition, the authors review the general aspects of sporotrichosis in renal transplant recipients reported in the literature. Sporotrichosis is a rare fungal infection in transplant patients and has been reported primarily in renal transplant recipients not treated with antifungal prophylaxis. Extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis without skin manifestations and no previous history of traumatic injuries have been described in such patients and are difficult to diagnose. Renal transplant recipients with sporotrichosis described in the present report were successfully treated with antifungal therapy including amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid amphotericin B formulations, fluconazole and itraconazole.

  18. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months-17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson's disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature.

  19. Transplantation of contaminated organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, J. A.; Tidow, G.; van Saene, H. F. K.; Krom, R. A. F.; Slooff, M. J. H.; Weening, J. J.; Tegzess, A. M.; Meijer, S.; van Boven, W. P. L.

    In cadaveric organ transplantation there is a risk of transfer of infectious agents from donor to recipient. The consequences can be fatal for immuosuppressed recipients. This is illustrated by a case history in which an infection with the fungus Monosporium apiospermum was transferred from a donor

  20. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  1. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... auto-transplantation is performed following total pancreatectomy—the surgical removal of the whole pancreas—in patients with severe and chronic, or long lasting, pancreatitis that cannot be managed by other treatments. This procedure is not considered experimental. Patients with ...

  2. Kidney transplantation and hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Vetchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful kidney transplantation eliminates endocrine and metabolic disorders that predispose to the development of hyperparathyroidism, the complication typical for the chronic kidney disease; but the process of recovery from mineral and bone disorders is slowed down. The highest incidence of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is recorded in the first postoperative year. The risk factors for its development or persistence include the high blood levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and/or alkaline phosphatase, a prolonged dialysis therapy, severe hyperparathyroidism in the preoperative period, vitamin D deficiency, a suboptimal transplanted kidney function, and also the recipient's previous history of subtotal or incomplete parathyroidectomy. The characteristic clinical and laboratory signs of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism are bone lesions, kidney graft abnormalities, hypercalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. The diagnostic algorithm includes monitoring the markers of mineral and bone metabolism, determining the bone mineral density, and imaging of thyroid glands. Correction of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is performed surgically or pharmacologically. The article specifies the indications to, the extent and timing of parathyroidectomy, discusses the use of native vitamin D formulations, its analogues, and calcimimetics.

  3. Hypertension after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolski, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In chapter 2 we found that hypertension was highly prevalent in adult (77.2%), paediatric (62.7%) and young adult (86.4%) KTRs. Transition from the paediatric to adult care did not affect hypertension and there

  4. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  5. Transplant tourism: a growing phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David J

    2009-03-01

    Medical tourism is increasing owing to high costs of care, lack of availability or long waits for procedures, and improvements in technology and standards of care in many countries. Transplant tourism is one example of medical tourism that has been attracting increasing attention because of concerns over poor treatment and outcomes of both donors and recipients. Most such cases involve vended kidneys obtained from vulnerable populations, and both donors and recipients receive inferior care by US standards. This commentary discusses a paper by Gill et al. that compared outcomes of 33 transplant tourists with those of patients transplanted at a US center. Fewer complications and better outcomes were seen in patients transplanted in the US center than among transplant tourists. Large transplant centers with long waiting times are increasingly likely to see patients return newly transplanted from overseas; such patients require urgent attention, with particular consideration to infectious complications.

  6. Demand dynamic bio-girdling in heart failure: improved efficacy of dynamic cardiomyoplasty by LD contraction during aortic out-flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, U; Rigatelli, G; Rossini, K; Barbiero, M; Rigatelli, G

    2003-03-01

    The value of dynamic cardiomyoplasty has been brought into question by the disappointing results produced by slow contraction-relaxation cycle and possibly degeneration of the latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) secondary to temporary tenotomy and chronic daily electrical stimulation. Objective of our study is to determine whether daily periods of rest introduced by demand stimulation in the continuous contraction protocol produce systolic assistance and improve clinical results. Twelve dynamic cardiomyoplasty patients (mean age 58.2 +/- 5.8 years, M/F=11/1, sinus rhythm/atrial fibrillation=11/1) with dilated myocardiopathy were enrolled in an unrandomized trial of Demand Dynamic Heart Bio-Girdling in a public regional teaching hospital. Periods of LD inactivity, each lasting several hours, were introduced daily on a heart rate-based demand regime. To avoid full transformation of LD, fewer impulses per day were delivered, daily providing the LD with long periods of rest (Demand light stimulation). The contractile properties were measured by transcutaneous non-invasive LD tensiomyogram interrogation (LD tensiomyogram). Bio-Girdle activation was synchronized to heart beat by combining tensiomyogram and echocardiography. Clinical, echocardiographic and hemodynamic records, as well as aortic flow measurements by Doppler aortic flow wire were taken during the follow-up. Mean duration of the demand stimulation follow-up was 40.2+13.8 months. At five years, "Demand stimulation" shows: 1) no operative death; 2) 83% actuarial survival; 3) highly significant 47.4% decrease of the NYHA class (from 3.17 +/- 0.38 to 1.67 +/- 0.77, p=0.0001); 4) 41.6% improvement of LVEF (from 22.6 +/- 4.38 to 32.0 +/- 7.0, p=0.001); 5) 7.5 +/- 3.0% increase in aortic flow velocity peak in assisted vs. unassisted beats, and 6) preservation of LD from slowness (TFF value 33 +/- 7.86 at follow-up versus 15.8 +/- 11.1 Hz just before switching from continuous to demand stimulation, p=0.0001) and muscle

  7. Diagnostics of trophoblast disease and the control of therapeutic efficiency based on definition of chorionic gonadotrapin and trophoblastic beta1-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugrinova, L.G.; Olefirenko, G.A.; Dotsenko, Yu.S.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative estimation of markers of trophoblast disease, chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and trophoblastic beta 1 -glycoprotein defined by different methods is given. It is found that diagnostics and control of therapeutic efficiency for patients having trophoblast disease based on CG definition are possible. In 86% of cases the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the immunoradioautography, and in 33% - by the immunodiffusion method. The dependence of marker detection frequency on the therapeutic efficiency is found

  8. Brief communication: sliding displacement of amnion and chorion following controlled laser wounding suggests a mechanism for short-term sealing of ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Dickinson, M R; Charlton, A; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The Erbium-YAG laser was used to produce narrow wounds of defined depth in term amniochorion. The charring effect of the laser meant that sites could be readily localized in histological sections. During brief post-wounding incubations, sliding displacement of the amnion relative to the chorion occurred through the plane of the spongy layer. This suggests a possible short-term mechanism whereby a spontaneous rupture could be sealed in vivo.

  9. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  10. Irradiation for xenogeneic transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halperin, E.C.; Knechtle, S.J.; Harland, R.C.; Yamaguchi, Yasua; Sontag, M.; Bollinger, R.R. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Radiology Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

    1990-05-01

    Xenogeneic transplantation (XT) is the transplantation of organs or tissues from a member of one species to a member of another. Mammalian species frequently have circulating antibody which is directed against the foreign organ irrespective of known prior antigen exposure. This antibody may lead to hyperacute rejection once it ensues so efforts must be directed towards eliminating the pre-existing antibody. In those species in which hyperacute rejection of xenografts does not occur, cell-mediated refection, similar to allograft rejection, may occur. It is in the prevention of this latter form of refection that radiation is most likely to be beneficial in XT. Both total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and selective lyphoid irradiation (LSI) have been investigated for use in conjunction with XT. TLI has contributed to the prolongation of pancreatic islet-cell xenografts from hamsters to rats. TLI has also markedly prolonged the survival of cardiac transplants from hamsters to rats. A more modest prolongation of graft survival has been seen with the use of TLI in rabbit-to-rat exchanges. Therapy with TLI, cyclosporine, and splenectomy has markedly prolonged the survival of liver transplants from hamsters to rats, and preliminary data suggest that TLI may contribute to the prolongation of graft survival in the transplantation of hearts from monkeys to baboons. SLI appears to have prolonged graft survival, when used in conjunction with anti-lymphocyte globulin, in hamster-to-rat cardiac graft exchanges. The current state of knowledge of the use of irradiaiton in experimental XT is reviewed. (author). 38 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs.

  11. Irradiation for xenogeneic transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Knechtle, S.J.; Harland, R.C.; Yamaguchi, Yasua; Sontag, M.; Bollinger, R.R.; Duke Univ., Durham, NC

    1990-01-01

    Xenogeneic transplantation (XT) is the transplantation of organs or tissues from a member of one species to a member of another. Mammalian species frequently have circulating antibody which is directed against the foreign organ irrespective of known prior antigen exposure. This antibody may lead to hyperacute rejection once it ensues so efforts must be directed towards eliminating the pre-existing antibody. In those species in which hyperacute rejection of xenografts does not occur, cell-mediated refection, similar to allograft rejection, may occur. It is in the prevention of this latter form of refection that radiation is most likely to be beneficial in XT. Both total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and selective lyphoid irradiation (LSI) have been investigated for use in conjunction with XT. TLI has contributed to the prolongation of pancreatic islet-cell xenografts from hamsters to rats. TLI has also markedly prolonged the survival of cardiac transplants from hamsters to rats. A more modest prolongation of graft survival has been seen with the use of TLI in rabbit-to-rat exchanges. Therapy with TLI, cyclosporine, and splenectomy has markedly prolonged the survival of liver transplants from hamsters to rats, and preliminary data suggest that TLI may contribute to the prolongation of graft survival in the transplantation of hearts from monkeys to baboons. SLI appears to have prolonged graft survival, when used in conjunction with anti-lymphocyte globulin, in hamster-to-rat cardiac graft exchanges. The current state of knowledge of the use of irradiaiton in experimental XT is reviewed. (author). 38 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  12. Regenerative and Antibacterial Properties of Acellular Fish Skin Grafts and Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane: Implications for Tissue Preservation in Combat Casualty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Skuli; Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Rolfsson, Ottar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur Fertram

    2017-03-01

    Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane. We evaluated cell ingrowth capabilities of the biological materials with microscopy techniques. Bacterial barrier properties were tested with a 2-chamber model. The microstructure of the acellular fish skin is highly porous, whereas the microstructure of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane is mostly nonporous. The fish skin grafts show superior ability to support 3-dimensional ingrowth of cells compared to dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (p fish skin is a bacterial barrier for 24 to 48 hours. The unique biomechanical properties of the acellular fish skin graft make it ideal to be used as a conformal cover for severe trauma and burn wounds in the battlefield. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Development of Some Organs Derived from the Three Embryonic Germ Layer in a Degus Ectopic Pregnancy and Presence of a Cytotrophoblast That Mimics Human Chorionic Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bosco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of abdominal pregnancy in an adult female degu from which we recovered two large tissular masses from the peritoneal cavity. The bigger one showed a number of thin vascular connections to the serosa layer of the small intestine. It was also directly connected to the smaller mass by a thin membranous process. The surface of the bigger mass facing the small intestine wall showed the presence of chorionic villous that resembled a villous human chorionic placenta, rather than the hemomonochorial labyrinthine placenta, characteristic of this species. This unusual finding leads us to postulate that in the degu’s uterus the cytotrophoblast is exposed to a number of factors that will activate cascades of cellular and molecular events that ultimately will be signaling the cytotrophoblast to develop into a labyrinthine hemomonochorial placenta. In absence of the proper uterine environment, as is the case of the abdominal pregnancy in the peritoneal cavity reported here, the lack of signaling will lead the cytotrophoblast to develop into a villous chorionic placenta, similar to that observed in human.

  14. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for pregnancy related low back and/ or pelvic girdle pain: An online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ciara M; Liddle, S D; Sinclair, Marlene; McCullough, Julie E M

    2018-05-01

    Low back and pelvic girdle pain (LBPGP) is a common complaint among pregnant women, which increases throughout pregnancy and women use various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies to manage their pain. Using an online survey, CAM treatments used by pregnant women in the UK and their perceptions of these therapies to relieve LBPGP were investigated. 191 women completed the survey and 70% experienced LBPGP lasting more than one week. Over half of women who sought treatment from a GP or physiotherapist were dissatisfied. 25% of participants used CAM during pregnancy, the most popular being aromatherapy (21%), acupuncture (21%), and reflexology (15%). 81% of women used CAM to manage their LBPGP and 85% found it useful for pregnancy symptoms. Women experience high levels of pain during pregnancy with limited treatment options. Research into effective CAM treatments for LBPGP is required to allow women to make informed decisions regarding treatment options. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE THEMATIC MATERIAL AND TEXTURE IN THE FANTASY FOR TWO PIANOS BRYUL LUI AMIHALACHIOAIE (AMIHALACHIOAIE’S GIRDLE BY VLAD BURLEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMALÂGA MARINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fantasy „Bryul lui M. Amihalachioaie” (Amihalachioaie’s Girdle for two pianos composed by Vlad Burlea as the only example of this genre in his creative activity. This work is analyzed from the perspective of genre specificity, determined by the synthesis of the fantasy genre and the monumental miniature, revealing the interaction of variation and improvisation. The author comes to the conclusion that V. Burlea’s creation is characterized by a truthful realization of the language elements of national music, and namely that of the Moldovan dance. The article also considers the form and content of the present work, its intonation-thematic processes and the treatment of the two-piano ensemble that imitates the sound of the dulcimer.

  16. CT scan-guided percutaneous osteosynthesis of a complex, multifocal fracture of the pelvic girdle in a 14-year-old adolescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, Pierre-Thomas; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie; Caudal, Amandine; El Hayek, Tony; Amoretti, Nicolas [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France)

    2014-08-15

    We report on a 14-year-old girl with minimally displaced pelvic girdle and acetabular roof fracture following motor vehicle trauma, treated percutaneously under CT and C-arm fluoroscopic guidance by an interventional radiologist. After informed consent from the patient's parents, under surgical aseptic conditions and under general anesthesia, three screws were positioned adequately under dual guidance by a radiologist and without immediate or long-term complication. The patient was mobilized 48 h after the procedure and resumed normal activities after 1 month. Even though the technique has been described before on adults, to our knowledge this is the first time it has been described on a pediatric patient. (orig.)

  17. Protein Turnover and Cellular Stress in Mildly and Severely Affected Muscles from Patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting primarily in the proximal muscles, while distal muscles often are spared. Our aim was to investigate if wasting could be caused by impaired regeneration in the proximal...... by using the developmental markers embryonic myosin heavy chain (eMHC) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and also assessing satellite cell activation status by myogenin positivity. Severe muscle histopathology was occasionally observed in the proximal muscles of patients with LGMD2I whereas distal...... highly increased in severely affected muscles compared to mildly affected muscles. Our results indicate that alterations in the protein turnover and myostatin levels could progressively impair the muscle mass maintenance and/or regeneration resulting in gradual muscular atrophy....

  18. A New Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I Homozygous for the Common L276I Mutation Mimicking the Mild Phenotype in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) is caused by mutations in the Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene, leading to inadequate glycosylation of α-dystroglycan, an important protein linking the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. We created a mouse model of the common FKRP L276I...... mutation and a hemizygous FKRP L276I knockout model. We studied histopathology and protein expression in the models at different ages and found that homozygous FKRP L276I mice developed a mild progressive myopathy with increased muscle regeneration and fibrosis starting from 1 year of age. This was likely...... in maintaining proper glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. The mild progression in the homozygous FKRP L276I model resembles that in patients with LGMD2I who are homozygous for the L276I mutation. This animal model could, therefore, be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of and developing a treatment...

  19. Adult Neandertal clavicles from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) in the context of Homo pectoral girdle evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Rodriguez-Perez, Francisco Javier; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Pastor, Juan Francisco; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We undertook a three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3DGM) analysis on 12 new Neandertal clavicle specimens from the El Sidrón site (Spain), dated to 49,000 years ago. The 3DGM methods were applied in a comparative framework in order to improve our understanding of trait polarity in features related to Homo pectoral girdle evolution, using other Neandertals, Homo sapiens, Pan, ATD6-50 (Homo antecessor), and KNM-WT 15000 (Homo ergaster/erectus) in the reference collection. Twenty-nine homologous landmarks were measured for each clavicle. Variation and morphological similarities were assessed through principal component analysis, conducted separately for the complete clavicle and the diaphysis. On average, Neandertal clavicles had significantly larger muscular entheses, double dorsal curvature, clavicle torsion, and cranial orientation of the acromial end than non-Neandertal clavicles; the El Sidrón clavicles fit this pattern. Variation within the samples was large, with extensive overlap between Homo species; only chimpanzee specimens clearly differed from the other specimens in morphometric terms. Taken together, our morphometric analyses are consistent with the following phylogenetic sequence. The primitive condition of the clavicle is manifest in the cranial orientation of both the acromial and sternal ends. The derived condition expressed in the H. sapiens + Neandertal clade is defined by caudal rotation of both the sternal and acromial ends, but with variation in the number of acromia remaining in a certain cranial orientation. Finally, the autapomorphic Neandertal condition is defined by secondarily acquired primitive cranial re-orientation of the acromial end, which varies from individual to individual. These results suggest that the pace of phylogenetic change in the pectoral girdle does not seem to follow that of other postcranial skeletal features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the prevalence of patterns of pregnancy-induced pelvic girdle pain and low back pain in urban and rural populations: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati Mahishale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical changes during pregnancy impose postural deviations, leading to various musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Commonly noted pain syndromes are the pelvic girdle pain (PGP and low back pain (LBP, which were experienced by pregnant women globally. There is a prevalence of pregnancy-related PGP (PPGP and pregnancy-related LBP (PLBP in Western population. Data of the same in Indian pregnant population lack evidence. Objective: To find the rates of incidence and prevalence of different patterns of PPGP and PLBP in the urban and rural pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 580 pregnant women were screened for inclusion criteria. Confirmation of diagnosis of PGP and LBP was done for 457 subjects using Modified Oswestry Disability Index (MODI questionnaire and the pelvic girdle questionnaire (PGQ. Once diagnosed, all participants were subjected to nine clinical tests to differentiate the site of pain and to classify them accordingly into three different groups, namely group A (LBP, group B [posterior pelvic pain (PPP], and group C [anterior pelvic pain (APP]. Results: The point prevalence of pain in group A (LBP was 31%, in group B (PPP was 65%, and in group C (APP was 15%. The prevalence of PGP and LBP was 75% in the urban pregnant population and 25% in the rural pregnant population. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PPP (65% is higher than that of LBP (31% and APP (15%. Also PPP is reported to be highest in primiparous with gestational age of 38 weeks. The urban population showed 75% and rural population showed 25% of PGP and LBP.

  1. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Principles of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an autologous Stem Cell Transplant · Slide 8 · Conditioning · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Stem Cell Transplantation · Slide 13.

  2. Ewes carrying the Booroola and Vacaria prolificacy alleles respond differently to ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, J C F; Souza, C J H

    2017-09-21

    The magnitude of ovulation rate (OR) after hormonal induction in sheep should be considered when prolific genotypes are used. We investigated for the first time the effect of the Vacaria allele and its combined effect with the Booroola prolificacy mutation on OR after hormonal treatment during breeding and anoestrous season. A hundred forty-nine Ile de France crossbred ewes, raised in natural pastures in South Brazil, were used to evaluate the OR after treatment with progestagen (MAP) followed or not by equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) treatment (MAP + eCG). During the breeding season, 96% MAP-treated ewes ovulated in comparison to 97% of MAP + eCG-treated females. The double heterozygous carriers (BNVN) presented the higher OR, followed by the single Vacaria (NNVN) and Booroola (BNNN) heterozygous females and least the wild-type (NNNN) ewes. During anoestrus, 96% eCG-treated ewes ovulated, in contrast to 6% treated with MAP alone. The OR of the gonadotrophin-treated females was higher in BNVN and BNNN than NNVN and NNNN ewes. An additive effect in the OR of the two mutations was observed since OR in double heterozygous ewes was similar to the sum of the effects of the alleles of the single heterozygous carrier ewes.

  3. A facile and sensitive peptide-modulating graphene oxide nanoribbon catalytic nanoplasmon analytical platform for human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihui; Li, Chongning; Li, Dan; Luo, Yanghe; Wen, Guiqing; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The nanogold reaction between HAuCl 4 and citrate is very slow, and the catalyst graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) enhanced the nanoreaction greatly to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that exhibited strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption (Abs) at 550 nm and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) at 550 nm. Upon addition of the peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the peptide could adsorb on the GONR surface, which inhibited the catalysis. When hCG was added, peptides were separated from the GONR surface due to the formation of stable peptide-hCG complex, which led to the activation of GONR catalytic effect. With the increase in hCG concentration, the RRS and Abs signal enhanced linearly. The enhanced RRS value showed a good linear relationship with hCG concentration in the range of 0.2-20 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 70 pg/mL. Accordingly, two new GONR catalytic RRS/Abs methods were established for detecting hCG in serum samples.

  4. Thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor extracellular domain chimeras as probes for thyrotropin receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Wadsworth, H.L.; Chazenbalk, G.D.; Russo, D.; Seto, Pui; Rapoport, B.

    1991-01-01

    To define the sites in the extracellular domain of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor that are involved in TSH binding and signal transduction the authors constructed chimeric thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (TSH-LH/CG) receptors. The extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor was divided into five regions that were replaced, either singly or in various combinations, with homologous regions of the rat LH/CG receptor. The chimeric receptors were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The data obtained suggest that the carboxyl region of the extracellular domain (amino acid residues 261-418) and particularly the middle region (residues 171-260) play a role in signal transduction. The possibility is also raised of an interaction between the amino and carboxyl regions of the extracellular domain in the process of signal transduction. In summary, these studies suggest that the middle region and carboxyl half of the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor are involved in signal transduction and that the TSH-binding region is likely to span the entire extracellular domain, with multiple discontinuous contact sites

  5. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation. Results: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79. Discussion: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. Conclusion: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF.

  6. The optimal cutoff serum level of human chorionic gonadotropin for efficacy of methotrexate treatment in women with extrauterine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Ron; Debby, Abraham; Feit, Hagit; Cohen-Sacher, Bina; Keidar, Ran; Golan, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for extrauterine pregnancy and define criteria for prediction of success. Of 829 patients with an ectopic pregnancy admitted to E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel, from January 1997 through December 2009, 238 had asymptomatic tubal pregnancies and increasing serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) levels. These patients were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 50mg of methotrexate (MTX) per square meter of body surface. Success was defined as undetectable βhCG levels without the need for a surgical intervention. The groups of patients successfully treated (n=167 [70%]) and unsuccessfully treated (n=71 [30%]) were compared. They were similar regarding age and gravidity. The initial serum βhCG level was significantly higher in the latter group than in the former (3798 mIU/mL vs. 1601 mIU/mL, Pinitial βhCG levels were less than 1000 mIU/mL, 71% when they were between 1000 and 2000 mIU/mL, and only 59% when they were between 2000 and 3000 mIU/mL. Methotrexate treatment is a safe and effective alternative to surgery. However, patients with initial βhCG levels higher than 2000 mIU/mL should only be offered the surgical approach. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Induction of puberty with human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone in adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, R; de Luis, D; Alonso, M; Lamas, A; Moreno, J C

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical and hormonal responses of adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in response to gonadotropin replacement with the use of long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy. Prospective clinical study. Clinical pediatric department providing tertiary care. Seven prepubertal males with isolated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 15.44+/-1.97 years and seven prepubertal males with panhypopituitarism-associated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 18.1+/-3.24 years were studied. Human chorionic gonadotropin (1,000-1,500 IU IM) and FSH (75-100 IU SC) were administered every alternate day of the week until the total induction of puberty and spermatogenesis was achieved. Serum testosterone levels, testicular volume, penis length, and sperm count were evaluated after the administration of hCG and FSH. All patients achieved normal sexual maturation and normal or nearly normal adult male levels of testosterone. The increase in testicular size was significant in both groups. Positive sperm production was assessed in four of five patients with isolated HH and in three of three patients with panhypopituitarism-associated HH. Long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy is effective in inducing puberty, increasing testicular volume, and stimulating spermatogenesis in adolescent males with isolated HH and panhypopituitarism-associated HH.

  8. Effects of luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin on corpus luteum cells in a spheroid cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, A; Keck, C; Weber, H; Kissel, C; Pietrowski, D

    2005-09-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) is a highly vascularized, temporarily active endocrine gland and consists mainly of granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells (TCs), and endothelial cells (ECs). Its cyclic growth and development takes place under the influence of gonadotropic hormones. If pregnancy does occur, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) takes over the function of luteinizing hormone (LH) and, in contrast to LH, extends the functional life span of the CL. In this study, we investigated the effects of hCG and LH in a spheroidal cell culture model of CL development. Our data indicate that GCs secrete factors under the control of hCG that increase sprout formation of EC-spheroids. We demonstrate that the most prominent of these factors is VEGF-A. Furthermore, we found that both LH and hCG decrease sprout formation of GC-spheroids. After forming EC-GC coculture spheroids and consequently bringing GCs and ECs in close contact, sprouting increased under the influence of hCG, however not under LH. These experiments provide evidence for an hCG dependent functional switch in the GCs after coming in contact with ECs. Moreover, it demonstrates the considerably different effects of hCG and LH on GCs although their signaling is transmitted via the same receptor.

  9. Chorionic gonadotropin regulates the transcript level of VHL, p53, and HIF-2alpha in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, D; Keck, C; Tempfer, C; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2004-12-01

    The ovarian corpus luteum plays a critical role in reproduction being the primary source of circulating progesterone. After ovulation the corpus luteum is build by avascular granulosa lutein cells through rapid vascularization regulated by gonadotropic hormones. The present study was performed to investigate whether this process might be influenced by the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-dependent expression of different tumor suppressor genes and hypoxia dependent transcription factors. RNA was isolated from cultured granulosa lutein cells, transcribed into cDNA, and the transcript level of following genes were determined: RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, APC, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), -2, and -3alpha. Additionally, the influence of hCG on the expression of VHL, p53, and HIf2alpha were investigated. We demonstrate that in human granulosa lutein cells the tumor suppressor genes RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, and APC and the hypoxia dependent transcription factors HIF-1alpha, -2alpha, and -3alpha are expressed. In addition, we showed that hCG regulates the expression of p53, VHL, and HIF-2alpha. Our results indicate that hCG may determine the growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating hypoxic and apoptotic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Biological and biochemical properties of human chorionic gonadotropin from urine of patients with hydatidiform mole and its radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryuichiro; Hamamoto, Tamotsu; Tanabe, Keizo; Takemori, Masayuki; Ashitaka, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was extracted and purified from the urine of four patients with hydatidiform mole. The immunological activities of the hCG-hydatidiform mole by hCG radioimmunoassay (RIA) ranged from 9,380 to 9,700 IU/mg, and the biological activities measured by the immature rat ovarian weight method ranged from 7,250 to 7,780 IU/mg. The results of the amino acid compositions of all the hCG-hydatidiform moles were practically identical with those of hCG-normal pregnancies. The carbohydrate moiety of the hCG-hydatidiform mole was also suspected to be almost similar to that of hCG-normal pregnancies by the results of their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. It was demonstrated that hCG-hydatidiform mole was composed of α and β subunits (similar to a hCG-normal pregnancy) when hCG-hydatidiform mole was separated into subunits by SDS disc electrophoresis after treatment with mercaptoethanol. The RIA system of hCG-hydatidiform mole can be established. The concentrations of hCG in sera of normal pregnant women and patients with trophoblastic diseases assayed by hCG-hydatidiform mole RIA were equivalent to those obtained by a standard hCG RIA. Hence, a standard hCG-immunoassay method used in the management of trophoblastic diseases is considered reasonable so far as the immunoantigenecity of hCG is concerned. (author)

  11. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men

  12. A simple and sensitive immunoassay for the determination of human chorionic gonadotropin by graphene-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiuqian; Jing, Tao; Zhou, Tingting; Zhou, Yusun; Wu, Wei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we report a strategy of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) using graphene as an efficient long-range energy acceptor. Magnetic nanoparticles were also used in CRET for simple magnetic separation and immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-HCG antibody. In the design of CRET system, the sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed between human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, antigen) and two different antibodies bridged the magnetic nanoparticles and graphene (acceptors), which led to the occurrence of CRET from chemiluminescence light source to graphene. After optimizing the experimental conditions, the quenching of chemiluminescence signal depended linearly on the concentration of HCG in the range of 0.1 mIU mL(-1)-10 mIU mL(-1) and the detection limit was 0.06 mIU mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of HCG levels in saliva and serum samples, and the results were in good agreement with the plate ELISA with colorimetric detection. It could also be developed for detection of other antigen-antibody immune complexes by using the corresponding antigens and respective antibodies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of preventing O-glycosylation on the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzuk, M.M.; Krieger, M.; Corless, C.L.; Boime, I.

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a member of a family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones that have a common α subunit but differ in their hormone-specific β-subunits. The β subunit of hCG (hCGβ) is unique among the β subunits in that it contains four mucin-like O-linked oligosaccharides attached to a carboxyl-terminal extension. To study the effects of O-glycosylation on the secretion and assembly of hCG, expression vectors containing either hCGβ gene alone or together with the hCGα gene were transfected into a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, 1d1D, which exhibits a reversible defect in O-glycosylation. The results reveal that hCGβ can be secreted normally in the absence of its O-linked oligosaccharides. hCGβ devoid of O-linked carbohydrate can also combine efficiently with hCGα and be secreted as an intact dimer. The authors conclude that in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the hCGβ O-linked chains play no role in the assembly and secretion of hCG. The normal and O-linked oligosaccharide-deficient forms of hCG secreted by these cells should prove useful in examining the role of O-linked chains on the biological function of hCG

  14. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor overexpressed in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome ovaries is functionally active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Gordon, Uma D; López Bernal, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with anovulatory infertility. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR), which is critical for ovulation, has been suggested to be expressed prematurely in the ovarian follicles of women with PCOS. This study aimed to analyse the expression and activity of LHCGR in ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS patients and the involvement of ARF6 small GTPase in LHCGR internalization. Granulosa cells (GC) isolated from follicular fluid collected during oocyte retrieval from normal women (n = 19) and women with PCOS (n = 17) were used to study differences in LHCGR protein expression and activity between normal and PCOS patients. LHCGR expression is up-regulated in GC from PCOS women. LHCGR in PCOS GC is functionally active, as shown by increased cAMP production upon human gonadotrophin (HCG)-stimulation. Moreover, ARF6 is highly expressed in GC from PCOS patients and HCG-stimulation increases the concentrations of active ARF6. The inhibition of ARF6 activation attenuates HCG-induced LHCGR internalization in both normal and PCOS GC, indicating that there are no alterations in LHCGR internalisation in GC from PCOS. In conclusion, the expression and activation of LHCGR and ARF6 are up-regulated in GC from PCOS women but the mechanism of agonist-induced LHCGR internalization is unaltered. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  16. Bortezomib in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Jeroudi, Abdallah; Achkar, Katafan; Gaber, A. Osama; Patel, Samir J.; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Although current therapies for pretransplant desensitization and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) have had some success, they do not specifically deplete plasma cells that produce antihuman leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (a plasma cell neoplasm), induces plasma cell apoptosis. In this paper we review the current body of literature regarding the use of this biological agent in the field of transplantation. Although limited experience with bortezomib may seem to show promise in the realm of transplant recipients desensitization and treatment of AMR, there is also experience that may suggest otherwise. Bortezomib's role in desensitization protocols and treatment of AMR will be defined better as more clinical data and trials become available. PMID:20953363

  17. Update on Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael; James Shapiro, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical islet transplantation has progressed considerably over the past 12 years, and >750 patients with type 1 diabetes have received islet transplants internationally over this time. Many countries are beginning to accept the transition from research to accepted and funded clinical care, especially for patients with brittle control that cannot be stabilized by more conventional means. Major challenges remain, including the need for more than one donor, and the requirement for potent, chronic immunosuppression. Combining immunological tolerance both to allo- and autoantigens, and a limitless expandable source of stem cell- or xenograft-derived insulin-secreting cells represent remaining hurdles in moving this effective treatment to a potential cure for all those with type 1 or 2 diabetes. PMID:22762022

  18. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in transplant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Júlio Cezar Uili; Contieri, Fabiana L C; de Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira; da Silva, Fernanda Cristina; Kozak, Vanessa Nascimento; da Silva Junior, Alzemir Santos

    2010-02-01

    This study reviews our experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of cholelithiasis in transplant patients. Demographic data, medications used, and operative and postoperative data of all transplant recipients who were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis at our hospital were obtained. A total of 15 transplant patients (13 renal transplantation and 2 bone marrow transplantation) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients were admitted to the hospital on the day of the operation. The immunosuppressive regimen was not modified during hospitalization. Clinical presentation of cholelithiasis was biliary colicky (n=12), acute cholecystitis (n=2), and jaundice (n=1). The operation was uneventful in all patients. Postoperative complications were nausea and vomiting in 2 patients, prolonged tracheal intubation in 1, wound infection in 1 and large superficial hematoma in 1 patient. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated to a low morbidity and mortality and good postoperative outcome in transplant patients with uncomplicated cholecystitis.

  19. Islet Assessment for Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Klearchos K.; Suszynski, Thomas M.; Colton, Clark. K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review There is a critical need for meaningful viability and potency assays that characterize islet preparations for release prior to clinical islet cell transplantation (ICT). Development, testing, and validation of such assays have been the subject of intense investigation for the past decade. These efforts are reviewed, highlighting the most recent results while focusing on the most promising assays. Recent Findings Assays based on membrane integrity do not reflect true viability when applied to either intact islets or dispersed islet cells. Assays requiring disaggregation of intact islets into individual cells for assessment introduce additional problems of cell damage and loss. Assays evaluating mitochondrial function, specifically mitochondrial membrane potential, bioenergetic status, and cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR), especially when conducted with intact islets, appear most promising in evaluating their quality prior to ICT. Prospective, quantitative assays based on measurements of OCR with intact islets have been developed, validated and their results correlated with transplant outcomes in the diabetic nude mouse bioassay. Conclusion More sensitive and reliable islet viability and potency tests have been recently developed and tested. Those evaluating mitochondrial function are most promising, correlate with transplant outcomes in mice, and are currently being evaluated in the clinical setting. PMID:19812494

  20. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  1. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  2. Ethnic Disparities in Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmer, Nyingi

    2011-01-01

    End-stage liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among ethnic minorities. In the United States, ethnic minorities comprise approximately 30% of all adult liver transplantations performed annually. Several studies have suggested that ethnic populations differ with respect to access and outcomes in the pre- and post-transplantation setting. This paper will review the existing literature on ethnic variations in the adult liver transplantation population.

  3. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kimiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  4. Types of Cancer Associated with Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  5. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  6. Megakaryocytopoiesis in Stem Cell Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, IIsaac

    1998-01-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant, used to reconstitute hematopoiesis following high-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, is associated with a requisite period of profound thrombocytopenia...

  7. The Economics of Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    To determine the cost effectiveness of transplantation, we analyzed the financial economics of the organ and tissue transplant process. We compared the cost of this process with traditional modalities for treating endstage liver and kidney disease. Medical, surgical, legal, social, ethical, and religious issues are important in organ transplant procedures. Government, health insurance companies, and uninsured individuals are affected by the financial economics of organ transplantation. The distribution of financial burden differs among countries and is dependent on the unique circumstances of each country.

  8. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  9. B Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes Tumor Invasion and Predicts Poor Prognosis of Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well established that many non-trophoblastic tumors secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin and that such secretion is correlated with the poor prognosis of tumor patients. This study aims to analyze the correlation between β-HCG expression and outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC and understand its role in CRC pathology Methods: We detected the mRNA and protein expression of β-HCG in human CRC tissues with RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, and we compared the clinical-pathological characteristics, prognosis and progression between the β-HCG positive and negative groups. We also generated CRC cell lines with β-HCG over-expression as well as β-HCG stable knockout, and evaluated cell function and mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Results: Fifty out of 136 CRC patients (37% expressed β-HCG at the invasive front. Clinical-pathological data showed that β-HCG was positively correlated with Dukes staging (P=0.031 and lymph node metastasis (P=0.012. Survival analysis suggested that the patients with high expression of β-HCG had poorer prognosis than those with low β-HCG expression (P=0.0289. β-HCG expression level was also positively correlated with tumor invasion in early-stage CRC patient tissues (P=0.0227. Additionally β-HCG promoted the migration and invasion of CRC in vitro and in vivo but had no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that β-HCG was ectopically expressed in the CRC patients and its high expression correlated with poor prognosis of early-stage CRC. Additionally it worked as an oncogene that promotes the migration and invasion of CRC by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT.

  10. A facile and sensitive peptide-modulating graphene oxide nanoribbon catalytic nanoplasmon analytical platform for human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aihui Liang,1,2,* Chongning Li,1,2,* Dan Li,1,2,* Yanghe Luo,1–3 Guiqing Wen,1,2 Zhiliang Jiang1,2 1Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education, 2Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, 3School of Food and Bioengineering, Hezhou University, Hezhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The nanogold reaction between HAuCl4 and citrate is very slow, and the catalyst graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR enhanced the nanoreaction greatly to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs that exhibited strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR absorption (Abs at 550 nm and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS at 550 nm. Upon addition of the peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, the peptide could adsorb on the GONR surface, which inhibited the catalysis. When hCG was added, peptides were separated from the GONR surface due to the formation of stable peptide–hCG complex, which led to the activation of GONR catalytic effect. With the increase in hCG concentration, the RRS and Abs signal enhanced linearly. The enhanced RRS value showed a good linear relationship with hCG concentration in the range of 0.2–20 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 70 pg/mL. Accordingly, two new GONR catalytic RRS/Abs methods were established for detecting hCG in serum samples. Keywords: nanocatalysis, graphene oxide nanoribbon, peptide regulation, hCG, RRS

  11. Prospective assessment of early fetal loss using an immunoenzymometric screening assay for detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Overstreet, J W; Samuels, S J; Boyers, S P; Canfield, R E; O'Connor, J F; Hanson, F W; Lasley, B L

    1992-06-01

    To develop an economical, nonradiometric immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in studies of early fetal loss. To be effective, the IEMA must have a sensitivity equal to the standard immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and sufficient specificity to eliminate the need for screening most nonconceptive cycles with the expensive and labor-intensive IRMA. Two different assays were used to measure hCG in daily early morning urine samples from potential conceptive cycles. Women undergoing donor artificial insemination (AI) were evaluated in a prospective study. Ninety-two women volunteers were selected on the basis of apparent normal reproductive health. Artificial insemination with nonfrozen donor semen was performed by cervical cup twice each menstrual cycle at 48-hour intervals, and daily urine samples were self-collected throughout the menstrual cycle. An IEMA was developed to detect urinary hCG using the same antibodies as in the standard IRMA; a study was designed to determine whether this nonradiometric assay could successfully detect the early fetal loss that was detected by the IRMA. Of 224 menstrual cycles analyzed by both assays, a total of six early fetal losses were detected by the IRMA. When the tentative screening rule was set to allow all six of these losses and 95% of future losses to be detected by the IEMA, an additional 34 false-positive results were detected by the IEMA. The specificity of the IEMA with this rule was calculated to be 84%. An IEMA based on the same antibodies used for the standard IRMA can serve as an efficient screening assay for the detection of early fetal loss. When the IEMA is used in this manner, nearly 80% of screened menstrual cycles can be eliminated without further testing by the IRMA.

  12. A Comparative Study to Evaluate Myogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Chorion versus Umbilical Cord Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Nikoo; Sanooghi, Davood; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Hayati Roodbari, Nasim; Alavi Moghaddam, Sepideh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Faghihi, Faezeh

    2017-08-01

    Musculodegenerative diseases threaten the life of many patients in the world. Since drug administration is not efficient in regeneration of damaged tissues, stem cell therapy is considered as a good strategy to restore the lost cells. Since the efficiency of myogenic differentiation potential of human Chorion- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (C-MSCs) has not been addressed so far; we set out to evaluate myogenic differentiation property of these cells in comparison with Umbilical Cord Blood- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UCB-MSCs) in the presence of 5-azacytidine. To do that, neonate placenta Umbilical Cord Blood were transferred to the lab. After characterization of the isolated cells using flowcytometry and multilineage differentiation capacity, the obtained Mesenchymal Stem Cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 2% FBS and 10μM of 5-azacytidine to induce myogenic differentiation. Real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to assess the myogenic properties of the cells. Our data showed that C-MSCs and UCB-MSCs were spindle shape in morphology. They were positive for CD90, CD73 and CD44 antigens, and negative for hematopoietic markers. They also differentiated into osteoblast and adipoblast lineages. Real-time PCR results showed that the cells could express MyoD, desmin and α-MHC at the end of the first week (P<0.05). No significant upregulation was detected in the expression of GATA-4 in both groups. Immunocytochemical staining revealed the expression of Desmin, cTnT and α-MHC. Results showed that these cells are potent to differentiate into myoblast- like cells. An upregulation in the expression of some myogenic markers (desmin, α- MHC) was observed in C-MSCs in comparison with UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Procedure-related risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolekar, R; Beta, J; Picciarelli, G; Ogilvie, C; D'Antonio, F

    2015-01-01

    To estimate procedure-related risks of miscarriage following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) based on a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and The Cochrane Library (2000-2014) was performed to review relevant citations reporting procedure-related complications of amniocentesis and CVS. Only studies reporting data on more than 1000 procedures were included in this review to minimize the effect of bias from smaller studies. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using Cochran's Q, the I(2) statistic and Egger bias. Meta-analysis of proportions was used to derive weighted pooled estimates for the risk of miscarriage before 24 weeks' gestation. Incidence-rate difference meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled procedure-related risks. The weighted pooled risks of miscarriage following invasive procedures were estimated from analysis of controlled studies including 324 losses in 42 716 women who underwent amniocentesis and 207 losses in 8899 women who underwent CVS. The risk of miscarriage prior to 24 weeks in women who underwent amniocentesis and CVS was 0.81% (95% CI, 0.58-1.08%) and 2.18% (95% CI, 1.61-2.82%), respectively. The background rates of miscarriage in women from the control group that did not undergo any procedures were 0.67% (95% CI, 0.46-0.91%) for amniocentesis and 1.79% (95% CI, 0.61-3.58%) for CVS. The weighted pooled procedure-related risks of miscarriage for amniocentesis and CVS were 0.11% (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.26%) and 0.22% (95% CI, -0.71 to 1.16%), respectively. The procedure-related risks of miscarriage following amniocentesis and CVS are much lower than are currently quoted. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on luteal function and reproductive performance of high-producing lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E; Thatcher, W W; Pool, L; Overton, M W

    2001-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3,300 IU i.m.) administered on d 5 after AI on CL number, plasma progesterone concentration, conception rate, and pregnancy loss in high-producing dairy cows. Following the synchronization of estrus and AI, 406 cows were injected with either hCG or saline on d 5 after AI in a randomized complete block design. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonography were conducted once between d 11 and 16 after AI. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 28 by ultrasonography and on d 45 and 90 after AI by rectal palpation. Treatment with hCG on d 5 resulted in 86.2% of the cows with more than one CL compared with 23.2% in controls. Plasma progesterone concentrations were increased by 5.0 ng/mL in hCG-treated cows. The presence of more than one CL increased progesterone concentration in hCG-treated cows but not in controls. Conception rates were higher for hCG-treated cows on d 28 (45.8 > 38.7%), 45 (40.4 > 36.3%), and 90 (38.4 > 31.9%) after AI. Treatment with hCG improved conception rate in cows losing body condition between AI and d 28 after Al. Pregnancy losses were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with hCG on d 5 after AI induces accessory CL, enhances plasma progesterone concentration, and improves conception rate of high-producing dairy cows.

  15. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight.The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight.Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors.Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7.Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  16. GONAD REMATURATION ON Pangasionodon hypophthalmus FEMALE THROUGH INJECTION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Tahapari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of spawning is influenced by internal and external factors. One of the factors that affect the var iabi li ty of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus female reproductive is the change of seasons that cause disrupted continuity of the seed availability, especially in the dry season. In the present study, combination of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin + HCG (hormone chorionic gonadotropin hormone injections was done to induce gonad development. The treatments in this study were without hormone injections as control (A, injection of PMSG 10 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg (B, and injection of PMSG 20 IU/kg HCG + 10 IU/kg (C. Injections were conducted at intervals of two weeks as many as six times. The results showed that gonad maturation generally occurs 2-4 weeks after estradiol-17 peak. PMSG + HCG hormone injections gave a significant effect on increasing the quantity and quality of eggs production. The fecundity in the A, B, C treatments, were 233,700±220,676; 300,305±24,581 and 488,433±142,228; respectively. Number of larvae produced from the A, B, C treatments, were 156,979±170,838; 229,997±18,081 and 362,713±101,850; respectively. Combination of PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg hormone injection gave the best result on fecundity and the number of larvae production.

  17. Comparative study of regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from placental amnion, chorion and umbilical cord on dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Juliane; Pichlsberger, Melanie; Tuca, Alexandru-Cristian; Wurzer, Paul; Fuchs, Jakob; Geyer, Stefan H; Maurer-Gesek, Barbara; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Pfeiffer, Dagmar; Bubalo, Vladimir; Parvizi, Daryousch; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Lang, Ingrid

    2018-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from human term placentas (PMSCs) are novel therapeutic agents and more topical than ever. Here we evaluated the effects of three types of PMSCs on wound healing in an in vivo mouse model: Amnion-derived MSCs (AMSCs), blood vessel-derived MSCs (BV-MSCs) from the chorionic plate and Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) from the umbilical cord. We topically applied PMSCs onto skin wounds in mice using the dermal substitute Matriderm ® as carrier and evaluated wound healing parameters. In addition, we investigated the effects of all PMSC types under co-application with placental endothelial cells (PLECs). After 8 days, we compared the percent of wound closure and the angiogenic potential between all groups. AMSCs, BV-MSCs and WJ-MSCs significantly induced a faster healing and a higher number of blood vessels in the wound when compared to controls (Matriderm ® -alone). PLECs did not further improve the advantageous effects of PMSC-treatment. Quantitative data and 3D analysis by high resolution episcopic microscopy confirmed a lower density of vessels in Matriderm ® /PMSCs/PLECs co-application compared to Matriderm ® /PMSCs treatment. Results indicate that all three PMSC types exert similar beneficial effects on wound closure and neovascularization in our mouse model. Using Matriderm ® as carrier for PMSCs propagates rapid cell migration towards the wound area that allows a fast and clinically practicable method for stem cell application. These promising effects warrant further investigation in clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Transplant tourism among kidney transplant patients in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, U H

    2017-07-05

    Transplant tourism entails movement of recipient, donor or both to a transplant centre outside their country of residence. This has been reported in many countries; and has variously been associated with organ trade. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency and pattern of transplant tourism among transplant patients in Eastern Nigeria. This is a non randomized cross sectional study. All kidney transplant patients who presented at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane Enugu and Hilton Clinics Port Harcourt in Nigeria were recruited. The clinical parameters including the transplant details of all the patients were documented. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS package. A total of one hundred and twenty six patients were studied, 76.2% were males with M:F ratio of 3.2:1 and mean age of 46.9 ± 13.3 years. Fifty four and 58.7% of the patients were managed in a tertiary hospital and by a nephrologist respectively before referral for kidney transplant. Only 15.8% of the patients had their kidney transplant without delay: finance, lack of donor, logistics including delay in obtaining travelling documents were the common causes of the delay. Ninety percent of the patients had their transplant in India with majority of them using commercial donors. India was also the country with cheapest cost ($18,000.00). 69.8% were unrelated donors, 68.2% were commercial donors and 1.6% of the donors were spouse. All the commercial donors received financial incentives and each commercial donor received mean of 7580 ± 1280 dollars. Also 30.2% of the related donors demanded financial incentive. Transplant tourism is prevalent in eastern Nigeria.

  19. Mediastinitis after cardiac transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noedir A. G. Stolf

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessment of incidence and behavior of mediastinitis after cardiac transplantation. METHODS: From 1985 to 1999, 214 cardiac transplantations were performed, 12 (5.6% of the transplanted patients developed confirmed mediastinitis. Patient's ages ranged from 42 to 66 years (mean of 52.3±10.0 years and 10 (83.3% patients were males. Seven (58.3% patients showed sternal stability on palpation, 4 (33.3% patients had pleural empyema, and 2 (16.7% patients did not show purulent secretion draining through the wound. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was the infectious agent identified in the wound secretion or in the mediastinum, or both, in 8 (66.7% patients. Staphylococcus epidermidis was identified in 2 (16.7% patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 1 (8.3% patient, and the cause of mediastinitis could not be determined in 1 (8.3% patient. Surgical treatment was performed on an emergency basis, and the extension of the débridement varied with local conditions. In 2 (16.7% patients, we chose to leave the surgical wound open and performed daily dressings with granulated sugar. Total sternal resection was performed in only 1 (8.3% patient. Out of this series, 5 (41.7% patients died, and the causes of death were related to the infection. Autopsy revealed persistence of mediastinitis in 1 (8.3% patient. CONCLUSION: Promptness in diagnosing mediastinitis and precocious surgical drainage have changed the natural evolution of this disease. Nevertheless, observance of the basic precepts of prophylaxis of infection is still the best way to treat mediastinitis.

  20. Transplant Biology at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Sedwick, Caitlin

    2008-01-01

    Despite major advances in transplantation biology, allowing transplants not just of critical organs like heart and kidney but also of limbs and faces, researchers are still struggling to minimize the risks from achieving the level of immunosuppression needed to make the body accept foreign tissues.

  1. Neuromuscular diseases after cardiac transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateen, Farrah J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Kremers, Walter K.; Daly, Richard C.; Edwards, Brooks S.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac transplantation is a therapeutic option in end-stage heart failure. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease is known to occur in cardiac transplant recipients but has not been fully characterized. METHODS: This retrospective cohort review reports the PNS-related concerns of 313

  2. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques.

  3. Lung and renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Caetano Mota

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the most common type of solid organ transplantation and kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to pulmonary complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Aim: To evaluate patients admitted to the Renal Transplant Unit (RTU of Hospital de S. João with respiratory disease. Subject and methods: We performed a retrospective study of all patients admitted to RTU with respiratory disease during a period of 12 months. Results: Thirty-six patients were included. Mean age 55.2 ( ± 13.4 years; 61.1% male. Immunosuppressive agents most frequently used were prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil associated with ciclosporin (38.9% or tacrolimus (22.2% or rapamycin (13.9%. Thirty-one patients (86.1% presented infectious respiratory disease. In this group the main diagnoses were 23 (74.2% pneumonias, 5 (16.1% opportunistic infections, 2 (6.5% tracheobronchitis, and 1 case (3.2% of lung abscesses. Microbiological agent was identified in 7 cases (22.6%. Five patients (13.9% presented rapamycin-induced lung disease. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 15 patients (41.7%, diagnostic in 10 cases (66.7%. Mean hospital stay was 17.1 ( ± 18.5 days and no related death was observed. Conclusion: Respiratory infections were the main complications in these patients. Drug-induced lung disease implies recognition of its features and a rigorous monitoring of drug serum levels. A more invasive diagnostic approach was determinant in the choice of an early and more specific therapy. Resumo: O transplante renal é o transplante de órgãos sólidos mais frequente, sendo os transplantados renais alvo de complicações pulmonares inerentes à própria terapêutica imunossupressora, as quais constituem, por vezes, um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. Objectivo: Avaliar os doentes admitidos na Unidade de Transplante Renal (UTR do Hospital de S. João com o diagnóstico de patologia respirat

  4. Lied Transplant Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1143) evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the proposed Lied Transplant Center at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Statement in not required.

  5. [Prefabrication of bone transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C

    2015-03-01

    Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.

  6. Liver transplantation for nontransplant physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany AbdelMaqsod Sholkamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the nontransplant physicians who manage hepatic patients (internists and hepatologists keep asking about liver transplantation. The purpose of this article is to highlight important topics a nontransplant colleague may require in his practice. There are many topics in this respect; however, three most important topics need to be highlighted; those are; the time of referral to transplantation, the indications and contraindications and the metabolic issues regarding a transplanted patient. Still, there are no clear guidelines for the management of many of the metabolic issues regarding liver transplanted patients. And this why, collaborative efforts of transplant and nontransplant physicians are needed to conduct multicenter, long term randomized controlled trials and proper follow up programs.

  7. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  8. Tipo de porta-enxerto e anelamento de ramos no pegamento da enxertia em lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Evaluation of the performance of grafting in different rootstocks and girdling of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO BALDO GERALDO MARTINS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em condições de ripado, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho da enxertia a inglês simples, em dois tipos de porta-enxerto (pé-franco e alporquia, em combinação com três tipos de anelamento do ramo (sem anelamento, e ramos anelados duas e quatro semanas antes da retirada do garfo, em lichia. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e três repetições. Foi somente observada diferença significativa para o tipo pé-franco, que revelou os melhores resultados.This research work was carried out in the experimental area to evaluate the performance of grafting technique in two types of rootstocks (air layering and seedling with three types of girdling (without girdling and girdling shoot, two and four weeks before grafts retreat in litchi. The experimental design was a complete randomized with six treatments and three replications. There was statistical difference for the type of rootstocks that showed better results.

  9. Cell transplantation for Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Hongyun Huang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved by cell transplantation,which has caught general attention from the field of the therapy for PD recently. In this paper, we summarize the cell-based therapy for PD.DATA SOURCES: A search for English literature related to the cellular transplantation of PD from January 1979to July 2006 was conducted in Medline with the key words of "Parkinson's disease, cell transplantation,embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells".STUDY SELECTTON: Data were checked in the first trial, and literatures about PD and cell transplantation were selected. Inclusive criteria: ① PD; ② Cell transplantation. Exclusive criteria: repetitive researches.DATA EXTRACTTON: A total of 100 papers related to cellular transplant and PD were collected and 41literatures were in accordance with the inclusive criteria.DATA SYNTHESIS: PD is a neural degeneration disease that threatens the health of the aged people, and most traditional therapeusis cannot delay its pathological proceeding. Cell transplantation is becoming popular as a new therapeutic tool, and the cells used to transplant mainly included dopamine-secreting cells, fetal ventral mesencephalic cells, embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells up to now. Animal experiment and clinical test demonstrate that cell transplantation can relieve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease obviously, but there are some problems need to be solved.CONCLUSTON: Cell transplantation has visible therapeutic efficacy on PD. Following the improvement of technique, and we have enough cause to credit that cell therapy may cure PD in the future.

  10. Socioeconomic aspects of heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W

    1995-03-01

    Heart transplantation is an established treatment modality for end-stage cardiac disease. Unfortunately, relative to other health care priorities, heart transplantation has fallen into disrepute. Efforts to reform the health care system have focused on three fundamental issues--cost, quality, and access. On each count, heart transplantation is vulnerable to criticism. Managed care is an incremental approach to health care reform that imposes fiscal constraint on providers. This constraint is expressed in the form of capitation which, in turn, requires providers to assume risk and accept economic responsibility for clinical decisions. While the need for transplantation is considerable, there are both clinical and economic factors limiting the overall level of activity. In 1993, over 2200 heart transplants were performed in the United States on people who were dying of end-stage cardiac disease. The total demand for heart transplantation was estimated to be about 5900 persons, which was not met due to an insufficient supply of donor hearts. Absent donors, the fiscal consequences of heart transplantation are minimized. In 1993, actuaries estimated that the total charge per heart transplant was $209,100. By designating centers based on price and quality considerations, managed care plans have reduced this per procedure expense to less than $100,000. While the benefits of transplantation are noteworthy, there are still concerns. Sixty percent of patients report that they are able to work, but only 30% do so. Employers hope to improve upon this record by expanding the designated center approach. In conclusion, the future of heart transplantation is unclear. Opportunities for innovation are limited, although the management of heart failure is an area of increased interest.

  11. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women...... with normal pregnancies. Methods: In the study were included 161 cases with PE and 88 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Plasma PAPP-A and hCGβ were measured between gestational age (GA) 8+2 and 14+0, and cases with early and late onset PE were compared with controls. Results: Median of hCGβ (Mo...

  12. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province,...

  13. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in liver transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rubio-Manzanares-Dorado

    Full Text Available Introduction: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative syndrome (PTLD is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathologic features related to PTLD in a single institution after liver transplantation. Methods: Observational study where we have retrospectively analyzed 851 cases who underwent liver transplantation. Ten cases have developed PTLD. Their clinical-pathological characteristics and the treatment received have been analyzed. Results: PTLD incidence was 1.2% (10/851. The mean time from liver transplantation to PTLD diagnosis was 36 months (range 1.2 to 144 months. PTLD localization was extranodal in all cases, the most frequent location being intestinal. Seven cases showed a monomorphic lymphoma which in all cases was differentiated B cell lymphomas. Fifty per cent of the series were seropositive for Epstein-Barr virus. Five patients were alive at the time of the review. Among these patients, we observed three cases of complete remission and two cases of disease stabilization. The death rate was higher in the first year after diagnosis of PTLD. Conclusion: PTLD is a rare complication after liver transplantation, but it may pose a threat to the life of a liver transplant recipient. It is essential to identify patients at risk, to establish an early diagnosis and treatment that can change the outcome of the disease.

  14. Transplante de bexiga: estudo piloto Bladder transplant: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Teixeira Brandt

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo biológico que seja viável para o estudo sistemático do transplante de bexiga. MÉTODOS: Cães mestiços vivos são usados como doadores e receptores do segmento supra-trigonal da bexiga. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes tansplantados só fizeram uso de imunossupressão por 15 dias, estão vivos e sadios com 18 meses de transplante. Desde o primeiro mês de transplante os cães apresentam controle funcional da micção, inclusive sem urina residual importante. CONCLUSÃO: Transplante de bexiga em cães é um modelo viável, fisiológico e simples.PURPOSE: Our aim was to study the feasible of bladder transplants. METHODS: Alive mongrel dogs are being used as trigone bladder segment donators and receptors RESULTS: The transplanted patients had 15 days of immunosuppression and so far an 18-months satisfactory post-operative outcome. Since a month after surgery, the dogs have been presenting full functional control of micturition and the evaluations have been showing normal bladder storage and contraction capacities. CONCLUSION: bladder transplants in dogs its a possible, physiological and simple model.

  15. Advances in transplantation immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P J

    1987-09-01

    Although there have been dramatic advances in clinical organ transplantation over the past 20 years, rejection, both acute and chronic, and the complications of immunosuppression remain major problems. Nevertheless as our understanding of the immune response to a vascularized organ allograft develops, so too will our ability to develop more specific immunosuppression. In any strategy for more specific immunosuppression compatibility for the major histocompatibility complex of antigens (HLA in man) is likely to be important. Monoclonal antibodies to T cell subpopulations, or even to T cells specifically activated by the graft, provide methods of suppressing the immune response at a more specific level. The recognition that stable grafts are maintained, at least in experimental rodent models, by T suppressor cells may allow development of precise methods of inducing the generation of such cells in clinical practice. The induction of tolerance in the adult animal can be achieved in a number of ways, the most promising of which for clinical application, is antigen pretreatment. If tolerance could be achieved in clinical practice within the not too distant future, then this would represent the attainment of the ultimate goal of transplantation.

  16. Facial transplantation surgery introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Seok-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.

  17. [Kidney transplantation epidemiology in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesse, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Kidney transplantation activity in France is among the most important worldwide: in 2011, 2976 transplants have been performed (47.5 per million population), and the number of patients living with a functional graft is estimated around 30,000, representing 44.7% of all patients (n = 67,270) treated for end-stage renal failure. However, the rate of preemptive kidney transplants remains very low, only 3.3% of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy. The analysis of demand showed a progressive increase in recent years, as demonstrated by the registration rate on the kidney transplantation waiting list, increasing by 5% yearly between 2006 and 2010, but with huge differences according to age categories and regional registration areas, reflecting discrepant appreciations in indications for kidney transplantation. The median waiting time between registration and transplantation increased progressively in recent years, reaching 22.3 months with considerable variations according to regional areas and transplantation teams. Kidney transplantation activity, while increasing continuously, is far to cover the rising demand, and inexorably patients accumulate on the waiting list (around 9000 patients were registered by January 2012). This situation is the consequence of insufficient organ procurement activity. The deceased organ procurement rate remained high: 1572 harvested donors in 2011 (24.1 per million population), but the proportion of older donors rose in recent years, to reach the rate of 26% of donors older than 65 years in 2011. The procurement activity of donors after cardiac arrest was reintroduced in 2006, but increased slowly: 65 transplants were performed in 2011 using kidney procured in non heart-beating donors. The living donor kidney transplantation activity has markedly increased recently: 302 living donor transplantations were performed in 2011, representing 10.1% of the kidney transplantations. Facing the predictable increase in the number of

  18. Breast Reconstruction After Solid Organ Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Stephanie L; Giles, Brian; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Perdikis, Galen; Waldorf, James; Lemaine, Valerie; TerKonda, Sarvam

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplant patients frequently develop posttransplant malignancies including breast cancer. They may desire breast reconstruction after mastectomy, which could potentially be complicated by their transplant status, immunosuppressive regimen, and previous operations. We review our experience with patients who have undergone solid organ transplant and subsequent breast reconstruction after mastectomy After institutional review board approval, we queried our prospective breast reconstruction and solid organ transplant databases for corresponding patients. Inclusion criteria comprised breast reconstruction after solid organ transplant. A chart review was conducted of identified patients. Seventeen patients were identified: 1 pulmonary transplant, 4 cardiac transplants, 2 liver transplants, 1 pancreas transplant, 2 combined kidney/pancreas transplants, and 7 kidney transplants. Indications for mastectomy included posttransplant malignancy and prophylaxis. Median time from transplant to completion of reconstruction was 186 months (range, 11-336 months). Median age at transplant was 34.5 years (range, 21-65 years) with the median age of the patients at reconstructive surgery 51.5 years (range, 34-71 years). Median body mass index was 25.3 (range, 21.3-46.5). No significant complications were noted after reconstructive surgery. All patients were on full immunosuppression at time of reconstruction. Breast reconstruction is a viable option for transplant patients after mastectomy and should not be refused based on their transplant status. Close coordination with the transplant team and careful preoperative planning is essential for optimal outcomes.

  19. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  20. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies of the chorion, plasma membrane and syncytial layers of the gastrula-stage embryo of the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio : a consideration of the structural and functional relationships with respect to cryoprotectant penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawson, DM; Zhang, T; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    The structure of the chorion and plasma membranes of gastrula-stage zebrafish Brachydanio rerio embryos were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These studies confirm the outer chorion membrane complex to be 1.5-2.5 mu m in

  1. Infrastructure, logistics and regulation of transplantation: UNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Julie K

    2013-12-01

    Organ transplantation has evolved into the standard of care for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite considering increasingly complex transplant recipients for organs recovered from donors with increasing comorbid conditions, 1-year patient survival following kidney transplantation is 97% in the United States, whereas liver transplant recipient 1-year survival is 90%. There were 16,485 kidney recipients in the United States in 2012, and 6256 patients who underwent liver transplantation. The intent of this review is to highlight the logistics required for transplantation as well as reviewing the current oversight of transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Personalized medicine in transplantation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kaname

    2013-05-01

    Personalized medicine based on pharmacogenomics is being developed at the clinical stage. Various evidence is accumulating in transplantation therapy. Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is usually used for immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation. Tacrolimus is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 isozymes, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, expressed in the intestine as well as in the liver. Recent studies of pharmacogenomics have reported that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP3A5 are correlated with gene expression and enzyme activity. Phenotypes of CYP3A5 are typed as expressors (*1/*1 and *1/*3) or non-expressors (*3/*3) . In living-donor liver transplantation, CYP3A5 phenotypes could predict the blood concentration of tacrolimus. In particular, preoperative assessment of CYP3A5 genotypes in both recipients (intestine) and donors (graft liver) is required for predicting tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. In kidney transplantation, blood tacrolimus concentrations were significantly different between expressors and non-expressors. Genotyping and phenotyping of recipients were useful to predict blood tacrolimus levels in early phase of post-transplantation. Furthermore, phenotypes of CYP3A5 could predict the initial dose of tacrolimus. Combination therapy was performed after bone marrow transplantation to prevent complications. Genotyping and phenotyping of metabolic enzymes for combination dugs would be useful for predicting drug actions. In conclusion, phenotyping based on pharmacogenomics supports personalized medicine in transplantation therapy. In future, multiplex testing should be developed to support personalized medicine in various fields.

  3. Viral infections in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razonable, R R; Eid, A J

    2009-12-01

    Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.

  4. MR Imaging of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremo, L.; Avataneo, T.; Potenzoni, F.; Colla, L.; Segoloni, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report their experience in the study of renal transplant recipients by MR, in order to determine its clinical potentials. The main purpose of this work is to focus on MR patterns in relation to clinical findings of rejector or normally fuctioning kidney. Twenty-four patients were examined with a 0.5 T superconductive magnete, body coil, spin-echo pulse sequence (SE) and inversion-recovery (IR). MRI patterns could be seen in normally functioning kidneys and transplant rejections, while variable MRI findings were observed in transplants with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). In the normally functioning transplanted kidney there is a clear corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and the extent of vascular penetration into the renal parenchyma is clearly seen. In transplant rejection, CMD is either diminished or absent, and there is no vascular penetration into the parenchyma; to differentiate acute from chronic rejections, the increase/decrease in renal size and the change in renal shape (spherical shape in acute transplant rejection) respectively must be observed. MRI proves thus to be useful in the study of renal transplants, even in case of questionable clinical findings, and in patients in whom renal biopsy is contraindicated

  5. Heart transplantation and arterial elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin-Adams M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monica Colvin-Adams,1 Nonyelum Harcourt,1 Robert LeDuc,2 Ganesh Raveendran,1 Yassir Sonbol,3 Robert Wilson,1 Daniel Duprez11Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Cardiovascular Division, St Luke's Hospital System, Sugar Land, TX, USAObjective: Arterial elasticity is a functional biomarker that has predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in nontransplant populations. There is little information regarding arterial elasticity in heart transplant recipients. This study aimed to characterize small (SAE and large (LAE artery elasticity in heart transplant recipients in comparison with an asymptomatic population free of overt cardiovascular disease. A second goal was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with arterial elasticity in this unique population.Methods: Arterial pulse waveform was registered noninvasively at the radial artery in 71 heart transplant recipients between 2008 and 2010. SAEs and LAEs were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. Comparisons were made to a healthy cohort of 1,808 participants selected from our prevention clinic database. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between risk factors and SAE and LAE within the heart transplant recipients.Results: LAE and SAE were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in the normal cohort (P <0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Female sex and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with reduced LAE and SAE. Older age and the presence of moderate cardiac allograft vasculopathy were also significantly associated with reduced SAE. Transplant duration was associated with increased SAE.Conclusion: Heart transplants are associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in SAE and LAE when compared with a

  6. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  7. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho; Mendes, Gabriela Pacheco; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Papa, Paula de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96). However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01). In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the extracellular matrix

  8. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL. Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96. However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01. In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the

  9. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM. Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P≤0.001. Free testosterone (T and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r=0.78; P≤0.001, r=0.74;  P≤0.001, and r=0.71;  P≤0.001, respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P=0.001 and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P=0.0002 and 0.009. Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  10. Antibody induction therapy for lung transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Ida Elisabeth Irene

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation has become a valuable and well-accepted treatment option for most end-stage lung diseases. Lung transplant recipients are at risk of transplanted organ rejection, and life-long immunosuppression is necessary. Clear evidence is essential to identify an optimal, safe and effect...... and effective immunosuppressive treatment strategy for lung transplant recipients. Consensus has not yet been achieved concerning use of immunosuppressive antibodies against T-cells for induction following lung transplantation....

  11. Treadmill Training with HAL Exoskeleton—A Novel Approach for Symptomatic Therapy in Patients with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy—Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Kowalewski, Rebecca; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Aach, Mirko; Jansen, Oliver; Grasmücke, Dennis; Güttsches, Anne-Katrin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Exoskeletons have been developed for rehabilitation of patients with walking impairment due to neurological disorders. Recent studies have shown that the voluntary-driven exoskeleton HAL® (hybrid assistive limb) can improve walking functions in spinal cord injury and stroke. The aim of this study was to assess safety and effects on walking function of HAL® supported treadmill therapy in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Materials and Methods: Three LGMD patients received 8 weeks of treadmill training with HAL® 3 times a week. Outcome parameters were 10-meter walk test (10 MWT), 6-minute walk test, and timed-up-and-go test (TUG). Parameters were assessed pre and post training and 6 weeks later (follow-up). Results: All patients completed the therapy without adverse reactions and reported about improvement in endurance. Improvements in outcome parameters after 8 weeks could be demonstrated. Persisting effects were observed after 6 weeks for the 10 MWT and TUG test (follow-up). Conclusions: HAL® treadmill training in LGMD patients can be performed safely and enables an intensive highly repetitive locomotor training. All patients benefitted from this innovative method. Upcoming controlled studies with larger cohorts should prove its effects in different types of LGMD and other myopathies. PMID:28848377

  12. Treadmill Training with HAL Exoskeleton-A Novel Approach for Symptomatic Therapy in Patients with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy-Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Kowalewski, Rebecca; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Aach, Mirko; Jansen, Oliver; Grasmücke, Dennis; Güttsches, Anne-Katrin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Exoskeletons have been developed for rehabilitation of patients with walking impairment due to neurological disorders. Recent studies have shown that the voluntary-driven exoskeleton HAL® (hybrid assistive limb) can improve walking functions in spinal cord injury and stroke. The aim of this study was to assess safety and effects on walking function of HAL® supported treadmill therapy in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Materials and Methods: Three LGMD patients received 8 weeks of treadmill training with HAL® 3 times a week. Outcome parameters were 10-meter walk test (10 MWT), 6-minute walk test, and timed-up-and-go test (TUG). Parameters were assessed pre and post training and 6 weeks later (follow-up). Results: All patients completed the therapy without adverse reactions and reported about improvement in endurance. Improvements in outcome parameters after 8 weeks could be demonstrated. Persisting effects were observed after 6 weeks for the 10 MWT and TUG test (follow-up). Conclusions: HAL® treadmill training in LGMD patients can be performed safely and enables an intensive highly repetitive locomotor training. All patients benefitted from this innovative method. Upcoming controlled studies with larger cohorts should prove its effects in different types of LGMD and other myopathies.

  13. An elderly-onset limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B) with pseudo-hypertrophy of paraspinal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Mitsuru; Sumi-Akamaru, Hisae; Takahashi, Masanori P; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in LMNA, encoding A-type lamins, lead to diverse disorders, collectively called "laminopathies," which affect the striated muscle, cardiac muscle, adipose tissue, skin, peripheral nerve, and premature aging. We describe a patient with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B) carrying a heterozygous p.Arg377His mutation in LMNA, in whom skeletal muscle symptom onset was at the age of 65 years. Her weakness started at the erector spinae muscles, which showed marked pseudo-hypertrophy even at the age of 72 years. Her first episode of syncope was at 44 years; however, aberrant cardiac conduction was not revealed until 60 years. The p.Arg377His mutation has been previously reported in several familial LMNA-associated myopathies, most of which showed muscle weakness before the 6th decade. This is the first report of pseudo-hypertrophy of paravertebral muscles in LMNA-associated myopathies. The pseudo-hypertrophy of paravertebral muscles and the elderly-onset of muscle weakness make this case unique and reportable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Treadmill Training with HAL Exoskeleton—A Novel Approach for Symptomatic Therapy in Patients with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy—Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Exoskeletons have been developed for rehabilitation of patients with walking impairment due to neurological disorders. Recent studies have shown that the voluntary-driven exoskeleton HAL® (hybrid assistive limb can improve walking functions in spinal cord injury and stroke. The aim of this study was to assess safety and effects on walking function of HAL® supported treadmill therapy in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD.Materials and Methods: Three LGMD patients received 8 weeks of treadmill training with HAL® 3 times a week. Outcome parameters were 10-meter walk test (10 MWT, 6-minute walk test, and timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Parameters were assessed pre and post training and 6 weeks later (follow-up.Results: All patients completed the therapy without adverse reactions and reported about improvement in endurance. Improvements in outcome parameters after 8 weeks could be demonstrated. Persisting effects were observed after 6 weeks for the 10 MWT and TUG test (follow-up.Conclusions: HAL® treadmill training in LGMD patients can be performed safely and enables an intensive highly repetitive locomotor training. All patients benefitted from this innovative method. Upcoming controlled studies with larger cohorts should prove its effects in different types of LGMD and other myopathies.

  15. Carbon isotopic composition of forest soil respiration in the decade following bark beetle and stem girdling disturbances in the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gregory E; Chan, Allison M; Trahan, Nicole A; Moore, David J P; Bowling, David R

    2016-07-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are widespread in western North American forests, reducing primary productivity and transpiration, leading to forest mortality across large areas and altering ecosystem carbon cycling. Here the carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C) of soil respiration (δJ ) was monitored in the decade after disturbance for forests affected naturally by mountain pine beetle infestation and artificially by stem girdling. The seasonal mean δJ changed along both chronosequences. We found (a) enrichment of δJ relative to controls (soils in the first 2 years after disturbance; (b) depletion (1‰ or no change) during years 3-7; and (c) a second period of enrichment (1-2‰) in years 8-10. Results were consistent with isotopic patterns associated with the gradual death and decomposition of rhizosphere organisms, fine roots, conifer needles and woody roots and debris over the course of a decade after mortality. Finally, δJ was progressively more (13) C-depleted deeper in the soil than near the surface, while the bulk soil followed the well-established pattern of (13) C-enrichment at depth. Overall, differences in δJ between mortality classes (soil depths (<3‰) were smaller than variability within a class or depth over a season (up to 6‰). © 2016 The Authors. Plant, Cell and Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Electromyographic Activity of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in Patients With Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Peter; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Sole, Gisela

    2016-09-01

    To compare electromyographic activity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears with healthy controls or to those with asymptomatic cuff tears. TYPE: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science were searched from inception to August 1, 2014, and a search update was performed on June 8, 2015. Case-control studies or intervention studies that had baseline comparisons for symptomatic versus healthy shoulders or those with asymptomatic rotator cuff tear were searched. Methodological quality was assessed with a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme score and meta-analyses were performed when 2 or more studies explored the same outcome measures. Nine studies were included, with the quality ranging from 1 to 3 (maximum 6). Electromyographic outcomes included amplitudes and ratios thereof, activity duration, and median frequency of shoulder girdle muscles during isometric contractions (4 studies) and functional tasks (5 studies). Longer activity duration was found for upper trapezius during glenohumeral movements, and greater fatigability of anterior and middle deltoids during isometric hand gripping for patients with rotator cuff tears compared to controls. The meta-analysis (3 studies) showed that patients with rotator cuff tears had lower activation ratios for latissimus dorsi during isometric abduction contraction compared to controls (P muscle activity differences between the rotator cuff tear group and controls is thus limited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Protein turnover and cellular stress in mildly and severely affected muscles from patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hauerslev

    Full Text Available Patients with Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting primarily in the proximal muscles, while distal muscles often are spared. Our aim was to investigate if wasting could be caused by impaired regeneration in the proximal compared to distal muscles. Biopsies were simultaneously obtained from proximal and distal muscles of the same patients with LGMD2I (n = 4 and healthy subjects (n = 4. The level of past muscle regeneration was evaluated by counting internally nucleated fibers and determining actively regenerating fibers by using the developmental markers embryonic myosin heavy chain (eMHC and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM and also assessing satellite cell activation status by myogenin positivity. Severe muscle histopathology was occasionally observed in the proximal muscles of patients with LGMD2I whereas distal muscles were always relatively spared. No difference was found in the regeneration markers internally nucleated fibers, actively regenerating fibers or activation status of satellite cells between proximal and distal muscles. Protein turnover, both synthesis and breakdown, as well as cellular stress were highly increased in severely affected muscles compared to mildly affected muscles. Our results indicate that alterations in the protein turnover and myostatin levels could progressively impair the muscle mass maintenance and/or regeneration resulting in gradual muscular atrophy.

  18. Chronic sacroiliac joint and pelvic girdle dysfunction in a 35-year-old nulliparous woman successfully managed with multimodal and multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonely, Holly; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Desai, Mehul J; Reoli, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint pain and dysfunction affect 15-25% of patients reporting low back pain, including reports of spontaneous, idiopathic, traumatic, and non-traumatic onsets. The poor reliability and validity associated with diagnostic clinical and imaging techniques leads to challenges in diagnosing and managing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A 35-year-old nulliparous female with a 14-year history of right sacroiliac joint dysfunction was managed using a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach when symptoms failed to resolve after 2 months of physical therapy. The plan of care included four prolotherapy injections, sacroiliac joint manipulation into nutation, pelvic girdle belting, and specific stabilization exercises. The patient completed 20 physical therapy sessions over a 12-month period. At 6 months, the patient's Oswestry Disability Questionnaire score was reduced from 34% to 14%. At 1-year follow-up, her score was 0%. The patient's rating of pain on a numeric rating scale decreased to an average of 4/10 at 6 months and 0/10 at 1-year follow-up. A multidisciplinary and multimodal approach for the management of chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction appeared successful in a single-case design at 1-year follow-up.

  19. Morphological and functional analyses of skeletal muscles from an immunodeficient animal model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Gaia; Giacomazzi, Giorgia; Grosemans, Hanne; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2018-02-24

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E (LGMD2E) is caused by mutations in the β-sarcoglycan gene, which is expressed in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. β-Sarcoglycan-deficient (Sgcb-null) mice develop severe muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy with focal areas of necrosis. In this study we performed morphological (histological and cellular characterization) and functional (isometric tetanic force and fatigue) analyses in dystrophic mice. Comparison studies were carried out in 1-month-old (clinical onset of the disease) and 7-month-old control mice (C57Bl/6J, Rag2/γc-null) and immunocompetent and immunodeficient dystrophic mice (Sgcb-null and Sgcb/Rag2/γc-null, respectively). We found that the lack of an immunological system resulted in an increase of calcification in striated muscles without impairing extensor digitorum longus muscle performance. Sgcb/Rag2/γc-null muscles showed a significant reduction of alkaline phosphate-positive mesoangioblasts. The immunological system counteracts skeletal muscle degeneration in the murine model of LGMD2E. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Novel mutations in DNAJB6 gene cause a very severe early-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1D disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmio, Johanna; Jonson, Per Harald; Evilä, Anni; Auranen, Mari; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Sarkozy, Anna; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Sandell, Satu; Pihko, Helena; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne

    2015-11-01

    DNAJB6 is the causative gene for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1D (LGMD1D). Four different coding missense mutations, p.F89I, p.F93I, p.F93L, and p.P96R, have been reported in families from Europe, North America and Asia. The previously known mutations cause mainly adult-onset proximal muscle weakness with moderate progression and without respiratory involvement. A Finnish family and a British patient have been studied extensively due to a severe muscular dystrophy. The patients had childhood-onset LGMD, loss of ambulation in early adulthood and respiratory involvement; one patient died of respiratory failure aged 32. Two novel mutations, c.271T > A (p.F91I) and c.271T > C (p.F91L), in DNAJB6 were identified by whole exome sequencing as a cause of this severe form of LGMD1D. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The anti-aggregation effect of the mutant DNAJB6 was investigated in a filter-trap based system using transient transfection of mammalian cell lines and polyQ-huntingtin as a model for an aggregation-prone protein. Both novel mutant proteins show a significant loss of ability to prevent aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The UNOS renal transplant registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecka, J M

    2001-01-01

    The shortage of cadaver kidneys relative to increasing demand for transplantation has lead to a remarkable rise in transplantation from living donors. Based upon data reported to UNOS, the number of living donor kidneys transplanted in 2000 (5,106) nearly equaled the number of cadaver kidneys from preferred donors aged 6-50. HLA-mismatched siblings, offspring, spouses and other genetically unrelated donors accounted for nearly 80% of increased living donor transplantation during 1994-2000. Despite the increased use of poorly HLA-matched living donor kidneys, the actuarial 10-year graft survival rates for transplants between 1988-2000 were clustered between 53-57% for HLA-mismatched living donor grafts, except for offspring-to-parent transplants (49%) when the recipients were generally older. The 10-year survival rate for 96,053 cadaver grafts was 38% during the same period. The 5-year graft survival rates for more recent (1996-2000) cadaver donor transplants were 66%, 62% and 56% for recipients of first, second and multiple grafts, respectively (p < 0.001). The comparable results among recipients of living donor kidneys were 67%, 66% and 59% (p = ns). The 5-year graft survival rates for HLA-matched first grafts were 7% higher than those for HLA-mismatched transplants when the kidney was from a living or cadaver donor. HLA-identical sibling transplants provided the best long-term graft survival (85% at 5 years and a 32 year half-life). Even with improved crossmatch tests and stronger immunosuppression, sensitization was associated with 8% lower graft survival at 5 years and with a higher rate of late graft loss among first cadaver kidney recipients. Sensitization also was associated with an increase in delayed graft function from 22% of unsensitized first transplant recipients to as much as 36% among multiply retransplanted patients. Recipient race was a key factor in long-term graft survival of both living and cadaver donor kidneys. The rate of late graft loss was

  2. Perspectives of Older Kidney Transplant Recipients on Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Jule; Hanson, Camilla S; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Schell, Jane O; Tong, Allison

    2017-03-07

    Older kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to cognitive impairment, frailty, comorbidities, immunosuppression-related complications, and chronic graft failure, however, there has been limited focus on their concerns and expectations related to transplantation. This study aims to describe the perspectives of older kidney transplant recipients about their experience of kidney transplantation, self-management, and treatment goals to inform strategies and interventions that address their specific needs. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 kidney transplant recipients aged 65-80 years from five renal units in Australia. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. Six themes were identified: restoring vitality of youth (with subthemes of revived mindset for resilience, embracing enjoyment in life, drive for self-actualization); persisting through prolonged recovery (yielding to aging, accepting functional limitations, pushing the limit, enduring treatment responsibilities); imposing sicknesses (combatting devastating comorbidities, painful restrictions, emerging disillusionment, anxieties about accumulating side effects, consuming treatment burden); prioritizing graft survival (privileged with a miracle, negotiating risks for longevity, enacting a moral duty, preserving the last opportunity); confronting health deterioration (vulnerability and helplessness, narrowing focus to immediate concerns, uncertainty of survival); and value of existence (purpose through autonomy, refusing the burden of futile treatment, staying alive by all means). Older kidney transplant recipients felt able to enjoy life and strived to live at their newly re-established potential and capability, which motivated them to protect their graft. However, some felt constrained by slow recuperation and overwhelmed by unexpected comorbidities, medication-related side effects, and health decline. Our findings suggest the need to prepare and support older recipients for self

  3. Differentiation Potential of Human Chorion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Motor Neuron-Like Cells in Two- and Three-Dimensional Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faezeh; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Ai, Jafar; Lotfi, Abolfazl; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Barough, Somayeh Ebrahimi; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-04-01

    Many people worldwide suffer from motor neuron-related disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injuries. Recently, several attempts have been made to recruit stem cells to modulate disease progression in ALS and also regenerate spinal cord injuries. Chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs), used to be discarded as postpartum medically waste product, currently represent a class of cells with self renewal property and immunomodulatory capacity. These cells are able to differentiate into mesodermal and nonmesodermal lineages such as neural cells. On the other hand, gelatin, as a simply denatured collagen, is a suitable substrate for cell adhesion and differentiation. It has been shown that electrospinning of scaffolds into fibrous structure better resembles the physiological microenvironment in comparison with two-dimensional (2D) culture system. Since there is no report on potential of human chorion-derived MSCs to differentiate into motor neuron cells in two- and three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, we set out to determine the effect of retinoic acid (RA) and sonic hedgehog (Shh) on differentiation of human C-MSCs into motor neuron-like cells cultured on tissue culture plates (2D) and electrospun nanofibrous gelatin scaffold (3D).

  4. Pulmonary rehabilitation in lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Melinda; Mathur, Sunita; Chowdhury, Noori A; Helm, Denise; Singer, Lianne G

    2013-06-01

    While awaiting lung transplantation, candidates may participate in pulmonary rehabilitation to improve their fitness for surgery. However, pulmonary rehabilitation outcomes have not been systematically evaluated in lung transplant candidates. This investigation was a retrospective cohort study of 345 pre-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation participants who received a lung transplant between January 2004 and June 2009 and had available pre-transplant exercise data. Data extracted included: 6-minute walk tests at standard intervals; exercise training details; health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measures; and early post-transplant outcomes. Paired t-tests were used to examine changes in the 6MW distance (6MWD), exercise training volume and HRQL during the pre-transplant period. We evaluated the association between pre-transplant 6MWD and transplant hospitalization outcomes. The final 6MWD prior to transplantation was only 15 m less than the listing 6MWD (n = 200; p = 0.002). Exercise training volumes increased slightly from the start of the pulmonary rehabilitation program until transplant: treadmill, increase 0.69 ml/kg/min (n = 238; p volumes are well preserved among lung transplant candidates participating in pulmonary rehabilitation, even in the setting of severe, progressive lung disease. Participants with greater exercise capacity prior to transplantation have more favorable early post-transplant outcomes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liver Transplant: Complications/Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transplant: Complications/Medications Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  6. Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 121,678 people waiting for ... org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx Facts and statistics provided by the United States Renal Data System , ...

  7. U.S. Transplantation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... donor families & recipients Organ donation facts Policy Policy development Policy brochures Membership Data Transplant trends Data resources Technology Get Involved EDUCATE Become a UNOS Ambassador Promote organ donation Share through social media VISIT Attend a UNOS event Tour the National ...

  8. [Transplant Surgeon Meets Nephrologist: Important Nephrological Aspects Before and After Kidney or Liver Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondran, F W R; Wintterle, S; Bräsen, J H; Haller, H; Klempnauer, J; Richter, N; Lehner, F; Schiffer, M

    2017-04-01

    In cases of chronic renal insufficiency, successful kidney transplantation is the method of choice to restore patients' health, well-being and physical fitness. The interdisciplinary collaboration of nephrologists and transplant surgeons has always been a prerequisite for the successful pre-, peri- and post-transplant care of renal transplant patients. The same holds true for liver transplant patients. Here the nephrologist is often involved in cases requiring pre- or post-transplant dialysis as well as in decision making for combined liver-kidney transplantation. This review focuses on nephrological aspects in patient care before and after kidney and liver transplantation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  10. MSC in clinics: Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    DETRY, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    For several years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated in vivo and in vitro for their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti- ischemia-reperfusion injury and “tissue repair” properties. These characteristics could make them interesting in various clinical applications, and particularly in organ transplantation. Taking advantage of our centre expertise and experience concerning MSC use in graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation and using already functioning ...

  11. Computed tomography after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, D.E.; Costello, P.

    1992-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is commonly performed at many institutions around the world. The care of these critically ill patients has heavily relied upon cross-sectional imaging, specifically CT. CT is of enormous benefit in the postoperative management of the various complications which is common in this group of patients. This article reviews the role of CT and its respective strengths and weaknesses, in the adult liver transplant recipient. (orig.) [de

  12. Uterine transplantation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Ejzenberg

    Full Text Available Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women.

  13. Transplantation: fantasy, fiction and fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Reginald

    2004-03-01

    Today organ transplantation is considered a routine surgical procedure. The idea of transferring tissues from one person to another has been inspiring to the minds of artists depicting the Saints Cosmos and Damian and also writers such as Mary Shelley. Early attempts at tissue transplantation were unsuccessful but in the last 50 years medical research has brought it into reality. The present paper looks at the subject from the realms of fantasy through the works of fiction and finally into everyday fact.

  14. Pregnancy In Renal Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    H. Shahbazian; N. Shahbazian

    2006-01-01

    Background:Correction of the uremic state by a functioning allograft often restores fertility in women of reproductive age. The rate of fertility significantly differs between industrial countries, developing and middle east countries.On the other hand the results of pregnancy in Kidney Transplantation (KTP) patients are significantly better than hemodialysis patients,and pregnancy most often has no side effects on the function of the transplanted kidney.Objectives: The purpose of this study ...

  15. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. [History of kidney transplantation surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M O; Kleinclauss, F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To perform a state of the art about the history of kidney transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords (MESH): kidney transplantation, history, vascular anastomosis. From the first vascular ligations to the discovery of ciclosporin, the history of organ transplantation was made of surgical bets and medical discoveries, such as blood group, HLA-system, immunity, etc. The audacity of some surgeons led to the onset of renal transplantation as the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. This article aims to describe the first surgical methods for vascular anastomosis and renal transplantation. Through a comprehensive search within the archives of the French National Library, the authors provide a precise description of the first renal transplantations performed, the technique that have been used and their authors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Inflammatory Response in Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Kanak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation.

  18. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inflammatory Response in Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanak, Mazhar A.; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Levy, Marlon F.

    2014-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation. PMID:24883060

  20. Renal transplant scintigraphy (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Ghee

    2005-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the most effective mode of renal replacement therapy for correction of renal failure. Renal donors can either be: a. a deceased person - the kidneys being removed when brain death or absence of cerebral cortical function / perfusion is confirmed - the cadaveric kidney is packed in ice and nutrient solution and transplanted within 24 hours of removal ('cold ischemia') ob. a living donor - the donor may or may not be related to the recipient. Due to the limited length of the renal vessels and ureter of the donor kidney, it is implanted close to the bladder of the recipient. The donor vessels are anastomosed to the iliac artery and vein of the recipient. Transplant variants: a. 2 kidneys maybe transplanted because: - an old donor with less kidney reserve from atrophy due to age or disease (e.g. hypertension) - an infant donor when both kidneys are removed en bloc, b. Donor kidneys with more than 1 artery, vein or ureter. c. Donor horse shoe kidney d. Combined renal and pancreas transplant for type I diabetics -a short segment of duodenum transplanted with the pancreas maybe implanted into the bladder. Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine

  1. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, S; Ekelund, C; Wright, D

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. METHODS...

  2. Multimodality postoperative imaging of liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Giulia A.; Pedrosa, Ivan; Kruskal, Jonathan B.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the only effective and definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. The shortage of cadaveric livers has lead to the increasing use of split-liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation, but the expansion of the donor pool has increased the risk for postoperative vascular and biliary complications. Early recognition of the imaging appearances of the various postoperative complications of liver transplantation is crucial for both graft and patient survival. This review describes the imaging findings of normal and abnormal transplanted liver parenchyma and of vascular and biliary post-transplantation complications. (orig.)

  3. Islet alloautotransplantation: Allogeneic pancreas transplantation followed by transplant pancreatectomy and islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhoff, M F; Dubbeld, J; van Erkel, A R; van der Boog, P J M; Rabelink, T J; Engelse, M A; de Koning, E J P

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complications, in up to 10% of patients, allograft pancreatectomy is necessary shortly after transplantation. Usually the donor pancreas is discarded. Here, we report on a novel procedure to rescue endocrine tissue after allograft pancreatectomy. A 39-year-old woman with T1D and ESRD who had undergone SPK transplantation required emergency allograft pancreatectomy due to bleeding at the vascular anastomosis. Islets were isolated from the removed pancreas allograft, and almost 480 000 islet equivalents were infused into the portal vein. The patient recovered fully. After 3 months, near-normal mixed meal test (fasting glucose 7.0 mmol/L, 2-hour glucose 7.5 mmol/L, maximal stimulated C-peptide 3.25 nmol/L, without insulin use in the preceding 36 hours) was achieved. Glycated hemoglobin while taking a low dose of long-acting insulin was 32.7 mmol/mol hemoglobin (5.3%). When a donor pancreas is lost after transplantation, rescue β cell therapy by islet alloautotransplantation enables optimal use of scarce donor pancreata to optimize glycemic control without additional HLA alloantigen exposure. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Renal transplantation at the Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Transplant Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Robert A; Cooper, Matthew; Kraus, Edward; Rabb, Hamid; Samaniego, Milagros; Simpkins, Christopher E; Sonnenday, Christopher J; Ugarte, Richard M; Warren, Daniel S; Zachary, Andrea A

    2003-01-01

    A stagnant supply of transplantable organs in the face of a relentless burgeoning of transplant waiting lists has created a crisis. Necessity continues to be the mother of invention and as the crisis has deepened it has served as a crucible for the development of new ways to think about perennial problems. Our program has taken a 2-pronged approach to increasing the organ supply for our patients. First, through innovations like the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, ABO-incompatible and positive-crossmatch transplantation protocols, unconventional paired kidney exchanges, and the use of altruistic donors we have more than doubled our utilization of live donor organs. At the same time, we have developed algorithms and interrogative techniques to enhance the intelligent use of kidneys from expanded criteria donors for patients who do not have an available live donor. The laparoscopic nephrectomy has proven to be a safe and effective way of removing a significant barrier to live donation. Our results from 100 ABOi, (+)XM, and PKE transplants are similar to national statistics for compatible live donor transplants, suggesting that existing paradigms of compatibility can be safely expanded. These encouraging early outcomes and the savings they transmit to the health care system have allowed us to obtain insurance coverage for the InKTP programs, setting the stage for further expansion of these opportunities to broaden the options for patients with end-stage renal disease.

  5. Low incidence of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C revealed by a mutation study in Japanese patients clinically diagnosed with DMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Koichi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C is an autosomal recessive muscle dystrophy that resembles Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Although DMD is known to affect one in every 3500 males regardless of race, a widespread founder mutation causing LGMD2C has been described in North Africa. However, the incidence of LGMD2C in Japanese has been unknown because the genetic background remains uncharacterized in many patients clinically diagnosed with DMD. Methods We enrolled 324 patients referred to the Kobe University Hospital with suspected DMD. Mutations in the dystrophin or the SGCG genes were analyzed using not only genomic DNA but also cDNA. Results In 322 of the 324 patients, responsible mutations in the dystrophin were successfully revealed, confirming DMD diagnosis. The remaining two patients had normal dystrophin expression but absence of γ-sarcoglycan in skeletal muscle. Mutation analysis of the SGCG gene revealed homozygous deletion of exon 6 in one patient, while the other had a novel single nucleotide insertion in exon 7 in one allele and deletion of exon 6 in the other allele. These mutations created a stop codon that led to a γ-sarcoglycan deficiency, and we therefore diagnosed these two patients as having LGMD2C. Thus, the relative incidence of LGMD2C among Japanese DMD-like patients can be calculated as 1 in 161 patients suspected to have DMD (2 of 324 patients = 0.6%. Taking into consideration the DMD incidence for the overall population (1/3,500 males, the incidence of LGMD2C can be estimated as 1 per 560,000 or 1.8 per million. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a low incidence of LGMD2C in the Japanese population.

  6. The automatic pelvic floor muscle response to the active straight leg raise in cases with pelvic girdle pain and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuge, Britt; Sætre, Kaja; Ingeborg Hoff, Brækken

    2013-08-01

    The active straight leg raise (ASLR) test has been proposed as a clinical test for the assessment of pelvic girdle pain (PGP). Little is known about the activation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) during ASLR. The main aim of this study was to examine the automatic PFM contraction during ASLR. Specific aims were to compare automatic contraction to rest and to voluntary contraction, to compare PFM contraction during ASLR with and without compression and to examine whether there were any differences in PFM contraction between women with and without clinically diagnosed PGP during ASLR. Forty-nine pairs of women participated in a cross-sectional study with individual, one-to-one matched cases and controls. PFM was assessed by reliable and valid 3D ultrasound at rest, during voluntary and automatic contraction. Test-retest data for the levator hiatus during ASLR showed good repeatability. Significantly automatic PFM contractions occurred when ASLR tests were performed. There was a strong positive correlation between voluntary and automatic PFM contractions. Manual compression reduced the automatic PFM contraction during ASLR by 62-66%. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in reduction of levator hiatus or muscle length from rest to automatic contractions during ASLR. Interestingly, a significantly smaller levator hiatus was found in women with PGP than in controls, at rest, during an automatic contraction with ASLR and during voluntary contraction. In conclusion, a significant automatic PFM contraction occurred during ASLR, both in cases and in controls. Women with PGP had a significantly smaller levator hiatus than controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential muscular myosin heavy chain expression of the pectoral and pelvic girdles during early growth in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbrech, Aude; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Guérin, Nathalie; Groscolas, René; Gilbert, Caroline; Martrette, Jean-Marc

    2011-06-01

    Continuous growth, associated with a steady parental food supply, is a general pattern in offspring development. So that young chicks can acquire their locomotor independence, this period is usually marked by a fast maturation of muscles, during which different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are expressed. However, parental food provisioning may fluctuate seasonally, and offspring therefore face a challenge to ensure the necessary maturation of their tissues when energy is limited. To address this trade-off we investigated muscle maturation in both the pectoral and pelvic girdles of king penguin chicks. This species has an exceptionally long rearing period (1 year), which is prolonged when parental food provisioning is drastically reduced during the sub-Antarctic winter. Approximately 1 month post hatching, chicks acquire a functional pedestrian locomotion, which uses pelvic muscles, whereas swimming, which uses the pectoral muscles, only occurs 1 year later. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the MyHC content of the leg muscles reaches a mature state before those of the pectoral muscles. We found that leg muscle MyHC composition changed with the progressive acquisition of pedestrian locomotion, whereas pectoral muscle fibres reached their mature MyHC profile as early as hatching. Contrary to our predictions, the acquisition of the adult profile in pectoral muscles could be related to an early maturation of the contractile muscular proteins, presumably associated with early thermoregulatory capacities of chicks, necessary for survival in their cold environment. This differential maturation appears to reconcile both the locomotor and environmental constraints of king penguin chicks during growth.

  8. Physiotherapy, based on the Bobath concept, may influence the gait pattern in persons with limb-girdle muscle dystrophy: a multiple case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oygard, Kjellaug; Haestad, Helge; Jørgensen, Lone

    2011-03-01

     There are few studies on possible effects of physiotherapy for adults with muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to examine if treatment based on the Bobath concept may influence specific gait parameters in some of these patients.   A single-subject experimental design with A-B-A-A phases was used, and four patients, three with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and one with fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), were included. The patients had 1 hour of individually tailored physiotherapy at each working day for a period of 3 weeks. Step length, step width and gait velocity were measured during the A-B-A-A phases by use of an electronic walkway. Walking distance and endurance were measured by use of the '6 minute walk test'.  . The three LGMD patients, who initially walked with a wide base of support, had a narrower, velocity-adjusted step width after treatment, accompanied with the same or even longer step length. These changes lasted throughout follow-up. Moreover, two of the patients were able to walk a longer distance within 6 minutes after the treatment period. The fourth patient (with FSHD) had a normal step width at baseline, which did not change during the study.   The results indicate that physiotherapy treatment based on the Bobath concept may influence the gait pattern in patients with LGMD. However, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy to patients with muscular dystrophies, we call for larger studies and controlled trials. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Reliability of the Timed Up and Go test and Ten-Metre Timed Walk Test in Pregnant Women with Pelvic Girdle Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Natalie M; Kvåle, Alice; Braekken, Ingeborg H

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of functional objective tests available to measure functional status in women with pelvic girdle pain (PGP). The purpose of this study was to establish test-retest and intertester reliability of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Ten-metre Timed Walk Test (10mTWT) in pregnant women with PGP. A convenience sample of women was recruited over a 4-month period and tested on two occasions, 1 week apart to determine test-retest reliability. Intertester reliability was established between two assessors at the first testing session. Subjects were instructed to undertake the TUG and 10mTWT at maximum speed. One practise trial and two timed trials for each walking test was undertaken on Day 1 and one practise trial and one timed trial on Day 2. Seventeen women with PGP aged 31.1 years (SD [standard deviation] = 2.3) and 28.7 weeks pregnant (SD = 7.4) completed gait testing. Test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was excellent for the TUG (0.88) and good for the 10mTWT (0.74). Intertester reliability was determined in the first 13 participants with excellent ICC values being found for both walking tests (TUG: 0.95; 10mTWT: 0.94). This study demonstrated that the TUG and 10mTWT undertaken at fast pace are reliable, objective functional tests in pregnant women with PGP. While both tests are suitable for use in the clinical and research settings, we would recommend the TUG given the findings of higher test-retest reliability and as this test requires less space and time to set up and score. Future studies in a larger sample size are warranted to confirm the results of this study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Melanoma in organ transplant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, L; Dalac, S; Dompmartin, A; Louvet, S; Euvrard, S; Catteau, B; Hazan, M; Schollhamer, M; Aubin, F; Dreno, B; Daguin, P; Chevrant-Breton, J; Frances, C; Bismuth, M J; Tanter, Y; Lambert, D

    2000-02-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has rapidly increased in the white population over the last decades. It has been estimated that the incidence doubles world-wide every 10 years. Different risk factors have been identified, including immunosuppression. The aim of our study-was to determine the relative risk of developing melanoma in the organ transplant population and the clinical and histological features of their melanomas. This retrospective study was conducted with the collaboration of 9 University Hospital Centers: Besançon, Brest, Caen, Dijon, Lille, Lyon, Nantes, Paris (Pitié-Salpétrière) and Rennes. A questionnaire was sent to the different departments of dermatology of these hospitals to obtain information on patients who had presented a melanoma after a transplantation between 1971 and 1997. During this period, there were 12,477 organ transplant recipients in the transplantation units of these 9 hospitals. Average follow-up for these patients was about 5 years and the average duration of immunosuppressive therapy was about 4.5 years. Among 12,477 organ transplant recipients, we found 17 cases of melanoma but no data could be obtain on one case: 14 occurred in renal transplant recipients and 3 in cardiac transplant recipients. Clinical and histological data were only available in 16 patients. The average time between transplantation and diagnosis of melanoma was 63 months, but it was 5 times shorter for 2 patients who had a past history of melanoma before transplantation. Two patients had a mucosal melanoma; for the cutaneous melanomas, 2 appeared on Dubreuilh melanosis, 2 were in situ melanomas, 7 were superficial spreading melanomas and 3 were nodular melanomas. The histological review of 11 cutaneous melanomas revealed a precursor nevus in 6 cases and a weak or no stroma reaction in 7/7 cases. Complete excision of the melanoma was performed in all patients except one with anorectal melanoma. Four patients died of visceral metastasis within a mean

  11. Exchange donor transplantation: ethical option for living renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, A; Kaçar, S; Varılsuha, C; Tilif, S; Turunç, V; Doǧan, M; Dheir, H; Sahin, S

    2011-04-01

    Taking in consideration the opinion of our team, which necessitates obligation of a relative relation between donors and recipients (genetic or matrimonial), we performed donor exchanges as an ethical alternative in living donor transplantations. We reviewed the outcomes of our exchange series. Between July 2003 and August 2010 we performed 110 exchange donor transplantations in four hospitals: one four-way, two three-way, and 100 two-way cases. Donors were mostly spouses (n = 71) or mothers (n = 15). The mean age of the donors was 48.8 (range = 23-69) and the recipients 41.4 years (range = 5-66). Two were transplanted preemptively and the others had a mean dialysis duration of 43 months (range = 1-120). Among 110 patients, three compatible pairs joined the group voluntarily; 71, due to ABO incompatibility and 36, due to crossmatch positivity. Induction therapy was used in 92 patients. HLA mismatches (MM) were: one MM in three; two MM in three; three MM in 18, four MM in 36; five MM in 34; and six MM in 18. Among 90 patients tested for panel-reactive antibodies PRA, five showed class I and 10, class II positivity. In 11 patients, B-cell positivity was detected by flow cytometry. Delayed graft function (n = 2), acute rejection (n = 11), BK virus infection (n = 1), and cytomegalovirus infection (n = 3) were seen postoperatively. Three (2.7%) patients died due to sepsis. Five patients returned to dialysis program due to interstitial fibrosis tubular atrophy (IFTA) (n = 2), renal vein thrombosis (n = 1), de novo glomerulopathy (n = 1), or primary nonfunction (n = 1). The 1- and 5-year patient and graft survival rates were 96% and 96%, 95% and 89%, respectively. We believe that exchange donor transplantation is as successful as direct transplants; it is a good, ethical alternative to unrelated living transplantations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, K. zum; Harbst, H.; Schenck, P.; Franz, H. E.; Ritz, E.; Roehl, L.; Ziegler, M.; Ammann, W.; Maier-Borst, W. [Institut Fuer Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performed after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 {mu}Ci. {sup 131}I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)

  13. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattar, T; Hakim, H; Rhou, H; Benamar, L; Bayahia, R; Ouzeddoun, N

    2009-06-01

    Renal transplantation with a well-functioning graft leads to a rapid restoration of endocrine and sexual functions. The aim of this study was to examine our experience with pregnancies among renal transplant patients, particularly with regard to their impact on graft function. We analyzed 10 pregnancies in 7 renal transplant recipients for long-term graft outcomes in terms of clinical and biological data. The mean patient age was 28.5 +/- 4 years. They all received a living donor kidney. The time between transplantation and the onset of pregnancy was 33.4 +/- 23.2 months. Regarding the immunosuppressive therapy, all patients received steroids and cyclosporine; 4 patients received in addition azathioprine and 2 received mycophenolate mofetil that was changed at 1 month before conception to azathioprine. There was no significant difference between the serum creatinine before and during pregnancy. We did not observe any acute rejection episode. Pregnancy complications were preclampsia in 1 case, hypertension in 1 case, urinary tract infection in 2 cases, and anemia in 80% of patients during the third trimester. Premature rupture of membranes occurred in 1 case and preterm delivery in 2 cases. Two cases of neonatal death were registered. Cesarean section was performed in 50% of cases. The follow-up revealed 2 cases of chronic rejection. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for pregnancy which generally occurs at 2 years after kidney transplantation.

  14. Transplantation in autoimmune liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcus Mottershead; James Neuberger

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation remains an effective treatment for those with end-stage disease and with intractable liver-related symptoms.The shortage of organs for transplantation has resulted in the need for rationing.A variety of approaches to selection and allocation have been developed and vary from country to country.The shortage of donors has meant that new approaches have to be adopted to make maximal use of the available organs;these include splitting grafts,use of extended criteria livers,livers from nonheart-beating donors and from living donors.Post transplantation, most patients will need life-long immunosuppression,although a small proportion can have immunosuppression successfully withdrawn.Newer immunosuppressive drugs and different strategies may allow a more targeted approach with a reduction in sideeffects and so improve the patient and graft survival.For autoimmune diseases, transplantation is associated with significant improvement in the quality and length of life.Disease may recur after transplantation and may affect patient and graft survival.

  15. The ethics of uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catsanos, Ruby; Rogers, Wendy; Lotz, Mianna

    2013-02-01

    Human uterus transplantation (UTx) is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as face and limb grafts, and shares some of the ethical concerns raised by these non-life saving procedures. In relation to ART, UTx represents one more avenue by which a woman may seek to meet her reproductive goals, and as with other ART procedures, raises questions about the limits of reproductive autonomy. This paper explores the ethical issues raised by UTx with a focus on the potential gap between women's desires and aspirations about pregnancy and the likely functional outcomes of successful UTx. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hammad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging. Preoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, namely, sarcopenia, has a significant detrimental impact on post-transplant outcomes. It is essential to provide sufficient nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the needed energy intake. Herein, the latest currently employed perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant recipients are thoroughly illustrated including synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, immunonutrition formulas, fluid and electrolyte balance, the offering of nocturnal meals, dietary counselling, exercise and rehabilitation.

  17. [Immunological Markers in Organ Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, J H; Heits, N; Braun, F; Becker, T

    2017-04-01

    The immunological monitoring in organ transplantation is based mainly on the determination of laboratory parameters as surrogate markers of organ dysfunction. Structural damage, caused by alloreactivity, can only be detected by invasive biopsy of the graft, which is why inevitably rejection episodes are diagnosed at a rather progressive stage. New non-invasive specific markers that enable transplant clinicians to identify rejection episodes at an earlier stage, on the molecular level, are needed. The accurate identification of rejection episodes and the establishment of operational tolerance permit early treatment or, respectively, a controlled cessation of immunosuppression. In addition, new prognostic biological markers are expected to allow a pre-transplant risk stratification thus having an impact on organ allocation and immunosuppressive regimen. New high-throughput screening methods allow simultaneous examination of hundreds of characteristics and the generation of specific biological signatures, which might give concrete information about acute rejection, chronic dysfunction as well as operational tolerance. Even though multiple studies and a variety of publications report about important advances on this subject, almost no new biological marker has been implemented in clinical practice as yet. Nevertheless, new technologies, in particular analysis of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome will make personalised transplantation medicine possible and will further improve the long-term results and graft survival rates. This article gives a survey of the limitations and possibilities of new immunological markers in organ transplantation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant. Why Do Kids Need Heart Transplants? A child's heart might not work right for many reasons. Sometimes, babies are born with heart defects (malformations) that cause their hearts to fail. These defects are the ...

  19. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  20. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safvet Ors, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  1. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateen, Farrah J.; Muralidharan, RajaNandini; Carone, Marco; van de Beek, Diederik; Harrison, Daniel M.; Aksamit, Allen J.; Gould, Mary S.; Clifford, David B.; Nath, Avindra

    2011-01-01

    Transplant recipients are at risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare demyelinating disorder caused by oligodendrocyte destruction by JC virus. Reports of PML following transplantation were found using PubMed Entrez (1958-July 2010). A multicenter, retrospective

  2. Immunization after renal transplantation: current clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, G. H.; Lammers, A. J. J.; Brinkman, R. J.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; van Vugt, M.; van der Pant, K. A. M. I.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Bemelman, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of potent immunosuppressive drugs and increased travel by renal transplant recipients (RTR) has augmented the risk for infectious complications. Immunizations and changes in lifestyle are protective. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Transplant Work Group has developed

  3. Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 17 of 17 ... Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Journal Home > Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Liver Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Research The SRTR/OPTN Annual Data Report (Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients) Clinical Trials ClinicalTrials.gov: Liver Transplantation (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  5. A Case of Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhagic Anemia-Induced Fetal Hydrops, Maternal Mirror Syndrome, and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin–Induced Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Jain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT can be a cause of severe fetal thrombocytopenia, with the common presentation being intracranial hemorrhage in the fetus, usually in the third trimester. A very unusual case of fetal anemia progressed to hydrops. This was further complicated by maternal Mirror syndrome and human chorionic gonadotropin–induced thyrotoxicosis. Without knowledge of etiology, and possibly due to associated cardiac dysfunction, fetal transfusion resulted in fetal demise. Subsequent testing revealed FNAIT as the cause of severe hemorrhagic anemia. In cases with fetal anemia without presence of red blood cell antibodies, FNAIT must be ruled out as a cause prior to performing fetal transfusion. Fetal heart may adapt differently to acute hemorrhagic anemia compared with a more subacute hemolytic anemia.

  6. First trimester serum placental growth factor and hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin are associated with pre-eclampsia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikkala, Elina; Koskinen, Sini; Vuorela, Piia; Laivuori, Hannele; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2016-11-25

    To study whether maternal serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-h) improves first trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia when combined with placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal risk factors. Gestational-age-adjusted concentrations of hCG, hCG-h, PlGF and PAPP-A were analysed in serum samples by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays at 8-13 weeks of gestation. The case-control study included 98 women who developed pre-eclampsia, 25 who developed gestational hypertension, 41 normotensive women with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and 177 controls. Of 98 women with pre-eclampsia, 24 women developed preterm pre-eclampsia (diagnosis factors.

  7. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González-Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete.

  8. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kendi Celebi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1960's, with succesfully renal transplantations, acute rejection became to be a serious problem for graft survival. From 1965 to 2010, with the introduction of new immunosuppressant agents such as cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetile and tacrolimus, the acute rejection rates declined from 80% to 10% . There is an ongoing gradual improvement in allograft survival. Use of Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE is not evidence based treatment, but TPE is necessary for pre- and also post transplantation in patients with DSA. TPE is also a main treatment for antibody mediated rejection (AMR , but in clinical practice the duration and frequency of TPE and individual difference of antibody production is unclear. There is a requirement for more specific antibody elimination. Further randomised controlled studies are needed to elucidate TPE use before and after kidney transplantation. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(1.000: 8-10

  9. Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.; Blaha, M.; Merka, V.

    1990-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation is successful in only a part of the affected patients. The Chernobyl accident added to our knowledge: BMT can save life after whole-body irradiation with a dose exceeding 7-8 Gy. A timely decision on transplantation after a nuclear accident is difficult to make (rapid determination of homogeneity and type of radiation and the total dose. HL-A typing in lymphopenia, precise identification of radiation damage to other target organs, etc.). Further attention is to be paid to the treatment. Transplantations in case of malignities (especially hematologic ones) and other diseases will add to our knowledge and will lead to more simple procedures. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  10. Kidney transplantation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Nori, Uday; Pesavento, Todd

    2009-08-01

    Recent outcome data, ongoing organ shortage and proposed changes in allocation policies are driving the need to review current practices and possible future course of kidney transplantation in the elderly patients. A proposed new kidney allocation system based on matching donor and recipient characteristics to enable 'age-matched' kidney allocation is currently being discussed in the USA. While this system benefits younger recipients, implications for elderly recipients receiving older grafts remain a matter of debate. Despite improved outcomes, there remain significant challenges to kidney transplantation in the elderly, including organ shortage, poor transplant rate, evolving allocation policies, high wait-list mortality and nonstandardized immunosuppression. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the strategies to meet these challenges and to study the impact of proposed new allocation system.

  11. Chronic transplant dysfunction: Etiological and pathophysiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Kouwenhoven (Ewout)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOrgan transplantation has saved the life of many people throughout the world, who suffered from end·stage organ failure. The University Hospital Rotterdam·Dijkzigt, is one of the Dutch organ transplant centers, in which kidney, heart and liver transplantation are performed. In close

  12. Transplant results in adults with Fanconi anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierings, Marc; Bonfim, Carmem M.; Peffault De Latour, Regis; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Mehta, Parinda A.; Knol, Cora; Boulad, Farid; Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Esquirol, Albert; Mcquaker, Grant; Sucak, Gulsan A.; Othman, Tarek B.; Halkes, Constantijn J.M.; Carpenter, Ben; Niederwieser, Dietger; Zecca, Marco; Kro¨ger, Nicolaus; Michallet, Mauricette; Risitano, Antonio M.; Ehninger, Gerhard; Porcher, Raphael; Dufour, Carlo

    The outcomes of adult patients transplanted for Fanconi anaemia (FA) have not been well described. We retrospectively analysed 199 adult patients with FA transplanted between 1991 and 2014. Patients were a median of 16 years of age when diagnosed with FA, and underwent transplantation at a median

  13. Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Alireza Hamidian; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Raiss-Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Dabaghmanesh, Alireza; Jalaeian, Hamed; Bahador, Ali; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Salehipour, Mehdi; Salahi, Heshmat; Malek-Hosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  14. Clinical aspects of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmitts, N.; Gassmann, V.; Leffler, G.

    1986-01-01

    Experience of bone marrow transplantation into patients with myeloproliferative syndromes, myelodysplasias and highly malignant lymphomas is presented. Side early and late effects of transplantation are described. The frequency and severity of complications of bone marrow transplantation depend sufficiently on the disease as well as on patient's age and general condition

  15. Uterine transplantation: Review in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Inhofer, A; Rafii, A; Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Ayoubi, J M

    2018-06-01

    Uterine transplantation is the solution to treat absolute uterine fertility. In this review, we present the historical, medical, technical, psychological and ethical perspectives in human uterine transplantation research. We reviewed the PubMed database following PRISMA guidelines and added data presented by several research teams during the first international congress on uterine transplantation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Cerebral Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jang Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Hong Chul; Hwang, Min Su [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. A 36-year-old woman with a history of renal transplantation visited the hospital complaining of headache and on pathology was diagnosed with cerebral PTLD manifesting as multiple rim enhanced masses in both hemispheres. We report here a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the cerebrum occurring after renal transplantation, and describe the MRI findings for this patient

  17. Cerebral Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jang Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Hong Chul; Hwang, Min Su

    2012-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. A 36-year-old woman with a history of renal transplantation visited the hospital complaining of headache and on pathology was diagnosed with cerebral PTLD manifesting as multiple rim enhanced masses in both hemispheres. We report here a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the cerebrum occurring after renal transplantation, and describe the MRI findings for this patient

  18. Intestinal transplantation: The anesthesia perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal transplantation is a complex and challenging surgery. It is very effective for treating intestinal failure, especially for those patients who cannot tolerate parenteral nutrition nor have extensive abdominal disease. Chronic parental nutrition can induce intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). According to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data, children with intestinal failure affected by liver disease secondary to parenteral nutrition have the highest mortality on a waiting list when compared with all candidates for solid organ transplantation. Intestinal transplant grafts can be isolated or combined with the liver/duodenum/pancreas. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has defined intestinal donor criteria. Living donor intestinal transplant (LDIT) has the advantages of optimal timing, short ischemia time and good human leukocyte antigen matching contributing to lower postoperative complications in the recipient. Thoracic epidurals provide excellent analgesia for the donors, as well as recipients. Recipient management can be challenging. Thrombosis and obstruction of venous access maybe common due to prolonged parenteral nutrition and/or hypercoaguability. Thromboelastography (TEG) is helpful for managing intraoperative product therapy or thrombosis. Large fluid shifts and electrolyte disturbances may occur due to massive blood loss, dehydration, third spacing etc. Intestinal grafts are susceptible to warm and cold ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Post-reperfusion syndrome is common. Cardiac or pulmonary clots can be monitored with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Vasopressors maybe used to ensure stable hemodynamics. Post-intestinal transplant patients may need anesthesia for procedures such as biopsies for surveillance of rejection, bronchoscopy, endoscopy, postoperative hemorrhage, anastomotic leaks, thrombosis of grafts etc. Asepsis

  19. Pacemaker Use Following Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidi, Hari R.; Bates, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation after orthotopic heart transplantation has been reported to be 2%-24%. Transplanted hearts usually exhibit sinus rhythm in the operating room following reperfusion, and most patients do not exhibit significant arrhythmias during the postoperative period. However, among the patients who do exhibit abnormalities, pacemakers may be implanted for early sinus node dysfunction but are rarely used after 6 months. Permanent pacing is often required for atrioventricular block. A different cohort of transplant patients presents later with bradycardia requiring pacemaker implantation, reported to occur in approximately 1.5% of patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the indications for pacemaker implantation, compare the need for pacemakers following bicaval vs biatrial anastomosis, and examine the long-term outcomes of heart transplant patients who received pacemakers. Methods: For this retrospective, case-cohort, single-institution study, patients were identified from clinical research and administrative transplant databases. Information was supplemented with review of the medical records. Standard statistical techniques were used, with chi-square testing for categorical variables and the 2-tailed t test for continuous variables. Survival was compared with the use of log-rank methods. Results: Between January 1968 and February 2008, 1,450 heart transplants were performed at Stanford University. Eighty-four patients (5.8%) were identified as having had a pacemaker implanted. Of these patients, 65.5% (55) had the device implanted within 30 days of transplantation, and 34.5% (29) had late implantation. The mean survival of patients who had an early pacemaker implant was 6.4 years compared to 7.7 years for those with a late pacemaker implant (Ppacemaker implantation. Starting in 1997, a bicaval technique was used for implantation. The incidence of pacemaker implantation by technique was 2.0% for

  20. Microsurgical Composite Tissue Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Donald; Georgiade, Nicholas G.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1974, 69 patients with extensive defects have undergone reconstruction by microsurgical composite tissue transplantation. Using this method, donor composite tissue is isolated on its blood supply, removed to a distant recipient site, and the continuity of blood flow re-established by microvascular anastomoses. In this series, 56 patients (81%) were completely successful. There have been eight (12%) failures, primarily in the extremities. There have been five (7%) partial successes, (i.e., a microvascular flap in which a portion was lost requiring a secondary procedure such as a split thickness graft). In those patients with a severely injured lower extremity, the failure rate was the greatest. Most of these were arterial (six of seven). These failures occurred early in the series and were thought to be related to a severely damaged recipient vasculature. This problem has been circumvented by an autogenous interpositional vein graft, permitting more mobility of flap placement. In the upper extremity, all but one case were successful. Early motion was permitted, preventing joint capsular contractures and loss of function. Twenty-three cases in the head and neck region were successful (one partial success). This included two composite rib grafts to the mandible. Prolonged delays in reconstruction following extirpation of a malignancy were avoided. A rapid return to society following complete reconstruction was ensured. Nine patients presented for reconstruction of the breast and thorax following radical mastectomy. All were successfully reconstructed with this new technique except one patient. Its many advantages include immediate reconstruction without delayed procedures and no secondary deformity of the donor site. Healthy, well vascularized tissue can now be transferred to a previously irradiated area with no tissue loss. This new method offers many advantages to older methods of reconstruction. Length of hospital stay and immobilization are reduced. The

  1. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  2. Amniotic Membrane Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The past decade has witnessed the revival of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT in ophthalmology. The importance of amniotic membrane lies in its ability to reduce inflammation and scarring, enhance epithelialization and wound healing, and in its antimicrobial properties. Amniotic membrane has recently been used as a substrate for culturing limbal stem cells for transplantation. It has also been used extensively in corneal conditions such as neurotrophic ulcers, persistent epithelial defects, shield ulcers, microbial keratitis, band keratopathy, bullous keratopathy, and following photorefractive keratectomy and chemical injuries. Other indications for AMT include ocular surface reconstruction surgery for conjunctival pathologies such as squamous neoplasia, pterygium, and symblepharon. In this review we describe the basic structure and properties of amniotic membrane, its preparation process and its applications in ophthalmology.

  1. Technology and outcomes assessment in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusen, Roger D

    2009-01-15

    Lung transplantation offers the hope of prolonged survival and significant improvement in quality of life to patients that have advanced lung diseases. However, the medical literature lacks strong positive evidence and shows conflicting information regarding survival and quality of life outcomes related to lung transplantation. Decisions about the use of lung transplantation require an assessment of trade-offs: do the potential health and quality of life benefits outweigh the potential risks and harms? No amount of theoretical reasoning can resolve this question; empiric data are needed. Rational analyses of these trade-offs require valid measurements of the benefits and harms to the patients in all relevant domains that affect survival and quality of life. Lung transplant systems and registries mainly focus outcomes assessment on patient survival on the waiting list and after transplantation. Improved analytic approaches allow comparisons of the survival effects of lung transplantation versus continued waiting. Lung transplant entities do not routinely collect quality of life data. However, the medical community and the public want to know how lung transplantation affects quality of life. Given the huge stakes for the patients, the providers, and the healthcare systems, key stakeholders need to further support quality of life assessment in patients with advanced lung disease that enter into the lung transplant systems. Studies of lung transplantation and its related technologies should assess patients with tools that integrate both survival and quality of life information. Higher quality information obtained will lead to improved knowledge and more informed decision making.

  2. Lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liou TG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Theodore G Liou, Sanjeev M Raman, Barbara C CahillDivision of Respiratory, Critical Care and Occupational Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USAAbstract: Patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD comprise the largest single lung disease group undergoing transplantation. Selection of appropriate candidates requires consideration of specific clinical characteristics, prognosis in the absence of transplantation, and likely outcome of transplantation. Increased availability of alternatives to transplantation for end-stage patients and the many efforts to increase the supply of donor organs have complicated decision making for selecting transplant candidates. Many years of technical and clinical refinements in lung transplantation methods have improved survival and quality of life outcomes. Further advances will probably come from improved selection methods for the procedure. Because no prospective trial has been performed, and because of confounding and informative censoring bias inherent in the transplant selection process in studies of the existing experience, the survival effect of lung transplant in COPD patients remains undefined. There is a lack of conclusive data on the impact of lung transplantation on quality of life. For some patients with end-stage COPD, lung transplantation remains the only option for further treatment with a hope of improved survival and quality of life. A prospective trial of lung transplantation is needed to provide better guidance concerning survival benefit, resource utilization, and quality of life effects for patients with COPD.Keywords: outcomes, emphysema, COPD, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, survival, single lung transplant, bilateral sequential single lung transplant, lung volume reduction, referral, guidelines, health related quality of life

  3. Pediatric liver transplantation in 31 consecutive children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong-yang; WANG Zi-fa; ZHU Zhi-jun; ZANG Yun-jin; ZHENG Hong; DENG Yong-lin; PAN Cheng; CHEN Xin-guo

    2008-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation has become a standard therapy for end-stage liver diseases, the experience of pediatric liver transplantation is limited in China. In this article we report our experience in pediatric liver transplantation, and summarize its characters in their indications, surgical techniques, and postoperative managements. Methods Thirty-one children (≤18 years old) underwent liver transplantation in our centers. The mean age at transplantation was 12.4 years old (ranged from 5 months to 18 years) with 7 children being less than 4 years of age at transplantation. The most common diagnosis of patients who underwent liver transplantation were biliary atresia, Wilson's disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, glycogen storage disease, hepatoblastoma, urea cycle defects, fulminant hepatic failure, etc. The surgical procedures included 12 standard (without venovenous bypass), 6 pigyback, 6 reduced-size, 3 split, 3 living donor liver transplantation, and 1 Domino liver transplantation. The triple-drug (FK506, steroid, and mycophenolate mofetil) immunosuppressive regimen was used in most of patients. Patients were followed up for a mean of 21.8 months. Results Five of the 31 patients died during perioperative time; mortality rate was 16.1%. The reasons of death were infections, primary non-function, heart failure, and hypovolemic shock. Postoperative complications in 10 patients included biliary leakage, acute rejection, abdominal infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and pulmonary infection. Overall patient cumulative survival rate at 1-, 3-, and 5-year was 78.1%, 62.6%, 62.6%, respectively.Conclusions The most common indications of pediatric liver transplantation were congenital end-stage liver diseases. According to patients' age and body weight, standard, piggyback, reduced-size, split, or living donor liver transplantation should be performed. Pediatric liver transplantation especially requires higher

  4. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  5. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As III ) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As III on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As III were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As III than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As III in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As III -mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As III cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: ► Examination of effect of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells. ► Dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity in C

  6. Design of transplanting mechanism for system of rice intensification (SRI) transplanter in Kedah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M. S.; Manan, M. S. Abdul; Khalil, A. N. M.; MdNaim, M. K.; Ahmad, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    There is a demand to develop transplanter specifically for system of rice intensification (SRI) cultivation in Malaysia. This SRI transplanter is different from conventional transplanter as it is required special requirements for transplanting. The work focused on transplanting mechanism design which can be later attached to SRI transplanter. The mechanical design was established using linkage mechanism, having a wheel that act as timing wheel that will control the distance between transplanted seedlings. The linkage mechanism also control the opening of the flapper that allow the seedling together with its nursery soil to be dropped, and control the stopper to prevent next seedling from sliding down the tray. The use of simple mechanism will have low cost for fabrication. The design was analysed using motion analysis software. Results show the design is perfectly good and can be fabricated without any problem. The animation successfully shows the perfect movement of the mechanism and transplanting process.

  7. Evolution of the role of the transplant pharmacist on the multidisciplinary transplant team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, R R; Dupuis, R; Gabardi, S; Kaiser, T E; Taber, D J; Tichy, E M; Weimert-Pilch, N A

    2011-08-01

    Transplant pharmacists have been recognized as an essential part of the transplant team by their colleagues along with several governing and professional organizations. The specific education, training and responsibilities of the transplant pharmacist have not been clearly delineated in the literature. Various pharmacists across the country have been called upon to serve on the transplant team necessitating standardization of their fundamental and desirable activities. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to describe the training and role of a transplant pharmacist on the patient care team and provide a roadmap to implementation of novel transplant pharmacy services. ©2011 The Authors Journal compilation©2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Organ donation and transplantation in Mexico. A transplantation health professionals’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hernández-Ibarra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to explore organ donation and transplantation in Mexico from the point of view of transplantation health professionals. Materials and methods. A qualitative study was carried out. Twenty six organ transplantation health professionals from seven states of Mexico participated. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted mainly in hospital settings. Critical discourse analysis was performed. Results. According to participants, living organ transplantation offers benefits for recipients as well as for donors. Several factors influence the field of transplantation negatively, among them the scarcity of resources that impedes the incorporation of new health personnel, as well as conflicts between transplantation teams with diverse health professionals and authorities. Conclusion. Besides increasing economic resources, transplantation health personnel should be sensitized to find solutions in order to avoid conflicts with different health professionals. Studies on organ donation and transplants also should include other social actors’ viewpoint.

  9. History of osteochondral allograft transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, V S; Giannoudis, P V

    2017-07-01

    Osteochondral defects or injuries represent the most challenging entities to treat, especially when occur to young and active patients. For centuries, it has been recognized that such defects are almost impossible to treat. However, surgeons have never stopped the effort to develop reliable methods to restore articular cartilage and salvage the endangered joint function. Osteochondral allograft transplantation in human was first introduced by Eric Lexer in 1908. Since that era, several pioneers have been worked in the field of osteochondral allotransplantation, presenting and developing the basic research, the methodology and the surgical techniques. Herein we present in brief, the history and the early clinical results of osteochondral allograft transplantation in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  11. Life after a lung transplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graarup, Jytte; Mogensen, Elin Lindberg; Missel, Malene

    2017-01-01

    and challenges. They had received a new chance in life and were eager to fulfil their life hopes and dreams. At the same time, they were worried about the future. Having a lung transplant implies rules that have to be followed. What are the healthy choices they are supposed to make? And will there be a tomorrow...... and psychological challenges. The interviewees were happy to get another chance to live, although some of them suffered from medical side effects, postoperative complications and psychological problems. When asked about the future, interviewees stated that life could be described as (3) a balance of joy...... physically and psychologically challenging. Interviewees were aware of the prognosis for patients following lung transplantation. They expressed feelings of worry and insecurity but still had hopes and dreams. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The patients are troubled by both physical and psychological...

  12. Transplantation as an abstract good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø; Olejaz, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates valuations of organ transfers that are currently seen as legitimising increasingly aggressive procurement methods in Denmark. Based on interviews with registered donors and the intensive care unit staff responsible for managing organ donor patients we identify three types...... a more general salience in the organ transplant field by way of facilitating a perception of organ transplantation as an abstract moral good rather than a specific good for specific people. Furthermore, we suggest that multiple forms of ignorance sustain each other: a desire for ignorance with respect...... to the prioritisation of recipients sustains pressure for more organs; this pressure necessitates more aggressive measures in organ procurement and these measures increase the need for ignorance in relation to the actual procedures as well as the actual recipients. These attempts to avoid knowledge are in remarkable...

  13. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life. Affected people may want to do DNA banking. DNA testing is recommended for those who are ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  14. Ventilatory strategy during liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Grocott, Hilary P; Niemann, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) may be reduced by hyperventilation in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation surgery (LTx). Conversely, the brain may be subjected to hyperperfusion during reperfusion of the grafted liver. We investig......, this retrospective analysis suggests that attention to maintain a targeted EtCO2 would result in a more stable ScO2 during the operation....

  15. Renal transplantation in Mapuche people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, R; Beltrán, R; Jerez, V; Droguett, M A; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated higher concentrations of some histocompatibility antigens in Mapuche people compared with non-Mapuche Chileans in the renal transplantation program. With the aim of evaluating whether those antigenic differences might induce differences in the outcomes of renal transplantation among patients belonging to that ethnic group, we reviewed HLA studies and at least 6 months follow-up of all patients with a first kidney transplant between 1980 and 2006. The 248 patients had a mean age of 37.6 years, 40% were females, and 48% had living related donors. The mean kidney follow-up was 90 months and patient follow-up was 106 months. Thirty-nine patients (16%) were classified as Mapuche, according to their surnames, including 16 women with overall mean age of 34.5 years, and 14 had been transplanted from a living related donor. Mapuche patients received organs with better HLA matching expressed as number of identities (3.4 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.1 among non-Mapuche; P or = 3 compatibilities was significantly higher (Mapuche 38% versus non-Mapuche 22%; P Mapuche; and 83% and 65%, respectively, for non-Mapuche. Patient survival rates were 97% at 5 years and 86% at 10 years in the Mapuche group versus 91% and 79%, respectively, in the non-Mapuche group; both results were not significantly different. Our results showed similar outcomes of kidney and patient survivals among Mapuche people even when they received organs with better HLA matches.

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a cardiac transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Seema R; Paranjape, Saloni

    2014-04-01

    An increasing number of cardiac transplants are being carried out around the world. With increasing longevity, these patients present a unique challenge to non-transplant anesthesiologists for a variety of transplant related or incidental surgeries. The general considerations related to a cardiac transplant recipient are the physiological and pharmacological problems of allograft denervation, the side-effects of immunosuppression, the risk of infection and the potential for rejection. A thorough understanding of the physiology of a denervated heart, need for direct vasoactive agents and post-transplant morbidities is essential in anesthetic management of such a patient. Here, we describe a case of a heart transplant recipient who presented for a cholecystectomy at our center.

  17. Liver transplantation:Yesterday,today and tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Abbasoglu

    2008-01-01

    With the advances in technical skills,management of postoperative complications and improvements in immunosuppressive drugs,liver transplantation is the standard treatment for many patients with chronic liver disease.Today,shortage of donor organs seems to be the major limiting factor for the application of liver transplantation.This review focuses on five issues that are challenging to clinical practice of liver transplantation and relevant to gastroenterologists.These include living donor liver transplantation,recurrent viral hepatitis,non-heart-beating donors,hepatocellular carcinoma,and ABO incompatible livertransplantation.Living donor and non-heart beating donor transplantations were initiated as a solution to increase the donor organ pool and it is expected that there will be an increase in the number of these donors.Recurrent hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma following liver transplantation are among major problems and ongoing research in these diseases may lead to better outcomes in these recipients.

  18. Growth in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, A; Phadke, K

    2007-04-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in managing pediatric renal transplant recipient is to ensure normal growth and development. The goal of renal transplant is not just to prolong life but to optimize quality of life. Short stature during childhood may be associated with academic underachievement and development of comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, and mood disorders. The most important factors affecting growth are use of corticosteroids, allograft function, and age and height deficit at the time of transplant. Aggressive conservative management of chronic renal failure and early use of growth hormone therapy will help in optimizing height at time of transplant. Early transplant, steroid minimization or withdrawal, and growth hormone therapy will help in achieving normal adult height in a majority of renal post transplant population. Steroid avoidance to achieve good growth still needs to be validated.

  19. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Florescimento e frutificação de lichieiras em função do anelamento de ramos Flowering and fruiting of lychee trees in response to girdling of branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo García-Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do anelamento de ramos sobre o florescimento e frutificação de lichieiras 'Bengal' com 17 anos de idade. Os tratamentos constaram de anelamento em ramos ou pernadas principais e ramos de 6; 4 e 2 cm de diâmetro, além do controle. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. As avaliações quanto à floração foram: percentagem de floração e comprimento de inflorescências por quadrante e árvore; quanto à frutificação, avaliaram-se: vingamento de frutos maduros por panícula, massa, diâmetros longitudinal e equatorial dos frutos, sólidos solúveis totais, época de colheita e rendimento. O anelamento nos ramos principais induziu maior florescimento, sem alterar as características das inflorescências; não houve diferenças no vingamento de frutos, mas o aumento na floração incrementou o rendimento por árvore, com significativa antecipação da colheita.The effects of girdling of branches on flowering and fruiting of 17 years old 'Bengal' lychee trees were evaluated. The treatments consisted of girdling of main branches, and branches with 6, 4 and 2 cm of diameter and the control. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with 5 replicates. The evaluations in relation to flowering were: flowering per tree and per quadrant and length of flower panicles; in relation to fruiting were: fruit set per panicle, fruit weight, longitudinal and equatorial diameters, soluble solids, harvest time and production. The girdling in the main branches induced larger flowering, without influence on the flower panicles characteristics, there were no differences in the fruit set, but with an increasing in the flowering, it increased the production, with significant anticipation of the harvest.