WorldWideScience

Sample records for transmitochondrial embryonic stem

  1. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  2. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  3. Epigenetic control of embryonic stem cell fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Nicolaj Strøyer; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo and are pluripotent, as they are able to differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism. Once established, the pluripotent ES cells can be maintained under defined culture conditions, but can als...

  4. the production of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    Much research and lively debate focuses on the potential value of embryonic stem (ES) cells for regenerative medicine, the ethical issues raised by the use of human embryos to generate them, and the efforts presently made to circumvent this problem. The preparation of human ES cells in 1998 (Thomson et al 1998) ...

  5. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  6. Autophagy in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Tra

    Full Text Available Autophagy (macroautophagy is a degradative process that involves the sequestration of cytosolic material including organelles into double membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes for delivery to the lysosome. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos and cavitation of embryoid bodies. The precise roles of autophagy during early human embryonic development, remain however largely uncharacterized. Since human embryonic stem cells constitute a unique model system to study early human embryogenesis we investigated the occurrence of autophagy in human embryonic stem cells. We have, using lentiviral transduction, established multiple human embryonic stem cell lines that stably express GFP-LC3, a fluorescent marker for the autophagosome. Each cell line displays both a normal karyotype and pluripotency as indicated by the presence of cell types representative of the three germlayers in derived teratomas. GFP expression and labelling of autophagosomes is retained after differentiation. Baseline levels of autophagy detected in cultured undifferentiated hESC were increased or decreased in the presence of rapamycin and wortmannin, respectively. Interestingly, autophagy was upregulated in hESCs induced to undergo differentiation by treatment with type I TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431542 or removal of MEF secreted maintenance factors. In conclusion we have established hESCs capable of reporting macroautophagy and identify a novel link between autophagy and early differentiation events in hESC.

  7. Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+CD41(+CD45(- phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.

  8. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  10. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    Porcine and bovine cell lines derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) or epiblasts of blastocysts have been maintained over extended periods of time and characterized by morphology, identification of some stem cell markers and, in few cases, by production of chimaeric offspring. However, germ line...... transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation...... will be available over the coming years. However, in order to reach this goal further systematic research is needed. Such cell lines hold promises for developing adequate models for human ES cell therapy and they may open for new avenues for the production of genetically modified animals as the ES cells ahve...

  11. MPSS profiling of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicek Tom

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pooled human embryonic stem cells (hESC cell lines were profiled to obtain a comprehensive list of genes common to undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. Results Pooled hESC lines were profiled to obtain a comprehensive list of genes common to human ES cells. Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS of approximately three million signature tags (signatures identified close to eleven thousand unique transcripts, of which approximately 25% were uncharacterised or novel genes. Expression of previously identified ES cell markers was confirmed and multiple genes not known to be expressed by ES cells were identified by comparing with public SAGE databases, EST libraries and parallel analysis by microarray and RT-PCR. Chromosomal mapping of expressed genes failed to identify major hotspots and confirmed expression of genes that map to the X and Y chromosome. Comparison with published data sets confirmed the validity of the analysis and the depth and power of MPSS. Conclusions Overall, our analysis provides a molecular signature of genes expressed by undifferentiated ES cells that can be used to monitor the state of ES cells isolated by different laboratories using independent methods and maintained under differing culture conditions

  12. MPSS profiling of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Ralph; Khrebtukova, Irina; Thies, R Scott; Miura, Takumi; Jingli, Cai; Puri, Raj; Vasicek, Tom; Lebkowski, Jane; Rao, Mahendra

    2004-08-10

    Pooled human embryonic stem cells (hESC) cell lines were profiled to obtain a comprehensive list of genes common to undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. Pooled hESC lines were profiled to obtain a comprehensive list of genes common to human ES cells. Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) of approximately three million signature tags (signatures) identified close to eleven thousand unique transcripts, of which approximately 25% were uncharacterised or novel genes. Expression of previously identified ES cell markers was confirmed and multiple genes not known to be expressed by ES cells were identified by comparing with public SAGE databases, EST libraries and parallel analysis by microarray and RT-PCR. Chromosomal mapping of expressed genes failed to identify major hotspots and confirmed expression of genes that map to the X and Y chromosome. Comparison with published data sets confirmed the validity of the analysis and the depth and power of MPSS. Overall, our analysis provides a molecular signature of genes expressed by undifferentiated ES cells that can be used to monitor the state of ES cells isolated by different laboratories using independent methods and maintained under differing culture conditions

  13. Mapping the stem cell state: eight novel human embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cell antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, A; Andrews, N; Bardsley, K

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic profile of human embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells has served as a key element of their characterization, with a common panel of surface and intracellular markers now widely used. Such markers have been used to identify cells within the 'undifferentiated state...... of reactivity for all antibodies against both ES and EC cells, suggesting that these markers will afford recognition of unique sub-states within the undifferentiated stem cell compartment....... and EC cells, and herein describe their characterization. The reactivity of these antibodies against a range of cell lines is reported, as well as their developmental regulation, basic biochemistry and reactivity in immunohistochemistry of testicular germ cell tumours. Our data reveal a range...

  14. Human embryonic stem cells and microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs possess a great potential in the field of regenerative medicine by their virtue of pluripotent potential with indefinite proliferation capabilities. They can self renew themselves and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Although they are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse feeder cells, there are in vitro culture systems utilizing feeder cells of human origin in order to prevent cross-species contamination. Recently established in vitro culture systems suggested that direct interaction with feeder cells is not necessary but rather attachment to a substrate is required to ensure long-term, efficient hESC culture in vitro. This substrate is usually composed of a mixture of extracellular matrix components representing in vivo natural niche. In hESC biology, the mechanism of interaction of hESCs with extracellular matrix molecules remained insufficiently explored area of research due to their transient nature of interaction with the in vivo niche. However, an in vitro culture system established using extracellular matrix molecules may provide a safer alternative to culture systems with feeder cells while paving the way to Good Manufacturing Practice-GMP production of hESCs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, it is essential to study the interaction of extracellular matrix molecules with hESCs in order to standardize in vitro culture systems for large-scale production of hESCs in a less labor-intensive way. This would not only provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that control pluripotency but also serve to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of directed differentiation for prospective therapeutic applications in the future. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 486-495

  15. Plasma membrane proteomics of human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Braam, S.R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are of immense interest in regenerative medicine as they can self-renew indefinitely and can give rise to any adult cell type. Human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs) are the malignant counterparts of hESCs found in testis tumors. hESCs that have acquired

  16. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    treated mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells in knockout ..... 501. Liu H, Ye Z, Kim Y, Sharkis S, Jang YY (2010). Generation of endoderm-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells from primary hepatocytes.

  17. Graphene for enhanced embryonic stem cell photo-transfection efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their pluripotency properties, embryonic stem (ES) cells possess great potential in regenerative therapy. Since reported a promising tissue engineering scaffold material, here, graphene is demonstrated to significantly improve the ES cell...

  18. Probing Embryonic Stem Cell Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling Using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Laralynne; Voldman, Joel

    2012-07-01

    Although stem cell fate is traditionally manipulated by exogenously altering the cells' extracellular signaling environment, the endogenous autocrine and paracrine signals produced by the cells also contribute to their two essential processes: self-renewal and differentiation. Autocrine and/or paracrine signals are fundamental to both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early embryonic development, but the nature and contributions of these signals are often difficult to fully define using conventional methods. Microfluidic techniques have been used to explore the effects of cell-secreted signals by controlling cell organization or by providing precise control over the spatial and temporal cellular microenvironment. Here we review how such techniques have begun to be adapted for use with embryonic stem cells, and we illustrate how many remaining questions in embryonic stem cell biology could be addressed using microfluidic technologies.

  19. Nucleosome Organization in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available The fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin is the nucleosome. Besides being involved in packaging DNA, nucleosome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and cellular identity. Currently, there is much debate about the major determinants of the nucleosome architecture of a genome and its significance with little being known about its role in stem cells. To address these questions, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of nucleosomal DNA in two human embryonic stem cell lines and integrated our data with numerous epigenomic maps. Our analyses have revealed that the genome is a determinant of nucleosome organization with transcriptionally inactive regions characterized by a "ground state" of nucleosome profiles driven by underlying DNA sequences. DNA sequence preferences are associated with heterogeneous chromatin organization around transcription start sites. Transcription, histone modifications, and DNA methylation alter this "ground state" by having distinct effects on both nucleosome positioning and occupancy. As the transcriptional rate increases, nucleosomes become better positioned. Exons transcribed and included in the final spliced mRNA have distinct nucleosome profiles in comparison to exons not included at exon-exon junctions. Genes marked by the active modification H3K4m3 are characterized by lower nucleosome occupancy before the transcription start site compared to genes marked by the inactive modification H3K27m3, while bivalent domains, genes associated with both marks, lie exactly in the middle. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks (chromatin states are associated with unique nucleosome profiles. Nucleosome organization varies around transcription factor binding in enhancers versus promoters. DNA methylation is associated with increasing nucleosome occupancy and different types of methylations have distinct location preferences within the nucleosome core particle. Finally, computational

  20. Embryonic stem cell research in Iran: status and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniei, Mansooreh; De Vries, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Various successes in regenerative medicine by therapeutic cloning have given rise to expectations that treatments will soon be developed for incurable diseases. But using embryonic stem cells for this purpose raises many ethical dilemmas including those about the beginning of human life. Arguments concerning stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in different countries are influenced by both the religious and bioethical traditions which dominate in these cultures. This article examines how these traditions have influenced stem cell research in Iran through an account of scientific advances and the development of regulations on embryonic stem cell research in Iran.

  1. The epigenomics of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Daniel C; Zhao, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess an open and highly dynamic chromatin landscape, which underlies their plasticity and ultimately maintains ESC pluripotency. The ESC epigenome must not only maintain the transcription of pluripotency-associated genes but must also, through gene priming, facilitate rapid and cell type-specific activation of developmental genes upon lineage commitment. Trans-generational inheritance ensures that the ESC chromatin state is stably transmitted from one generation to the next; yet at the same time, epigenetic marks are highly dynamic, reversible and responsive to extracellular cues. Once committed to differentiation, the ESC epigenome is remodeled and resolves into a more compact chromatin state. A thorough understanding of the role of chromatin modifiers in ESC fate and differentiation will be important if they are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Recent technical advances, particularly in next-generation sequencing technologies, have provided a genome-scale view of epigenetic marks and chromatin modifiers. More affordable and faster sequencing platforms have led to a comprehensive characterization of the ESC epigenome and epigenomes of differentiated cell types. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress that has highlighted the central role of histone modifications, histone variants, DNA methylation and chromatin modifiers in ESC pluripotency and ESC fate. We provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of genome-wide studies that are pertinent to our understanding of mammalian development.

  2. Comparison of Teratoma Formation between Embryonic Stem Cells and Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With their properties of self-renewal and differentiation, embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promises for regenerative therapy. However, teratoma formation and ethical concerns of ES cells may restrict their potential clinical applications. Currently, parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES cells have attracted the interest of researchers for its self-renewing and pluripotent differentiation while eliciting less ethic concerns. In this study, we established a model with ES and pES cells both stably transfected with a double-fusion reporter gene containing renilla luciferase (Rluc and red fluorescent protein (RFP to analyze the mechanisms of teratoma formation. Transgenic Vegfr2-luc mouse, which expresses firefly luciferase (Fluc under the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Vegfr2-luc, was used to trace the growth of new blood vessel recruited by transplanted cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI of Rluc/Fluc provides an effective tool in estimating the growth and angiogenesis of teratoma in vivo. We found that the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis capacity of ES cells were higher than those of pES cells, in which VEGF/VEGFR2 signal pathway plays an important role. In conclusion, pES cells have the decreased potential of teratoma formation but meanwhile have similar differentiating capacity compared with ES cells. These data demonstrate that pES cells provide an alternative source for ES cells with the risk reduction of teratoma formation and without ethical controversy.

  3. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  4. the production of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    result of the anarchic development of early embryonic cells left behind during development. However, their localization in the genital organs supported an alternative hypothesis: they were the result of an anarchic multiplication of the. Series. What history tells us. VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic ...

  5. Transfer of microRNAs by embryonic stem cell microvesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Yuan

    Full Text Available Microvesicles are plasma membrane-derived vesicles released into the extracellular environment by a variety of cell types. Originally characterized from platelets, microvesicles are a normal constituent of human plasma, where they play an important role in maintaining hematostasis. Microvesicles have been shown to transfer proteins and RNA from cell to cell and they are also believed to play a role in intercellular communication. We characterized the RNA and protein content of embryonic stem cell microvesicles and show that they can be engineered to carry exogenously expressed mRNA and protein such as green fluorescent protein (GFP. We demonstrate that these engineered microvesicles dock and fuse with other embryonic stem cells, transferring their GFP. Additionally, we show that embryonic stem cells microvesicles contain abundant microRNA and that they can transfer a subset of microRNAs to mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro. Since microRNAs are short (21-24 nt, naturally occurring RNAs that regulate protein translation, our findings open up the intriguing possibility that stem cells can alter the expression of genes in neighboring cells by transferring microRNAs contained in microvesicles. Embryonic stem cell microvesicles may be useful therapeutic tools for transferring mRNA, microRNAs, protein, and siRNA to cells and may be important mediators of signaling within stem cell niches.

  6. Characterization and comparison of osteoblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming San; Kannan, Vishnu; de Vries, Anneriek E; Czepiel, Marcin; Wesseling, Evelyn; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Kuijer, Roelof; Vissink, Arjan; Copray, Sjef; Raghoebar, Gerry

    New developments in stem cell biology offer alternatives for the reconstruction of critical-sized bone defects. One of these developments is the use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These stem cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but can be generated from adult somatic cells and

  7. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  8. Photo-transfection of mouse embryonic stem cells with plasmid DNA using femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thobakgale, Lebogang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is about the photo-transfection of mouse embryonic stem cells with plasmid DNA using femtosecond laser pulses. It outlines the background on embryonic stem cells (ES) and phototransfection....

  9. Aspects on properties, use and ethical considerations of embryonic stem cells – A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Borge, Ole Johan; Evers, Kathinka

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into all cell types of an adult individual. The culturing of human embryonic stem cells renders possible studies that were previously only available in animal models. Embryonic stem cells constitute a particularly attractive tool for studies of self-renewal, commitment, differentiation, maturation and cell-cell interaction. There is currently considerable hope that studies of embryonic stem cells will lead to new therapies; ei...

  10. Cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells resemble cardiomyocytes of the embryonic heart tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, Arnoud C.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; de Boer, Piet A. J.; Ruijter, Jan M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Lekanne Deprez, Ronald H.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: After formation of the linear heart tube a chamber-specific program of gene expression becomes active that underlies the formation of the chamber myocardium. To assess whether this program is recapitulated in in vitro differentiated embryonic stem cells, we performed qualitative and

  11. Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, II: conditional technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome modification via transgenesis has allowed researchers to link genotype and phenotype as an alternative approach to the characterization of random mutations through evolution. The synergy of technologies from the fields of embryonic stem (ES) cells, gene knockouts, and protein-mediated recombi...

  12. Characterization of embryonic stem cell transplantation immunobiology using molecular imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Given their self-renewing and pluripotent capabilities, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are well-poised as a cellular source for tissue regeneration therapy. Successful in vitro differentiation of both mouse (m) and human (h) ESCs into multiple somatic cell types has been reported, including

  13. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  14. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  15. Tracking the embryonic stem cell transition from ground state pluripotency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkan, T.; Olova, N.; Roode, M.; Mulas, C.; Lee, H.J.; Nett, I.; Marks, H.; Walker, R.; Stunnenberg, H.; Lilley, K.S.; Nichols, J.; Reik, W.; Bertone, P.; Smith, A.

    2017-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are locked into self-renewal by shielding from inductive cues. Release from this ground state in minimal conditions offers a system for delineating developmental progression from naive pluripotency. Here we examined the initial transition process. The ES cell

  16. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be successfully differentiated into liver cells, which offer the potential unlimited cell source for a variety of end-stage liver disease. In our study, in order to induce mouse ES cells to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under chemically defined conditions, ES cells ...

  17. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  18. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    signalling pathways have been documented. In addition, gp130 activation leads to both PI3K and Src activation. The canonical Wnt pathway is sufficient to maintain self-renewal of both human ES cells and mouse ES cells. It seems quite possible that the main pathway maintaining self-renewal in ES cells...... is the Wnt pathway, while the LIF-JAK-STAT3 pathway is present in mouse cells as an adaptation for sustaining self-renewal during embryonic diapause, a condition of delayed implantation in mammals. In keeping with this scenario, the Wnt pathway has been shown to elevate the level of c-myc. Thus, the two...

  19. Abortion, embryonic stem cell research, and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David A

    2008-01-01

    Can one consistently deny the permissibility of abortion while endorsing the killing of human embryos for the sake of stem cell research? The question is not trivial; for even if one accepts that abortion is prima facie wrong in all cases, there are significant differences with many of the embryos used for stem cell research from those involved in abortion--most prominently, many have been abandoned in vitro, and appear to have no reasonably likely meaningful future. On these grounds one might think to maintain a strong position against abortion but endorse killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research and its promising benefits. I will argue, however, that these differences are not decisive. Thus, one who accepts a strong view against abortion is committed to the moral impermissibility of killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research. I do not argue for the moral standing of either abortion or the killing of embryos for stem cell research; I only argue for the relation between the two. Thus the conclusion is relevant to those with a strong view in favor of the permissibility of killing embryos for the sake of research as much as for those who may strongly oppose abortion; neither can consider their position in isolation from the other.

  20. Expansion of human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Magdaline; Sourris, Koula; Hatzistavrou, Tanya; Elefanty, Andrew G; Stanley, Edouard G

    2008-05-01

    This unit describes a protocol for the large-scale expansion of karyotypically normal human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). hESCs can be maintained indefinitely as dense colonies that are mechanically cut into pieces, which are subsequently transferred to fresh organ culture dishes seeded with primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). hESCs can also be enzymatically passaged (bulk culture); however, over time, this style of culturing may lead to the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities. Nevertheless, enzymatic passaging can be used for short periods (up to 25 passages) without the appearance of cells with abnormal karyotypes. Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  2. Growth inhibition of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells on the feeders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be propagated in vitro on the feeders of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In this study, we found growth inhibition of mESCs cultured on embryonic fibroblast feeders derived from different livestock animals. Under the same condition, mESCs derived from mouse embryonic fibroblast ...

  3. Dynamic changes in energy metabolism upon embryonic stem cell differentiation support developmental toxicant identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, van D.A.M.; Schulpen, S.H.; Theunissen, P.T.; Bunschoten, A.; Piersma, A.H.; Keijer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are widely used to study embryonic development and to identify developmental toxicants. Particularly, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) is well known as in vitro model to identify developmental toxicants. Although it is clear that energy metabolism plays a crucial role in

  4. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells in defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Tenneille E; Levenstein, Mark E; Jones, Jeffrey M; Berggren, W Travis; Mitchen, Erika R; Frane, Jennifer L; Crandall, Leann J; Daigh, Christine A; Conard, Kevin R; Piekarczyk, Marian S; Llanas, Rachel A; Thomson, James A

    2006-02-01

    We have previously reported that high concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) support feeder-independent growth of human embryonic stem (ES) cells, but those conditions included poorly defined serum and matrix components. Here we report feeder-independent human ES cell culture that includes protein components solely derived from recombinant sources or purified from human material. We describe the derivation of two new human ES cell lines in these defined culture conditions.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in embryonic and cancer stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr; Dvořáková, D.; Hampl, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 580, - (2006), s. 2869-2874 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA301/03/1122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Fibroblast growth factor 2 * Embryonic stem cell * Hematopoietic progenitor cell Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.372, year: 2006

  6. Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illingworth, Robert S; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Roske, Fabian V

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like the blastocyst from which they are derived, contain precursors of the epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PrEn) lineages. While transient in vivo, these precursor populations readily interconvert in vitro. We show that altered transcription is the driver...... polycomb with dynamic changes in transcription and stalled lineage commitment, allowing cells to explore alternative choices prior to a definitive decision....

  7. Epigenetic stability, adaptability, and reversibility in human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tompkins, Joshua D.; Hall, Christine; Chen, Vincent Chang-yi; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A.; Riggs, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    The stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is of critical importance for both experimental and clinical applications. We find that as an initial response to altered culture conditions, hESCs change their transcription profile for hundreds of genes and their DNA methylation profiles for several genes outside the core pluripotency network. After adaption to conditions of feeder-free defined and/or xeno-free culture systems, expression and DNA methylation profiles are quite stable for a...

  8. Gene expression heterogeneities in embryonic stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Arias, Alfonso; Brickman, Joshua M

    2011-01-01

    Stem and progenitor cells are populations of cells that retain the capacity to populate specific lineages and to transit this capacity through cell division. However, attempts to define markers for stem cells have met with limited success. Here we consider whether this limited success reflects...... an intrinsic requirement for heterogeneity with stem cell populations. We focus on Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, in vitro derived cell lines from the early embryo that are considered both pluripotent (able to generate all the lineages of the future embryo) and indefinitely self renewing. We examine the relevance...... of recently reported heterogeneities in ES cells and whether these heterogeneities themselves are inherent requirements of functional potency and self renewal....

  9. The ethical dilemma of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Nabeel; Manzar, Bushra; Hussain, Nuzhat; Hussain, M Fawwad Ahmed; Raza, Sajjad

    2013-03-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum.

  10. Generation of stomach tissue from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taka-aki K; Ninomiya, Naoto; Sekine, Mari; Komazaki, Shinji; Wang, Pi-Chao; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Successful pluripotent stem cell differentiation methods have been developed for several endoderm-derived cells, including hepatocytes, β-cells and intestinal cells. However, stomach lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells has remained a challenge, and only antrum specification has been demonstrated. We established a method for stomach differentiation from embryonic stem cells by inducing mesenchymal Barx1, an essential gene for in vivo stomach specification from gut endoderm. Barx1-inducing culture conditions generated stomach primordium-like spheroids, which differentiated into mature stomach tissue cells in both the corpus and antrum by three-dimensional culture. This embryonic stem cell-derived stomach tissue (e-ST) shared a similar gene expression profile with adult stomach, and secreted pepsinogen as well as gastric acid. Furthermore, TGFA overexpression in e-ST caused hypertrophic mucus and gastric anacidity, which mimicked Ménétrier disease in vitro. Thus, in vitro stomach tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells mimics in vivo development and can be used for stomach disease models.

  11. Demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, reverses differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji-Takayama, Kazue; Inoue, Toshiya; Ijiri, Yoshihiro; Otani, Takeshi; Motoda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shuji; Orita, Kunzo

    2004-01-01

    The de novo methylation activity is essential for embryonic development as well as embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, where the intensive and extensive DNA methylation was detected. In this study, we investigated the effects of a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), on differentiated ES cells in order to study the possibility of reversing the differentiation process. We first induced differentiation of ES cells by forming embryoid bodies, and then the cells were treated with 5-AzaC. The cells showed some undifferentiated features such as stem cell-like morphology with unclear cell-to-cell boundary and proliferative responsiveness to LIF. Moreover, 5-AzaC increased the expressions of ES specific markers, SSEA-1, and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as ES specific genes, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We also found that 5-AzaC demethylated the promoter region of H19 gene, a typical methylated gene during embryonic differentiation. These results indicate that 5-AzaC reverses differentiation state of ES cells through its DNA demethylating activity to differentiation related genes

  12. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells towards hematopoietic cells: progress and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinghui; Kaufman, Dan S

    2008-07-01

    Hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells has been one of the most productive areas of stem cell biology. Recent studies have progressed from work with mouse to human embryonic stem cells. Strategies to produce defined blood cell populations can be used to better understand normal and abnormal hematopoiesis, as well as potentially improve the generation of hematopoietic cells with therapeutic potential. Molecular profiling, phenotypic and functional analyses have all been utilized to demonstrate that hematopoietic cells derived from embryonic stem cells most closely represent a stage of hematopoiesis that occurs at embryonic/fetal developmental stages. Generation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells comparable to hematopoietic stem cells found in the adult sources, such as bone marrow and cord blood, still remains challenging. However, genetic manipulation of intrinsic factors during hematopoietic differentiation has proven a suitable approach to induce adult definitive hematopoiesis from embryonic stem cells. Concrete evidence has shown that embryonic stem cells provide a powerful approach to study the early stage of hematopoiesis. Multiple hematopoietic lineages can be generated from embryonic stem cells, although most of the evidence suggests that hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells mimics an embryonic/fetal stage of hematopoiesis.

  13. Absence of Rybp Compromises Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Kovacs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rybp (Ring1 and Yy1 Binding Protein is a transcriptional regulator and member of the noncanonical polycomb repressive complex 1 with essential role in early embryonic development. We have previously described that alteration of Rybp dosage in mouse models induced striking neural tube defects (NTDs, exencephaly, and disorganized neurocortex. In this study we further investigated the role of Rybp in neural differentiation by utilising wild type (rybp+/+ and rybp null mutant (rybp-/- embryonic stem cells (ESCs and tried to uncover underlying molecular events that are responsible for the observed phenotypic changes. We found that rybp null mutant ESCs formed less matured neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from existing progenitors than wild type cells. Furthermore, lack of rybp coincided with altered gene expression of key neural markers including Pax6 and Plagl1 pinpointing a possible transcriptional circuit among these genes.

  14. Early gene regulation of osteogenesis in embryonic stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirkham, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    The early gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that mediate stem cell differentiation are complex, and the underlying regulatory associations can be difficult to map accurately. In this study, the expression profiles of the genes Dlx5, Msx2 and Runx2 in mouse embryonic stem cells were monitored over a 48 hour period after exposure to the growth factors BMP2 and TGFβ1. Candidate GRNs of early osteogenesis were constructed based on published experimental findings and simulation results of Boolean and ordinary differential equation models were compared with our experimental data in order to test the validity of these models. Three gene regulatory networks were found to be consistent with the data, one of these networks exhibited sustained oscillation, a behaviour which is consistent with the general view of embryonic stem cell plasticity. The work cycle presented in this paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can be used to elucidate from gene expression profiles GRNs that are consistent with experimental data. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Effects of simulated microgravity on embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Wang

    Full Text Available There have been many studies on the biological effects of simulated microgravity (SMG on differentiated cells or adult stem cells. However, there has been no systematic study on the effects of SMG on embryonic stem (ES cells. In this study, we investigated various effects (including cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, cell differentiation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, genomic integrity and DNA damage repair of SMG on mouse embryonic stem (mES cells. Mouse ES cells cultured under SMG condition had a significantly reduced total cell number compared with cells cultured under 1 g gravity (1G condition. However, there was no significant difference in cell cycle distribution between SMG and 1G culture conditions, indicating that cell proliferation was not impaired significantly by SMG and was not a major factor contributing to the total cell number reduction. In contrast, a lower adhesion rate cultured under SMG condition contributed to the lower cell number in SMG. Our results also revealed that SMG alone could not induce DNA damage in mES cells while it could affect the repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions of mES cells. Taken together, mES cells were sensitive to SMG and the major alterations in cellular events were cell number expansion, adhesion rate decrease, increased apoptosis and delayed DNA repair progression, which are distinct from the responses of other types of cells to SMG.

  16. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing...... cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal...

  17. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Suffer from Centrosomal Amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubcová, Z.; Matula, P.; Sedláčková, M.; Vinarský, Vladimír; Doležalová, Dáša; Bárta, Tomáš; Dvořák, Petr; Hampl, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2011), s. 46-56 ISSN 1066-5099 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/2044 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06052; EU FP6 project ESTOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2006-018739 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : human embryonic stem cells * centrosome * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.781, year: 2011

  18. Embryonic stem cells and the challenge of transplantation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Paul J; Cartland, Siân; Nolan, Kathleen F; Waldmann, Herman

    2004-09-01

    Isolated from early blastocysts, embryonic stem (ES) cells capture the brief moment of pluripotency in the developing embryo, as evidenced by their differentiation into many somatic cell types in vitro. Although these properties might help meet the growing demand for 'spare parts' to replace diseased or worn-out tissues, their use in so-called cell replacement therapy (CRT) poses several challenges, not least of which is the prevention of their subsequent rejection. Here we explore the notion that ES cells might spawn cell types necessary for the treatment of disease while acting as a plentiful source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or terminally differentiated dendritic cells (DCs) that might facilitate the induction of transplantation tolerance to the replacement tissues.

  19. Ethical and regulatory aspects of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kewal K

    2002-12-01

    Ethical and regulatory issues concerning embryonic stem (ES) cell research are reviewed here a year after the controversy became a public and political issue in the US. The background of various issues are examined and the current regulations in various countries are reviewed. In the US, the debate is linked with abortion, as well as the status of a fetus as a human being, and is politically driven. Obtaining stem cells from embryonic tissues involves destruction of the embryo, to which objections are raised. Religious beliefs are examined and no serious impediments to ES cell research could be identified. Regulations vary from one country to another and it is unlikely that there will ever be any universally uniform ethical and regulatory standards for ES cell research. Currently, the most liberal and favourable environments for ES cell research are in the UK, Singapore, Sweden, India, Israel and China. Unless the US liberalises ES cell research, it may lose its lead in ES cell research and investments in this area may drift to countries with better environments for research. Suggestions are offered in this review to improve the ethical environment for ES cell research.

  20. Tracking the mechanical dynamics of human embryonic stem cell chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinde Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plastic chromatin structure has emerged as fundamental to the self-renewal and pluripotent capacity of embryonic stem (ES cells. Direct measurement of chromatin dynamics in vivo is, however, challenging as high spatiotemporal resolution is required. Here, we present a new tracking-based method which can detect high frequency chromatin movement and quantify the mechanical dynamics of chromatin in live cells. Results We use this method to study how the mechanical properties of chromatin movement in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are modulated spatiotemporally during differentiation into cardiomyocytes (CM. Notably, we find that pluripotency is associated with a highly discrete, energy-dependent frequency of chromatin movement that we refer to as a ‘breathing’ state. We find that this ‘breathing’ state is strictly dependent on the metabolic state of the cell and is progressively silenced during differentiation. Conclusions We thus propose that the measured chromatin high frequency movements in hESCs may represent a hallmark of pluripotency and serve as a mechanism to maintain the genome in a transcriptionally accessible state. This is a result that could not have been observed without the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by this novel tracking method.

  1. Integration of embryonic stem cells in metanephric kidney organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhard, Brooke M; Isom, Kathryn S; Cazcarro, Patricia; Dunmore, Judy H; Godwin, Alan R; St John, Patricia L; Abrahamson, Dale R

    2005-06-01

    Many stages of nephrogenesis can be studied using cultured embryonic kidneys, but there is no efficient technique available to readily knockdown or overexpress transgenes for rapid evaluation of resulting phenotypes. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have unlimited developmental potential and can be manipulated at the molecular genetic level by a variety of methods. The aim of this study was to determine if ES cells could respond to developmental signals within the mouse embryonic day 12 to embryonic day 13 (E12 to E13) kidney microenvironment and incorporate into kidney structures. ROSA26 ES cells were shown to express beta-galactosidase ubiquitously when cultured in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor to suppress differentiation. When these cells were microinjected into E12 to E13 metanephroi and then placed in transwell organ culture, ES cell-derived, beta-galactosidase-positive cells were identified in epithelial structures resembling tubules. On rare occasions, individual ES cells were observed in structures resembling glomerular tufts. Electron microscopy showed that the ES cell-derived tubules were surrounded by basement membrane and had apical microvilli and junctional complexes. Marker analysis revealed that a subset of these epithelial tubules bound Lotus tetragonolobus and expressed alpha(1) Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. ES cells were infected before injection with a cytomegalovirus promoter-green fluorescence protein (GFP) adenovirus and GFP expression was found as early as 18 h, persisting for up to 48 h in cultured kidneys. This ES cell technology may achieve the objective of obtaining a versatile cell culture system in which molecular interventions can be used in vitro and consequences of these perturbations on the normal kidney development program in vivo can be studied.

  2. Reprogramming Malignant Cancer Cells toward a Benign Phenotype following Exposure to Human Embryonic Stem Cell Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo Orazio

    2017-01-01

    The embryonic microenvironment is well known to be non-permissive for tumor development because early developmental signals naturally suppress the expression of proto-oncogenes. In an analogous manner, mimicking an early embryonic environment during embryonic stem cell culture has been shown to suppress oncogenic phenotypes of cancer cells. Exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells harbor substances that mirror the content of the cells of origin and have been reported to reprogram hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells via horizontal transfer of mRNA and proteins. However, the possibility that these embryonic stem cells-derived exosomes might be the main effectors of the anti-tumor effect mediated by the embryonic stem cells has not been explored yet. The present study aims to investigate whether exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells can reprogram malignant cancer cells to a benign stage and reduce their tumorigenicity. We show that the embryonic stem cell-conditioned medium contains factors that inhibit cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells display anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects, and decrease tumor size in a xenograft model. These exosomes are also able to transfer their cargo into target cancer cells, inducing a dose-dependent increase in SOX2, OCT4 and Nanog proteins, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. This study shows for the first time that human embryonic stem cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the tumor suppressive activity displayed by human embryonic stem cells. PMID:28068409

  3. Enhanced Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Definitive Endoderm on Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Reynolds, Paul M.; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells is widely studied as a potential unlimited source for cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as diabetes. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells relies mainly on soluble factors. Although, some studies have hi...

  4. Totipotent Embryonic Stem Cells Arise in Ground-State Culture Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgani, Sophie M; Canham, Maurice A; Nichols, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from mammalian embryos during the transition from totipotency, when individual blastomeres can make all lineages, to pluripotency, when they are competent to make only embryonic lineages. ESCs maintained with inhibitors of MEK and GSK3 (2i) are thought...... not directly support Nanog-positive epiblast-like ESCs. Thus, 2i and LIF support a totipotent state comparable to early embryonic cells that coexpress embryonic and extraembryonic determinants....

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  6. [Effects of different culture system of isolating and passage of sheep embryonic stem-like cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Changming; Liu, Chousheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xinzhuang

    2008-07-01

    In this research, we use mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder layers. To eliminate the influence of serum and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) conditioned medium (ESCCM) on self-renewal of sheep embryonic stem-like cells, knockout serum replacement (KSR) was used to replace serum, then supplanted with ESCCM for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells. We found when inner cell masses (ICMs) cultured in the control group with medium supplanted with fetal bovine serum (FBS), sheep ES-like cells could not survive for more than 3 passages. However, sheep embryonic stem-like cells could remain undifferentiated for 5 passages when cultured in the medium that FBS was substituted by KSR. The result indicates that KSR culture system was more suitable for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells compared to FBS culture system. Finally we applied medium with 15% KSR as basic medium supplanted with 40% ESCCM as a new culture system to isolate sheep embryonic stem-like cells, we found one embryonic stem-like cell line still maintained undifferentiating for 8 passages, which characterized with a normal and stable karyotype and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that it is suitable to culture sheep ICM in the new culture system with 15% KSR as basic medium and supplanted with 40% ESCCM, which indicated that mouse ES cells might secrete factors playing important roles in promoting sheep ES-like cells' self-renewal.

  7. Human embryonic stem cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Crook, Jeremy M

    2011-06-01

    There is a renewed enthusiasm for the clinical translation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. This is abetted by putative clinically-compliant strategies for hES cell maintenance and directed differentiation, greater understanding of and accessibility to cells through formal cell registries and centralized cell banking for distribution, the revised US government policy on funding hES cell research, and paradoxically the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Additionally, as we consider the constraints (practical and fiscal) of delivering cell therapies for global healthcare, the more efficient and economical application of allogeneic vs autologous treatments will bolster the clinical entry of hES cell derivatives. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease are primary candidates for hES cell therapy, although there are significant hurdles to be overcome. The present review considers key advances and challenges to translating hES cells into novel therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, with special consideration given to Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, despite the focus on degenerative brain disorders and hES cells, many of the issues canvassed by this review are relevant to systemic application of hES cells and other pluripotent stem cells such as iPS cells.

  8. 78 FR 25091 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ...; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH-Funded Research, 0925-0601, Expiration Date 04/30... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be...

  9. Production of Buffalo Embryonic Stem Cell from HMC Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM of blastocyst and differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. In this study, ESCs are derived from Hand Made Cloning (HMG blastocysts and their efficiencies compared to ESCs derived from In Vitro Fertilization (IVF embryos. Feeder layer was used for ESCs culture, and culture medium consisting of Knockout- Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (Ko-DMEM supplemented with Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF, Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2, L-glutamine, nonessential amino acids and gentamicin. The cell surface antigens used for characterization were the SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 and the pluripotency markers were NANOG, OCT3/4 and SOX2. Results showed that, the growth rate of ESCs colonies in ESCs from IVF embryos was significantly higher than ESCs from HMG embryos (120% compared with 65%, respectively. Not only real-time PCR results revealed the same expression level of SOX2, OCT3/4 and cMYC between them, but also ESCs from HMG embryos resulted to higher expression of NANOG. Both of ESCs groups maintain in pluripotency state for more than two years and differentiated to the different types of cells like neuron, epithelial, lipid and muscle cells.

  10. Gene-manipulated embryonic stem cells for rat transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Masaki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2011-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from blastocysts and are capable of differentiating into whole tissues and organs. Transplantation of ESCs into recipient blastocysts leads to the generation of germline-competent chimeras in mice. Transgenic, knockin, and knockout gene manipulations are available in mouse ESCs, enabling the production of genetically modified animals. Rats have important advantages over mice as an experimental system for physiological and pharmacological investigations. However, in contrast to mouse ESCs, rat ESCs were not established until 2008 because of the difficulty of maintaining pluripotency. Although the use of signaling inhibitors has allowed the generation of rat ESCs, the production of genetically modified rats has been difficult due to problems in rat ESCs after gene introduction. In this review, we will focus on some well-documented examples of gene manipulation in rat ESCs.

  11. Auxetic nuclei in embryonic stem cells exiting pluripotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Stefano; Franze, Kristian; McClain, Crystal R.; Wylde, George W.; Fisher, Cynthia L.; Franklin, Robin J. M.; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Chalut, Kevin J.

    2014-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) self-renew in a state of naïve pluripotency in which they are competent to generate all somatic cells. It has been hypothesized that, before irreversibly committing, ESCs pass through at least one metastable transition state. This transition would represent a gateway for differentiation and reprogramming of somatic cells. Here, we show that during the transition, the nuclei of ESCs are auxetic: they exhibit a cross-sectional expansion when stretched and a cross-sectional contraction when compressed, and their stiffness increases under compression. We also show that the auxetic phenotype of transition ESC nuclei is driven at least in part by global chromatin decondensation. Through the regulation of molecular turnover in the differentiating nucleus by external forces, auxeticity could be a key element in mechanotransduction. Our findings highlight the importance of nuclear structure in the regulation of differentiation and reprogramming.

  12. Molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are originated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. They can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated state (self-renewal), and differentiate into any cell type (pluripotency). ES cells have an unusual cell cycle structure, consists mainly of S phase cells, a short G1 phase and absence of G1/S checkpoint. Cell division and cell cycle progression are controlled by mechanisms ensuring the accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Therefore, control of cell cycle is a complicated process, involving several signaling pathways. Although great progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ES cell cycle, many regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell cycle of ES cells and describes the relationship existing between cell cycle progression and the self-renewal.

  13. Transcription pausing regulates mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodi Tastemel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs relies on appropriate responsiveness to developmental cues. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II has been suggested to play a role in keeping genes poised for future activation. To identify the role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC pluripotency, we have generated mouse ESCs carrying a mutation in the pause-inducing factor SPT5. Genomic studies reveal genome-wide reduction of paused Pol II caused by mutant SPT5 and further identify a tight correlation between pausing-mediated transcription effect and local chromatin environment. Functionally, this pausing-deficient SPT5 disrupts ESC differentiation upon removal of self-renewal signals. Thus, our study uncovers an important role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC differentiation and suggests a model that Pol II pausing coordinates with epigenetic modification to influence transcription during mESC differentiation.

  14. GATA-1 directly regulates Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Zhong; Ai, Zhi-Ying [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Wang, Zhi-Wei [School of Life Sciences and Medical Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Chen, Lin-Lin [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Guo, Ze-Kun, E-mail: gzknwaf@126.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: zylabnwaf@126.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Nanog safeguards pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Insight into the regulation of Nanog is important for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control pluripotency of mESCs. In a silico analysis, we identify four GATA-1 putative binding sites in Nanog proximal promoter. The Nanog promoter activity can be significantly repressed by ectopic expression of GATA-1 evidenced by a promoter reporter assay. Mutation studies reveal that one of the four putative binding sites counts for GATA-1 repressing Nanog promoter activity. Direct binding of GATA-1 on Nanog proximal promoter is confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Our data provide new insights into the expanded regulatory circuitry that coordinates Nanog expression. - Highlights: • The Nanog proximal promoter conceives functional element for GATA-1. • GATA-1 occupies the Nanog proximal promoter in vitro and in vivo. • GATA-1 transcriptionally suppresses Nanog.

  15. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing...... cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal...... scanning Raman microscope (Alpha300R) from Witec and sub-μm spatially resolved Raman images were obtained using a 532 nm excitation wavelength....

  16. Dynamic heterogeneity and DNA methylation in embryonic stem cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Singer, Zakary S

    2014-07-01

    Cell populations can be strikingly heterogeneous, composed of multiple cellular states, each exhibiting stochastic noise in its gene expression. A major challenge is to disentangle these two types of variability and to understand the dynamic processes and mechanisms that control them. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an ideal model system to address this issue because they exhibit heterogeneous and dynamic expression of functionally important regulatory factors. We analyzed gene expression in individual ESCs using single-molecule RNA-FISH and quantitative time-lapse movies. These data discriminated stochastic switching between two coherent (correlated) gene expression states and burst-like transcriptional noise. We further showed that the "2i" signaling pathway inhibitors modulate both types of variation. Finally, we found that DNA methylation plays a key role in maintaining these metastable states. Together, these results show how ESC gene expression states and dynamics arise from a combination of intrinsic noise, coherent cellular states, and epigenetic regulation.

  17. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  18. Human embryonic stem cells form functional thyroid follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Risheng; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F

    2015-04-01

    The molecular events that lead to human thyroid cell speciation remain incompletely characterized. It has been shown that overexpression of the regulatory transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1 (ttf-1) directs murine embryonic stem (mES) cells to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells by initiating a transcriptional regulatory network. Such cells subsequently organized into three-dimensional follicular structures in the presence of extracellular matrix. In the current study, human embryonic stem (hES) cells were studied with the aim of recapitulating this scenario and producing functional human thyroid cell lines. Reporter gene tagged pEZ-lentiviral vectors were used to express human PAX8-eGFP and NKX2-1-mCherry in the H9 hES cell line followed by differentiation into thyroid cells directed by Activin A and thyrotropin (TSH). Both transcription factors were expressed efficiently in hES cells expressing either PAX8, NKX2-1, or in combination in the hES cells, which had low endogenous expression of these transcription factors. Further differentiation of the double transfected cells showed the expression of thyroid-specific genes, including thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), and the TSH receptor (TSHR) as assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Most notably, the Activin/TSH-induced differentiation approach resulted in thyroid follicle formation and abundant TG protein expression within the follicular lumens. On stimulation with TSH, these hES-derived follicles were also capable of dose-dependent cAMP generation and radioiodine uptake, indicating functional thyroid epithelial cells. The induced expression of PAX8 and NKX2-1 in hES cells was followed by differentiation into thyroid epithelial cells and their commitment to form functional three-dimensional neo-follicular structures. The data provide proof of principal that hES cells can be committed to thyroid cell speciation under

  19. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: problems & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajvi H

    2014-11-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been 'discarded' or 'spare' fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. in case a couple does not desire to 'cryopreserve' their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered 'spare' or if a couple is no longer in need of the 'cryopreserved' embryos then these also can be considered as 'spare'. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about 'slightly' over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to 'discarded' embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of 'discarding' embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential 'use' of ESC derived from the 'abnormal appearing' embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  20. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  1. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been used to evaluate the effects of xenobiotics using three endpoints, stem cell differentiation, stem cell viability and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal is to establish amodel system that would evaluate chemical effects using a singl...

  2. Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile-Based Nanofibers Maintain Embryonic Stem Cell Stemness via TGF-Beta Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Chen-Huan; Lin, Shao-Ji; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsu, Chung Y; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2016-04-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into any cell type, thus making them the focus of many clinical application studies. Culturing ESCs on mouse embryonic fibroblast-derived and cell-based feeder layers to maintain pluripotency is a standard laboratory procedure. However, xenogeneic contamination and the large amount of time required for feeder cell preparation are two challenges that encourage the use of a murine-based feeder layer. A novel biomaterial is required to replace the current cell-based feeder system. Toward this goal, we applied a combination of biocompatible polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and electrospinning technology to establish a non-cell-based feeder layer. According to results from stem cell marker staining, scanning electron microscopy, and embryoid body formation tests, optimal ESC stemness and pluripotency were noted in three electrospun groups (2, 4, and 8 minutes), with the longer electrospinning times producing higher feeder-layer densities. KEGG pathway microarray results identified TGF-beta signaling as one of the major deregulatory pathways on electrospun-based feeder layers. Western blot data indicate significant increases in TGF-beta receptor II, phosphorylated Smad3, and Nanog protein levels in the 4- and 8-minute electrospun-based feeder layer groups compared to the non-feeder layer group. Combined, the data suggest that electrospun-based feeder layers are good candidates for maintaining ESC and iPSC pluripotency in clinical applications.

  3. A review on stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis: special focus on human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shroff G

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Geeta Shroff Department of Stem Cell Therapy, Nutech Mediworld, New Delhi, India Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS, a complex disorder of the central nervous system (CNS, is characterized with axonal loss underlying long-term progressive disability. Currently available therapies for its management are able to slow down the progression but fail to treat it completely. Moreover, these therapies are associated with major CNS and cardiovascular adverse events, and prolonged use of these treatments may cause life-threatening diseases. Recent research has shown that cellular therapies hold a potential for CNS repair and may be able to provide protection from inflammatory damage caused after injury. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC transplantation is one of the promising cell therapies; hESCs play an important role in remyelination and help in preventing demylenation of the axons. In this study, an overview of the current knowledge about the unique properties of hESC and their comparison with other cell therapies has been presented for the treatment of patients with MS. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, remyelination, axonal loss, neurological disorder

  4. Human embryonic stem cells as models for aneuploid chromosomal syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancotti, Juan-Carlos; Narwani, Kavita; Buehler, Nicole; Mandefro, Berhan; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Yanuka, Ofra; Clark, Amander; Hill, David; Benvenisty, Nissim; Lavon, Neta

    2010-09-01

    Syndromes caused by chromosomal aneuploidies are widely recognized genetic disorders in humans and often lead to spontaneous miscarriage. Preimplantation genetic screening is used to detect chromosomal aneuploidies in early embryos. Our aim was to derive aneuploid human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines that may serve as models for human syndromes caused by aneuploidies. We have established 25 hESC lines from blastocysts diagnosed as aneuploid on day 3 of their in vitro development. The hESC lines exhibited morphology and expressed markers typical of hESCs. They demonstrated long-term proliferation capacity and pluripotent differentiation. Karyotype analysis revealed that two-third of the cell lines carry a normal euploid karyotype, while one-third remained aneuploid throughout the derivation, resulting in eight hESC lines carrying either trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), 16, 17, 21 (Down syndrome), X (Triple X syndrome), or monosomy X (Turner syndrome). On the basis of the level of single nucleotide polymorphism heterozygosity in the aneuploid chromosomes, we determined whether the aneuploidy originated from meiotic or mitotic chromosomal nondisjunction. Gene expression profiles of the trisomic cell lines suggested that all three chromosomes are actively transcribed. Our analysis allowed us to determine which tissues are most affected by the presence of a third copy of either chromosome 13, 16, 17 or 21 and highlighted the effects of trisomies on embryonic development. The results presented here suggest that aneuploid embryos can serve as an alternative source for either normal euploid or aneuploid hESC lines, which represent an invaluable tool to study developmental aspects of chromosomal abnormalities in humans.

  5. Gro/TLE enables embryonic stem cell differentiation by repressing pluripotent gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laing, Adam F; Lowell, Sally; Brickman, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Gro/TLE proteins (TLE1-4) are a family of transcriptional corepressors acting downstream of multiple signalling pathways. Several TLEs are expressed in a dynamic manner throughout embryonic development and at high levels in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we find that Gro/TLE is not required...

  6. Regulated expression of transgenes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberbaum, David S; Gottlieb, David

    2011-02-01

    Discovery and characterization of gene promoters, enhancers and repressor binding elements is an important research area in neuroscience. Here, the suitability of embryonic stem cells and their neural derivatives as a model system for this research is investigated. Three neural transgenic constructs (from the Mnx1, Fabp7, and tuba1a genes) that have been validated in transgenic mice were inserted into embryonic stem cells as stable transgenes. These transgenic embryonic stem cells were differentiated into neural cultures and the pattern of transgene expression across a series of inducing conditions determined. The pattern of expression matched that predicted from transgenic mouse experiments for each of the three transgenes. The results show that embryonic stem cells and their neural derivatives comprise a promising model for investigating the mechanisms that control cell- and temporal-specific neural gene transcription. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Femtosecond optical transfection as a tool for genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mapa, M. L.; Gardner, J.; Bradburn, H.; King, J.; Dholakia, K.; Gunn-Moore, F.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate the use of femtosecond optical transfection for the genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells. Using a system with an SLM combined with a scanning mirror allows poration of both single-cell and colony-formed human embryonic stem cells in a rapid and targeted manner. In this work, we show successful transfection of plasmid DNA tagged with fluorescent reporters into human embryonic stem cells using three doses of focused femtosecond laser. A significant number of transfected cells retained their undifferentiated morphological feature of large nucleus with high nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio, 48h after photoporation. Furthermore, DNA constructs driven by different types of promoters were also successfully transfected into human embryonic stem cells using this technique.

  8. Restricted intra-embryonic origin of bona fide hematopoietic stem cells in the chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yvernogeau, Laurent; Robin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are responsible for blood cell production, are generated during embryonic development. Human and chicken embryos share features that position the chicken as a reliable and accessible alternative model to study developmental hematopoiesis. However, the existence

  9. Human embryonic stem cell technologies and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janne; Hyllner, Johan; Björquist, Petter

    2009-06-01

    Development of new drugs is costly and takes huge resources into consideration. The big pharmaceutical companies are currently facing increasing developmental costs and a lower success-rate of bringing new compounds to the market. Therefore, it is now of outmost importance that the drug-hunting companies minimize late attritions due to sub-optimal pharmacokinetic properties or unexpected toxicity when entering the clinical programs. To achieve this, a strong need to test new candidate drugs in assays of high human relevance in vitro as early as possible has been identified. The traditionally used cell systems are however remarkably limited in this sense, and new improved technologies are of greatest importance. The human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is one of the most powerful cell types known. They have not only the possibility to divide indefinitely; these cells can also differentiate into all mature cell types of the human body. This makes them potentially very valuable for pharmaceutical development, spanning from use as tools in early target studies, DMPK or safety assessment, as screening models to find new chemical entities modulating adult stem cell fate, or as the direct use in cell therapies. This review illustrates the use of hESC in the drug discovery process, today, as well as in a future perspective. This will specifically be exemplified with the most important cell type for pharmaceutical development-the hepatocyte. We discuss how hESC-derived hepatocyte-like cells could improve this process, and how these cells should be cultured if optimized functionality and usefulness should be achieved. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 513-519, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Human embryonic stem cells have enhanced repair of multiple forms of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Swistowska, Anna Maria; Lee, Jae Wan

    2008-01-01

    fibroblasts (WI-38, hs27) and, with the exception of UV-C damage, HeLa cells. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that mRNA levels of several DNA repair genes are elevated in human embryonic stem cells compared with their differentiated forms (embryoid bodies). These data suggest that genomic...... maintenance pathways are enhanced in human embryonic stem cells, relative to differentiated human cells....

  11. Progressing a human embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy towards the clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Paul; Kerby, Julie; Coffey, Peter; da Cruz, Lyndon; McKernan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Since the first publication of the derivation of human embryonic stem cells in 1998, there has been hope and expectation that this technology will lead to a wave of regenerative medicine therapies with the potential to revolutionize our approach to managing certain diseases. Despite significant resources in this direction, the path to the clinic for an embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy has not proven straightforward, though in the past few years progress has been made. H...

  12. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to definitive endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Agulnick, Alan D; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Kroon, Evert; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2005-12-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells to differentiate into cell types of a variety of organs has generated much excitement over the possible use of hES cells in therapeutic applications. Of great interest are organs derived from definitive endoderm, such as the pancreas. We have focused on directing hES cells to the definitive endoderm lineage as this step is a prerequisite for efficient differentiation to mature endoderm derivatives. Differentiation of hES cells in the presence of activin A and low serum produced cultures consisting of up to 80% definitive endoderm cells. This population was further enriched to near homogeneity using the cell-surface receptor CXCR4. The process of definitive endoderm formation in differentiating hES cell cultures includes an apparent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a dynamic gene expression profile that are reminiscent of vertebrate gastrulation. These findings may facilitate the use of hES cells for therapeutic purposes and as in vitro models of development.

  13. Transcription pausing regulates mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastemel, Melodi; Gogate, Aishwarya A; Malladi, Venkat S; Nguyen, Kim; Mitchell, Courtney; Banaszynski, Laura A; Bai, Xiaoying

    2017-12-01

    The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) relies on appropriate responsiveness to developmental cues. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has been suggested to play a role in keeping genes poised for future activation. To identify the role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC pluripotency, we have generated mouse ESCs carrying a mutation in the pause-inducing factor SPT5. Genomic studies reveal genome-wide reduction of paused Pol II caused by mutant SPT5 and further identify a tight correlation between pausing-mediated transcription effect and local chromatin environment. Functionally, this pausing-deficient SPT5 disrupts ESC differentiation upon removal of self-renewal signals. Thus, our study uncovers an important role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC differentiation and suggests a model that Pol II pausing coordinates with epigenetic modification to influence transcription during mESC differentiation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Common marmoset embryonic stem cell can differentiate into cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Li Weizhen; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Onizuka, Takeshi; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Ohno, Yohei; Sasaki, Erika; Kimura, Kensuke; Hakuno, Daihiko

    2008-01-01

    Common marmoset monkeys have recently attracted much attention as a primate research model, and are preferred to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys due to their small bodies, easy handling and efficient breeding. We recently reported the establishment of common marmoset embryonic stem cell (CMESC) lines that could differentiate into three germ layers. Here, we report that our CMESC can also differentiate into cardiomyocytes and investigated their characteristics. After induction, FOG-2 was expressed, followed by GATA4 and Tbx20, then Nkx2.5 and Tbx5. Spontaneous beating could be detected at days 12-15. Immunofluorescent staining and ultrastructural analyses revealed that they possessed characteristics typical of functional cardiomyocytes. They showed sinus node-like action potentials, and the beating rate was augmented by isoproterenol stimulation. The BrdU incorporation assay revealed that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes retained a high proliferative potential for up to 24 weeks. We believe that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes will advance preclinical studies in cardiovascular regenerative medicine

  15. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  16. Retroviral transcriptional regulation and embryonic stem cells: war and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Sharon; Goff, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Retroviruses have evolved complex transcriptional enhancers and promoters that allow their replication in a wide range of tissue and cell types. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, however, characteristically suppress transcription of proviruses formed after infection by exogenous retroviruses and also of most members of the vast array of endogenous retroviruses in the genome. These cells have unusual profiles of transcribed genes and are poised to make rapid changes in those profiles upon induction of differentiation. Many of the transcription factors in ES cells control both host and retroviral genes coordinately, such that retroviral expression patterns can serve as markers of ES cell pluripotency. This overlap is not coincidental; retrovirus-derived regulatory sequences are often used to control cellular genes important for pluripotency. These sequences specify the temporal control and perhaps "noisy" control of cellular genes that direct proper cell gene expression in primitive cells and their differentiating progeny. The evidence suggests that the viral elements have been domesticated for host needs, reflecting the wide-ranging exploitation of any and all available DNA sequences in assembling regulatory networks. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Dusko; Devito, Liani; Miere, Cristian; Codognotto, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC and hiPSC) have tremendous potential for clinical implementation. In spite of all hurdles and controversy, clinical trials in treatment of spinal cord injury, macular degeneration of retina, type 1 diabetes and heart failure are already ongoing. ClinicalTrials.gov database, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, PubMed and press releases and websites of companies and institutions working on hESC- and iPSC-based cellular therapy. The initial results from multiple clinical trials demonstrate that hESC-based therapies are safe and promising. Are iPSC cells safe in the clinical application? Is there a room for both hESC and iPSC in the future clinical applications? Increasing number of new clinical trials. Development of hESC- and/or iPSC-based cellular therapy for other diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Ultrastructural Signature of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jean M; Becker, Klaus A; Stein, Gary S; Nickerson, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    The epigenetics and molecular biology of human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) have received much more attention than their architecture. We present a more complete look at hES cells by electron microscopy, with a special emphasis on the architecture of the nucleus. We propose that there is an ultrastructural signature of pluripotent human cells. hES cell nuclei lack heterochromatin, including the peripheral heterochromatin, that is common in most somatic cell types. The absence of peripheral heterochromatin may be related to the absence of lamins A and C, proteins important for linking chromatin to the nuclear lamina and envelope. Lamins A and C expression and the development of peripheral heterochromatin were early steps in the development of embryoid bodies. While hES cell nuclei had abundant nuclear pores, they also had an abundance of nuclear pores in the cytoplasm in the form of annulate lamellae. These were not a residue of annulate lamellae from germ cells or the early embryos from which hES cells were derived. Subnuclear structures including nucleoli, interchromatin granule clusters, and Cajal bodies were observed in the nuclear interior. The architectural organization of human ES cell nuclei has important implications for cell structure-gene expression relationships and for the maintenance of pluripotency. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 764-774, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Transcriptome coexpression map of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattson Mark P

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promise for medicine and science. The transcriptome of human ES cells has been studied in detail in recent years. However, no systematic analysis has yet addressed whether gene expression in human ES cells may be regulated in chromosomal domains, and no chromosomal domains of coexpression have been identified. Results We report the first transcriptome coexpression map of the human ES cell and the earliest stage of ES differentiation, the embryoid body (EB, for the analysis of how transcriptional regulation interacts with genomic structure during ES self-renewal and differentiation. We determined the gene expression profiles from multiple ES and EB samples and identified chromosomal domains showing coexpression of adjacent genes on the genome. The coexpression domains were not random, with significant enrichment in chromosomes 8, 11, 16, 17, 19, and Y in the ES state, and 6, 11, 17, 19 and 20 in the EB state. The domains were significantly associated with Giemsa-negative bands in EB, yet showed little correlation with known cytogenetic structures in ES cells. Different patterns of coexpression were revealed by comparative transcriptome mapping between ES and EB. Conclusion The findings and methods reported in this investigation advance our understanding of how genome organization affects gene expression in human ES cells and help to identify new mechanisms and pathways controlling ES self-renewal or differentiation.

  20. Tracking the embryonic stem cell transition from ground state pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Tüzer; Olova, Nelly; Roode, Mila; Mulas, Carla; Lee, Heather J; Nett, Isabelle; Marks, Hendrik; Walker, Rachael; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Lilley, Kathryn S; Nichols, Jennifer; Reik, Wolf; Bertone, Paul; Smith, Austin

    2017-04-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are locked into self-renewal by shielding from inductive cues. Release from this ground state in minimal conditions offers a system for delineating developmental progression from naïve pluripotency. Here, we examine the initial transition process. The ES cell population behaves asynchronously. We therefore exploited a short-half-life Rex1::GFP reporter to isolate cells either side of exit from naïve status. Extinction of ES cell identity in single cells is acute. It occurs only after near-complete elimination of naïve pluripotency factors, but precedes appearance of lineage specification markers. Cells newly departed from the ES cell state display features of early post-implantation epiblast and are distinct from primed epiblast. They also exhibit a genome-wide increase in DNA methylation, intermediate between early and late epiblast. These findings are consistent with the proposition that naïve cells transition to a distinct formative phase of pluripotency preparatory to lineage priming. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Epigenetic stability, adaptability, and reversibility in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Joshua D; Hall, Christine; Chen, Vincent Chang-yi; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A; Riggs, Arthur D

    2012-07-31

    The stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is of critical importance for both experimental and clinical applications. We find that as an initial response to altered culture conditions, hESCs change their transcription profile for hundreds of genes and their DNA methylation profiles for several genes outside the core pluripotency network. After adaption to conditions of feeder-free defined and/or xeno-free culture systems, expression and DNA methylation profiles are quite stable for additional passaging. However, upon reversion to the original feeder-based culture conditions, numerous transcription changes are not reversible. Similarly, although the majority of DNA methylation changes are reversible, highlighting the plasticity of DNA methylation, a few are persistent. Collectively, this indicates these cells harbor a memory of culture history. For culture-induced DNA methylation changes, we also note an intriguing correlation: hypomethylation of regions 500-2440 bp upstream of promoters correlates with decreased expression, opposite to that commonly seen at promoter-proximal regions. Lastly, changes in regulation of G-coupled protein receptor pathways provide a partial explanation for many of the unique transcriptional changes observed during hESC adaptation and reverse adaptation.

  2. Embryonic Stem Cells in Development and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ayşegül

    2018-02-21

    After progressive improvement in embryonic stem (ES) cell field, several studies have been conducted to explore the usage of ES cells in regenerative medicine. Unlimited self renewal and pluripoteny properties, combined with encouraging preclinical trials, remark that ES cell technology might be promising for clinical practice. ES cells, which can form three germ layers in vitro, are potential candidates to study development at the cellular and molecular level. Understanding the cell fate decision and differentiation processes during development might enable generating functional progenitor cells for tissue restoration. Progression in gene modifications and tissue engineering technology has facilitated the derivation of desired cells for therapy. Success in differentiation protocols and identification the regulatory pathways simplify the research for clinical applications. Although there are established protocols for cell differentiation in vitro and promising preclinical studies in vivo, many challenges need to be adressed before clinical translation. In this review, ES cells are discussed as a model of development in vitro and as a potential candidate for regenerative medicine. This review also dissusses current challenges for ES cell based therapy.

  3. [Human embryonic stem cell research in Germany. The scientific reviewing of applications for the import and use of human embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, M

    2008-09-01

    From July 2002 to May 2008, 36 applications for the import and use of human embryonic stem cells (hES) were reviewed by the German Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research (ZES). A flood of applications anticipated by opponents to human embryonic stem cell research has not occurred since the enactment of the German Stem Cell Act in 2002. On the contrary, German hES cell research is below international average in terms of project numbers. The current restrictions for using hES cells in Germany might be causative for the opinion that this type of research is not considered to be very promising. This could hold true especially for research aiming at clinical applications. Consequently, potential research goals of premium importance, especially those of potential clinical relevance, could be seriously jeopardized.

  4. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...... bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106 and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (FACS) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of h...

  5. Which bank? A guardian model for regulation of embryonic stem cell research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, A

    2007-08-01

    In late 2005 the Legislation Review: Prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002 (Cth) and the Research Involving Human Embryos Act 2002 (Cth) recommended the establishment of an Australian stem cell bank. This article aims to address a lack of discussion of issues surrounding stem cell banking by suggesting possible answers to the questions of whether Australia should establish a stem cell bank and what its underlying philosophy and functions should be. Answers are developed through an analysis of regulatory, scientific and intellectual property issues relating to embryonic stem cell research in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia. This includes a detailed analysis of the United Kingdom Stem Cell Bank. It is argued that a "guardian" model stem cell bank should be established in Australia. This bank would aim to promote the maximum public benefit from human embryonic stem cell research by providing careful regulatory oversight and addressing ethical issues, while also facilitating research by addressing practical scientific concerns and intellectual property issues.

  6. Human embryonic stem cells hemangioblast express HLA-antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei-Ping

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that the initial differentiation of endothelial and hematopoietic cells during embryogenesis occurs from a common progenitor, called hemangioblast (hB. We hypothesized that these cells with dual hematopoietic/endothelial potential could be used in future regenerative medicine. Methods We used the two-step differentiation technology to generate bipotential blast cells from human embryonic stem cells (hES. This involved short differentiation in our in vitro EB system followed by differentiation in semisolid culture medium supplemented with mixture of cytokines. Results The occurrence of blast-colony-forming cells (BL-CFC during EB differentiation (day 0–6 was transient and peaked on day 3. The emergence of this event was associated with expression of mesoderm gene T, and inversely correlated with expression of endoderm gene FoxA2. Similarly, the highest BL-CFC number was associated with increase in expression of early hematopoietic/endothelial genes: CD34, CD31 and KDR. The derived colonies were composed of 30–50 blast cells on day 6 in culture. These cells had homogenous appearance in Wright-Giemsa stain, but to a different extent expressed markers of immature hematopoietic and endothelial cells (CD31, CD34, VE-cadherin, Flt-1 and mature differentiated cells (CD45, CD33, CD146. We found that some of them expressed fetal and embryonic globin genes. Interestingly, these cells expressed also HLA class I molecules, however at very low levels compared to endothelial and hematopoietic cells. The blast cells could be successfully differentiated to hematopoietic cells in a CFU assay. In these conditions, blast cells formed CFU-M colonies (63.4 ± 0.8% containing macrophages, BFU-E colonies (19.5 ± 3.5% containing nucleated red blood cells, and CFU-EM colonies (17.1 ± 2.7% composed of macrophages and nucleated erythrocytes. Cells of CFU-EM and BFU-E colonies expressed both ε – and γ- globin genes, but

  7. High throughput sequencing identifies an imprinted gene, Grb10, associated with the pluripotency state in nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Gao, Shuai; Huang, Hua; Liu, Wenqiang; Huang, Huanwei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yawei; Le, Rongrong; Kou, Xiaochen; Zhao, Yanhong; Kou, Zhaohui; Li, Jia; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Hailin; Cai, Tao; Sun, Qingyuan; Gao, Shaorong; Han, Zhiming

    2017-07-18

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription factor mediated reprogramming are two widely used techniques for somatic cell reprogramming. Both fully reprogrammed nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold potential for regenerative medicine, and evaluation of the stem cell pluripotency state is crucial for these applications. Previous reports have shown that the Dlk1-Dio3 region is associated with pluripotency in induced pluripotent stem cells and the incomplete somatic cell reprogramming causes abnormally elevated levels of genomic 5-methylcytosine in induced pluripotent stem cells compared to nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and embryonic stem cells. In this study, we compared pluripotency associated genes Rian and Gtl2 in the Dlk1-Dio3 region in exactly syngeneic nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells with same genomic insertion. We also assessed 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels and performed high-throughput sequencing in these cells. Our results showed that Rian and Gtl2 in the Dlk1-Dio3 region related to pluripotency in induced pluripotent stem cells did not correlate with the genes in nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells, and no significant difference in 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels were observed between fully and partially reprogrammed nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Through syngeneic comparison, our study identifies for the first time that Grb10 is associated with the pluripotency state in nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells.

  8. Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

  9. Therapeutic approaches for treating hemophilia A using embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuda, Shogo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shima, Midori; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked rescessive bleeding disorder that results from F8 gene aberrations. Previously, we established embryonic stem (ES) cells (tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18) that secrete human factor VIII (hFVIII) by introducing the human F8 gene in mouse Ainv18 ES cells. Here, we explored the potential of cell transplantation therapy for hemophilia A using the ES cells. Transplant tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18 ES cells were injected into the spleens of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-pretreated wild-type mice, and CCl4-pretreated hemophilia A mice. F8 expression was induced by doxycycline in drinking water, and hFVIII-antigen production was assessed in all cell transplantation experiments. Injecting the ES cells into SCID mice resulted in an enhanced expression of the hFVIII antigen; however, teratoma generation was confirmed in the spleen. Transplantation of ES cells into wild-type mice after CCl4-induced liver injury facilitated survival and engraftment of transplanted cells without teratoma formation, resulting in hFVIII production in the plasma. Although CCl4 was lethal to most hemophilia A mice, therapeutic levels of FVIII activity, as well as the hFVIII antigen, were detected in surviving hemophilia A mice after cell transplantation. Immunolocalization results for hFVIII suggested that transplanted ES cells might be engrafted at the periportal area in the liver. Although the development of a safer induction method for liver regeneration is required, our results suggested the potential for developing an effective ES-cell transplantation therapeutic model for treating hemophilia A in the future. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Primordial germ cell specification from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primordial germ cell (PGC specification is the first crucial step in germ line development. However, owing to significant challenges regarding the in vivo system, such as the complex cellular environment and potential problems with embryo manipulation, it is desirable to generate embryonic stem (ES cells that are capable of overcoming these aforementioned limitations in order to provide a potential in vitro model to recapitulate the developmental processes in vivo. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we studied the detailed process of PGC specification from stella-GFP ES cells. We first observed the heterogeneous expression of stella in ES cells. However, neither Stella-positive ES cells nor Stella-negative ES cells shared a similar gene expression pattern with either PGCs or PGC precursors. Second, we derived PGCs from ES cells using two differentiation methods, namely the attachment culture technique and the embryoid body (EB method. Compared with PGCs derived via the attachment culture technique, PGCs derived via the EB method that had undergone the sequential erasure of Peg3 followed by Igf2r resulted in a cell line in which the expression dynamics of T, Fgf8 and Sox17, in addition to the expression of the epiblast markers, were more similar to the in vivo expression, thus demonstrating that the process of PGC derivation was more faithfully recapitulated using the EB method. Furthermore, we developed an in vitro model of PGC specification in a completely chemically defined medium (CDM that indicated that BMP4 and Wnt3a promoted PGC derivation, whereas BMP8b and activinA had no observable effect on PGC derivation. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The in vitro model we have established can recapitulate the developmental processes in vivo and provides new insights into the mechanism of PGC specification.

  11. Procedures for Derivation and Characterisation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, a development occurred in stem cell biology with the fi rst report of the derivation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line. Since then a number of techniques have been used to derive and characterise hESCs. Here, we describe the derivation methods used by our laboratory for isolation...

  12. In vitro generation of motor neuron precursors from mouse embryonic stem cells using mesoporous nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; König, Niclas; Abrahamsson, Ninnie

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Stem cell-derived motor neurons (MNs) are utilized to develop replacement strategies for spinal cord disorders. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into MN precursors involves factors and their repeated administration. We investigated if delivery of factors loaded into mesoporous nanopar...

  13. The role of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lukui; Qiu, Rong; Li, Lushen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the recent studies on development of nanotechnology in the field of induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapy that can improve the quality of life for patients with refractory diseases. However, this option is limited by the scarcity of tissues, ethical problem, and tumorigenicity. Nanotechnology is another promising therapy that can be used to mimic the extracellular matrix, label the implanted cells, and also can be applied in the tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce implementation of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research. Finally, the potential application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is also discussed.

  14. Assembly of embryonic and extraembryonic stem cells to mimic embryogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sarah Ellys; Sozen, Berna; Christodoulou, Neophytos; Kyprianou, Christos; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2017-04-14

    Mammalian embryogenesis requires intricate interactions between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues to orchestrate and coordinate morphogenesis with changes in developmental potential. Here, we combined mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and extraembryonic trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) in a three-dimensional scaffold to generate structures whose morphogenesis is markedly similar to that of natural embryos. By using genetically modified stem cells and specific inhibitors, we show that embryogenesis of ESC- and TSC-derived embryos-ETS-embryos-depends on cross-talk involving Nodal signaling. When ETS-embryos develop, they spontaneously initiate expression of mesoderm and primordial germ cell markers asymmetrically on the embryonic and extraembryonic border, in response to Wnt and BMP signaling. Our study demonstrates the ability of distinct stem cell types to self-assemble in vitro to generate embryos whose morphogenesis, architecture, and constituent cell types resemble those of natural embryos. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Prospects and Ethical Concerns of Embryonic Stem Cells Research-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanti Tokas and P. D. Mathur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell research has appeared as a silver lining of hope over the dark cloud of some untreatable diseases like cancer and certain neurological disorders. Embryonic stem cells, the tabula rasa, holds much promise in this regard owing to its totipotency, howbeit, it has whirled a severe tempest all over the world on the point of humanity. The present review article includes the chronology of stem cell research with special reference to the techniques that were evolved in due course of research, the controversy over the application of embryonic stem cells for therapeutics and present status of stem cell research under Indian context. India is being increasingly alluring the foreign companies to invest in this project since a huge prospect in stem cell marketing business is foreseen in this country. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 281-286

  16. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung, E-mail: keejung@skku.edu

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics.

  17. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)-dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  19. Coupled Global and Targeted Proteomics of Human Embryonic Stem Cells during Induced Differentiation*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Yocum, Anastasia K.; Gratsch, Theresa E.; Leff, Nancy; Strahler, John R.; Hunter, Christie L.; Walker, Angela K.; Michailidis, George; Omenn, Gilbert S.; O'Shea, K. Sue; Andrews, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    Elucidating the complex combinations of growth factors and signaling molecules that maintain pluripotency or, alternatively, promote the controlled differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has important implications for the fundamental understanding of human development, devising cell replacement therapies, and cancer cell biology. hESCs are commonly grown on irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or in conditioned medium from MEFs. These culture conditions interfere with ...

  20. Differential effects of high and low strength magnetic fields on mouse embryonic development and vasculogenesis of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhite, Mohamed M; Finkensieper, Andreas; Abou-Zaid, Fouad A; El-Shourbagy, Ibrahim K; El-Fiky, Nabil K; Omar, Khaled M; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Man-made magnetic fields (MFs) may exert adverse effects on mammalian embryonic development. Herein, we analysed the effect of 10mT 50Hz sinusoidal (AC) or static (DC) MFs versus 1mT MFs on embryonic development of mice. Exposure for 20days during gestation to 10mT MFs increased resorptions and dead fetuses, decreased crown-rump length and fresh weight, reduced blood vessel differentiation and caused histological changes, accompanied with diminished vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression in several organs. In embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived embryoid bodies exposure towards 10mT MFs increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased vascular marker as well as VEGF expression and enhanced apoptosis. In conclusion, our combined data from in vivo and in vitro experiments identified VEGF as an important mediator during embryonic development that can be influenced by high strength MFs, which in consequence leads to severe abnormalities in fetus organs and blood vessel formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell cycle synchronization of embryonic stem cells: Effect of serum deprivation on the differentiation of embryonic bodies in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Enming; Li Xiaolong; Zhang Shufang; Chen Liangqiang; Zheng Xiaoxiang

    2005-01-01

    Research on stem-cell transplantation has indicated that the success of transplantation largely depends on synchronizing donor cells into the G0/G1 phase. In this study, we investigated the profile of embryonic stem (ES) cell synchronization and its effect on the formation of embryonic bodies (EBs) using cell culture with serum deprivation. The D3 cell line of ES cells was used, and parameters such as cell proliferation and activity, EB formation, and expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 and Oct-4 were investigated. Results showed that the percentage of G0/G1 stage in serum deprivation culture is significantly higher than that in culture with serum supplementation. Synchronized ES cells can reenter the normal cell cycle successfully after serum supply. EBs formed from synchronized ES cells have higher totipotency capability to differentiate into functional neuronal cells than EBs formed from unsynchronized ES cells. Our study provides a method for ES treatment before cell transplantation that possibly helps to decrease the rate of cell death after transplantation

  2. Ionizing radiation is a potent inducer of mitotic recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denissova, Natalia G.; Tereshchenko, Irina V.; Cui, Eric [Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, 145 Bevier Rd, NJ 08854 (United States); Stambrook, Peter J. [Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shao, Changshun [Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, 145 Bevier Rd, NJ 08854 (United States); Tischfield, Jay A., E-mail: jay@biology.rutgers.edu [Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, 145 Bevier Rd, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: {yields} Embryonic stem cells have a distinct mutational response to X-rays. {yields} X-rays induce more mutations in embryonic stem cells than in somatic cells. {yields} Mitotic recombination is more readily induced by X-rays in embryonic stem cells. {yields} Radiation hazards may have different consequences on different types of cells. - Abstract: Maintenance of genomic integrity in embryonic cells is pivotal to proper embryogenesis, organogenesis and to the continuity of species. Cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), a model for early embryonic cells, differ from cultured somatic cells in their capacity to remodel chromatin, in their repertoire of DNA repair enzymes, and in the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints. Using 129XC3HF1 mESCs heterozygous for Aprt, we characterized loss of Aprt heterozygosity after exposure to ionizing radiation. We report here that the frequency of loss of heterozygosity mutants in mESCs can be induced several hundred-fold by exposure to 5-10 Gy of X-rays. This induction is 50-100-fold higher than the induction reported for mouse adult or embryonic fibroblasts. The primary mechanism underlying the elevated loss of heterozygosity after irradiation is mitotic recombination, with lesser contributions from deletions and gene conversions that span Aprt. Aprt point mutations and epigenetic inactivation are very rare in mESCs compared to fibroblasts. Mouse ESCs, therefore, are distinctive in their response to ionizing radiation and studies of differentiated cells may underestimate the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation on ESC or other stem cells. Our findings are important to understanding the biological effects of ionizing radiation on early development and carcinogenesis.

  3. Combined sequencing of mRNA and DNA from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Florian; Kuhl, Heiner; Wruck, Wasco; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James

    2016-06-01

    Combined transcriptome and whole genome sequencing of the same ultra-low input sample down to single cells is a rapidly evolving approach for the analysis of rare cells. Besides stem cells, rare cells originating from tissues like tumor or biopsies, circulating tumor cells and cells from early embryonic development are under investigation. Herein we describe a universal method applicable for the analysis of minute amounts of sample material (150 to 200 cells) derived from sub-colony structures from human embryonic stem cells. The protocol comprises the combined isolation and separate amplification of poly(A) mRNA and whole genome DNA followed by next generation sequencing. Here we present a detailed description of the method developed and an overview of the results obtained for RNA and whole genome sequencing of human embryonic stem cells, sequencing data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE69471.

  4. A practical guide for the identification of membrane and plasma membrane proteins in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.; Heck, A.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of (plasma) membrane proteins in cells can provide valuable insights into the regulation of their biological processes. Pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and share many of the biological

  5. Contested embryonic culture in Japan--public discussion, and human embryonic stem cell research in an aging welfare society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the reasons for the lack of a broad discussion on bioethical regulation of human embryonic stem cell research (hESR) in Japan and asks why scientists experience difficulties accessing resources for hESR despite the acclaimed indifference of dominant Japanese culture to embryo research. The article shows how various social actors express their views on the embryo and oocyte donation in terms of dominant Japanese culture, foiled against what is regarded as Western culture. Second, it shows how the lack of concern with hESR should be understood in the context of public health policies and communications and bioethics decision making in Japan. Finally, it interprets the meaning of the embryo in the context of Japan as an aging modern welfare society, explaining how policymakers have come to emphasize the urgency of infertility problems over issues around abortion and embryonic life.

  6. TET2 deficiency inhibits mesoderm and hematopoietic differentiation in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langlois, Thierry; da Costa Reis Monte Mor, Barbara; Lenglet, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    . Here, we show that TET2 expression is low in human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and increases during hematopoietic differentiation. ShRNA-mediated TET2 knockdown had no effect on the pluripotency of various ES cells. However, it skewed their differentiation into neuroectoderm at the expense...... profile, including abnormal expression of neuronal genes. Intriguingly, when TET2 was knockdown in hematopoietic cells, it increased hematopoietic development. In conclusion, our work suggests that TET2 is involved in different stages of human embryonic development, including induction of the mesoderm...... and hematopoietic differentiation. Stem Cells 2014....

  7. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i) or with ......Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i...

  8. Diabetes-induced effects on cardiomyocytes in chick embryonic heart micromass and mouse embryonic D3 differentiated stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Omar J; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is a considerable medical challenge, since it is related to ‎augmented morbidity and mortality concerns for both the fetus ‎and the pregnant woman. Records show that the etiology of diabetic ‎embryopathy is complicated, as many teratological factors might be involved ‎in the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced congenital malformation. ‎In this study, the potential cardiotoxic effect of hyperglycemia with hyperketonemia was investigated by using two in vitro models; primary chick embryonic cardiomyocytes and stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, where adverse effects were recorded in both systems. The cells were evaluated by changes in beating activity, cell activity, protein content, ROS production, DNA damage and differentiating stem cell migration. The diabetic formulae used produced an increase in DNA damage and a decline in cell migration in mouse embryonic stem cells. These results provide an additional insight into adverse effects during gestational diabetes mellitus and a recommendation for expectant mothers and maternity staff to monitor glycaemic levels months ahead of conception. This study also supports the recommendation of using antioxidants during pregnancy to prevent DNA damage by the production of ROS, which might result in heart defects as well as other developmental anomalies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Disentangling cellular proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test, and its impact on the experimental protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dartel, D.A.; Zeijen, N.J.; de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn, L.J.J.; van Schooten, F.J.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) was designed to predict embryotoxicity based on the inhibition of the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) into beating cardiomyocytes in combination with cytotoxicity data in monolayer ESC cultures and 3T3 cells. In the present study, we have tested

  10. Microvesicles released from human embryonic stem cell derived-mesenchymal stem cells inhibit proliferation of leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Ma, Yongbin; Chen, Xiang; Ji, Xianyan; Gao, Jianyi; Zhang, Lei; Ye, Kai; Qiao, Fuhao; Dai, Yao; Wang, Hui; Wen, Xiangmei; Lin, Jiang; Hu, Jiabo

    2017-08-01

    Human embryonic stem cell derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hESC‑MSCs) are able to inhibit proliferation of leukemia cells. Microvesicles released from human embryonic stem cell derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hESC‑MSC‑MVs) might play an important part in antitumor activity. Microvesicles were isolated by ultracentrifugation and identified under a scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope separately. After 48-h cocultured with hESC‑MSCs and hESC‑MSC‑MVs, the number of K562 and HL60 was counted and tumor cell viability was measured by CCK8 assay. The expression of proteins Bcl-2 and Bax were estimated by western blotting. Transmission electron microscope and western blot analysis were adopted to evaluate the autophagy level. Results showed that both hESC‑MSCs and hESC‑MSC‑MVs inhibited proliferation of leukemia cells in a concentration-dependent manner. hESC‑MSC‑MVs reduced the ratio of Bcl/Bax, enhanced the protein level of Beclin-1 and LC3-II conversion, thus upregulating autophagy and apoptosis. In conclusion, microvesicles released from human embryonic stem cell derived-mesenchymal stem cells inhibited tumor growth and stimulated autophagy and excessive autophagy might induce apoptosis.

  11. Maturation of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazawa, Tomonori; Croft, Gist F.; Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Studer, Lorenz; Wichterle, Hynek; MacDermott, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of motor neuron biology in humans is derived mainly from investigation of human postmortem tissue and more indirectly from live animal models such as rodents. Thus generation of motor neurons from human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells is an important new approach to model motor neuron function. To be useful models of human motor neuron function, cells generated in vitro should develop mature properties that are the hallmarks of motor neurons in vivo such as elaborated neuronal processes and mature electrophysiological characteristics. Here we have investigated changes in morphological and electrophysiological properties associated with maturation of neurons differentiated from human embryonic stem cells expressing GFP driven by a motor neuron specific reporter (Hb9::GFP) in culture. We observed maturation in cellular morphology seen as more complex neurite outgrowth and increased soma area over time. Electrophysiological changes included decreasing input resistance and increasing action potential firing frequency over 13 days in vitro. Furthermore, these human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons acquired two physiological characteristics that are thought to underpin motor neuron integrated function in motor circuits; spike frequency adaptation and rebound action potential firing. These findings show that human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons develop functional characteristics typical of spinal motor neurons in vivo and suggest that they are a relevant and useful platform for studying motor neuron development and function and for modeling motor neuron diseases. PMID:22802953

  12. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  13. Comprehensive quantitative comparison of the membrane proteome and PTM-ome of human embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Marcella Nunes de Melo; Schulz, Melanie; Jakobsen, Lene

    Introduction: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into all three germ layers and self-renew. Due to its ability to differentiate in vitro into human neural stem cells (hNSCs), which can further be differentiated into motor neurons and dopaminergic neurons, these cells are potential...... identified phosphorylated and SA glycosylated proteins, respectively. This study allowed us to identify several significantly regulated proteins during the differentiation process, including proteins involved in the early embryonic development as well as in the neural development. In the latter group...... of proteins we could identify a number of proteins associated with synaptic vesicles, which are vesicles that store neurotransmitters in the nerve-terminals. An example of an upregulated protein in hESCs is the gap junction alpha 1 (GJA1), a phosphorylated protein which plays a crucial role in embryonic...

  14. Generation of Self-Renewing Hepatoblasts From Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Chemical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muzi; Sun, Pingxin; Wang, Yusheng; Chen, Junnan; Lv, Linjie; Wei, Wanguo; Jin, Caixia; Li, Wenlin

    2015-11-01

    Somatic stem cells play crucial roles in organogenesis and tissue homeostasis and regeneration and may ultimately prove useful for cell therapy for a variety of degenerative diseases and injuries; however, isolation and expansion of most types of somatic stem cells from tissues are technically challenging. Human pluripotent stem cells are a renewable source for any adult cell types, including somatic stem cells. Generation of somatic stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells is a promising strategy to get these therapeutically valuable cells. Previously, we developed a chemically defined condition for mouse hepatoblast self-renewal through a reiterative screening strategy. In the present study, we efficiently generated hepatoblasts from human embryonic stem cells by a stepwise induction strategy. Importantly, these human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatoblasts can be captured and stably maintained using conditions previously established for mouse hepatoblast self-renewal, which includes basal media supplemented with insulin, transferrin, sodium selenite, epidermal growth factor, glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor, transforming growth factor β receptor inhibitor, lysophosphatidic acid, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. The cells can stably retain hepatoblast phenotypes during prolonged culture and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes through in vitro provision of hepatocyte lineage developmental cues. After being embedded into three-dimensional Matrigel, these cells efficiently formed bile duct-like structures resembling native bile duct tissues. These human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatoblasts would be useful as a renewable source for cell therapy of liver diseases. Somatic stem cells have been proposed as promising candidates for cell-based therapy; however, isolation of somatic stem cells from adult tissues is usually invasive and technically challenging. In the present study, hepatoblasts from human embryonic stem cells were efficiently generated

  15. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells have a reduced tendon differentiation capacity compared to embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Patricia Bavin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to generate artificial tendons. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have now been derived from horses but, to date, there are no reports on their ability to differentiate into tendon cells. As iPSCs can be produced from adult cell types, they provide a more accessible source of cells than ESCs, which require the use of horse embryos. The aim of this study was to compare tendon differentiation by ESCs and iPSCs produced through two independent methods. In 2-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs expressed tendon associated genes and proteins, which were enhanced by the presence of transforming growth factor-β3. However, in 3-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs failed to differentiate into functional tendon cells and generate artificial tendons. These results demonstrate the utility of the 3-dimensional in vitro tendon assay for measuring tendon differentiation and the need for more detailed studies to be performed on equine iPSCs to identify and understand their epigenetic differences from pluripotent ESCs prior to their clinical application.

  16. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Differentiation of HUES-17 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP, stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

  17. 3D Reconstitution of the Patterned Neural Tube from Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meinhardt, Andrea; Eberle, Dominic; Tazaki, Akira; Ranga, Adrian; Niesche, Marco; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Stec, Agnieszka; Schackert, Gabriele; Lutolf, Matthias; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts c...

  18. Ambivalent journeys of hope: embryonic stem cell therapy in a clinic in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell therapy in non-Western countries such as India has received a lot of attention. Apart from media reports, there are a number of social science analyses of stem cell policy, therapy, and research, their ethical implications, and impact of advertising on patients. Nevertheless, in the media reports as well as in academic studies, experiences of patients, who undertake overseas journeys for stem cell therapy, have largely been either ignored or presented reductively, often as a "false hope." In this article, I analyze the experiences of patients and their "journeys of hope" to NuTech Mediworld, an embryonic stem cell therapy clinic in New Delhi, India. My analysis, which draws on my observations in the clinic and patients' experiences, instead of seeking to adjudicate whether embryonic stem cell therapy in clinics such as NuTech is right or wrong, true or false, focuses on how patients navigate and contest these concerns. I utilize Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's "concepts," lines of flight and deterritorialization, to highlight how embryonic stem cell therapy's "political economy of hope" embodies deterritorialization of several "regimes of truth" and how these deterritorializations impact patients' experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Publishing SNP genotypes of human embryonic stem cell lines: policy statement of the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario; Benvenisty, Nissim; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Murray, Thomas H; Lee, Eng Hin; Perry, Margery; Richardson, Genevra; Sipp, Douglas; Tanner, Klaus; Wahlström, Jan; de Wert, Guido; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-09-01

    Novel methods and associated tools permitting individual identification in publicly accessible SNP databases have become a debatable issue. There is growing concern that current technical and ethical safeguards to protect the identities of donors could be insufficient. In the context of human embryonic stem cell research, there are no studies focusing on the probability that an hESC line donor could be identified by analyzing published SNP profiles and associated genotypic and phenotypic information. We present the International Stem Cell Forum (ISCF) Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement on "Publishing SNP Genotypes of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines (hESC)". The Statement prospectively addresses issues surrounding the publication of genotypic data and associated annotations of hESC lines in open access databases. It proposes a balanced approach between the goals of open science and data sharing with the respect for fundamental bioethical principles (autonomy, privacy, beneficence, justice and research merit and integrity).

  20. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling blockade promotes neuronal induction and dopaminergic differentiation in embryonic stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čajánek, L.; Ribeiro, D.; Liste, I.; Parish, C.L.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Arenas, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2009), s. 2917-2927 ISSN 1066-5099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * Wnt pathway * dopaminergic neurons Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 7.747, year: 2009

  1. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into neurons of the dorsal forebrain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jing, Y.; Machoň, Ondřej; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, P.; Xing, Y.; Krauss, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2011), s. 715-727 ISSN 0272-4340 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/1618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * differentiation * neocortex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2011

  2. Partial promoter substitutions generating transcriptional sentinels of diverse signaling pathways in embryonic stem cells and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Palle; Gustavsen, Carsten; Klein, Tino

    2012-01-01

    extracellular signals. We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can...

  3. Insulin redirects differentiation from cardiogenic mesoderm and endoderm to neuroectoderm in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, C.M.A.H.; Ward-van Oostwaard, D.; Monshouwer-Kloots, J.; van den Brink, S.; van Rooijen, M.A.; Xu, X.; Zweigerdt, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Passier, R.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can proliferate indefinitely while retaining the capacity to form derivatives of all three germ layers. We have reported previously that hESC differentiate into cardiomyocytes when cocultured with a visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2). Insulin/insulin-like

  4. Asynchronous replication and autosome-pair non-equivalence in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devkanya Dutta

    Full Text Available A number of mammalian genes exhibit the unusual properties of random monoallelic expression and random asynchronous replication. Such exceptional genes include genes subject to X inactivation and autosomal genes including odorant receptors, immunoglobulins, interleukins, pheromone receptors, and p120 catenin. In differentiated cells, random asynchronous replication of interspersed autosomal genes is coordinated at the whole chromosome level, indicative of chromosome-pair non-equivalence. Here we have investigated the replication pattern of the random asynchronously replicating genes in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, using fluorescence in situ hybridization based assay. We show that allele-specific replication of X-linked genes and random monoallelic autosomal genes occur in human embryonic stem cells. The direction of replication is coordinated at the whole chromosome level and can cross the centromere, indicating the existence of autosome-pair non-equivalence in human embryonic stem cells. These results suggest that epigenetic mechanism(s that randomly distinguish between two parental alleles are emerging in the cells of the inner cell mass, the source of human embryonic stem cells.

  5. Dynamics of lineage commitment revealed by single-cell transcriptomics of differentiating embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semrau, Stefan; Goldmann, Johanna E; Soumillon, Magali; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Jaenisch, Rudolf; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression heterogeneity in the pluripotent state of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has been increasingly well-characterized. In contrast, exit from pluripotency and lineage commitment have not been studied systematically at the single-cell level. Here we measure the gene expression

  6. Global phosphoproteome profiling reveals unanticipated networks responsive to cisplatin treatment of embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pines, Alex; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vrouwe, Mischa G

    2011-01-01

    (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-labeled murine embryonic stem cells with the anticancer drug cisplatin. Network and pathway analyses indicated that processes related to the DNA damage response and cytoskeleton organization were significantly affected. Although the ATM (ataxia...

  7. Transcriptional profiling of ectoderm specification to keratinocyte fate in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mafalda Baptista Tadeu

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have shed light into the processes that regulate epidermal specification and homeostasis. We previously showed that a broad-spectrum γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT promoted early keratinocyte specification in human embryonic stem cells triggered to undergo ectoderm specification. Here, we show that DAPT accelerates human embryonic stem cell differentiation and induces expression of the ectoderm protein AP2. Furthermore, we utilize RNA sequencing to identify several candidate regulators of ectoderm specification including those involved in epithelial and epidermal development in human embryonic stem cells. Genes associated with transcriptional regulation and growth factor activity are significantly enriched upon DAPT treatment during specification of human embryonic stem cells to the ectoderm lineage. The human ectoderm cell signature identified in this study contains several genes expressed in ectodermal and epithelial tissues. Importantly, these genes are also associated with skin disorders and ectodermal defects, providing a platform for understanding the biology of human epidermal keratinocyte development under diseased and homeostatic conditions.

  8. Fingerprinting of neurotoxic compounds using a mouse embryonic stem cell dual luminescence reporter assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colaianna, M.; Ilmjärv, S.; Peterson, H.; Ilse Kern, I.; Julien, S.; Baquié, M.; allocca, G.; Bosgra, S.; Sachinidis, A.; Hengstler, J.G.; Leist, M.; Krause, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of neurotoxic drugs and environmental chemicals is an important challenge. However, only few tools to address this topic are available. The aim of this study was to develop a neurotoxicity/developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) test system, using the pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cell

  9. Assessment of a 42 metal salts chemical library in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The developmental effects of xenobiotics on differentiation can be profiled using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) technique was used to evaluate a library of 42 metal and metaloid salts. Jl mESCs were allowed to prolif...

  10. NANOG reporter cell lines generated by gene targeting in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Yvonne; Ganic, Elvira; Ameri, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is mediated by a complex interplay between extra- and intracellular signaling pathways, which regulate the expression of pluripotency-specific transcription factors. The homeodomain transcription factor NANOG plays a central role...

  11. Efficient femtosecond driven SOX 17 delivery into mouse embryonic stem cells: differentiation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobakgale, Lebogang; Manoto, Sello Lebohang; Lemboumba, Satuurnin Ombinda; Maaza, Malik; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2017-02-01

    Embryonic stem cells have great promise in regenerative medicine because of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Delivery of therapeutic genes into cells has already been achieved using of chemical agents and viral vectors with high transfection efficiencies. However, these methods have also been documented as toxic and in the latter case they can cause latent cell infections. In this study we use femtosecond laser pulses to optically deliver genetic material in mouse embryonic stem cells. Femtosecond laser pulses in contrast to the conventional approach, minimises the risk of unwanted side effects because photons are used to create transient pores on the membrane which allow free entry of molecules with no need for delivery agents. Using an Olympus microscope, fluorescence imaging of the samples post irradiation was performed and decreased expression of stage specific embryonic antigen one (SSEA-1) consistent with on-going cellular differentiation was observed. Our results also show that femtosecond laser pulses were effective in delivering SOX 17 plasmid DNA (pSOX17) which resulted in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into endoderm cells. We thus concluded that laser transfection of stem cells for the purpose of differentiation, holds potential for applications in tissue engineering as a method of generating new cell lines.

  12. Functionally deficient neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic neural stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; de Haas, AH; Bakels, R; Koper, A; Boddeke, HWGM; Copray, JM

    Embryonic mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from E14 mice, multiplied in medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and plated in laminin-coated wells in basic serum-free neurobasal medium. After 7 days in vitro, approximately 20% of the

  13. REDOX DISRUPTING POTENTIAL OF TOXCAST CHEMICALS RANKED BY ACTIVITY IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain insight regarding the adverse outcome pathways leading to developmental toxicity following exposure to chemicals, we evaluated ToxCast™ Phase I chemicals in an adherent mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) assay and identified a redox sensitive pathway that correlated with al...

  14. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of human embryonic stem cells differentiating to cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Kloots, Jantine; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Mummery, Christine; Passier, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Mammals are unable to regenerate their heart after major cardiomyocyte loss caused by myocardial infarction. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can give rise to functional cardiomyocytes and therefore have exciting potential as a source of cells for replacement therapy. Understanding the molecular

  15. Erk signaling suppresses embryonic stem cell self-renewal to specify endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, William B; Brickman, Joshua M

    2014-01-01

    Fgf signaling via Erk activation has been associated with both neural induction and the generation of a primed state for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to all somatic lineages. To dissect the role of Erk in both ESC self-renewal and lineage specification, we explored...

  16. In vitro labelling of mouse embryonic stem cells with SPIO nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Jana; Pacherník, J.; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2008), s. 164-173 ISSN 0231-5882 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA301/08/0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * differentiation * magnetic labelling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2008

  17. Redox Disrupting Potential of ToxCast™Chemicals Ranked by Activity in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known regarding the adverse outcome pathways responsible for developmental toxicity following exposure to chemicals. An evaluation of Toxoast™ Phase I chemicals in an adherent mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) assay revealed a redox sensitive pathway that correlated with...

  18. Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan; Freude, Kristine; Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs in the ut...

  19. Two sides of the same coin? Unraveling subtle differences between human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Parrotta, Elvira

    2017-11-28

    Background: Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, hold enormous promise for many biomedical applications, such as regenerative medicine, drug testing, and disease modeling. Although induced pluripotent stem cells resemble embryonic stem cells both morphologically and functionally, the extent to which these cell lines are truly equivalent, from a molecular point of view, remains controversial. Methods: Principal component analysis and K-means cluster analysis of collected Raman spectroscopy data were used for a comparative study of the biochemical fingerprint of human induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells. The Raman spectra analysis results were further validated by conventional biological assays. Results: Raman spectra analysis revealed that the major difference between human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells is due to the nucleic acid content, as shown by the strong positive peaks at 785, 1098, 1334, 1371, 1484, and 1575 cm–1, which is enriched in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Conclusions: Here, we report a nonbiological approach to discriminate human induced pluripotent stem cells from their native embryonic stem cell counterparts.

  20. Enhanced expression of FNDC5 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells along with relevant embryonic neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahrizjani, Fatemeh Ahmadi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salamian, Ahmad; Tanhaei, Somayeh; Nejati, Alireza Shoaraye; Salehi, Hossein; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-25

    Availability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has enhanced the capability of basic and clinical research in the context of human neural differentiation. Derivation of neural progenitor (NP) cells from hESCs facilitates the process of human embryonic development through the generation of neuronal subtypes. We have recently indicated that fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5) expression is required for appropriate neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Bioinformatics analyses have shown the presence of three isoforms for human FNDC5 mRNA. To differentiate which isoform of FNDC5 is involved in the process of human neural differentiation, we have used hESCs as an in vitro model for neural differentiation by retinoic acid (RA) induction. The hESC line, Royan H5, was differentiated into a neural lineage in defined adherent culture treated by RA and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). We collected all cell types that included hESCs, rosette structures, and neural cells in an attempt to assess the expression of FNDC5 isoforms. There was a contiguous increase in all three FNDC5 isoforms during the neural differentiation process. Furthermore, the highest level of expression of the isoforms was significantly observed in neural cells compared to hESCs and the rosette structures known as neural precursor cells (NPCs). High expression levels of FNDC5 in human fetal brain and spinal cord tissues have suggested the involvement of this gene in neural tube development. Additional research is necessary to determine the major function of FDNC5 in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cloning of embryonal stem cell-specific genes: characterization of the transcriptionally controlled gene esg-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, P; MacLean-Hunter, S; Ehlert, F; Möröy, T; Müller, R

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated, by differential library screening, eight cDNAs representing genes that are specifically expressed in the embryonal stem cell line IMT-11, when compared to the parietal endoderm-like cell line PYS-2 or to NIH3T3 fibroblasts. One of these genes, embryonal stem cell gene 1 (esg-1), was analyzed in detail. esg-1 mRNA is found at high levels in both IMT-11 and F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and disappears during the differentiation of the stem cells. Furthermore, expression of the gene was found to be extremely low in, or absent from, oocytes and fertilized eggs, but it is strongly induced at the 2-cell stage, reaching maximum levels at the 4-cell stage. In contrast, esg-1 expression is detectable neither in midgestation embryos nor in neonatal tissues. These results strongly suggest that esg-1 is expressed specifically or at least predominantly in embryonal stem cells. Antibodies directed against a glutathione S-transferase-esg-1 fusion product detect a protein of M(r) approximately 14,000 in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, but not in differentiated cells. Apart from the esg-1 gene, which contains two introns, there are at least seven esg-1-related pseudogenes in the mouse genome that differ from the esg-1 gene by the presence of multiple point mutations, by the lack of intervening sequences, and/or by the presence of a polyadenylated stretch at the 3' end. The esg-1 gene is under stringent transcriptional control in differentiating and differentiated cells, as shown by both nuclear run-on assays and the transient F9 stem cell-specific expression of constructs consisting of esg-1 upstream sequences fused to a luciferase reporter gene.

  2. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morizane, Ryuji; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  3. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  4. Isolation of a Pluripotent Neural Stem Cell from the Embryonic Bovine Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We recently isolated stem cells derived from the brain of a bovine fetus, utilizing a particular mechanical separation method. After improving our experimental conditions, we obtained neural stem cells using an optimized culture medium system. The cells were expanded, established in continuous cell culture and used for immunofluorescence cytochemistry. RT-PCR showed that embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs not only expresses the protein Sox2, Nestin but also Pax6, Musashi proteins and were differentiated into the three classical neuronal phenotypes (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.

  5. Establishment of autologous embryonic stem cells derived from preantral follicle culture and oocyte parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Tae; Choi, Mun Hwan; Lee, Eun Ju; Gong, Seung Pyo; Jang, Mi; Park, Sang Hyun; Jee, Hyang; Kim, Dae Yong; Han, Jae Yong; Lim, Jeong Mook

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate whether autologous embryonic stem cells can be established without generating clone embryos. Prospective model study. Gamete and stem cell biotechnology laboratory in Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. F1 hybrid B6D2F1 mice. Preantral follicles were cultured, and oocytes matured in the follicles were parthenogenetically activated. Preimplantation development and stem cell characterization. More intrafollicular oocytes that were retrieved from secondary follicles matured and developed into blastocysts after parthenogenesis than those that were retrieved from primary follicles. Of those 35 blastocysts derived from 193 parthenotes, one line of colony-forming cells was established from the culturing of early secondary follicles. The established cells were positive for embryonic stem cell-specific markers and had normal diploid karyotype and telomerase activity. They differentiated into embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Inducible differentiation of the established cells into neuronal lineage cells also was possible. Autologous embryonic stem cells can be established by preantral follicle culture and oocyte parthenogenesis. A combined technique of follicle culture and oocyte parthenogenesis that does not use developmentally competent oocytes has the potential to replace somatic cell nuclear transfer for autologous cell therapy.

  6. From embryonic stem cells to testicular germ cell cancer-- should we be concerned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    that initial hypothesis but also indicating that CIS cells have a striking phenotypic similarity to embryonic stem cells (ESC). Many cancers have been proposed to originate from tissue-specific stem cells [so-called 'cancer stem cells' (CSC)] and we argue that CIS may be a very good example of a CSC......, but with exceptional features due to the retention of embryonic pluripotency. In addition, considering the fact that pre-invasive CIS cells are transformed from early fetal cells, possibly due to environmentally induced alterations of the niche, we discuss potential risks linked to the uncontrolled therapeutic use......Since the discovery of testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) -- the precursor cell for the vast majority of germ cell tumours -- it has been proposed that CIS cells could be derived from transformed primordial germ cells or gonocytes. Here, we review recent discoveries not only substantiating...

  7. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  8. Properties and uses of embryonic stem cells: prospects for application to human biology and gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathjen, P D; Lake, J; Whyatt, L M; Bettess, M D; Rathjen, J

    1998-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the early mouse embryo that can be propagated stably in the undifferentiated state in vitro. They retain the ability to differentiate into all cell types found in an embryonic and adult mouse in vivo, and can be induced to differentiate into many cell types in vitro. Exploitation of ES cell technology for the creation of mice bearing predetermined genetic alterations has received widespread attention because of the sophistication that it brings to the study of gene function in mammals. Analysis of cell differentiation in vitro has also been of value, leading to the identification of novel bioactive factors and the elucidation of cell specification mechanisms. In this paper, we summarise the features of pluripotent cell lines and their applications, foreshadowing the impact that these systems may have on human biology. While the isolation of definitive human pluripotent cell lines has not yet been achieved, potential applications for these cells in the study of human biology, particularly cell specification, can be envisaged. Of particular interest is the possibility that human embryonic stem cells with properties similar to mouse embryonic stem cells might provide a generic system for gene therapy.

  9. Evaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field on differentiation of embryonic stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yoshie

    Full Text Available The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF magnetic field (MF was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST. The cells were exposed to 21 kHz IF–MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days or the cell differentiation process (10 days during which an embryonic body differentiated into myocardial cells. As a result, there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation between sham- and IF–MF-exposed cells for both ES and fibroblast cells. Similarly, the ratio of the number of ES-derived cell aggregates differentiated to myocardial cells to total number of cell aggregates was not changed by IF–MF exposure. In addition, the expressions of a cardiomyocytes-specific gene, Myl2, and an early developmental gene, Hba-x, in the exposed cell aggregate were not altered. Since the magnetic flux density adopted in this study is much higher than that generated by an inverter of the electrical railway, an induction heating (IH cooktop, etc. in our daily lives, these results suggested that IF–MF in which the public is exposed to in general living environment would not have embryotoxic effect. Keywords: Differentiation, Embryonic stem cell, Gene expression, Intermediate frequency magnetic field

  10. Utx Is Required for Proper Induction of Ectoderm and Mesoderm during Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Torres, Cristina; Laugesen, Anne; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    for the activation of lineage choice genes in response to developmental signals. To further understand the function of Utx in pluripotency and differentiation we generated Utx knockout embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we show that Utx is not required for the proliferation of ESCs, however, Utx contributes......Embryonic development requires chromatin remodeling for dynamic regulation of gene expression patterns to ensure silencing of pluripotent transcription factors and activation of developmental regulators. Demethylation of H3K27me3 by the histone demethylases Utx and Jmjd3 is important...

  11. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiugong; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds

  12. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiugong, E-mail: xiugong.gao@fda.hhs.gov; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds.

  13. Nuclear reprogramming of somatic nucleus hybridized with embryonic stem cells by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masako; Tada, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Cell fusion is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming. In hybrid cells of somatic cells and pluripotential stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) and embryonic germ cells, somatic nuclei acquire pluripotential competence. ES and embryonic germ cells retain intrinsic trans activity to induce epigenetic reprogramming. For generating hybrid cells, we have used the technique of electrofusion. Electrofusion is a highly effective, reproducible, and biomedically safe in vitro system. For successful cell fusion, two sequential steps of electric pulse stimulation are required for the alignment (pearl chain formation) of two different types of cells between electrodes in response to alternating current stimulation and for the fusion of cytoplasmic membranes by direct current stimulation. Optimal conditions for electrofusion with a pulse generator are introduced for ES and somatic cell fusion. Topics in the field of stem cell research include the successful production of cloned animals via the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells and contribution of spontaneous cell fusion to generating intrinsic plasticity of tissue stem cells. Cell fusion technology may make important contributions to the fields of epigenetic reprogramming and regenerative medicine.

  14. Do we still need human embryonic stem cells for stem cell-based therapies? Epistemic and ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Kristina; Hermerén, Göran

    2011-11-01

    While scientific community disagrees about similarities and differences between human embryonic stem (hES) cells and human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells, some politicians embrace translational hiPS cell research as a replacement for translational hES cell research. We examine the ethical relevance of the main differences between hES and hiPS cell-based therapies and discuss whether, given the current state of knowledge, certain differences are essential. We discuss whether well-founded preferences can be made in hypothetical scenarios with varying levels of patient safety, treatment efficacy, treatment accessibility and ethical controversy.

  15. Generation and Characterization of Erythroid Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hsin Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the imbalance in the supply and demand of red blood cells (RBCs, especially for alloimmunized patients or patients with rare blood phenotypes, extensive research has been done to generate therapeutic quantities of mature RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells of various sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be maintained indefinitely in vitro, they represent potentially inexhaustible sources of donor-free RBCs. In contrast to other ex vivo stem-cell-derived cellular therapeutics, tumorigenesis is not a concern, as RBCs can be irradiated without marked adverse effects on in vivo function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent publications relevant to the generation and characterization of hESC- and iPSC-derived erythroid cells and discuss challenges to be met before the eventual realization of clinical usage of these cells.

  16. [The embryonic stem cells research. Example of biotechnology progress under extra-scientific pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Escalona, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to isolate, cultivate, preserve, characterize and differentiate Human Embryonic Stem Cells (ES) discovered by James Thomson and his colleagues in 1998 was a milestone in the history of Stem Cell Research. Immediately after this discovery many speculations were made about the therapeutic possibilities of ES, motivated by ideological, political and economic aspects. The episode made clear the lack of scientific rationality and ethics when assessing realities as meaningful as those of human embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF) or human eggs. Therapeutic Cloning as a promise to produce ″tailored″ Stem Cells reported by Hwang and his team in 2004, ended up being a scandal within the scientific community. The technical difficulties and ethical controversies that arose from obtaining ES were insurmountable. In 2010 only two clinical trials were reported using these cells. Those trials were abandoned in late 2011 arguing financial reasons. The discovery of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS) in 2006 in mice and in 2007 in humans, represented the possibility of obtaining pluripotent stem cells without the need to destroy embryos. Today, the absence of clinical trials using ES, caused by financial difficulties as a result of its ineffectiveness, anticipates that the use of ES will be limited to certain experimental controls. Probably, the main contribution of Embryonic Stem Cells will be the understanding that biomedical research should follow an ethically and rationally based rigorous method that cannot be ignore.

  17. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  18. Extract of mouse embryonic stem cells induces the expression of pluripotency genes in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Paria Motamen; Foroutan, Tahereh; Javeri, Arash; Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr

    2017-11-01

    In some previous studies, the extract of embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used to reprogram somatic cells to more dedifferentiated state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mouse ESCs extract on the expression of some pluripotency markers in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Human ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and characterized by flow cytometric analysis for the expression of some mesenchymal stem cell markers and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Frequent freeze-thaw technique was used to prepare cytoplasmic extract of ESCs. Plasma membranes of the ADSCs were reversibly permeabilized by streptolysin-O (SLO). Then the permeabilized ADSCs were incubated with the ESC extract and cultured in resealing medium. After reprogramming, the expression of some pluripotency genes was evaluated by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses. Third-passaged ADSCs showed a fibroblast-like morphology and expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers. They also showed adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. QPCR analysis revealed a significant upregulation in the expression of some pluripotency genes including OCT4 , SOX2 , NANOG , REX1 and ESG1 in the reprogrammed ADSCs compared to the control group. These findings showed that mouse ESC extract can be used to induce reprogramming of human ADSCs. In fact, this method is applicable for reprogramming of human adult stem cells to a more pluripotent sate and may have a potential in regenerative medicine.

  19. Evaluation of 309 environmental chemicals using a mouse embryonic stem cell adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vast landscape of environmental chemicals has motivated the need for alternative methods to traditional whole-animal bioassays in toxicity testing. Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an in vitro model of embryonic development and an alternative method for assessing development...

  20. Production of embryonic and fetal-like red blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Jung Chang

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryonic and fetal type of red blood cells that sequentially express three types of hemoglobins recapitulating early human erythropoiesis. We report here that we have produced iPS from three somatic cell types: adult skin fibroblasts as well as embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells. We show that regardless of the age of the donor cells, the iPS produced are fully reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that is undistinguishable from that of hESCs by low and high-throughput expression and detailed analysis of globin expression patterns by HPLC. This suggests that reprogramming with the four original Yamanaka pluripotency factors leads to complete erasure of all functionally important epigenetic marks associated with erythroid differentiation regardless of the age or the tissue type of the donor cells, at least as detected in these assays. The ability to produce large number of erythroid cells with embryonic and fetal-like characteristics is likely to have many translational applications.

  1. An abbreviated protocol for multilineage neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells and its perturbation by methyl mercury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, P.T.; Schulpen, S.; van Dartel, D.A.M.; Hermsen, S.A.B.; van Schooten, F.J.; Piersma, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative assays are highly desirable to reduce the extensive experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing. In the present study, we developed an improved test system for assessing neurodevelopmental toxicity using differentiating embryonic stem cells. We advanced previously

  2. Development of heart muscle-cell diversity: a help or a hindrance for phenotyping embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, Arnoud C.; Lekanne Deprez, Ronald H.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the advances in cardiovascular treatment, cardiac disease remains a major cause of morbidity in all industrialized countries. The extraordinary potential of (embryonic) stem cells for therapeutic purposes has revolutionized ideas about cardiac repair of diseased cardiac muscle to exciting

  3. Inference of Transcriptional Network for Pluripotency in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburatani, S.

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem cells, various transcription factors (TFs) maintain pluripotency. To gain insights into the regulatory system controlling pluripotency, I inferred the regulatory relationships between the TFs expressed in ES cells. In this study, I applied a method based on structural equation modeling (SEM), combined with factor analysis, to 649 expression profiles of 19 TF genes measured in mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs). The factor analysis identified 19 TF genes that were regulated by several unmeasured factors. Since the known cell reprogramming TF genes (Pou5f1, Sox2 and Nanog) are regulated by different factors, each estimated factor is considered to be an input for signal transduction to control pluripotency in mouse ESCs. In the inferred network model, TF proteins were also arranged as unmeasured factors that control other TFs. The interpretation of the inferred network model revealed the regulatory mechanism for controlling pluripotency in ES cells.

  4. Human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes self-arrange with areas of different subtypes during differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maj Linea; Grubb, Søren; Rasmussen, Karen Koefoed

    2017-01-01

    The derivation of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) represents a unique way of studying human cardiogenesis, including the development of CM subtypes. In this study, we investigated the development and organization of CMs derived from hESCs (hESC-CMs) and exam......The derivation of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) represents a unique way of studying human cardiogenesis, including the development of CM subtypes. In this study, we investigated the development and organization of CMs derived from hESCs (h....... Finally, the β-III tubulin specific localised expression is suggested to represent a new marker for nodal CMs. This study expands our understanding of CM specialization and intra-clustal CM subtype organization, improving the foundation for studying regulatory pathways for spatial and temporal CM...

  5. Formation of gut-like structures in vitro from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torihashi, Shigeko

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from the three germ layers; however, there are still few reports about the formation of functional organs from embryonic stem cells. Recently, we reported that by hanging drops of mouse ES cells, embryoid bodies (EBs) formed gut-like structures in vitro composed of three layers corresponding to the epithelium, lamina propria, and musculature. The morphological features and the process of formation are similar to gut and its organogenesis in vivo. Thus, this is a good model for development of the gut and a useful tool for analysis of the factors required for gut organogenesis. The protocol basically involves a method of hanging drops to make EBs, which are then plated on coated dishes for outgrowth. EBs develop to form gut-like structures when induced to spontaneously enter a program of differentiation in vitro without addition of any extrinsic factors.

  6. Progressing a human embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy towards the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Paul; Kerby, Julie; Coffey, Peter; da Cruz, Lyndon; McKernan, Ruth

    2015-10-19

    Since the first publication of the derivation of human embryonic stem cells in 1998, there has been hope and expectation that this technology will lead to a wave of regenerative medicine therapies with the potential to revolutionize our approach to managing certain diseases. Despite significant resources in this direction, the path to the clinic for an embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy has not proven straightforward, though in the past few years progress has been made. Here, with a focus upon retinal disease, we discuss the current status of the development of such therapies. We also highlight some of our own experiences of progressing a retinal pigment epithelium cell replacement therapy towards the clinic. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Epigenomic Analysis of Multi-lineage Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Schultz, Matthew D.; Lister, Ryan; Hou, Zhonggang; Rajagopal, Nisha; Ray, Pradipta; Whitaker, John W.; Tian, Shulan; Hawkins, R. David; Leung, Danny; Yang, Hongbo; Wang, Tao; Lee, Ah Young; Swanson, Scott A.; Zhang, Jiuchun; Zhu, Yun; Kim, Audrey; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Kuan, Samantha; Yen, Chia-an; Klugman, Sarit; Yu, Pengzhi; Suknuntha, Kran; Propson, Nicholas E.; Chen, Huaming; Edsall, Lee E.; Wagner, Ulrich; Li, Yan; Ye, Zhen; Kulkarni, Ashwinikumar; Xuan, Zhenyu; Chung, Wen-Yu; Chi, Neil C.; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica E.; Slukvin, Igor; Stewart, Ron; Zhang, Michael Q.; Wang, Wei; Thomson, James A.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Ren, Bing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to play crucial roles in mammalian development, but their precise functions are only partially understood. To investigate epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells into mesendoderm, neural progenitor cells, trophoblast-like cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, and systematically characterized DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, and the transcriptome in each lineage. We found that promoters that are active in early developmental stages tend to be CG rich and mainly engage H3K27me3 upon silencing in non-expressing lineages. By contrast, promoters for genes expressed preferentially at later stages are often CG poor and primarily employ DNA methylation upon repression. Interestingly, the early developmental regulatory genes are often located in large genomic domains that are generally devoid of DNA methylation in most lineages, which we termed DNA methylation valleys (DMVs). Our results suggest that distinct epigenetic mechanisms regulate early and late stages of ES cell differentiation. PMID:23664764

  8. Microfluidic-based patterning of embryonic stem cells for in vitro development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Shalu; Singh, Ankur; Nguyen, Anh H; Bratt-Leal, Andres M; McDevitt, Todd C; Lu, Hang

    2013-12-07

    In vitro recapitulation of mammalian embryogenesis and examination of the emerging behaviours of embryonic structures require both the means to engineer complexity and accurately assess phenotypes of multicellular aggregates. Current approaches to study multicellular populations in 3D configurations are limited by the inability to create complex (i.e. spatially heterogeneous) environments in a reproducible manner with high fidelity thus impeding the ability to engineer microenvironments and combinations of cells with similar complexity to that found during morphogenic processes such as development, remodelling and wound healing. Here, we develop a multicellular embryoid body (EB) fusion technique as a higher-throughput in vitro tool, compared to a manual assembly, to generate developmentally relevant embryonic patterns. We describe the physical principles of the EB fusion microfluidic device design; we demonstrate that >60 conjoined EBs can be generated overnight and emulate a development process analogous to mouse gastrulation during early embryogenesis. Using temporal delivery of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) to embryoid bodies, we recapitulate embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) during mouse embryo development with induced mesoderm differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells leading to expression of Brachyury-T-green fluorescent protein (T-GFP), an indicator of primitive streak development and mesoderm differentiation during gastrulation. The proposed microfluidic approach could be used to manipulate hundreds or more of individual embryonic cell aggregates in a rapid fashion, thereby allowing controlled differentiation patterns in fused multicellular assemblies to generate complex yet spatially controlled microenvironments.

  9. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe007-A (RC-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe007-A (RC-3 was derived from a blastocyst voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  10. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe008-A (RC-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe008-A (RC-4 was derived from a blastocyst voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to ectoderm and mesoderm in vitro. It has a mixed 46XX/45X female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity and blood group typing data is available.

  11. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  12. Formation of Stomach Tissue by Organoid Culture Using Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Kurisaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for the induction of stomach organoids from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We used an embryoid body-based differentiation method to induce gastric primordial epithelium covered with mesenchyme and further differentiate it in Matrigel by 3D culture. The differentiated organoid contains both corpus- and antrum-specific mature gastric tissue cells. This protocol may be useful for a variety of studies in developmental biology and disease modeling of the stomach.

  13. Plasma treatment of biomaterials to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Erik

    In this work, we explore how embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation patterns are affected by surface interactions with plasma-processed materials. We hypothesize that mouse embryonic stem-cell exposure to certain plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces will direct their differentiation into endothelial cells. R1 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were plated on surfaces onto which tetraglyme was deposited by plasma polymerization. In addition, tissue-treated polystyrene and control glass cover slips were also examined. Some samples were fixed three days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with platelet endothelial-cell adhesion molecule, while the others were fixed seven days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with von Willebrand Factor. Positive results seen by ES cell derivatives precociously expressing the vWF and PECAM genetic markers on the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme treated surfaces suggest that the plasma-polymerized surfaces direct differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells. Research goals of this dissertation include: characterization of the material properties of the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces that induce directed differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells, optimization of the plasma-polymerization process to maximize the number of endothelial cells derived from R1 ES cells, and biological experimentation to characterize properties of the mechanism of directed differentiation. A potential application of this work is in the design and construction of an artificial blood vessel. Current small-scale arterial substitutes have proved inadequate because of thrombogenicity and infection. Moreover, the lower blood flow velocities of smaller vessels pose a different set of design criteria and introduce new problems not encountered in large arterial substitutes. By utilizing a tissue engineering approach that incorporates embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells, the longevity of the prosthesis can be ensured.

  14. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Peripheral Sensory Neurons derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Alshawaf, Abdullah Jawad; Viventi, Serena; Qiu, Wanzhi; D’Abaco, Giovanna; Nayagam, Bryony; Erlichster, Michael; Chana, Gursharan; Everall, Ian; Ivanusic, Jason; Skafidas, Efstratios; Dottori, Mirella

    2018-01-01

    The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) consist of a multitude of sensory neuronal subtypes that function to relay sensory stimuli, including temperature, pressure, pain and position to the central nervous system. Our knowledge of DRG sensory neurons have been predominantly driven by animal studies and considerably less is known about the human DRG. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are valuable resource to help close this gap. Our previous studies reported an efficient system for deriving neural crest...

  15. A protocol for embryonic stem cell derivation by somatic cell nuclear transfer into human oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Dieter Egli & Gloryn Chia ### Abstract Here we describe detailed methods that allowed us to derive embryonic stem cell lines by nuclear transfer of fibroblasts from a newborn and from a type 1 diabetic adult. The protocol is based on the insight that 1) agents for cell fusion can act as potent mediators of oocyte activation by compromising maintaining plasma membrane integrity; minimizing the concentration at which they are used, and at least transiently remove calcium from ...

  16. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  17. Novel Method To Differentiate Human Embryonic Stem Cells Into Dopaminergic Nerve Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse's Development and Plasticity Section is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing opportunities to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into dopaminergic nerve cells. The invention described here is a novel method of differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into dopaminergic nerve cells, which is preferable to the currently available dopaminergic differentiation techniques.

  18. Murine transgenic embryonic stem cell lines for the investigation of sinoatrial node-related molecular pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schmitteckert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that restrict the potential of pluripotent stem cells and promote cardiac lineage differentiation is of crucial relevance, since embryonic stem cells (ESCs hold great potential for cell based heart therapies. The homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 is essential for the development and proper function of the native cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node. This prompted us to develop a cardiac differentiation model using ESC lines isolated from blastocysts of Shox2-deficient mice. The established cell model provides a fundamental basis for the investigation of molecular pathways under physiological and pathophysiological conditions for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches.

  19. Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles: Could They be Used for Retinal Regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Debora B; Katsman, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) release into the medium in which they are cultured heterogeneous populations of microvesicles (mESMVs), important components of cell-cell communication, that transfer their contents not only to other stem cells but also to cells of other origins. The purpose of these studies was to demonstrate that ESMVs could be the signals that lead the retinal progenitor Müller cells to de-differentiate and re-entry the cell cycle, followed by differentiation along retinal lineages. Indeed, we found that ESMVs induce these processes and change Müller cells' microenvironment towards a more permissive state for tissue regeneration.

  20. Changes in glycosaminoglycan structure on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells towards mesoderm and endoderm lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Hickey, Anne Marie; Yang, Bo; Li, Guoyun; dela Rosa, Mitche; Nairn, Alison V; Kulik, Michael J; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Dalton, Stephen; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, and serve as prime sites for interaction with signaling molecules. Proteoglycans help regulate pathways that control stem cell fate, and therefore represent an excellent tool to manipulate these pathways. Despite their importance, there is a dearth of data linking glycosaminoglycan structure within proteoglycans with stem cell differentiation. Human embryonic stem cell line WA09 (H9) was differentiated into early mesoderm and endoderm lineages, and the glycosaminoglycanomic changes accompanying these transitions were studied using transcript analysis, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and disaccharide analysis. Pluripotent H9 cell lumican had no glycosaminoglycan chains whereas in splanchnic mesoderm lumican was glycosaminoglycanated. H9 cells have primarily non-sulfated heparan sulfate chains. On differentiation towards splanchnic mesoderm and hepatic lineages N-sulfo group content increases. Differences in transcript expression of NDST1, HS6ST2 and HS6ST3, three heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes, within splanchnic mesoderm cells compared to H9 cells correlate to changes in glycosaminoglycan structure. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells markedly changes the proteoglycanome. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic pathway is complex and highly regulated, and therefore, understanding the details of this pathway should enable better control with the aim of directing stem cell differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivation of keratinocytes from chicken embryonic stem cells: Establishment and characterization of differentiated proliferative cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Couteaudier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge in avian cell biology is the generation of differentiated cell-lines, especially in the keratinocyte lineage. Only a few avian cell-lines are available and very few of them show an interesting differentiation profile. During the last decade, mammalian embryonic stem cell-lines were shown to differentiate into almost all lineages, including keratinocytes. Although chicken embryonic stem cells had been obtained in the 1990s, few differentiation studies toward the ectodermal lineage were reported. Consequently, we explored the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells toward the keratinocyte lineage by using a combination of stromal induction, ascorbic acid, BMP4 and chicken serum. During the induction period, we observed a downregulation of pluripotency markers and an upregulation of epidermal markers. Three homogenous cell populations were derived, which were morphologically similar to chicken primary keratinocytes, displaying intracellular lipid droplets in almost every pavimentous cell. These cells could be serially passaged without alteration of their morphology and showed gene and protein expression profiles of epidermal markers similar to chicken primary keratinocytes. These cells represent an alternative to the isolation of chicken primary keratinocytes, being less cumbersome to handle and reducing the number of experimental animals used for the preparation of primary cells.

  2. Different concentrations of kaempferol distinctly modulate murine embryonic stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana S; Perestrelo, Tânia; Pereira, Sandro L; Ribeiro, Marcelo F; Sousa, Maria I; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2016-01-01

    Kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid with several beneficial and protective effects. It has been demonstrated that kaempferol has anticancer properties, particularly due to its effects on proliferation, apoptosis and the cell cycle. However, possible effects on pluripotent embryonic stem cell function have not yet been addressed. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all three germ layers with potential applications in regenerative medicine and in vitro toxicology. We show that exposure of murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) to high concentrations of kaempferol (200 μM) leads to decreased cell numbers, although the resulting smaller cell colonies remain pluripotent. However, lower concentrations of this compound (20 μM) increase the expression of pluripotency markers in mESCs. Mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial mass are not affected, but a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis takes place. Moreover, mESC differentiation is impaired by kaempferol, which was not related to apoptosis induction. Our results show that low concentrations of kaempferol can be beneficial for pluripotency, but inhibit proper differentiation of mESCs. Additionally, high concentrations induce apoptosis and increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor neuron derivation from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells: experimental approaches and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faravelli, Irene; Bucchia, Monica; Rinchetti, Paola; Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Frattini, Emanuele; Corti, Stefania

    2014-07-14

    Motor neurons are cells located in specific areas of the central nervous system, such as brain cortex (upper motor neurons), brain stem, and spinal cord (lower motor neurons), which maintain control over voluntary actions. Motor neurons are affected primarily by a wide spectrum of neurological disorders, generally indicated as motor neuron diseases (MNDs): these disorders share symptoms related to muscular atrophy and paralysis leading to death. No effective treatments are currently available. Stem cell-derived motor neurons represent a promising research tool in disease modeling, drug screening, and development of therapeutic approaches for MNDs and spinal cord injuries. Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells - human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) - toward specific lineages is the first crucial step in order to extensively employ these cells in early human development investigation and potential clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from patients' own somatic cells (for example, fibroblasts) by reprogramming them with specific factors. They can be considered embryonic stem cell-like cells, which express stem cell markers and have the ability to give rise to all three germ layers, bypassing the ethical concerns. Thus, hiPSCs constitute an appealing alternative source of motor neurons. These motor neurons might be a great research tool, creating a model for investigating the cellular and molecular interactions underlying early human brain development and pathologies during neurodegeneration. Patient-specific iPSCs may also provide the premises for autologous cell replacement therapies without related risks of immune rejection. Here, we review the most recent reported methods by which hESCs or iPSCs can be differentiated toward functional motor neurons with an overview on the potential clinical applications.

  4. Human embryonic stem cells and good manufacturing practice: Report of a 1- day workshop held at Stem Cell Biology Research Center, Yazd, 27thApril 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyash, Fatemeh; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Tahajjodi, Somayyeh Sadat; Nikukar, Habib; Farashahi Yazd, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Mostafa; D Moore, Harry; Aflatoonian, Behrouz

    2017-05-01

    This report explains briefly the minutes of a 1-day workshop entitled; "human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and good manufacturing practice (GMP)" held by Stem Cell Biology Research Center based in Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 27 th April 2017. In this workshop, in addition to the practical sessions, Prof. Harry D. Moore from Centre for Stem Cell Biology, University of Sheffield, UK presented the challenges and the importance of the biotechnology of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells from first derivation to robust defined culture for therapeutic applications.

  5. Ethics and embryonic stem cell research: altered nuclear transfer as a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, William B

    2007-01-01

    Ethical controversy in stem cell research arises because current methods to produce embryonic stem cell lines require the destruction of living human embryos. For this reason, there is increasing interest in developing alternative, non-embryonic sources of pluripotent stem cells. This effort is especially important in the US due to the prevailing policy against federal funding of embryo-destructive research. Altered nuclear transfer (ANT) is one of several potential methods to develop alternative sources of pluripotent stem cells. This approach employs the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer, but the somatic cell nucleus or egg cytoplasm (or both) are first altered before the somatic cell nucleus is transferred into the oocyte. This alteration precludes the coordinated organization and developmental potential that is necessary for the resulting biological entity to be an embryo, but it still allows the entity to generate pluripotent stem cells. Proof-of-principle for one variant of ANT has been established in mice by silencing the functional expression of the gene Cdx2 in the somatic cell nucleus prior to its transfer into an enucleated egg. From the resulting non-embryonic laboratory construct, fully functional pluripotent stem cells were procured. Other more recent studies have suggested the possibility of achieving the same results by preemptively silencing maternally derived Cdx2 messenger RNA in the egg before the act of nuclear transfer. The procedure would produce the equivalent of a tissue culture of pluripotent stem cells. In contrast to the use of embryos 'left over' from clinical in vitro fertilization, ANT could produce pluripotent stem cell lines with an unlimited range of specifically selected and controlled genotypes. Such flexibility would greatly facilitate the study of disease, drug development, and toxicology testing, and may allow the production of therapeutically useful pluripotent stem cells that are immune-compatible. If developed to

  6. Pluripotent stem cells isolated from umbilical cord form embryonic like bodies in a mesenchymal layer culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagias, Nikos; Kouzi-Koliakos, Kokkona; Karagiannis, Vasileios; Tsikouras, P; Koliakos, George G

    2015-03-01

    Recently the matrix of umbilical cord began to use as an alternative source of stem cells additionally to the blood of umbilical cord. Umbilical cord has been used mainly for mesenchymal stem cell banking. The immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with their ability to avoid rejection make them an attractive biological material for transplantations. In this study the isolation of small in size pluripotent stem cells from umbilical cord expressing early transcription factors with characteristics that resemble to embryonic stem cells is investigated. Pluripotent stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cords, by a new strategy method based on unique characteristics such as the small size and the positivity on early transcription factors OCT and Nanog. An enriched population of CXCR4(+) OCT(+) Nanog(+) CD45(-) small stem cells from the cord was isolated. This fraction was able to create alkaline phosphatase positive like spheres forms in a mesenchymal layer with multilineage differentiation capacity. Our results were assessed by RT PCR and electophoresis for the pluripotent genes. These data suggest that umbilical cord provides an attractive source not only of mesenchymal stem cells but moreover of pluripotent stem cells. The method described herein should be applied in the field of stem cell banking in addition to the classical umbilical cord harvesting method. Isolation of a population of cells with pluripotent characteristics from umbilical cord. Adoption of a second centrifugation step for the pluripotent stem isolation. Increasing the value of the cord and explaining the pluripotency. This work will enhance the value of umbilical cord harvesting.

  7. Gelatin–PMVE/MA composite scaffold promotes expansion of embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Hemlata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Gupta, Priyanka [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); IITB-Monash Research Academy, Mumbai (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Verma, Paul J. [Turretfield Research Centre, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Rosedale, South Australia (Australia); Jadhav, Sameer; Bellare, Jayesh R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a new composite scaffold of gelatin and polymethyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE/MA) for expansion of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in an in vitro environment. To optimize the scaffold, we prepared a gelatin scaffold (G) and three composite scaffolds namely GP-1, GP-2, and GP-3 with varying PMVE/MA concentrations (0.2–1%) and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling study, compression testing and FTIR. SEM micrographs revealed interconnected porous structure in all the scaffolds. The permissible hemolysis ratio and activation of platelets by scaffolds confirmed the hemocompatibility of scaffolds. Initial biocompatibility assessment of scaffolds was conducted using hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2) cells and adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of Hep G2 cells in depth of scaffolds were observed, proving the scaffold's biocompatibility. Further Oct4B2 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which harbor a green fluorescence protein transgene under regulatory control of the Oct4 promotor, were examined for expansion on scaffolds with MTT assay. The GP-2 scaffold demonstrated the best cell proliferation and was further explored for ESC adherence and infiltration in depth (SEM and confocal), and pluripotent state of mESCs was assessed with the expression of Oct4-GFP and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1). This study reports the first demonstration of biocompatibility of gelatin–PMVE/MA composite scaffold and presents this scaffold as a promising candidate for embryonic stem cell based tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds of gelatin and PMVE/MA were prepared by freeze-drying method. • SEM micrographs showed porous structure in all scaffolds of varying pore dimension. • GP-2 composite exhibited better cellular response in comparison to other scaffolds. • mESCs proliferated and expressed Oct-4 and SSEA-1, when cultured on GP-2 scaffold.

  8. Identification of polymer surface adsorbed proteins implicated in pluripotent human embryonic stem cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Moamen; Rao, Wei; Smith, James G W; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Young, Lorraine E; Barrett, David A; Davies, Martyn C; Denning, Chris; Alexander, Morgan R

    2016-08-16

    Improved biomaterials are required for application in regenerative medicine, biosensing, and as medical devices. The response of cells to the chemistry of polymers cultured in media is generally regarded as being dominated by proteins adsorbed to the surface. Here we use mass spectrometry to identify proteins adsorbed from a complex mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned medium found to support pluripotent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) expansion on a plasma etched tissue culture polystyrene surface. A total of 71 proteins were identified, of which 14 uniquely correlated with the surface on which pluripotent stem cell expansion was achieved. We have developed a microarray combinatorial protein spotting approach to test the potential of these 14 proteins to support expansion of a hESC cell line (HUES-7) and a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (ReBl-PAT) on a novel polymer (N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) methacrylamide). These proteins were spotted to form a primary array yielding several protein mixture 'hits' that enhanced cell attachment to the polymer. A second array was generated to test the function of a refined set of protein mixtures. We found that a combination of heat shock protein 90 and heat shock protein-1 encourage elevated adherence of pluripotent stem cells at a level comparable to fibronectin pre-treatment.

  9. Heparanase confers a growth advantage to differentiating murine embryonic stem cells, and enhances oligodendrocyte formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Anqi; Kundu, Soumi; Forsberg, Maud; Xiong, Yuyuan; Bergström, Tobias; Paavilainen, Tanja; Kjellén, Lena; Li, Jin-Ping; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), ubiquitous components of mammalian cells, play important roles in development and homeostasis. These molecules are located primarily on the cell surface and in the pericellular matrix, where they interact with a multitude of macromolecules, including many growth factors. Manipulation of the enzymes involved in biosynthesis and modification of HSPG structures alters the properties of stem cells. Here, we focus on the involvement of heparanase (HPSE), the sole endo-glucuronidase capable of cleaving of HS, in differentiation of embryonic stem cells into the cells of the neural lineage. Embryonic stem (ES) cells overexpressing HPSE (Hpse-Tg) proliferated more rapidly than WT ES cells in culture and formed larger teratomas in vivo. In addition, differentiating Hpse-Tg ES cells also had a higher growth rate, and overexpression of HPSE in NSPCs enhanced Erk and Akt phosphorylation. Employing a two-step, monolayer differentiation, we observed an increase in HPSE as wild-type (WT) ES cells differentiated into neural stem and progenitor cells followed by down-regulation of HPSE as these NSPCs differentiated into mature cells of the neural lineage. Furthermore, NSPCs overexpressing HPSE gave rise to more oligodendrocytes than WT cultures, with a concomitant reduction in the number of neurons. Our present findings emphasize the importance of HS, in neural differentiation and suggest that by regulating the availability of growth factors and, or other macromolecules, HPSE promotes differentiation into oligodendrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deciphering the Epigenetic Code in Embryonic and Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2016-01-01

    A close cooperation between chromatin states, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic modifications is required for establishing appropriate regulatory circuits underlying self-renewal and differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells. A growing body of research has established that the epigenome topology provides a structural framework for engaging genes in the non-random chromosomal interactions to orchestrate complex processes such as cell-matrix interactions, cell adhesion and cell migration during lineage commitment. Over the past few years, the functional dissection of the epigenetic landscape has become increasingly important for understanding gene expression dynamics in stem cells naturally found in most tissues. Adult stem cells of the human dental pulp hold great promise for tissue engineering, particularly in the skeletal and tooth regenerative medicine. It is therefore likely that progress towards pulp regeneration will have a substantial impact on the clinical research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding epigenetic cues that have evolved to regulate the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells and the lineage determination of developing dental pulp progenitors. PMID:28018144

  11. Skeletal tissue engineering using mesenchymal or embryonic stem cells: clinical and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamie, Zakareya; MacFarlane, Robert J; Tomkinson, Alicia; Moniakis, Alexandros; Tran, Gui Tong; Gamie, Yehya; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2014-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from a wide variety of tissues for bone tissue engineering such as bone marrow, adipose, birth-associated, peripheral blood, periosteum, dental and muscle. MSCs from human fetal bone marrow and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are also promising cell sources. In vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence was collected using MEDLINE® (1950 to January 2014), EMBASE (1980 to January 2014) and Google Scholar (1980 to January 2014) databases. Enhanced results have been found when combining bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) with recently developed scaffolds such as glass ceramics and starch-based polymeric scaffolds. Preclinical studies investigating adipose tissue-derived stem cells and umbilical cord tissue-derived stem cells suggest that they are likely to become promising alternatives. Stem cells derived from periosteum and dental tissues such as the periodontal ligament have an osteogenic potential similar to BMMSCs. Stem cells from human fetal bone marrow have demonstrated superior proliferation and osteogenic differentiation than perinatal and postnatal tissues. Despite ethical concerns and potential for teratoma formation, developments have also been made for the use of ESCs in terms of culture and ideal scaffold.

  12. Molecular Biomarkers for Embryonic and Adult Neural Stem Cell and Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The procedure of neurogenesis has made numerous achievements in the past decades, during which various molecular biomarkers have been emerging and have been broadly utilized for the investigation of embryonic and adult neural stem cell (NSC). Nevertheless, there is not a consistent and systematic illustration to depict the functional characteristics of the specific markers expressed in distinct cell types during the different stages of neurogenesis. Here we gathered and generalized a series of NSC biomarkers emerging during the procedures of embryonic and adult neural stem cell, which may be used to identify the subpopulation cells with distinguishing characters in different timeframes of neurogenesis. The identifications of cell patterns will provide applications to the detailed investigations of diverse developmental cell stages and the extents of cell differentiation, which will facilitate the tracing of cell time-course and fate determination of specific cell types and promote the further and literal discoveries of embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Meanwhile, via the utilization of comprehensive applications under the aiding of the systematic knowledge framework, researchers may broaden their insights into the derivation and establishment of novel technologies to analyze the more detailed process of embryogenesis and adult neurogenesis. PMID:26421301

  13. Quantitative glycomics monitoring of induced pluripotent- and embryonic stem cells during neuronal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyo Terashima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the structure of cell surface glycoforms occurring during the stages of stem cell differentiation remain unclear. We describe a rapid glycoblotting-based cellular glycomics method for quantitatively evaluating changes in glycoform expression and structure during neuronal differentiation of murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Our results show that changes in the expression of cellular N-glycans are comparable during the differentiation of iPSCs and ESCs. The expression of bisect-type N-glycans was significantly up-regulated in neurons that differentiated from both iPSCs and ESCs. From a glycobiological standpoint, iPSCs are an alternative neural cell source in addition to ESCs.

  14. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; van Meer, Berend; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Passier, Robert; Tertoolen, Leon G. J.; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes

  15. Cell polarity and neurogenesis in embryonic stem cell-derived neural rosettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Erin; McKinsey, Anna; Germain, Noelle; Carter, James; Anderson, Nickesha Camille; Grabel, Laura

    2015-04-15

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) undergoing neural differentiation form radial arrays of neural stem cells, termed neural rosettes. These structures manifest many of the properties associated with embryonic and adult neurogenesis, including cell polarization, interkinetic nuclear migration (INM), and a gradient of neuronal differentiation. We now identify novel rosette structural features that serve to localize key regulators of neurogenesis. Cells within neural rosettes have specialized basal as well as apical surfaces, based on localization of the extracellular matrix receptor β1 integrin. Apical processes of cells in mature rosettes terminate at the lumen, where adherens junctions are apparent. Primary cilia are randomly distributed in immature rosettes and tightly associated with the neural stem cell's apical domain as rosettes mature. Components of two signaling pathways known to regulate neurogenesis in vivo and in rosettes, Hedgehog and Notch, are apically localized, with the Hedgehog effector Smoothened (Smo) associated with primary cilia and the Notch pathway γ-secretase subunit Presenilin 2 associated with the adherens junction. Increased neuron production upon treatment with the Notch inhibitor DAPT suggests a major role for Notch signaling in maintaining the neural stem cell state, as previously described. A less robust outcome was observed with manipulation of Hedgehog levels, though consistent with a role in neural stem cell survival or proliferation. Inhibition of both pathways resulted in an additive effect. These data support a model by which cells extending a process to the rosette lumen maintain neural stem cell identity whereas release from this association, either through asymmetric cell division or apical abscission, promotes neuronal differentiation.

  16. Comparison of the metabolic activation of environmental carcinogens in mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krais, Annette M.; Mühlbauer, Karl-Rudolf; Kucab, Jill E.; Chinbuah, Helena; Cornelius, Michael G.; Wei, Quan-Xiang; Hollstein, Monica; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M.; Schmeiser, Heinz H.

    2015-01-01

    We compared mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblasts (MEFs) for their ability to metabolically activate the environmental carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and aristolochic acid I (AAI), measuring DNA adduct formation by 32P-postlabelling and expression of xenobiotic-metabolism genes by quantitative real-time PCR. At 2 μM, BaP induced Cyp1a1 expression in MEFs to a much greater extent than in ES cells and formed 45 times more adducts. Nqo1 mRNA expression was increased by 3-NBA in both cell types but induction was higher in MEFs, as was adduct formation. For AAI, DNA binding was over 450 times higher in MEFs than in ES cells, although Nqo1 and Cyp1a1 transcriptional levels did not explain this difference. We found higher global methylation of DNA in ES cells than in MEFs, which suggests higher chromatin density and lower accessibility of the DNA to DNA damaging agents in ES cells. However, AAI treatment did not alter DNA methylation. Thus mouse ES cells and MEFs have the metabolic competence to activate a number of environmental carcinogens, but MEFs have lower global DNA methylation and higher metabolic capacity than mouse ES cells. PMID:25230394

  17. Pathway Analysis and Modeling of the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Hepatocyte-like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalaki, Andriani; Jozefczuk, Justyna; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James; Wierling, Christoph

    2011-06-01

    A more detailed understanding of the differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells can help to improve therapies for liver diseases, like steatohepatitis. In this work we used microarray-based expression data to analyze the in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes. Pathway analysis has been carried out on gene expression data of different stages of the differentiation process from embryonic stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells via definitive endoderm and hepatic endoderm. Based on pathway analysis we identified signaling pathways, like the GPCR signaling pathway as well as FOXA2 regulatory networks. Based on these highly enriched pathways we constructed a model prototype to better understand and study the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes.

  18. Activin B mediated induction of Pdx1 in human embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Pørneki, Ann Dorte Storm; Floridon, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to provide alternative sources for pancreatic islet grafts. In the present study we have investigated the influence of Activin A and Activin B on the expression of the pancreas marker gene Pdx1 in hESCs differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs...... embryonic and fetal pancreas anlage in humans. Pdx1(+) cells are found in cell clusters also expressing Serpina1 and FABP1, suggesting activation of intestinal/liver developmental programs. Moreover, Activin B up-regulates Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its target Gli1, which during normal development......). We report here that Activin B in a dose depend manner markedly up-regulates Pdx1 expression as compared to Activin A and untreated cultures. Pdx1(+) cells co-express FOXA2 but lacks, however, co-expression with nkx6.1, a marker combination that in the present study is shown precisely to identify...

  19. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Noriko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Tohru, E-mail: tkimura@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shinohara, Takashi [Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Toru, E-mail: tnakano@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  20. Self-Organization of Spatial Patterning in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Etoc, Fred; Ozair, M Zeeshan; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    The developing embryo is a remarkable example of self-organization, where functional units are created in a complex spatiotemporal choreography. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used to recapitulate in vitro the self-organization programs that are executed in the embryo in vivo. This represents an unique opportunity to address self-organization in humans that is otherwise not addressable with current technologies. In this chapter, we review the recent literature on self-organization of human ESCs, with a particular focus on two examples: formation of embryonic germ layers and neural rosettes. Intriguingly, both activation and elimination of TGFβ signaling can initiate self-organization, albeit with different molecular underpinnings. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the formation of these structures in vitro and explore future challenges in the field. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A population of serumdeprivation-induced bone marrow stem cells (SD-BMSC) expresses marker typical for embryonic and neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzweig, Steven; Munsch, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar; Reymann, Klaus G.; Braun, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The bone marrow represents an easy accessible source of adult stem cells suitable for various cell based therapies. Several studies in recent years suggested the existence of pluripotent stem cells within bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) expressing marker proteins of both embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. These subpopulations were referred to as MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells. Here we describe SD-BMSC (serumdeprivation-induced BMSC) which are induced as a distinct subpopulation after complete serumdeprivation. SD-BMSC are generated from small-sized nestin-positive BMSC (S-BMSC) organized as round-shaped cells in the top layer of BMSC-cultures. The generation of SD-BMSC is caused by a selective proliferation of S-BMSC and accompanied by changes in both morphology and gene expression. SD-BMSC up-regulate not only markers typical for neural stem cells like nestin and GFAP, but also proteins characteristic for embryonic cells like Oct4 and SOX2. We hypothesize, that SD-BMSC like MAPC, MIAMI and VSEL-cells represent derivatives from a single pluripotent stem cell fraction within BMSC exhibiting characteristics of embryonic and tissue committed stem cells. The complete removal of serum might offer a simple way to specifically enrich this fraction of pluripotent embryonic like stem cells in BMSC cultures

  2. Differential bone-forming capacity of osteogenic cells from either embryonic stem cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Sanne Karijn; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Jukes, J.M.; Englund, Mikael C.O.; Hyllner, Johan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been used in bone tissue-engineering research. More recently some of the focus in this field has shifted towards the use of embryonic stem cells. While it is well known that hMSCs are able to form bone when implanted subcutaneously in

  3. Making gametes from pluripotent stem cells--a promising role for very small embryonic-like stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Hinduja, Indira; Patel, Hiren; Bhilawadikar, Rashmi

    2014-11-24

    The urge to have one's own biological child supersedes any desire in life. Several options have been used to obtain gametes including pluripotent stem cells (embryonic ES and induced pluripotent iPS stem cells); gonadal stem cells (spermatogonial SSCs, ovarian OSCs stem cells), bone marrow, mesenchymal cells and fetal skin. However, the field poses a huge challenge including inefficient existing protocols for differentiation, epigenetic and genetic changes associated with extensive in vitro manipulation and also ethical/regulatory constraints. A tremendous leap in the field occurred using mouse ES and iPS cells wherein they were first differentiated into epiblast-like cells and then primordial germ cell-like cells. These on further development produced sperm, oocytes and live offspring (had associated genetic problems). Evidently differentiating pluripotent stem cells into primordial germ cells (PGCs) remains a major bottleneck. Against this backdrop, we propose that a novel population of pluripotent stem cells termed very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may serve as an alternative, potential source of autologus gametes, keeping in mind that they are indeed PGCs surviving in adult mammalian ovaries and testes. Both VSELs and PGCs are pluripotent, relatively quiescent because of epigenetic modifications of parentally imprinted genes loci like Igf2-H19 and KCNQ1p57, share several markers like Stella, Fragilis, Mvh, Dppa2, Dppa4, Sall4, Blimp1 and functional receptors. VSELs are localized in the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules in testis and in the ovary surface epithelium. Ovarian stem cells from mouse, rabbit, sheep, marmoset and humans (menopausal women and those with premature ovarian failure) spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro with no additional requirement of growth factors. Thus a more pragmatic option to obtain autologus gametes may be the pluripotent VSELs and if we could manipulate them in vivo - existing

  4. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynertson, Kurt A. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Charlson, Mary E. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  5. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  6. Mechanisms of transcription factor-mediated direct reprogramming of mouse embryonic stem cells to trophoblast stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Catherine; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Beck, Samuel; LeBlanc, Lucy; Tucker, Haley O; Kim, Jonghwan

    2017-09-29

    Direct reprogramming can be achieved by forced expression of master transcription factors. Yet how such factors mediate repression of initial cell-type-specific genes while activating target cell-type-specific genes is unclear. Through embryonic stem (ES) to trophoblast stem (TS)-like cell reprogramming by introducing individual TS cell-specific 'CAG' factors (Cdx2, Arid3a and Gata3), we interrogate their chromosomal target occupancies, modulation of global transcription and chromatin accessibility at the initial stage of reprogramming. From the studies, we uncover a sequential, two-step mechanism of cellular reprogramming in which repression of pre-existing ES cell-associated gene expression program is followed by activation of TS cell-specific genes by CAG factors. Therefore, we reveal that CAG factors function as both decommission and pioneer factors during ES to TS-like cell fate conversion. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Meissen

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS, gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs. With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  8. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissen, John K; Yuen, Benjamin T K; Kind, Tobias; Riggs, John W; Barupal, Dinesh K; Knoepfler, Paul S; Fiehn, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs). With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  9. Reconstitution of Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis by Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shuxian; Lee, Byeong-Chel; Fu, Yigong; Avraham, Shalom; Lim, Bing; Avraham, Hava Karsenty

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mam...

  10. Embryotoxicity hazard assessment of cadmium and arsenic compounds using embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stummann, T.C.; Hareng, L.; Bremer, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been successfully validated as an in vitro method for detecting embryotoxicity, showing a good overall test accuracy of 78% [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Seiler, A., Brown, N., Piersma, A., Brady, M., Clemann, N., Huuskonen, H., Paillard, F., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2002. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro embryotoxicity tests: results of the definitive phase and evaluation of prediction models. European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. Altern. Lab. Anim. 30, 151-176]. Methylmercury was the only strong in vivo embryotoxicant falsely predicted as non-embryotoxic making the metal the most significant outlayer [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Pohl, I., Seiler, A., Clemann, N., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2004. Validation of the Embryonic Stem Cell Test in the international ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests. Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 209-244]. The misclassification of methylmercury and the potential environmental exposure to developmental toxic heavy metals promoted our investigation of whether the EST applicability domain covers cadmium and arsenic compounds. The EST misclassified cadmium, arsenite and arsenate compounds as non-embryotoxic, even when including arsenic metabolites (methylarsonate, methylarsonous and dimethylarsinic). The reasons were the lack of higher cytotoxicity towards embryonic stem cells as compared to more mature cells (3T3 fibroblasts) or the absence of inhibition of cardiac differentiation by specific mechanisms rather than general cytotoxicity. Including EST data on heavy metals from the literature (lithium, methylmercury, trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium) revealed that the test correctly predicted the embryotoxic potential of three out of the seven heavy metals, indicating an insufficient predictivity for such metals. Refinement of the EST prediction model and inclusion of additional toxicological endpoints could

  11. Systematically profiling and annotating long intergenic non-coding RNAs in human embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xing; Hou, Mei; Ding, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Ren, Lichen; Gao, Ge

    2013-01-01

    While more and more long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were identified to take important roles in both maintaining pluripotency and regulating differentiation, how these lincRNAs may define and drive cell fate decisions on a global scale are still mostly elusive. Systematical profiling and comprehensive annotation of embryonic stem cells lincRNAs may not only bring a clearer big picture of these novel regulators but also shed light on their functionalities. Based on multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically identified 300 human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs (hES lincRNAs). Of which, one forth (78 out of 300) hES lincRNAs were further identified to be biasedly expressed in human ES cells. Functional analysis showed that they were preferentially involved in several early-development related biological processes. Comparative genomics analysis further suggested that around half of the identified hES lincRNAs were conserved in mouse. To facilitate further investigation of these hES lincRNAs, we constructed an online portal for biologists to access all their sequences and annotations interactively. In addition to navigation through a genome browse interface, users can also locate lincRNAs through an advanced query interface based on both keywords and expression profiles, and analyze results through multiple tools. By integrating multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically characterized and annotated 300 hES lincRNAs. A full functional web portal is available freely at http://scbrowse.cbi.pku.edu.cn. As the first global profiling and annotating of human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs, this work aims to provide a valuable resource for both experimental biologists and bioinformaticians.

  12. [Cytotoxic effects of etoposide at different stages of differentiation of embryoid bodies formed by mouse embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, O F

    2013-01-01

    The initial stages of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells are considered as unique three-dimensional models of early development of mammals for basic, pharmacological, and toxicological studies. It has been previously shown (Gordeeva, 2012) that the assessment of embryotoxicity in the model of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells can be insufficiently accurate in predicting toxic effects on mammalian embryos. In view of this, we performed a comparative study of the damaging effects of the cytostatic etoposide in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryoid bodiesof different stages of differentiation that have similar three-dimensional structures with early embryos. The analysis of growth, cell death, and dynamics of differentiation of embryonic stem cells and embryoid bodies exposed to etoposide showed that the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of etoposide are stage-specific. The damaging effects of etoposide were maximum in the undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and decreased with growth and differentiation of embryoid bodies. We assume that the increase in the cell volume of embryoid bodies and the development of the hypertrophic we suggest that the increase of embryoid body volume and overgrowth of extraembryonic endoderm layer lead to a decrease in the diffusion, transport, and metabolism of chemical and bioactive substances and prevent the damaging effects.

  13. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxun; Cheng, Jinping; Kong, Chi-Wing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han Cheng, Shuk; Li, Ronald A.; Sun, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  14. Plasticity of Calcium Signaling Cascades in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forostyak, Oksana; Romanyuk, Nataliya; Verkhratsky, A.; Syková, Eva; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2013), s. 1506-1521 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/2373; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant - others:FP7(XE) PITN-GA-2008-214003 project AXREGEN; FP7(XE) PITN-GA-2009-237956 project EdU-GLIA Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : human embryonic stem cells * voltage-operated Ca2+ channels * spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.202, year: 2013

  15. System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Akimov, Vyacheslav

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate cellular events underlying the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we performed parallel quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of hESCs during differentiation initiated by a diacylglycerol analog or transfer to media that had not been conditioned...... by feeder cells. We profiled 6521 proteins and 23,522 phosphorylation sites, of which almost 50% displayed dynamic changes in phosphorylation status during 24 hours of differentiation. These data are a resource for studies of the events associated with the maintenance of hESC pluripotency and those...

  16. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XY male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  17. Stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture for human embryonic stem cell proteomic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    The identification and quantitative measurements of proteins in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a fast growing interdisciplinary area with an enormous impact on understanding the biology of hESC and the mechanism controlling self-renewal and differentiation. Using a quantitative mass...... spectroscopic method of stable isotope labelling with amino acids during cell culture (SILAC), we are able to analyse differential expression of proteins from different cellular compartments and to identify intracellular signalling pathways involved in self-renewal and differentiation. In this chapter, we...

  18. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe011-A (RC-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe011-A (RC-7 was derived from a failed to fertilise oocyte voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XY male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  19. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10 was derived from a fresh oocyte voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a mixed 46XY and 47XY +12 male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  20. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Sun, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-480 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-480 cell line carried a hemizygous missense mutation c.1825G>A(p.Glu609Lys) of ABCD1 gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-480 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying HTT gene CAG expansion of 45 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 92% Oct4, 75% Tra1–60 and 99% SSEA4 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  2. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  3. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8 was derived from a frozen and thawed day 5 embryo cultivated to the blastocyst stage. The embryo was voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  4. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line exhibits expression of expected pluripotency markers and in vitro differentiation potential to three germinal lineage representative cell populations. It has a male trisomy 12 karyotype (47XY, +12. Microsatellite DNA marker identity and HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  5. Comparative study of mouse and human feeder cells for human embryonic stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eiselleová, L.; Peterková, I.; Neradil, J.; Slaninová, I.; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2008), s. 353-363 ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA305/05/0434 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Human embryonic stem cell * Growth factor production * Undifferentiated growth Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2008

  6. Increased apoptosis in differentiating p27-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Vítězslav; Pacherník, J.; Souček, K.; Horvát, V.; Dvořák, Petr; Hampl, Aleš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2004), s. 1384-1400 ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0905; GA MŠk LN00A065; GA AV ČR KJB5039301; GA ČR GP524/03/P171; GA ČR GA524/03/0766 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : mouse embryonic stem cell * p27 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.812, year: 2004

  7. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe015-A (RC-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe015-A (RC-11 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a fragmented cleavage stage embryo voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe015-A (RC-11 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  8. Recruitment of Oct4 protein to UV-damaged chromatin in embryonic stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Šustáčková, Gabriela; Stixová, Lenka; Kozubek, Stanislav; Legartová, Soňa; Foltánková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 12 (2011), e27281 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06027; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 919; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/1022; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * epigenetics * Oct4 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  9. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Are Capable of Executing G1/S Checkpoint Activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bárta, Tomáš; Vinarský, Vladimír; Holubcová, Z.; Doležalová, Dáša; Verner, J.; Pospíšilová, Š.; Dvořák, Petr; Hampl, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 7 (2010), s. 1143-1152 ISSN 1066-5099 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA MZd(CZ) NS10439; GA MŠk(CZ) MUNIE/E/0118/2009; EC FP6(XE) LSHG-CT-2006-018739 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : human embryonic stem cells * DNA damage * checkpoint activation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.871, year: 2010

  10. Overexpression of Trophoblast Stem Cell-Enriched MicroRNAs Promotes Trophoblast Fate in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosi, Ursula; Lanner, Fredrik; Huang, Tsu; Cox, Brian

    2017-05-09

    The first cell fate choice of the preimplantation embryo generates the extraembryonic trophoblast and embryonic epiblast lineages. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) can be utilized to investigate molecular mechanisms of this first cell fate decision. It has been established that ESCs can be induced to acquire trophoblast lineage characteristics upon manipulation of lineage-determining transcription factors. Here, we have interrogated the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) to drive trans-differentiation of ESCs into the trophoblast lineage. Analysis of gene expression data identified a network of TSC-enriched miRNAs that were predicted to target mRNAs enriched in ESCs. Ectopic expression of these miRNAs in ESCs resulted in a stable trophoblast phenotype, supported by gene expression changes and in vivo contribution potential. This process is highly miRNA-specific and dependent on Hdac2 inhibition. Our experimental evidence suggests that these miRNAs promote a mural trophectoderm (TE)-like cell fate with physiological properties that differentiate them from the polar TE. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The science and ethics of induced pluripotency: what will become of embryonic stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, David G; Nelson, Timothy J; Mueller, Paul S; Hook, C Christopher

    2011-07-01

    For over a decade, the field of stem cell research has advanced tremendously and gained new attention in light of novel insights and emerging developments for regenerative medicine. Invariably, multiple considerations come into play, and clinicians and researchers must weigh the benefits of certain stem cell platforms against the costs they incur. Notably, human embryonic stem (hES) cell research has been a source of continued debate, leading to differing policies and regulations worldwide. This article briefly reviews current stem cell platforms, looking specifically at the two existing pluripotent lines available for potential therapeutic applications: hES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We submit iPS technology as a viable and possibly superior alternative for future medical and research endeavors as it obviates many ethical and resource-related concerns posed by hES cells while prospectively matching their potential for scientific use. However, while the clinical realities of iPS cells appear promising, we must recognize the current limitations of this technology, avoid hype, and articulate ethically acceptable medical and scientific goals.

  12. β-Cell Replacement in Mice Using Human Type 1 Diabetes Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Lina; Danzl, Nichole; Campbell, Sean R; Viola, Ryan; Williams, Damian; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Neil; Poffenberger, Greg; Johannesson, Bjarki; Oberholzer, Jose; Powers, Alvin C; Leibel, Rudolph L; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sykes, Megan; Egli, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    β-Cells derived from stem cells hold great promise for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here we examine the ability of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ESs) derived from a patient with type 1 diabetes to differentiate into β-cells and provide a source of autologous islets for cell replacement. NT-ESs differentiate in vitro with an average efficiency of 55% into C-peptide-positive cells, expressing markers of mature β-cells, including MAFA and NKX6.1. Upon transplantation in immunodeficient mice, grafted cells form vascularized islet-like structures containing MAFA/C-peptide-positive cells. These β-cells adapt insulin secretion to ambient metabolite status and show normal insulin processing. Importantly, NT-ES-β-cells maintain normal blood glucose levels after ablation of the mouse endogenous β-cells. Cystic structures, but no teratomas, were observed in NT-ES-β-cell grafts. Isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed greater variability in β-cell differentiation. Even though different methods of somatic cell reprogramming result in stem cell lines that are molecularly indistinguishable, full differentiation competence is more common in ES cell lines than in induced pluripotent stem cell lines. These results demonstrate the suitability of NT-ES-β-cells for cell replacement for type 1 diabetes and provide proof of principle for therapeutic cloning combined with cell therapy. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Functional neuromuscular junctions formed by embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy A Umbach

    Full Text Available A key objective of stem cell biology is to create physiologically relevant cells suitable for modeling disease pathologies in vitro. Much progress towards this goal has been made in the area of motor neuron (MN disease through the development of methods to direct spinal MN formation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Previous studies have characterized these neurons with respect to their molecular and intrinsic functional properties. However, the synaptic activity of stem cell-derived MNs remains less well defined. In this study, we report the development of low-density co-culture conditions that encourage the formation of active neuromuscular synapses between stem cell-derived MNs and muscle cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy reveals the expression of numerous synaptic proteins at these contacts, while dual patch clamp recording detects both spontaneous and multi-quantal evoked synaptic responses similar to those observed in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that stem cell-derived MNs innervate muscle cells in a functionally relevant manner. This dual recording approach further offers a sensitive and quantitative assay platform to probe disorders of synaptic dysfunction associated with MN disease.

  14. Epiblastin A Induces Reprogramming of Epiblast Stem Cells Into Embryonic Stem Cells by Inhibition of Casein Kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Andrei; Illich, Damir J; Takemoto, Yasushi; Porfetye, Arthur T; Zhang, Miao; Brockmeyer, Andreas; Janning, Petra; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Osada, Hiroyuki; Vetter, Ingrid R; Ziegler, Slava; Schöler, Hans R; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-04-21

    The discovery of novel small molecules that induce stem cell reprogramming and give efficient access to pluripotent stem cells is of major importance for potential therapeutic applications and may reveal novel insights into the factors controlling pluripotency. Chemical reprogramming of mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) into cells corresponding to embryonic stem cells (cESCs) is an inefficient process. In order to identify small molecules that promote this cellular transition, we analyzed the LOPAC library in a phenotypic screen monitoring Oct4-GFP expression and identified triamterene (TR) as initial hit. Synthesis of a TR-derived compound collection and investigation for reprogramming of EpiSCs into cESCs identified casein kinases 1 (CK1) α/δ/ɛ as responsible cellular targets of TR and unraveled the structural parameters that determine reprogramming. Delineation of a structure-activity relationship led to the development of Epiblastin A, which engages CK1 isoenzymes in cell lysate and induces efficient conversion of EpiSCs into cESCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  16. Art and human embryonic stem cells: from the bench to the high street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, Sebastien

    2009-03-01

    ESTOOLS, a project funded by the European Commission (FP6), gathers expertise on human embryonic stem cells in 10 countries of the European Research Area. The ESTOOLS outreach program uses Art extensively as the only universal cross-cultural and cross-religion means of communication. The Smile of a Stem Cell photo exhibition, a major component of this program, aims to fill a missing link between public dissemination of science and science-illiterate citizens. Scientists are also engaged to stand at a distance from their work and observe it with an outsider's perspective, which enhances their competency to communicate science. The photo exhibition, by its situation upstream of scientific education, makes itself open to interest and enthusiasm among a public with no prerequired scientific knowledge or abilities.

  17. Electrophysiological properties and calcium handling of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Boum Youm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs hold great interest in many fields of research including clinical applications such as stem cell and gene therapy for cardiac repair or regeneration. ESC-CMs are also used as a platform tool for pharmacological tests or for investigations of cardiac remodeling. ESC-CMs have many different aspects of morphology, electrophysiology, calcium handling, and bioenergetics compared with adult cardiomyocytes. They are immature in morphology, similar to sinus nodal-like in the electrophysiology, higher contribution of trans-sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx to Ca2+ handling, and higher dependence on anaerobic glycolysis. Here, I review a detailed electrophysiology and Ca2+ handling features of ESC-CMs during differentiation into adult cardiomyocytes to gain insights into how all the developmental changes are related to each other to display cardinal features of developing cardiomyocytes.

  18. Variations in Humanized and Defined Culture Conditions Supporting Derivation of New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Judy M; Ferrier, Patricia M; Gardner, John O

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of "humanized" (i.e., free of animal sourced reagents) and ultimately chemically defined culture systems for human embryo stem cell (hESC) isolation and culture is of importance to improving their efficacy and safety in research and therapeutic applications. This can be achieved...... serum-free medium (SFM) containing only human sourced and recombinant protein. Further, outgrowth of embryonic cells from whole blastocysts in both media could be achieved for up to 1 week without reliance on feeder cells. All variant conditions sustained undifferentiated cell status, a stable karyotype......, with a transitional requirement for human feeder cells. This represents another sequential step in the generation of therapeutic grade stem cells with reduced risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission....

  19. 3D Reconstitution of the Patterned Neural Tube from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Andrea; Eberle, Dominic; Tazaki, Akira; Ranga, Adrian; Niesche, Marco; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Stec, Agnieszka; Schackert, Gabriele; Lutolf, Matthias; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen in 3D. Untreated cysts were uniformly dorsal and could be ventralized to floor plate (FP). Retinoic acid posteriorized cysts to cervical levels and induced localize FP formation yielding full patterning along the dorsal/ventral (DV) axis. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons, and dorsal interneurons along the DV axis was observed. This system serves as a valuable tool for studying morphogen action in 3D and as a source of patterned spinal cord tissue. PMID:25454634

  20. 3D Reconstitution of the Patterned Neural Tube from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meinhardt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen in 3D. Untreated cysts were uniformly dorsal and could be ventralized to floor plate (FP. Retinoic acid posteriorized cysts to cervical levels and induced localize FP formation yielding full patterning along the dorsal/ventral (DV axis. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons, and dorsal interneurons along the DV axis was observed. This system serves as a valuable tool for studying morphogen action in 3D and as a source of patterned spinal cord tissue.

  1. Collagen Type I Improves the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Definitive Endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn; Møller, Jonas Bech

    2015-01-01

    embryonic stem cells to the definitive endoderm lineage. The percentage of definitive endoderm cells after differentiation on collagen I and fibronectin was >85% and 65%, respectively. The cells on collagen I substrates displayed different morphology and gene expression during differentiation as assessed...... by time lapse studies compared to cells on the other tested substrates. Global gene expression analysis showed that cells differentiated on collagen I were largely similar to cells on fibronectin after completed differentiation. Collectively, the data suggest that collagen I induces a more rapid...... and consistent differentiation of stem cells to definitive endoderm. The results shed light on the importance of extracellular matrix proteins for differentiation and also points to a cost effective and easy method to improve differentiation....

  2. Pluripotency factors and Polycomb Group proteins repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in murine embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-I Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development.

  3. Identification and characterization of secondary neural tube-derived embryonic neural stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohammed R; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2015-05-15

    Secondary neurulation is an embryonic progress that gives rise to the secondary neural tube, the precursor of the lower spinal cord region. The secondary neural tube is derived from aggregated Sox2-expressing neural cells at the dorsal region of the tail bud, which eventually forms rosette or tube-like structures to give rise to neural tissues in the tail bud. We addressed whether the embryonic tail contains neural stem cells (NSCs), namely secondary NSCs (sNSCs), with the potential for self-renewal in vitro. Using in vitro neurosphere assays, neurospheres readily formed at the rosette and neural-tube levels, but less frequently at the tail bud tip level. Furthermore, we identified that sNSC-generated neurospheres were significantly smaller in size compared with cortical neurospheres. Interestingly, various cell cycle analyses revealed that this difference was not due to a reduction in the proliferation rate of NSCs, but rather the neuronal commitment of sNSCs, as sNSC-derived neurospheres contain more committed neuronal progenitor cells, even in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). These results suggest that the higher tendency for sNSCs to spontaneously differentiate into progenitor cells may explain the limited expansion of the secondary neural tube during embryonic development.

  4. In vitro organogenesis of gut-like structures from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, M; Ogaeri, T; Matsuura, R; Kogo, H; Fujimoto, T; Torihashi, S

    2004-04-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have pluripotency and give rise to many cell types and tissues, including representatives of all three germ layers in the embryo. We have reported previously that mouse ES cells formed contracting gut-like organs from embryoid bodies (EBs). These gut-like structures contracted spontaneously, and had large lumens surrounded by three layers, i.e. epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis. Ganglia were scattered along the periphery, and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were distributed among the smooth muscle cells. In the present study, to determine whether they can be a model of gut organogenesis, we investigated the formation process of the gut-like structures in comparison with embryonic gut development. As a result, we found that the fundamental process of formation in vitro was similar to embryonic gut development in vivo. The result indicates that the gut-like structure is a useful tool not only for developmental study to determine the factors that induce gut organogenesis, but also for studies of enteric neurone and ICC development.

  5. Organoids and the genetically encoded self-assembly of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David A; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of early embryonic patterning and the timely allocation of specific cells to embryonic regions and fates as well as their development into tissues and organs, is a fundamental problem in Developmental Biology. The classical explanation for this process had been built around the notion of positional information. Accordingly the programmed appearance of sources of Morphogens at localized positions within a field of cells directs their differentiation. Recently, the development of organs and tissues from unpatterned and initially identical stem cells (adult and embryonic) has challenged the need for positional information and even the integrity of the embryo, for pattern formation. Here we review the emerging area of organoid biology from the perspective of Developmental Biology. We argue that the events underlying the development of these systems are not purely linked to self-organization, as often suggested, but rather to a process of genetically encoded self-assembly where genetic programs encode and control the emergence of biological structures. © 2015 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an Origin of Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Noisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs. hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease.

  7. Reptin regulates pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and somatic cell reprogramming through Oct4-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Eun Kyoung; Cheon, Hyo Cheon; Jang, Il Ho; Choi, Eun Jung; Heo, Soon Chul; Kang, Kyung Taek; Bae, Kwang Hee; Cho, Yee Sook; Seo, Jeong Kon; Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Taehoon G; Kim, Jae Ho

    2014-12-01

    Oct4 has been implicated in regulation of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in Oct4-dependent regulation of pluripotency and reprogramming have not been clear. To gain insight into the mechanism of regulation of Oct4-mediated self-renewal of ESCs and reprogramming of somatic cells, we attempted to identify Oct4-binding proteins using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. We identified Reptin, a key component of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, as an Oct4-binding protein. Depletion of endogenous Reptin using lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) led to a decrease in the number and size of alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies of mouse ESCs. In addition, shRNA-mediated silencing of Reptin resulted in decreased expression of pluripotency-specific marker genes, including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and SSEA-1. Results of the Oct4 reporter assay showed synergism between Oct4 and Reptin, and depletion of endogenous Reptin abolished Oct4 transcriptional activity. Results of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed the overlapping interaction of Reptin and Oct4 to CR4 in the Oct4 enhancer in ESCs. Knockdown of Reptin using shRNA suppressed the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells, whereas overexpression of Reptin resulted in enhanced efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell generation. These results strongly suggest that Reptin plays a key role in maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and in establishing the pluripotency during reprogramming of somatic cells by regulation of Oct4-mediated gene regulation. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Expression of Tight Junction Components in Hepatocyte-Like Cells Differentiated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi-Belle, Boglárka; Török, György; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Kiss, András; Homolya, László

    2015-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated in vitro into a wide variety of progeny cells by addition of different morphogens and growth factors. Our aim was to monitor the expression pattern of tight junction (TJ) components and various cellular markers during differentiation of stem cell lines toward the hepatic lineage. Human embryonic stem cell lines (HUES1, HUES9) were differentiated into endoderm-like cells, and further differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells. Gene expressions of Oct3/4, Nanog, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, cytokeratins (CK-7, CK-8, CK-18, CK-19), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCC2, ABCC7, ABCG2), and various TJ components, including claudin-1, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and tricellulin, as well as an extracellular matrix component, agrin were monitored during hepatic differentiation by real-time quantitative PCR. The differentiated cells exhibit epithelial morphology and functional assessments similar to that of hepatocytes. The expression level of stem cell marker genes (Oct3/4 and Nanog) significantly and gradually decreased, while liver-associated genes (alpha-fetoprotein, albumin) reached their highest expression at the end of the differentiation. The endoderm-like cells expressed claudin-1, which declined eventually. The expression levels of cholangiocyte markers including claudin-4, CK-7, CK-19, and agrin gradually increased and reached their highest level at the final stage of differentiation. In contrast, these cells did not express notable level of claudin-7, CK-8 and tricellulin. The marker set used for monitoring differentiation revealed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte characteristics of the differentiated cells at the final stage. This is the first report describing the expression level changes of various TJ components, and underlining their importance in hepatic differentiation.

  9. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Armin; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Haruko; Eaimkhong, Sarayoot; Evseenko, Denis; Reed, Jason; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Nakano, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell-cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

  10. Generation of a constitutively expressing Tetracycline repressor (TetR human embryonic stem cell line BJNhem20-TetR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell line BJNhem20-TetR was generated using non-viral method. The construct pCAG-TetRnls was transfected using microporation procedure. BJNhem20-TetR can subsequently be transfected with any vector harbouring a TetO (Tet operator sequence to generate doxycycline based inducible line. For example, in human embryonic stem cells, the pSuperior based TetO system has been transfected into a TetR containing line to generate OCT4 knockdown cell line (Zafarana et al., 2009. Thus BJNhem20-TetR can be used as a tool to perturb gene expression in human embryonic stem cells.

  11. Chorionic villi derived mesenchymal like stem cells and expression of embryonic stem cells markers during long-term culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiani, E; Garas, A; Skentou, C; Tsezou, A; Messini, C I; Dafopoulos, K; Daponte, A; Messinis, I E

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from a variety of human tissues. MSCs derived from placental chorionic villi of the first trimester are likely to resemble, biologically, embryonic stem cells (ESC), due to the earlier development stage of placenta. In the present study long-term cultures of MSC-like cells were assessed in order to evaluate MSCs multipotent characteristics and molecular features during the period of culture. CV-cells obtained from 10 samples of chorionic villus displayed typical fibroblastoid morphology, undergone 20 passages during a period of 120 days, maintaining a stable karyotype throughout long term expansion. The cells were positive, for CD90, CD73, CD105, CD29, CD44, HLA ABC antigens and negative for CD14, CD34, AC133, and HLA DR antigens as resulted from the flow cytometry analysis. CV-cells were differentiated in adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and neuronal cells under specific culture conditions. The expression of the ESC-gene markers POU5F1 (Oct-4) and NANOG was observed at earliest stages (4-12 passages) and not at the late stages (14-20 passages) by RT-PCR analysis. ZFP42 and SOX2 expression were not detected. Moreover, CV-cells were found to express GATA4 but not NES (Nestin). Chorionic villi-derived cells possess multipotent properties, display high proliferation rate and self-renew capacity, share common surface antigens with adult MSCs and express certain embryonics stem cells gene markers. These characteristics highlight chorionic villi as an attractive source of MSCs for the needs of regenerative medicine.

  12. Trib2 regulates the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and enhances reprogramming efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Eun Kyoung; Park, Jae Kyung; Cheon, Hyo Cheon; Kwon, Yang Woo; Heo, Soon Chul; Choi, Eun Jung; Seo, Jeong Kon; Jang, Il Ho; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Jae Ho

    2017-11-24

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells characterized by self-renewability and differentiation potential. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are ES cell-equivalent cells derived from somatic cells by the introduction of core reprogramming factors. ES and iPS cells are important sources for understanding basic biology and for generating therapeutic cells for clinical applications. Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) functions as a scaffold in signaling pathways. However, the relevance of Trib2 to the pluripotency of ES and iPS cells is unknown. In the present study, we elucidated the importance of Trib2 in maintaining pluripotency in mouse ES cells and in generating iPS cells from somatic cells through the reprogramming process. Trib2 expression decreased as ES cells differentiated, and Trib2 knockdown in ES cells changed their colony morphology while reducing the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the expression of the pluripotency marker genes Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Klf4. Trib2 directly interacted with Oct4 and elevated Oct4 promoter activity. During the generation of iPS cells, Trib2 knockdown decreased the reprogramming efficiency of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, whereas Trib2 overexpression significantly increased their reprogramming efficiency. In summary, our results suggest that Trib2 is important for maintaining self-renewal in ES cells and for pluripotency induction during the reprogramming process.

  13. A photoprotein in mouse embryonic stem cells measures Ca2+ mobilization in cells and in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cainarca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous expression of pharmacological targets in transformed cell lines has been the traditional platform for high throughput screening of small molecules. However, exogenous expression in these cells is limited by aberrant dosage, or its toxicity, the potential lack of interaction partners, and alterations to physiology due to transformation itself. Instead, primary cells or cells differentiated from precursors are more physiological, but less amenable to exogenous expression of reporter systems. To overcome this challenge, we stably expressed c-Photina, a Ca(2+-sensitive photoprotein, driven by a ubiquitous promoter in a mouse embryonic stem (mES cell line. The same embryonic stem cell line was also used to generate a transgenic mouse that expresses c-Photina in most tissues. We show here that these cells and mice provide an efficient source of primary cells, cells differentiated from mES cells, including cardiomyocytes, neurons, astrocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, pancreatic islet cells, stably and robustly expressing c-Photina, and may be exploited for miniaturized high throughput screening. Moreover, we provide evidence that the transgenic mice may be suitable for ex-vivo bioimaging studies in both cells and tissues.

  14. Electrical stimulation of human embryonic stem cells: cardiac differentiation and the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Figallo, Elisa; Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Gerecht, Sharon; Elvassore, Nicola; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-12-10

    Exogenous electric fields have been implied in cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, we explored the effects of electrical field stimulation on ROS generation and cardiogenesis in embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, line H13), using a custom-built electrical stimulation bioreactor. Electrical properties of the bioreactor system were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and analysis of electrical currents. The effects of the electrode material (stainless steel, titanium-nitride-coated titanium, titanium), length of stimulus (1 and 90 s) and age of EBs at the onset of electrical stimulation (4 and 8 days) were investigated with respect to ROS generation. The amplitude of the applied electrical field was 1 V/mm. The highest rate of ROS generation was observed for stainless steel electrodes, for signal duration of 90 s and for 4-day-old EBs. Notably, comparable ROS generation was achieved by incubation of EBs with 1 nM H(2)O(2). Cardiac differentiation in these EBs was evidenced by spontaneous contractions, expression of troponin T and its sarcomeric organization. These results imply that electrical stimulation plays a role in cardiac differentiation of hESCs, through mechanisms associated with the intracellular generation of ROS.

  15. Regulating RNA polymerase pausing and transcription elongation in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Irene M; Waterfall, Joshua J; Core, Leighton J; Munroe, Robert J; Schimenti, John; Lis, John T

    2011-04-01

    Transitions between pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells are executed by key transcription regulators. Comparative measurements of RNA polymerase distribution over the genome's primary transcription units in different cell states can identify the genes and steps in the transcription cycle that are regulated during such transitions. To identify the complete transcriptional profiles of RNA polymerases with high sensitivity and resolution, as well as the critical regulated steps upon which regulatory factors act, we used genome-wide nuclear run-on (GRO-seq) to map the density and orientation of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In both cell types, progression of a promoter-proximal, paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) into productive elongation is a rate-limiting step in transcription of ∼40% of mRNA-encoding genes. Importantly, quantitative comparisons between cell types reveal that transcription is controlled frequently at paused Pol II's entry into elongation. Furthermore, "bivalent" ESC genes (exhibiting both active and repressive histone modifications) bound by Polycomb group complexes PRC1 (Polycomb-repressive complex 1) and PRC2 show dramatically reduced levels of paused Pol II at promoters relative to an average gene. In contrast, bivalent promoters bound by only PRC2 allow Pol II pausing, but it is confined to extremely 5' proximal regions. Altogether, these findings identify rate-limiting targets for transcription regulation during cell differentiation.

  16. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into endoderm without embryoid body formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T W Kim

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem cells hold a great promise as an unlimited source of tissue for treatment of chronic diseases such as Type 1 diabetes. Herein, we describe a protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor and dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP in the absence of embryoid body formation, for differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic precursors. The produced cells were analyzed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and static insulin release assay for markers of trilaminar embryo, and pancreas. Differentiated cells displayed increased Sox17 and Foxa2 expression consistent with definitive endoderm production. There was minimal production of Sox7, an extraembryonic endoderm marker, and Oct4, a marker of pluripotency. There was minimal mesoderm or neuroectoderm formation based on expression levels of the markers brachyury and Sox1, respectively. Various assays revealed that the cell clusters generated by this protocol express markers of the pancreatic lineage including insulin I, insulin II, C-peptide, PDX-1, carboxypeptidase E, pan-cytokeratin, amylase, glucagon, PAX6, Ngn3 and Nkx6.1. This protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, DBcAMP, in the absence of embryoid bodies, generated cells that have features of definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic endocrine precursors.

  17. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cells form spontaneously active neuronal networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Teemu J; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Lappalainen, Riikka S; Skottman, Heli; Suuronen, Riitta; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Hyttinen, Jari A K; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2009-07-01

    The production of functional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neuronal cells is critical for the application of hESCs in treating neurodegenerative disorders. To study the potential functionality of hESC-derived neurons, we cultured and monitored the development of hESC-derived neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that these networks were positive for the neuronal marker proteins beta-tubulin(III) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). The hESC-derived neuronal networks were spontaneously active and exhibited a multitude of electrical impulse firing patterns. Synchronous bursts of electrical activity similar to those reported for hippocampal neurons and rodent embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal networks were recorded from the differentiated cultures until up to 4 months. The dependence of the observed neuronal network activity on sodium ion channels was examined using tetrodotoxin (TTX). Antagonists for the glutamate receptors NMDA [D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid] and AMPA/kainate [6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione], and for GABAA receptors [(-)-bicuculline methiodide] modulated the spontaneous electrical activity, indicating that pharmacologically susceptible neuronal networks with functional synapses had been generated. The findings indicate that hESC-derived neuronal cells can generate spontaneously active networks with synchronous communication in vitro, and are therefore suitable for use in developmental and drug screening studies, as well as for regenerative medicine.

  18. STELLA facilitates differentiation of germ cell and endodermal lineages of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patompon Wongtrakoongate

    Full Text Available Stella is a developmentally regulated gene highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells and in primordial germ cells (PGCs. In human, the gene encoding the STELLA homologue lies on chromosome 12p, which is frequently amplified in long-term cultured human ES cells. However, the role played by STELLA in human ES cells has not been reported. In the present study, we show that during retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation of human ES cells, expression of STELLA follows that of VASA, a marker of germline differentiation. By contrast, human embryonal carcinoma cells express STELLA at a higher level compared with both karyotypically normal and abnormal human ES cell lines. We found that over-expression of STELLA does not interfere with maintenance of the stem cell state of human ES cells, but following retinoic acid induction it leads to up-regulation of germline- and endodermal-associated genes, whereas neural markers PAX6 and NEUROD1 are down-regulated. Further, STELLA over-expression facilitates the differentiation of human ES cells into BE12-positive cells, in which the expression of germline- and endodermal-associated genes is enriched, and suppresses differentiation of the neural lineage. Taken together, this finding suggests a role for STELLA in facilitating germline and endodermal differentiation of human ES cells.

  19. Impact of transient down-regulation of DREAM in human embryonic stem cell pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán-Lozano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the functions of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, DREAM interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in a Ca2+-dependent manner, preventing CREB binding protein (CBP recruitment. Furthermore, CREB and CBP are involved in maintaining ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. However, a previous knockout study revealed the protective function of DREAM depletion in brain aging degeneration and that aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cells (SCs function. Interestingly, we found that DREAM is expressed in different cell types, including human ESCs (hESCs, human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs, and human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs, and that transitory inhibition of DREAM in hESCs reduces their pluripotency, increasing differentiation. We stipulate that these changes are partly mediated by increased CREB transcriptional activity. Overall, our data indicates that DREAM acts in the regulation of hESC pluripotency and could be a target to promote or prevent differentiation in embryonic cells.

  20. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac.

  1. STELLA facilitates differentiation of germ cell and endodermal lineages of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtrakoongate, Patompon; Jones, Mark; Gokhale, Paul J; Andrews, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Stella is a developmentally regulated gene highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and in primordial germ cells (PGCs). In human, the gene encoding the STELLA homologue lies on chromosome 12p, which is frequently amplified in long-term cultured human ES cells. However, the role played by STELLA in human ES cells has not been reported. In the present study, we show that during retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of human ES cells, expression of STELLA follows that of VASA, a marker of germline differentiation. By contrast, human embryonal carcinoma cells express STELLA at a higher level compared with both karyotypically normal and abnormal human ES cell lines. We found that over-expression of STELLA does not interfere with maintenance of the stem cell state of human ES cells, but following retinoic acid induction it leads to up-regulation of germline- and endodermal-associated genes, whereas neural markers PAX6 and NEUROD1 are down-regulated. Further, STELLA over-expression facilitates the differentiation of human ES cells into BE12-positive cells, in which the expression of germline- and endodermal-associated genes is enriched, and suppresses differentiation of the neural lineage. Taken together, this finding suggests a role for STELLA in facilitating germline and endodermal differentiation of human ES cells.

  2. Sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells to different conditions during cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqing; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Jiandong; Wei, Yuping; Xu, Xia

    2015-12-01

    Low cell recovery rate of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) resulting from cryopreservation damages leads to the difficulty in their successful commercialization of clinical applications. Hence in this study, sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to different cooling rates, ice seeding and cryoprotective agent (CPA) types was compared and cell viability and recovery after cryopreservation under different cooling conditions were assessed. Both extracellular and intracellular ice formation were observed. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) accumulation of hESCs was determined. Cryopreservation of hESCs at 1 °C/min with the ice seeding and at the theoretically predicted optimal cooling rate (TPOCR) led to lower level of intracellular ROS, and prevented irregular and big ice clump formation compared with cryopreservation at 1 °C/min. This strategy further resulted in a significant increase in the hESC recovery when glycerol and 1,2-propanediol were used as the CPAs, but no increase for Me2SO. hESCs after cryopreservation under all the tested conditions still maintained their pluripotency. Our results provide guidance for improving the hESC cryopreservation recovery through the combination of CPA type, cooling rate and ice seeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An integer programming formulation to identify the sparse network architecture governing differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ipsita; Maiti, Spandan; Parashurama, Natesh; Yarmush, Martin

    2010-05-15

    Primary purpose of modeling gene regulatory networks for developmental process is to reveal pathways governing the cellular differentiation to specific phenotypes. Knowledge of differentiation network will enable generation of desired cell fates by careful alteration of the governing network by adequate manipulation of cellular environment. We have developed a novel integer programming-based approach to reconstruct the underlying regulatory architecture of differentiating embryonic stem cells from discrete temporal gene expression data. The network reconstruction problem is formulated using inherent features of biological networks: (i) that of cascade architecture which enables treatment of the entire complex network as a set of interconnected modules and (ii) that of sparsity of interconnection between the transcription factors. The developed framework is applied to the system of embryonic stem cells differentiating towards pancreatic lineage. Experimentally determined expression profile dynamics of relevant transcription factors serve as the input to the network identification algorithm. The developed formulation accurately captures many of the known regulatory modes involved in pancreatic differentiation. The predictive capacity of the model is tested by simulating an in silico potential pathway of subsequent differentiation. The predicted pathway is experimentally verified by concurrent differentiation experiments. Experimental results agree well with model predictions, thereby illustrating the predictive accuracy of the proposed algorithm. ipb1@pitt.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. An integer programming formulation to identify the sparse network architecture governing differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ipsita; Maiti, Spandan; Parashurama, Natesh; Yarmush, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Primary purpose of modeling gene regulatory networks for developmental process is to reveal pathways governing the cellular differentiation to specific phenotypes. Knowledge of differentiation network will enable generation of desired cell fates by careful alteration of the governing network by adequate manipulation of cellular environment. Results: We have developed a novel integer programming-based approach to reconstruct the underlying regulatory architecture of differentiating embryonic stem cells from discrete temporal gene expression data. The network reconstruction problem is formulated using inherent features of biological networks: (i) that of cascade architecture which enables treatment of the entire complex network as a set of interconnected modules and (ii) that of sparsity of interconnection between the transcription factors. The developed framework is applied to the system of embryonic stem cells differentiating towards pancreatic lineage. Experimentally determined expression profile dynamics of relevant transcription factors serve as the input to the network identification algorithm. The developed formulation accurately captures many of the known regulatory modes involved in pancreatic differentiation. The predictive capacity of the model is tested by simulating an in silico potential pathway of subsequent differentiation. The predicted pathway is experimentally verified by concurrent differentiation experiments. Experimental results agree well with model predictions, thereby illustrating the predictive accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Contact: ipb1@pitt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20363729

  5. Identification of molecules derived from human fibroblast feeder cells that support the proliferation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anisimov, Sergey V.; Christophersen, Nicolaj S.; Correia, Ana S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of human embryonic stem cell lines depend on a feeder cell layer for continuous growth in vitro, so that they can remain in an undifferentiated state. Limited knowledge is available concerning the molecular mechanisms that underlie the capacity of feeder cells to support both...... the proliferation and pluripotency of these cells. Importantly, feeder cells generally lose their capacity to support human embryonic stem cell proliferation in vitro following long-term culture. In this study, we performed large-scale gene expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts during early...

  6. Self-renewal of embryonic-stem-cell-derived progenitors by organ-matched mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Julie B; Borowiak, Malgorzata; Melton, Douglas A

    2012-11-29

    One goal of regenerative medicine, to use stem cells to replace cells lost by injury or disease, depends on producing an excess of the relevant cell for study or transplantation. To this end, the stepwise differentiation of stem cells into specialized derivatives has been successful for some cell types, but a major problem remains the inefficient conversion of cells from one stage of differentiation to the next. If specialized cells are to be produced in large numbers it will be necessary to expand progenitor cells, without differentiation, at some steps of the process. Using the pancreatic lineage as a model for embryonic-stem-cell differentiation, we demonstrate that this is a solvable problem. Co-culture with organ-matched mesenchyme permits proliferation and self-renewal of progenitors, without differentiation, and enables an expansion of more than a million-fold for human endodermal cells with full retention of their developmental potential. This effect is specific both to the mesenchymal cell and to the progenitor being amplified. Progenitors that have been serially expanded on mesenchyme give rise to glucose-sensing, insulin-secreting cells when transplanted in vivo. Theoretically, the identification of stage-specific renewal signals can be incorporated into any scheme for the efficient production of large numbers of differentiated cells from stem cells and may therefore have wide application in regenerative biology.

  7. Very small embryonic-like stem cells: implications in reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Unni, Sreepoorna; Parte, Seema; Anand, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    The most primitive germ cells in adult mammalian testis are the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) whereas primordial follicles (PFs) are considered the fundamental functional unit in ovary. However, this central dogma has recently been modified with the identification of a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in the adult mammalian gonads. These stem cells are more primitive to SSCs and are also implicated during postnatal ovarian neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are pluripotent in nature and characterized by nuclear Oct-4A, cell surface SSEA-4, and other pluripotent markers like Nanog, Sox2, and TERT. VSELs are considered to be the descendants of epiblast stem cells and possibly the primordial germ cells that persist into adulthood and undergo asymmetric cell division to replenish the gonadal germ cells throughout life. Elucidation of their role during infertility, endometrial repair, superovulation, and pathogenesis of various reproductive diseases like PCOS, endometriosis, cancer, and so on needs to be addressed. Hence, a detailed review of current understanding of VSEL biology is pertinent, which will hopefully open up new avenues for research to better understand various reproductive processes and cancers. It will also be relevant for future regenerative medicine, translational research, and clinical applications in human reproduction.

  8. Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells: Implications in Reproductive Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Bhartiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive germ cells in adult mammalian testis are the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs whereas primordial follicles (PFs are considered the fundamental functional unit in ovary. However, this central dogma has recently been modified with the identification of a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs in the adult mammalian gonads. These stem cells are more primitive to SSCs and are also implicated during postnatal ovarian neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are pluripotent in nature and characterized by nuclear Oct-4A, cell surface SSEA-4, and other pluripotent markers like Nanog, Sox2, and TERT. VSELs are considered to be the descendants of epiblast stem cells and possibly the primordial germ cells that persist into adulthood and undergo asymmetric cell division to replenish the gonadal germ cells throughout life. Elucidation of their role during infertility, endometrial repair, superovulation, and pathogenesis of various reproductive diseases like PCOS, endometriosis, cancer, and so on needs to be addressed. Hence, a detailed review of current understanding of VSEL biology is pertinent, which will hopefully open up new avenues for research to better understand various reproductive processes and cancers. It will also be relevant for future regenerative medicine, translational research, and clinical applications in human reproduction.

  9. Rapid transcriptional pulsing dynamics of high expressing retroviral transgenes in embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Y M Lo

    Full Text Available Single cell imaging studies suggest that transcription is not continuous and occurs as discrete pulses of gene activity. To study mechanisms by which retroviral transgenes can transcribe to high levels, we used the MS2 system to visualize transcriptional dynamics of high expressing proviral integration sites in embryonic stem (ES cells. We established two ES cell lines each bearing a single copy, self-inactivating retroviral vector with a strong ubiquitous human EF1α gene promoter directing expression of mRFP fused to an MS2-stem-loop array. Transfection of MS2-EGFP generated EGFP focal dots bound to the mRFP-MS2 stem loop mRNA. These transcription foci colocalized with the transgene integration site detected by immunoFISH. Live tracking of single cells for 20 minutes detected EGFP focal dots that displayed frequent and rapid fluctuations in transcription over periods as short as 25 seconds. Similarly rapid fluctuations were detected from focal doublet signals that colocalized with replicated proviral integration sites by immunoFISH, consistent with transcriptional pulses from sister chromatids. We concluded that retroviral transgenes experience rapid transcriptional pulses in clonal ES cell lines that exhibit high level expression. These events are directed by a constitutive housekeeping gene promoter and may provide precedence for rapid transcriptional pulsing at endogenous genes in mammalian stem cells.

  10. Rapid transcriptional pulsing dynamics of high expressing retroviral transgenes in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mandy Y M; Rival-Gervier, Sylvie; Pasceri, Peter; Ellis, James

    2012-01-01

    Single cell imaging studies suggest that transcription is not continuous and occurs as discrete pulses of gene activity. To study mechanisms by which retroviral transgenes can transcribe to high levels, we used the MS2 system to visualize transcriptional dynamics of high expressing proviral integration sites in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We established two ES cell lines each bearing a single copy, self-inactivating retroviral vector with a strong ubiquitous human EF1α gene promoter directing expression of mRFP fused to an MS2-stem-loop array. Transfection of MS2-EGFP generated EGFP focal dots bound to the mRFP-MS2 stem loop mRNA. These transcription foci colocalized with the transgene integration site detected by immunoFISH. Live tracking of single cells for 20 minutes detected EGFP focal dots that displayed frequent and rapid fluctuations in transcription over periods as short as 25 seconds. Similarly rapid fluctuations were detected from focal doublet signals that colocalized with replicated proviral integration sites by immunoFISH, consistent with transcriptional pulses from sister chromatids. We concluded that retroviral transgenes experience rapid transcriptional pulses in clonal ES cell lines that exhibit high level expression. These events are directed by a constitutive housekeeping gene promoter and may provide precedence for rapid transcriptional pulsing at endogenous genes in mammalian stem cells.

  11. Synthetic niches for differentiation of human embryonic stem cells bypassing embryoid body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarong; Fox, Victoria; Lei, Yuning; Hu, Biliang; Joo, Kye-Il; Wang, Pin

    2014-07-01

    The unique self-renewal and pluripotency features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer the potential for unlimited development of novel cell therapies. Currently, hESCs are cultured and differentiated using methods, such as monolayer culture and embryoid body (EB) formation. As such, achieving efficient differentiation into higher order structures remains a challenge, as well as maintaining cell viability during differentiation into homogeneous cell populations. Here, we describe the application of highly porous polymer scaffolds as synthetic stem cell niches. Bypassing the EB formation step, these scaffolds are capable of three-dimensional culture of undifferentiated hESCs and subsequent directed differentiation into three primary germ layers. H9 hESCs were successfully maintained and proliferated in biodegradable polymer scaffolds based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The results showed that cells within PLGA scaffolds retained characteristics of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, the scaffolds allowed differentiation towards the lineage of interest by the addition of growth factors to the culture system. The in vivo transplantation study revealed that the scaffolds could provide a microenvironment that enabled hESCs to interact with their surroundings, thereby promoting cell differentiation. Therefore, this approach, which provides a unique culture/differentiation system for hESCs, will find its utility in various stem cell-based tissue-engineering applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fresh or frozen? Classifying 'spare' embryos for donation to human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie

    2010-12-01

    United Kingdom (UK) funding to build human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation labs within assisted conception units (ACU) was intended to facilitate the 'In-vitro fertilisation (IVF)-stem cell interface', including the flow of fresh 'spare' embryos to stem cell labs. However, in the three sites reported on here, which received this funding, most of the embryos used for hESC research came from long term cryopreservation storage and/or outside clinics. In this paper we explore some of the clinical, technical, social and ethical factors that might help to explain this situation. We report from our qualitative study of the ethical frameworks for approaching women/couples for donation of embryos to stem cell research. Members of staff took part in 44 interviews and six ethics discussion groups held at our study sites between February 2008 and October 2009. We focus here on their articulations of social and ethical, as well as scientific, dimensions in the contingent classification of 'spare' embryos, entailing uncertainty, fluidity and naturalisation in classifying work. Social and ethical factors include acknowledging and responding to uncertainty in classifying embryos; retaining 'fluidity' in the grading system to give embryos 'every chance'; tensions between standardisation and variation in enacting a 'fair' grading system; enhancement of patient choice and control, and prevention of regret; and incorporation of patients' values in construction of ethically acceptable embryo 'spareness' ('frozen' embryos, and embryos determined through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to be genetically 'affected'). We argue that the success of the 'built moral environment' of ACU with adjoining stem cell laboratories building projects intended to facilitate the 'IVF-stem cell interface' may depend not only on architecture, but also on the part such social and ethical factors play in configuration of embryos as particular kinds of moral work objects. Copyright © 2010

  13. Method of derivation and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells generating synchronous neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazina, Elena V; Morrisroe, Emma; Mendis, Gunarathna D C; Michalska, Anna E; Chen, Joseph; Nefzger, Christian M; Rollo, Benjamin N; Reid, Christopher A; Pera, Martin F; Petrou, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Stem cells-derived neuronal cultures hold great promise for in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. However, currently stem cells-derived neuronal cultures do not recapitulate the functional properties of primary neurons, such as network properties. Cultured primary murine neurons develop networks which are synchronised over large fractions of the culture, whereas neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) display only partly synchronised network activity and human pluripotent stem cells-derived neurons have mostly asynchronous network properties. Therefore, strategies to improve correspondence of derived neuronal cultures with primary neurons need to be developed to validate the use of stem cell-derived neuronal cultures as in vitro models. By combining serum-free derivation of ESCs from mouse blastocysts with neuronal differentiation of ESCs in morphogen-free adherent culture we generated neuronal networks with properties recapitulating those of mature primary cortical cultures. After 35days of differentiation ESC-derived neurons developed network activity very similar to that of mature primary cortical neurons. Importantly, ESC plating density was critical for network development. Compared to the previously published methods this protocol generated more synchronous neuronal networks, with high similarity to the networks formed in mature primary cortical culture. We have demonstrated that ESC-derived neuronal networks recapitulating key properties of mature primary cortical networks can be generated by optimising both stem cell derivation and differentiation. This validates the approach of using ESC-derived neuronal cultures for disease modelling and in vitro drug screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of hemizygous and homozygous embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from the transgenic alszheimer göttingen minipis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Jacobsen, J.; Gunnarsson, A.

    2011-01-01

    Production of hemizygous and homozygous embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from the transgenic alszheimer göttingen minipis......Production of hemizygous and homozygous embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from the transgenic alszheimer göttingen minipis...

  15. A Panel of CpG Methylation Sites Distinguishes Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are epigenetically identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs has been debated in the stem cell field. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in a large number of hiPSCs (n = 114 and hESCs (n = 155, and identified a panel of 82 CpG methylation sites that can distinguish hiPSCs from hESCs with high accuracy. We show that 12 out of the 82 CpG sites were subject to hypermethylation in part by DNMT3B. Notably, DNMT3B contributes directly to aberrant hypermethylation and silencing of the signature gene, TCERG1L. Overall, we conclude that DNMT3B is involved in a wave of de novo methylation during reprogramming, a portion of which contributes to the unique hiPSC methylation signature. These 82 CpG methylation sites may be useful as biomarkers to distinguish between hiPSCs and hESCs.

  16. Three-dimensional bioprinting of embryonic stem cells directs highly uniform embryoid body formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Liliang; Yao, Rui; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Chen, Xi; Na, Jie

    2015-01-01

    With the ability to manipulate cells temporarily and spatially into three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like construct, 3D bioprinting technology was used in many studies to facilitate the recreation of complex cell niche and/or to better understand the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation by cellular microenvironment factors. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type of the animal body, generally via the formation of embryoid body (EB), which mimics the early stages of embryogenesis. In this study, extrusion-based 3D bioprinting technology was utilized for biofabricating ESCs into 3D cell-laden construct. The influence of 3D printing parameters on ESC viability, proliferation, maintenance of pluripotency and the rule of EB formation was systematically studied in this work. Results demonstrated that ESCs were successfully printed with hydrogel into 3D macroporous construct. Upon process optimization, about 90% ESCs remained alive after the process of bioprinting and cell-laden construct formation. ESCs continued proliferating into spheroid EBs in the hydrogel construct, while retaining the protein expression and gene expression of pluripotent markers, like octamer binding transcription factor 4, stage specific embryonic antigen 1 and Nanog. In this novel technology, EBs were formed through cell proliferation instead of aggregation, and the quantity of EBs was tuned by the initial cell density in the 3D bioprinting process. This study introduces the 3D bioprinting of ESCs into a 3D cell-laden hydrogel construct for the first time and showed the production of uniform, pluripotent, high-throughput and size-controllable EBs, which indicated strong potential in ESC large scale expansion, stem cell regulation and fabrication of tissue-like structure and drug screening studies. (paper)

  17. Porphyrin Homeostasis Maintained by ABCG2 Regulates Self-Renewal of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Nan; Shen, Chia-Rui; Yan, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Sheng-Ta; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Shen, Chia-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Background Under appropriate culture conditions, undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells can undergo multiple self-renewal cycles without loss of pluripotency suggesting they must be equipped with specific defense mechanisms to ensure sufficient genetic stability during self-renewal expansion. The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCG2 is expressed in a wide variety of somatic and embryonic stem cells. However, whether it plays an important role in stem cell maintenance remains to be defined. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we provide evidence to show that an increase in the level of ABCG2 was observed accompanied by ES colony expansion and then were followed by decreases in the level of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) indicating that ABCG2 plays a role in maintaining porphyrin homoeostasis. RNA-interference mediated inhibition of ABCG2 as well as functional blockage of ABCG2 transporter with fumitremorgin C (FTC), a specific and potent inhibitor of ABCG2, not only elevated the cellular level of PPIX, but also arrest the cell cycle and reduced expression of the pluripotent gene Nanog. Overexpression of ABCG2 in ES cells was able to counteract the increase of endogenous PPIX induced by treatment with 5-Aminolevulinic acid suggesting ABCG2 played a direct role in removal of PPIX from ES cells. We also found that excess PPIX in ES cells led to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species which in turn triggered DNA damage signals as indicated by increased levels of γH2AX and phosphorylated p53. The increased level of p53 reduced Nanog expression because RNA- interference mediated inhibition of p53 was able to prevent the downregulation of Nanog induced by FTC treatment. Conclusions/Significance The present work demonstrated that ABCG2 protects ES cells from PPIX accumulation during colony expansion, and that p53 and γH2AX acts as a downstream checkpoint of ABCG2-dependent defense machinery in order to maintain the self-renewal of ES cells. PMID:19107196

  18. The OP9-DL1 System: Generation of T-Lymphocytes from Embryonic or Hematopoietic Stem Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Roxanne Holmes and Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker Corresponding author: []() ### INTRODUCTION Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from fetal liver or bone marrow into T-lymphocytes can be achieved in vitro with the support of OP9-DL1 cells, a bone-marrow-derived stromal cell line that ectopically expresses the Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1). This approach provides a simple, versat...

  19. Innate Immune Response of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Periodontopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopu Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis involves complex interplay of bacteria and host immune response resulting in destruction of supporting tissues of the tooth. Toll-like receptors (TLRs play a role in recognizing microbial pathogens and eliciting an innate immune response. Recently, the potential application of multipotent stem cells and pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in periodontal regenerative therapy has been proposed. However, little is known about the impact of periodontopathogens on hESC-derived progenies. This study investigates the effects of heat-killed periodontopathogens, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, on TLR and cytokine expression profile of hESC-derived progenies, namely, fibroblasts (hESC-Fib and mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs. Additionally, the serotype-dependent effect of A. actinomycetemcomitans on hESC-derived progenies was explored. Both hESC-Fib and hESC-MSCs constitutively expressed TLR-2 and TLR-4. hESC-Fib upon exposure to periodontopathogens displayed upregulation of TLRs and release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. In contrast, hESC-MSCs were largely nonresponsive to bacterial challenge, especially in terms of cytokine production. Further, exposure of hESC-Fib to A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype c was associated with higher IL-8 production than serotype b. In contrast, the hESC-MSCs displayed no serotype-dependent response. Differential response of the two hESC progenies implies a phenotype-dependent response to periodontopathogens and supports the concept of immunomodulatory properties of MSCs.

  20. A reduction in ATP demand and mitochondrial activity with neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birket, Matthew J; Orr, Adam L; Gerencser, Akos A; Madden, David T; Vitelli, Cathy; Swistowski, Andrzej; Brand, Martin D; Zeng, Xianmin

    2011-02-01

    Here, we have investigated mitochondrial biology and energy metabolism in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and hESC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs). Although stem cells collectively in vivo might be expected to rely primarily on anaerobic glycolysis for ATP supply, to minimise production of reactive oxygen species, we show that in vitro this is not so: hESCs generate an estimated 77% of their ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Upon differentiation of hESCs into NSCs, oxidative phosphorylation declines both in absolute rate and in importance relative to glycolysis. A bias towards ATP supply from oxidative phosphorylation in hESCs is consistent with the expression levels of the mitochondrial gene regulators peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, PGC-1β and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in hESCs when compared with a panel of differentiated cell types. Analysis of the ATP demand showed that the slower ATP turnover in NSCs was associated with a slower rate of most energy-demanding processes but occurred without a reduction in the cellular growth rate. This mismatch is probably explained by a higher rate of macromolecule secretion in hESCs, on the basis of evidence from electron microscopy and an analysis of conditioned media. Taken together, our developmental model provides an understanding of the metabolic transition from hESCs to more quiescent somatic cell types, and supports important roles for mitochondria and secretion in hESC biology.

  1. Donor Dependent Variations in Hematopoietic Differentiation among Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Féraud

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis generated from human embryonic stem cells (ES and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS are unprecedented resources for cell therapy. We compared hematopoietic differentiation potentials from ES and iPS cell lines originated from various donors and derived them using integrative and non-integrative vectors. Significant differences in differentiation toward hematopoietic lineage were observed among ES and iPS. The ability of engraftment of iPS or ES-derived cells in NOG mice varied among the lines with low levels of chimerism. iPS generated from ES cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC reproduce a similar hematopoietic outcome compared to their parental ES cell line. We were not able to identify any specific hematopoietic transcription factors that allow to distinguish between good versus poor hematopoiesis in undifferentiated ES or iPS cell lines. There is a relatively unpredictable variation in hematopoietic differentiation between ES and iPS cell lines that could not be predicted based on phenotype or gene expression of the undifferentiated cells. These results demonstrate the influence of genetic background in variation of hematopoietic potential rather than the reprogramming process.

  2. A large-scale proteomic analysis of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherrer Eric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of our current knowledge of the molecular expression profile of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs is based on transcriptional approaches. These analyses are only partly predictive of protein expression however, and do not shed light on post-translational regulation, leaving a large gap in our knowledge of the biology of pluripotent stem cells. Results Here we describe the use of two large-scale western blot assays to identify over 600 proteins expressed in undifferentiated hESCs, and highlight over 40 examples of multiple gel mobility variants, which are suspected protein isoforms and/or post-translational modifications. Twenty-two phosphorylation events in cell signaling molecules, as well as potential new markers of undifferentiated hESCs were also identified. We confirmed the expression of a subset of the identified proteins by immunofluorescence and correlated the expression of transcript and protein for key molecules in active signaling pathways in hESCs. These analyses also indicated that hESCs exhibit several features of polarized epithelia, including expression of tight junction proteins. Conclusion Our approach complements proteomic and transcriptional analysis to provide unique information on human pluripotent stem cells, and is a framework for the continued analyses of self-renewal.

  3. FANCA knockout in human embryonic stem cells causes a severe growth disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, Kim; Cai, Qing; Nair, Nisha; Khurana, Satish; Shetty, Swati; Vermeesch, Joris R; Ordovas, Laura; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF) during childhood, aside from numerous congenital abnormalities. FA mouse models have been generated; however, they do not fully mimic the hematopoietic phenotype. As there is mounting evidence that the hematopoietic impairment starts already in utero, a human pluripotent stem cell model would constitute a more appropriate system to investigate the mechanisms underlying BMF in FA and its developmental basis. Using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology, we have created a knockout of FANCA in human embryonic stem cells (hESC). We introduced a selection cassette into exon 2 thereby disrupting the FANCA coding sequence and found that whereas mono-allelically targeted cells retain an unaltered proliferation potential, disruption of the second allele causes a severe growth disadvantage. As a result, heterogeneous cultures arise due to the presence of cells still carrying an unaffected FANCA allele, quickly outgrowing the knockout cells. When pure cultures of FANCA knockout hESC are pursued either through selection or single cell cloning, this rapidly results in growth arrest and such cultures cannot be maintained. These data highlight the importance of a functional FA pathway at the pluripotent stem cell stage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell research trends: complementation and diversification of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobold, Sabine; Guhr, Anke; Kurtz, Andreas; Löser, Peter

    2015-05-12

    Research in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is rapidly developing and there are expectations that this research may obviate the need to use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), the ethics of which has been a subject of controversy for more than 15 years. In this study, we investigated approximately 3,400 original research papers that reported an experimental use of these types of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and were published from 2008 to 2013. We found that research into both cell types was conducted independently and further expanded, accompanied by a growing intersection of both research fields. Moreover, an in-depth analysis of papers that reported the use of both cell types indicates that hESCs are still being used as a "gold standard," but in a declining proportion of publications. Instead, the expanding research field is diversifying and hESC and hiPSC lines are increasingly being used in more independent research and application areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Trends: Complementation and Diversification of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kobold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs is rapidly developing and there are expectations that this research may obviate the need to use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, the ethics of which has been a subject of controversy for more than 15 years. In this study, we investigated approximately 3,400 original research papers that reported an experimental use of these types of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs and were published from 2008 to 2013. We found that research into both cell types was conducted independently and further expanded, accompanied by a growing intersection of both research fields. Moreover, an in-depth analysis of papers that reported the use of both cell types indicates that hESCs are still being used as a “gold standard,” but in a declining proportion of publications. Instead, the expanding research field is diversifying and hESC and hiPSC lines are increasingly being used in more independent research and application areas.

  6. Differential Nucleosome Occupancies across Oct4-Sox2 Binding Sites in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sebeson

    Full Text Available The binding sequence for any transcription factor can be found millions of times within a genome, yet only a small fraction of these sequences encode functional transcription factor binding sites. One of the reasons for this dichotomy is that many other factors, such as nucleosomes, compete for binding. To study how the competition between nucleosomes and transcription factors helps determine a functional transcription factor site from a predicted transcription factor site, we compared experimentally-generated in vitro nucleosome occupancy with in vivo nucleosome occupancy and transcription factor binding in murine embryonic stem cells. Using a solution hybridization enrichment technique, we generated a high-resolution nucleosome map from targeted regions of the genome containing predicted sites and functional sites of Oct4/Sox2 regulation. We found that at Pax6 and Nes, which are bivalently poised in stem cells, functional Oct4 and Sox2 sites show high amounts of in vivo nucleosome displacement compared to in vitro. Oct4 and Sox2, which are active, show no significant displacement of in vivo nucleosomes at functional sites, similar to nonfunctional Oct4/Sox2 binding. This study highlights a complex interplay between Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors and nucleosomes among different target genes, which may result in distinct patterns of stem cell gene regulation.

  7. Effects of ß-TCP scaffolds on neurogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Pressler, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules play crucial roles in regulating growth and differentiation of stem cells. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) scaffolds on differentiation and expression of ECM and adhesion molecules of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Undifferentiated hESCs were seeded on ß-TCP scaffolds and cell culture plates and cultured in growth and osteogenic medium for 21 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed adhesion and growth of hESCs on the porous ß-TCP scaffolds. Histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the scaffolds supported growth and differentiation of hESCs. Expression levels of neural crest related genes (AP2a, FoxD3, HNK1, P75, Sox1, Sox10) and osteoblast-related genes (Runx2, SPP1 and BGLA) on the scaffolds in osteogenic medium were significantly higher than on the scaffolds in growth and cell culture plates in osteogenic medium, respectively (pTCP scaffolds promoted differentiation of hESCs, particularly expression of genes related to neural crest stem cell and osteoblastic differentiations. Beta-TCP scaffolds could be an alternative cell culture substrate for neural crest and osteogenic differentiation of hESCs. Optimization of culture medium may be necessary to enhance lineage restriction of hESCs on the ß-TCP scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The application of next-generation sequencing techniques in studying transcriptional regulation in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Hong-de; Sun, Xiao

    2017-08-20

    The mechanism of transcriptional regulation has been the focus of many studies in the post-genomic era. The development of sequencing-based technologies for chromatin profiling enables current researchers to experimentally measure chromatin properties. Moreover, many studies aim at annotating the state of the chromatin into broad categories based on observed chromatin features and/or DNA sequences, then associating the resultant distal regulatory regions with the correct target genes based on DNA sequences, and predicting the dependence of epigenetic features on genetic variation. Stem cell biology has many applications in the area of regenerative medicine and tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize recent research progresses on the application of next-generation sequencing techniques in studying transcriptional regulation in embryonic stem cells. This review mainly focuses on four areas: (1) microarray or RNA-seq; (2) chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP); (3) Dnase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs); (4) high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C). These technologies have been utilized in studying chromatin on three levels, i.e., gene expression, transcription factor binding and genome three-dimensional structure. We especially emphasize three master transcription factors of pluripotency: Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. We aim to track the frontier of stem cell transcriptional regulation research and share important progresses in this field.

  9. Genomic and proteomic analyses of Prdm5 reveal interactions with insulator binding proteins in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Giorgio Giacomo; Carrara, Matteo; Francavilla, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    find that Prdm5 is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) and exploit this cellular system to characterize molecular functions of Prdm5. By combining proteomics and next generation sequencing technologies we identify Prdm5 interaction partners and genomic occupancy. We demonstrate that......-occupies genomic loci. In summary, our data indicate how Prdm5 may modulate transcription by interacting with factors involved in genome organization in mouse embryonic stem cells......., despite Prdm5 is dispensable for mES cell maintenance, it directly targets genomic regions involved in early embryonic development and affects the expression of a subset of developmental regulators during cell differentiation. Importantly, Prdm5 interacts with Ctcf, Cohesin and TFIIIC and co...

  10. Tet Proteins Connect the O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine Transferase Ogt to Chromatin in Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Pietro; Scelfo, Andrea; Jammula, Sriganesh

    2013-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (Ogt) activity is essential for embryonic stem cell (ESC) viability and mouse development. Ogt is present both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of different cell types and catalyzes serine and threonine glycosylation. We have characterized...

  11. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) as an elastic biodegradable film for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkio, Anni; Haimi, Suvi; Verdoold, Vincent; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Grijpma, Dirk; Skottman, Heli

    2017-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cell therapies show tremendous potential for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. A tissue engineering approach, where cells are delivered to the subretinal space on a biodegradable carrier as a sheet, shows great

  12. The procurement of cells for the derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines for therapeutic use: recommendations for good practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Alison; Braude, Peter; Courtney, Aidan; Brison, Daniel; Hunt, Charles; Lawford-Davies, James; Moore, Harry; Stacey, Glyn; Sethe, Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    The donation of human embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines that may be used in the development of therapeutic products raises more complex ethical, practical and regulatory problems than the donation of embryos for non-clinical research. This review considers these issues and offers recommendations for good practice.

  13. Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is a significant concern for environmental chemicals, as well as for food and drug constituents. The sensitivity of animal-based DNT models is unclear, and they are expensive and time consuming. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) recapitulate sev...

  14. Screening ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

  15. A vector-based system for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells toward germ-line cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro generation of mouse embryonic stem cells to germ cells by using a backbone vector containing the fusion gene Stra8-EGFP. The Stra8 gene is a retinoic acid-responsive protein and is able to regulate meiotic initiation.

  16. High School Students Debate the Use of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Influence of Context on Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinatti, Gregoire; Girault, Yves; Hammond, Constance

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyzes decision-making and argumentation by high school students in a debate situation on a socioscientific issue, the use of embryonic stem cells in research and therapy. We tested the influence on the debates of two different contexts. Adolescent students at the high school level in the same grade (mean age 16.4 years) from…

  17. Developing predictions of in vivo developmental toxicity of ToxCast chemicals using mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing predictions of in vivo developmental toxicity of ToxCast chemicals using mouse embryonic stem cells S. Hunter, M. Rosen, M. Hoopes, H. Nichols, S. Jeffay, K. Chandler1, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Labor...

  18. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast™ chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultur...

  19. An Abbreviated Protocol for In Vitro Generation of Functional Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-Like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massumi, Mohammad; Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2016-01-01

    developed an abbreviated five-stage protocol (25-30 days) to generate human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-like Cells (ES-DBCs). We showed that Geltrex, as an extracellular matrix, could support the generation of ES-DBCs more efficiently than that of the previously described culture systems...

  20. The Postischemic Environment Differentially Impacts Teratoma or Tumor Formation After Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seminatore, CH.; Polentes, J.; Ellman, D.; Kozubenko, Nataliya; Itier, V.; Tine, S.; Tritschler, L.; Brenot, M.; Guidou, E.; Blondeau, J.; Lhuillier, M.; Bugi, A.; Aubry, L.; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva; Perrier, A. L.; Finsen, B.; Onteniente, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2010), s. 153-159 ISSN 0039-2499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : brain transplantation * human embryonic stem cells * neural differentiation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.756, year: 2010

  1. Effects of the EVCAM chemical validation library on differentiation using marker gene expression in lmouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay was used to profile the effects of the ECVAM EST validation chemical library (19 compounds) on J1 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) provided a high-content assessment of al...

  2. Characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines by the International Stem Cell Initiative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adewumi, O.; Aflatoonian, B.; Ahrlund-Richter, L.; Amit, M.; Andrews, P.W.; Beighton, G.; Bello, P.A.; Benvenisty, N.; Berry, L.S.; Bevan, S.; Blum, B.; Brooking, J.; Chen, K.G.; Choo, A.B.H.; Churchill, G.A.; Corbel, M.; Damjanov, I.; Draper, J.S.; Dvořák, Petr; Emanuelsson, K.; Fleck, R.A.; Ford, A.; Gertow, K.; Gertsenstein, M.; Gokhale, P.J.; Hamilton, R.S.; Hampl, Aleš; Healy, L.E.; Hovatta, O.; Hyllner, J.; Imreh, M.P.; Itskovitz-Eldor, J.; Jackson, J.; Johnson, J.L.; Jones, M.; Kee, K.; King, B.L.; Knowles, B.B.; Lako, M.; Lebrin, F.; Mallon, B.S.; Manning, D.; Mayshar, Y.; Mckay, D.G.; Michalska, A.E.; Mikkola, M.; Mileikovsky, M.; Minger, S.L.; Moore, H.D.; Mummery, Ch.L.; Nagy, A.; Nakutsuji, N.; O´Brien, C.M.; Oh, S.K.W.; Olsson, C.; Otonkoski, T.; Park, K.Y.; Passier, R.; Patel, H.; Patel, M.; Pedersen, R.; Pera, M.F.; Piekarczyk, M.S.; Pera, R.A.P.; Reubinoff, B.E.; Robins, A.J.; Rossant, J.; Rugg-Gunn, P.; Schulz, T.C.; Semb, H.; Sherrer, E.S.; Siemen, H.; Stacey, G.N.; Stojkovic, M.; Suemori, H.; Szatkiewicz, J.; Turetsky, T.; Tuuri, T.; Van den Brink, S.; Vintersten, K.; Vuoristo, S.; Ward, D.; Weaver, T.A.; Young, L.A.; Zhang, W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2007), s. 803-816 ISSN 1087-0156 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA301/05/0463; GA ČR GA305/05/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : International Stem Cell Initiative Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 22.848, year: 2007

  3. Expression pattern of pluripotent markers in different embryonic developmental stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos and putative embryonic stem cells generated by parthenogenetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karn P; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos.

  4. Effects of nanostructures and mouse embryonic stem cells on in vitro morphogenesis of rat testicular cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Chi, Lifeng; Schlatt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Morphogenesis of tubular structures is a common event during embryonic development. The signals providing cells with topographical cues to define a cord axis and to form new compartments surrounded by a basement membrane are poorly understood. Male gonadal differentiation is a late event during organogenesis and continues into postnatal life. The cellular changes resemble the mechanisms during embryonic life leading to tubular structures in other organs. Testicular cord formation is dependent on and first recognized by SRY-dependent aggregation of Sertoli cells leading to the appearance of testis-specific cord-like structures. Here we explored whether testicular cells use topographical cues in the form of nanostructures to direct or stimulate cord formation and whether embryonic stem cells (ES) or soluble factors released from those cells have an impact on this process. Using primary cell cultures of immature rats we first revealed that variable nanogratings exerted effects on peritubular cells and on Sertoli cells (at less than cells/mm(2)) by aligning the cell bodies towards the direction of the nanogratings. After two weeks of culture testicular cells assembled into a network of cord-like structures. We revealed that Sertoli cells actively migrate towards existing clusters. Contractions of peritubular cells lead to the transformation of isolated clusters into cord-like structures. The addition of mouse ES cells or conditioned medium from ES cells accelerated this process. Our studies show that epithelial (Sertoli cell) and mesenchymal (peritubular cells) cells crosstalk and orchestrate the formation of cords in response to physical features of the underlying matrix as well as secretory factors from ES cells. We consider these data on testicular morphogenesis relevant for the better understanding of mechanisms in cord formation also in other organs which may help to create optimized in vitro tools for artificial organogenesis.

  5. Fate of D3 mouse embryonic stem cells exposed to X-rays or carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, S; Pignalosa, D; Nasonova, E; Arrizabalaga, O; Helm, A; Durante, M; Ritter, S

    2014-01-15

    The risk of radiation exposure during embryonic development is still a major problem in radiotoxicology. In this study we investigated the response of the murine embryonic stem cell (mESC) line D3 to two radiation qualities: sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions. We analyzed clonogenic cell survival, proliferation, induction of chromosome aberrations as well as the capability of cells to differentiate to beating cardiomyocytes up to 3 days after exposure. Our results show that, for all endpoints investigated, carbon ions are more effective than X-rays at the same radiation dose. Additionally, in long term studies (≥8 days post-irradiation) chromosomal damage and the pluripotency state were investigated. These studies reveal that pluripotency markers are present in the progeny of cells surviving the exposure to both radiation types. However, only in the progeny of X-ray exposed cells the aberration frequency was comparable to that of the control population, while the progeny of carbon ion irradiated cells harbored significantly more aberrations than the control, generally translocations. We conclude that cells surviving the radiation exposure maintain pluripotency but may carry stable chromosomal rearrangements after densely ionizing radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A two- and three-dimensional approach for visualizing human embryonic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Vestentoft, Peter S; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells are characterized by expression of specific cell markers like the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, the stage-specific embryonic antigen SSEA4, and the tumor-related antigens TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 and by their ability to differentiate under...... the expected markers. We describe a technique allowing paraffin embedding an entire hESC colony (e.g., 150 microm thick) and prepare 2-microm thick serial sections. Different staining procedures applied to individual sections produce a 2D survey of the developing hESC colony. Furthermore, a new and useful...... visualization of this 2D-expression pattern can be created by developing a 3D-model of the culture, based on serial paraffin sections. Individual sections are stained using individual markers. Using 3D image processing software such as Mimics or 3D-Doctor, the actual 3D-rendering of an entire colony can...

  7. Essential role of the TFIID subunit TAF4 in murine embryogenesis and embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Diana; Martianov, Igor; Alpern, Daniel; Rhinn, Muriel; Keime, Céline; Dollé, Pascal; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin

    2016-03-30

    TAF4 (TATA-binding protein-associated factor 4) and its paralogue TAF4b are components of the TFIID core module. We inactivated the murine Taf4a gene to address Taf4 function during embryogenesis. Here we show that Taf4a(-/-) embryos survive until E9.5 where primary germ layers and many embryonic structures are identified showing Taf4 is dispensable for their specification. In contrast, Taf4 is required for correct patterning of the trunk and anterior structures, ventral morphogenesis and proper heart positioning. Overlapping expression of Taf4a and Taf4b during embryogenesis suggests their redundancy at early stages. In agreement with this, Taf4a(-/-) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are viable and comprise Taf4b-containing TFIID. Nevertheless, Taf4a(-/-) ESCs do not complete differentiation into glutamatergic neurons and cardiomyocytes in vitro due to impaired preinitiation complex formation at the promoters of critical differentiation genes. We define an essential role of a core TFIID TAF in differentiation events during mammalian embryogenesis.

  8. From pluripotency to forebrain patterning: an in vitro journey astride embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Bertacchi, Michele; Carucci, Nicoletta; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano; Cremisi, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used extensively as in vitro models of neural development and disease, with special efforts towards their conversion into forebrain progenitors and neurons. The forebrain is the most complex brain region, giving rise to several fundamental structures, such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the retina. Due to the multiplicity of signaling pathways playing different roles at distinct times of embryonic development, the specification and patterning of forebrain has been difficult to study in vivo. Research performed on ESCs in vitro has provided a large body of evidence to complement work in model organisms, but these studies have often been focused more on cell type production than on cell fate regulation. In this review, we systematically reassess the current literature in the field of forebrain development in mouse and human ESCs with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of early cell fate decisions, taking into consideration the specific culture conditions, exogenous and endogenous molecular cues as described in the original studies. The resulting model of early forebrain induction and patterning provides a useful framework for further studies aimed at reconstructing forebrain development in vitro for basic research or therapy.

  9. Characterization and comparison of embryonic stem cell-derived KDR+ cells with endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuan; Cheng, Lamei; Duan, Huaxin; Lin, Ge; Lu, Guangxiu

    2012-09-01

    Growing interest in utilizing endothelial cells (ECs) for therapeutic purposes has led to the exploration of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a potential source for endothelial progenitors. In this study, ECs were induced from hESC lines and their biological characteristics were analyzed and compared with both cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (CBEPCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The results showed that isolated embryonic KDR+ cells (EC-KDR+) display characteristics that were similar to CBEPCs and HUVECs. EC-KDR+, CBEPCs and HUVECs all expressed CD31 and CD144, incorporated DiI-Ac-LDL, bound UEA1 lectin, and were able to form tube-like structures on Matrigel. Compared with CBEPCs and HUVECs, the expression level of endothelial progenitor cell markers such as CD133 and KDR in EC-KDR+ was significantly higher, while the mature endothelial marker vWF was lowly expressed in EC-KDR+. In summary, the study showed that EC-KDR+ are primitive endothelial-like progenitors and might be a potential source for therapeutic vascular regeneration and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  11. Systematic identification of cis-regulatory sequences active in mouse and human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Grskovic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transcriptional regulation of pluripotent cells is of fundamental interest and will greatly inform efforts aimed at directing differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells or reprogramming somatic cells. We first analyzed the transcriptional profiles of mouse ES cells and primordial germ cells and identified genes upregulated in pluripotent cells both in vitro and in vivo. These genes are enriched for roles in transcription, chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and DNA repair. We developed a novel computational algorithm, CompMoby, which combines analyses of sequences both aligned and non-aligned between different genomes with a probabilistic segmentation model to systematically predict short DNA motifs that regulate gene expression. CompMoby was used to identify conserved overrepresented motifs in genes upregulated in pluripotent cells. We show that the motifs are preferentially active in undifferentiated mouse ES and embryonic germ cells in a sequence-specific manner, and that they can act as enhancers in the context of an endogenous promoter. Importantly, the activity of the motifs is conserved in human ES cells. We further show that the transcription factor NF-Y specifically binds to one of the motifs, is differentially expressed during ES cell differentiation, and is required for ES cell proliferation. This study provides novel insights into the transcriptional regulatory networks of pluripotent cells. Our results suggest that this systematic approach can be broadly applied to understanding transcriptional networks in mammalian species.

  12. Simple non-invasive analysis of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beating in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Karas, Pavel; Kudová, Jana; Kohút, Lukáš; Binó, Lucia; Večeřa, Josef; Víteček, Jan; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of digital video output enables the non-invasive screening of various active biological processes. For the monitoring and computing of the beating parameters of cardiomyocytes in vitro, CB Analyser (cardiomyocyte beating analyser) software was developed. This software is based on image analysis of the video recording of beating cardiomyocytes. CB Analyser was tested using cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells at different stages of cardiomyogenesis. We observed that during differentiation (from day 18), the beat peak width decreased, which corresponded to the increased speed of an individual pulse. However, the beating frequency did not change. Further, the effects of epinephrine modulating mature cardiomyocyte functions were tested to validate the CB Analyser analysis. In conclusion, data show that CB Analyser is a useful tool for evaluating the functions of both developing and mature cardiomyocytes under various conditions in vitro.

  13. Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Bang, Anne G; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Agulnick, Alan D; Smart, Nora G; Moorman, Mark A; Kroon, Evert; Carpenter, Melissa K; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2006-11-01

    Of paramount importance for the development of cell therapies to treat diabetes is the production of sufficient numbers of pancreatic endocrine cells that function similarly to primary islets. We have developed a differentiation process that converts human embryonic stem (hES) cells to endocrine cells capable of synthesizing the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, gut-tube endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and endocrine precursor--en route to cells that express endocrine hormones. The hES cell-derived insulin-expressing cells have an insulin content approaching that of adult islets. Similar to fetal beta-cells, they release C-peptide in response to multiple secretory stimuli, but only minimally to glucose. Production of these hES cell-derived endocrine cells may represent a critical step in the development of a renewable source of cells for diabetes cell therapy.

  14. Genome engineering of mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells using the Cas9/RNA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Horii

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Haploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs are useful for studying mammalian genes because disruption of only one allele can cause loss-of-function phenotypes. Here, we report the use of haploid ESCs and the CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease gene-targeting system to manipulate mammalian genes. Co-transfection of haploid ESCs with vectors expressing Cas9 nuclease and single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs targeting Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 resulted in the complete disruption of all three genes and caused a loss-of-function phenotype with high efficiency (50%. Co-transfection of cells with vectors expressing Cas9 and sgRNAs targeting two loci on the same chromosome resulted in the creation of a large chromosomal deletion and a large inversion. Thus, the use of the CRISPR system in combination with haploid ESCs provides a powerful platform to manipulate the mammalian genome.

  15. Isolation and characterization of node/notochord-like cells from mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzi, Maria K.; Hyttel, Poul; Dale, Jacqueline Kim

    2011-01-01

    The homeobox gene Noto is expressed in the node and its derivative the notochord. Here we use a targeted Noto-GFP reporter to isolate and characterize node/notochord-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. We find very few Noto-expressing cells after spontaneous differentiation. However......, the number of Noto-expressing cells was increased when using Activin A to induce a Foxa2- and Brachyury-expressing progenitor population, whose further differentiation into Noto-expressing cells was improved by simultaneous inhibition of BMP, Wnt, and retinoic acid signaling. Noto-GFP(+) cells expressed...... the node/notochord markers Noto, Foxa2, Shh, Noggin, Chordin, Foxj1, and Brachyury; showed a vacuolarization characteristic of notochord cells; and can integrate into midline structures when grafted into Hensen's node of gastrulating chicken embryos. The ability to generate node/notochord-like cells...

  16. The polycomb group protein Suz12 is required for embryonic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Diego; Bracken, Adrian P; Hansen, Jacob Bo Højberg

    2007-01-01

    results in early lethality of mouse embryos. Here, we demonstrate that Suz12(-/-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be established and expanded in tissue culture. The Suz12(-/-) ES cells are characterized by global loss of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and higher expression levels of differentiation......-specific genes. Moreover, Suz12(-/-) ES cells are impaired in proper differentiation, resulting in a lack of repression of ES cell markers as well as activation of differentiation-specific genes. Finally, we demonstrate that the PcGs are actively recruited to several genes during ES cell differentiation, which...... despite an increase in H3K27me3 levels is not always sufficient to prevent transcriptional activation. In summary, we demonstrate that Suz12 is required for the establishment of specific expression programs required for ES cell differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PcGs have different...

  17. Derivation of NEM2 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea079

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea079 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying compound heterozygous mutations in the NEB gene, exon 55 deletion & c.15110dupA, indicative of Nemaline Myopathy Type 2 (NEM2. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XY and STR analysis demonstrated a male Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 86% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 54% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4 and gave a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.25, Novelty of 1.21. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  18. Functional network integration of embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes in hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Björn; Schmandt, Tanja; Schröder, Wolfgang; Steinfarz, Barbara; Husseini, Leila; Wellmer, Jörg; Seifert, Gerald; Karram, Khalad; Beck, Heinz; Blümcke, Ingmar; Wiestler, Otmar D; Steinhäuser, Christian; Brüstle, Oliver

    2003-11-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide attractive prospects for neural transplantation. So far, grafting strategies in the CNS have focused mainly on neuronal replacement. Employing a slice culture model, we found that ES cell-derived glial precursors (ESGPs) possess a remarkable capacity to integrate into the host glial network. Following deposition on the surface of hippocampal slices, ESGPs actively migrate into the recipient tissue and establish extensive cell-cell contacts with recipient glia. Gap junction-mediated coupling between donor and host astrocytes permits widespread delivery of dye from single donor cells. During maturation, engrafted donor cells display morphological, immunochemical and electrophysiological properties that are characteristic of differentiating native glia. Our findings provide the first evidence of functional integration of grafted astrocytes, and depict glial network integration as a potential route for widespread transcellular delivery of small molecules to the CNS.

  19. Partial promoter substitutions generating transcriptional sentinels of diverse signaling pathways in embryonic stem cells and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Palle; Gustavsen, Carsten; Klein, Tino; Potter, Leah A.; Lin, Robert; Mullapudi, Nandita; Wandzioch, Ewa; Hines, Angela; Davis, Ashley; Bruun, Christine; Engberg, Nina; Petersen, Dorthe R.; Peterslund, Janny M. L.; MacDonald, Raymond J.; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Magnuson, Mark A.; Zaret, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Extracellular signals in development, physiology, homeostasis and disease often act by regulating transcription. Herein we describe a general method and specific resources for determining where and when such signaling occurs in live animals and for systematically comparing the timing and extent of different signals in different cellular contexts. We used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) to test the effect of successively deleting conserved genomic regions of the ubiquitously active Rosa26 promoter and substituting the deleted regions for regulatory sequences that respond to diverse extracellular signals. We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can be adapted to any pathway that acts via DNA elements. PMID:22888097

  20. Magnesium chloride and polyamine can differentiate mouse embryonic stem cells into trophectoderm or endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, Jun-Ichi; Yokoo, Takehiro; Matsumura, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kikuchi, Yo; Suemori, Hirofumi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2017-01-22

    Magnesium chloride and polyamines stabilize DNA and chromatin. Furthermore, they can induce nucleosome aggregation and chromatin condensation in vitro. To determine the effects of elevating the cation concentrations in the nucleus of a living cell, we microinjected various concentrations of mono-, di- and polyvalent cation solutions into the nuclei of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and traced their fates. Here, we show that an elevation of either MgCl 2 , spermidine or spermine concentration in the nucleus exerts a significant effect on mouse ES cells, and can differentiate a certain population of the cells into trophectoderm, a lineage that mouse ES cells do not normally generate, or endoderm. It is hypothesized that the cell differentiation was most probably caused by the condensation of chromatin including the Oct3/4 locus, which was induced by the elevated concentrations of these cations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Concise review: animal substance-free human embryonic stem cells aiming at clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovatta, Outi; Rodin, Sergey; Antonsson, Liselotte; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have been considered the gold standard as a cell source for regenerative medicine since they were first cultured in 1998. They are pluripotent and can form principally all the cells types in the body. They are obtained from supernumerary human in vitro fertilization embryos that cannot be used for infertility treatment. Following studies on factors regulating pluripotency and differentiation, we now have techniques to establish and effectively expand these cells in animal substance-free conditions, even from single cells biopsied from eight-cell stage embryos in chemically defined feeder-free cultures. The genetic stability and absence of tumorigenic mutations can be determined. There are satisfactory animal tests for functionality and safety. The first clinical trials are ongoing for two indications: age-related macular degeneration and spinal cord injury. ©AlphaMed Press.

  2. Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

  3. Regional differences in expression of specific markers for human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steen B; Møllgård, Kjeld; Olesen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts generally includes expression analysis of markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Expression is usually detected by immunocytochemical staining of entire colonies...... staining to weak or absent NANOG staining, and vice versa. SSEA4 staining was only observed in small clusters or single cells and not confined to the TRA territory. Co-expression of all markers was only detected in small areas. SSEA1 expression was found exclusively outside the TRA territory. In conclusion......, pronounced regional differences in the expression of markers considered specific for undifferentiated hESC may suggest the existence of different cell populations....

  4. Isolation and characterization of node/notochord-like cells from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzi, Maria K; Hyttel, Poul; Dale, Jacqueline Kim; Serup, Palle

    2011-11-01

    The homeobox gene Noto is expressed in the node and its derivative the notochord. Here we use a targeted Noto-GFP reporter to isolate and characterize node/notochord-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. We find very few Noto-expressing cells after spontaneous differentiation. However, the number of Noto-expressing cells was increased when using Activin A to induce a Foxa2- and Brachyury-expressing progenitor population, whose further differentiation into Noto-expressing cells was improved by simultaneous inhibition of BMP, Wnt, and retinoic acid signaling. Noto-GFP(+) cells expressed the node/notochord markers Noto, Foxa2, Shh, Noggin, Chordin, Foxj1, and Brachyury; showed a vacuolarization characteristic of notochord cells; and can integrate into midline structures when grafted into Hensen's node of gastrulating chicken embryos. The ability to generate node/notochord-like cells in vitro will aid the biochemical characterization of these developmentally important structures.

  5. Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Embryoid Bodies in AggreWell Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibschull, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells can develop into many types of differentiated tissues if they are placed into a differentiating environment. This can occur in vivo when the ES cells are injected into or aggregated with an embryo, or in vitro if their culture conditions are modified to induce differentiation. Many times ES cell differentiation proceeds through an intermediate stage called the embryoid body (EB). EBs are round structures composed of ES cells that have undergone some of the initial stages of differentiation. EBs can then be manipulated further to generate more specific cell types. The method described here makes use of commercially available AggreWell 400 plates with prefabricated indentations that cradle each EB. Although these plates are relatively expensive, they may be suitable for some high-throughput experiments. This protocol describes the preparation of embryoid bodies of defined size and shape in a large-scale format (approximately 1200 embryoid bodies per preparation). © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Regional differences in expression of specific markers for human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steen B; Møllgård, Kjeld; Olesen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts generally includes expression analysis of markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Expression is usually detected by immunocytochemical staining of entire colonies...... of hESC, using one colony for each individual marker. Four newly established hESC lines showed the expected expression pattern and were capable of differentiating into the three germ layers in vitro. Neighbouring sections of entire colonies grown for 4, 11, 21 and 28 days respectively were stained...... with different markers to study the regional distribution and cellular co-expression. TRA-1-60 staining defined the hESC territory at all time points analysed. This territory comprised a characteristic OCT4 and NANOG staining often in overlapping subregions. Staining intensity of nuclei varied from strong OCT4...

  7. Human embryonic stem cells in culture possess primary cilia with hedgehog signaling machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiprilov, Enko N; Awan, Aashir; Desprat, Romain

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are potential therapeutic tools and models of human development. With a growing interest in primary cilia in signal transduction pathways that are crucial for embryological development and tissue differentiation and interest in mechanisms regulating human h...... are present in three undifferentiated hESC lines. EM reveals the characteristic 9 + 0 axoneme. The number and length of cilia increase after serum starvation. Important components of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway, including smoothened, patched 1 (Ptc1), and Gli1 and 2, are present in the cilia. Stimulation...... of the pathway results in the concerted movement of Ptc1 out of, and smoothened into, the primary cilium as well as up-regulation of GLI1 and PTC1. These findings show that hESCs contain primary cilia associated with working Hh machinery. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar-10...

  8. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Ouyang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-478 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-478 cell line carried a compound heterozygous mutation, c.896G>A(p.Arg299His) and c.929_930insC(p.Pro310Glnfs*9), of TYR gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-478 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple non-invasive analysis of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beating in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Karas, Pavel; Kudová, Jana; Kohút, Lukáš; Binó, Lucia; Večeřa, Josef; Víteček, Jan; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of digital video output enables the non-invasive screening of various active biological processes. For the monitoring and computing of the beating parameters of cardiomyocytes in vitro, CB Analyser (cardiomyocyte beating analyser) software was developed. This software is based on image analysis of the video recording of beating cardiomyocytes. CB Analyser was tested using cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells at different stages of cardiomyogenesis. We observed that during differentiation (from day 18), the beat peak width decreased, which corresponded to the increased speed of an individual pulse. However, the beating frequency did not change. Further, the effects of epinephrine modulating mature cardiomyocyte functions were tested to validate the CB Analyser analysis. In conclusion, data show that CB Analyser is a useful tool for evaluating the functions of both developing and mature cardiomyocytes under various conditions in vitro.

  10. The phenotype of FancB-mutant mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Moon; Ko, Jun Ho; Choi, Yong Jun; Hu Lingchuan [Department of Molecular Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [Department of Molecular Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, developmental defects and cancer. There are multiple FA genes that enable the repair of interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) in coordination with a variety of other DNA repair pathways in a way that is poorly understood. Here we present the phenotype of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells mutated for FancB. We found FancB-mutant cells exhibited reduced cellular proliferation, hypersensitivity to the crosslinking agent mitomycin C (MMC), increased spontaneous and MMC-induced chromosomal abnormalities, reduced spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), reduced gene targeting, reduced MMC-induced Rad51 foci and absent MMC-induced FancD2 foci. Since FancB is on the X chromosome and since ES cells are typically XY, FancB is an excellent target for an epistatic analysis to elucidate FA's role in ICL repair.

  11. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe015-A (RC-11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, P A; Tye, B J; Bruce, K; Dand, P; Russell, G; Collins, D M; Greenshields, A; McDonald, K; Bradburn, H; Laurie, A; Canham, M; Kunath, T; Downie, J M; Bateman, M; Courtney, A

    2016-05-07

    The human embryonic stem cell line RCe015-A (RC-11) was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulation, European Union Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards. The cell line was derived from a fragmented cleavage stage embryo voluntarily donated as unsuitable or surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe015-A (RC-11) shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krassowska, Anna; Gordon-Keylock, Sabrina; Samuel, Kay; Gilchrist, Derek; Dzierzak, Elaine; Oostendorp, Robert; Forrester, Lesley M.; Ansell, John D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance

  13. Endogenous WNT Signals Mediate BMP-Induced and Spontaneous Differentiation of Epiblast Stem Cells and Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kurek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs requires precise control over their differentiation. However, spontaneous differentiation is prevalent, and growth factors induce multiple cell types; e.g., the mesoderm inducer BMP4 generates both mesoderm and trophoblast. Here we identify endogenous WNT signals as BMP targets that are required and sufficient for mesoderm induction, while trophoblast induction is WNT independent, enabling the exclusive differentiation toward either lineage. Furthermore, endogenous WNT signals induce loss of pluripotency in hESCs and their murine counterparts, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs. WNT inhibition obviates the need to manually remove differentiated cells to maintain cultures and improves the efficiency of directed differentiation. In EpiSCs, WNT inhibition stabilizes a pregastrula epiblast state with novel characteristics, including the ability to contribute to blastocyst chimeras. Our findings show that endogenous WNT signals function as hidden mediators of growth factor-induced differentiation and play critical roles in the self-renewal of hESCs and EpiSCs.

  14. Rat embryonic fibroblasts improve reprogramming of human keratinocytes into induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linta, Leonhard; Stockmann, Marianne; Kleinhans, Karin N; Böckers, Anja; Storch, Alexander; Zaehres, Holm; Lin, Qiong; Barbi, Gotthold; Böckers, Tobias M; Kleger, Alexander; Liebau, Stefan

    2012-04-10

    Patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells not only provide a promising tool for cellular disease models in general, but also open up the opportunity to establish cell-type-specific systems for personalized medicine. One of the crucial prerequisites for these strategies, however, is a fast and efficient reprogramming strategy from easy accessible somatic cell populations. Keratinocytes from plucked human hair had been introduced as a superior cell source for reprogramming purposes compared with the widely used skin fibroblasts. The starting cell population is, however, limited and thereby further optimization in terms of time, efficiency, and quality is inevitable. Here we show that rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs) should replace mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder cells in the reprogramming process. REFs enable a significantly more efficient reprogramming procedure as shown by colony number and total amount of SSEA4-positive cells. We successfully produced keratinocyte-derived hiPS (k-hiPS) cells from various donors. The arising k-hiPS cells display the hallmarks of pluripotency such as expression of stem cell markers and differentiation into all 3 germ layers. The increased reprogramming efficiency using REFs as a feeder layer occurred independent of the proliferation rate in the parental keratinocytes and acts, at least in part, in a non-cell autonomous way by secreting factors known to facilitate pluripotency such as Tgfb1, Inhba and Grem1. Hence, we provide an easy to use and highly efficient reprogramming system that could be very useful for a broad application to generate human iPS cells. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  15. Differentiation and selection of hepatocyte precursors in suspension spheroid culture of transgenic murine embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Gabriel

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocyte precursor cells represent a promising model for clinical transplantations to diseased livers, as well as for establishment of in vitro systems for drug metabolism and toxicology investigations. This study aimed to establish an in vitro culture system for scalable generation of hepatic progenitor cells. We used stable transgenic clones of murine embryonic stem cells possessing a reporter/selection vector, in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein- and puromycin N-acetyltransferase-coding genes are driven by a common alpha-fetoprotein gene promoter. This allowed for "live" monitoring and puromycin selection of the desired differentiating cell type possessing the activated alpha-fetoprotein gene. A rotary culture system was established, sequentially yielding initially partially selected hepatocyte lineage-committed cells, and finally, a highly purified cell population maintained as a dynamic suspension spheroid culture, which progressively developed the hepatic gene expression phenotype. The latter was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis, which showed a progressive up-regulation of hepatic genes during spheroid culture, indicating development of a mixed hepatocyte precursor-/fetal hepatocyte-like cell population. Adherent spheroids gave rise to advanced differentiated hepatocyte-like cells expressing hepatic proteins such as albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, and liver-specific organic anion transporter 1, as demonstrated by fluorescent immunostaining. A fraction of adherent cells was capable of glycogen storage and of reversible up-take of indocyanine green, demonstrating their hepatocyte-like functionality. Moreover, after transplantation of spheroids into the mouse liver, the spheroid-derived cells integrated into recipient. These results demonstrate that large-scale hepatocyte precursor-/hepatocyte-like cultures can be established for use in clinical trials, as well as in

  16. Glycosphingolipid dynamics in human embryonic stem cell and cancer: their characterization and biomedical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Yi; Yu, Alice L; Yu, John

    2017-12-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are composed of complex glycans linked to sphingosines and various fatty acid chains. Antibodies against several GSLs designated as stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs), have been widely used to characterize differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. In view of the cross-reactivities of these antibodies with multiple glycans, a few laboratories have employed advanced mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to define the dynamic changes of surface GSLs upon ES differentiation. However, the amphiphilic nature and heterogeneity of GSLs make them difficult to decipher. In our studies, systematic survey of GSL expression profiles in human ES cells and differentiated derivatives was conducted, primarily with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS (MALDI-MS) and MS/MS analyses. In addition to the well-known ES-specific markers, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4, several previously undisclosed globo- and lacto-series GSLs, including Gb4Cer, Lc4Cer, fucosyl Lc4Cer, Globo H, and disialyl Gb5Cer were identified in the undifferentiated human ES and induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, during differentiation to embryoid body outgrowth, the core structures of GSLs switched from globo- and lacto- to ganglio-series. Lineage-specific differentiation was also marked by alterations of specific GSLs. During differentiation into neural progenitors, core structures shifted to primarily ganglio-series dominated by GD3. GSL patterns shifted to prominent expression of Gb4Cer with little SSEA-3 and- 4 or GD3 during endodermal differentiation. Several issues relevant to MS analysis and novel GSLs in ES cells were discussed. Finally, unique GSL signatures in ES and cancer cells are exploited in glycan-targeted anti-cancer immunotherapy and their mechanistic investigations were discussed using anti-GD2 mAb and Globo H as examples.

  17. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes : High glucose inhibits ES cell cardiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Penghua; Chen, Xi; Kaushal, Sunjay; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2016-12-09

    Babies born to mothers with pregestational diabetes have a high risk for congenital heart defects (CHD). Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are excellent in vitro models for studying the effect of high glucose on cardiac lineage specification because ESCs can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes. ESC maintenance and differentiation are currently performed under high glucose conditions, whose adverse effects have never been clarified. We investigated the effect of high glucose on cardiomyocyte differentiation from a well-characterized ESC line, E14, derived from mouse blastocysts. E14 cells maintained under high glucose (25 mM) failed to generate any beating cardiomyocytes using the hanging-drop embryonic body method. We created a glucose-responsive E14 cell line (GR-E14) through a graduated low glucose adaptation. The expression of stem cell markers was similar in the parent E14 cells and the GR-E14 cells. Glucose transporter 2 gene was increased in GR-E14 cells. When GR-E14 cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes under low (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions, high glucose significantly delayed the appearance and reduced the number of TNNT2 (Troponin T Type 2)-positive contracting cardiomyocytes. High glucose suppressed the expression of precardiac mesoderm markers, cardiac transcription factors, mature cardiomyocyte markers, and potassium channel proteins. High glucose impaired the functionality of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes by suppressing the frequencies of Ca 2+ wave and contraction. Our findings suggest that high glucose inhibits ESC cardiogenesis by suppressing key developmental genes essential for the cardiac program.

  18. Functional investigations on embryonic stem cells labeled with clinically translatable iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Liqin; Cao, Jianbo; Huang, Yue; Lin, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xiuqin; Liu, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Stem cell based therapies offer significant potential in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle labeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been increasingly used to track the transplanted cells, enabling in vivo determination of cell fate. However, the impact of SPIO-labeling on the cell phenotype and differentiation capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unclear. In this study, we wrapped SPIO nanoparticles with stearic acid grafted PEI600, termed as Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO, to generate efficient and non-toxic ESC labeling tools. Our results showed that efficient labeling of ESCs at an optimized low dosage of Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO nanoparticles did not alter the differentiation and self-renewal properties of ESCs. The localization of the transplanted ESCs observed by MRI correlated well with histological studies. These findings demonstrate that Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO nanoparticles have potential to be clinically translatable MRI probes and may enable non-invasive in vivo tracking of ESCs in experimental and clinical settings during cell-based therapies.Stem cell based therapies offer significant potential in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle labeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been increasingly used to track the transplanted cells, enabling in vivo determination of cell fate. However, the impact of SPIO-labeling on the cell phenotype and differentiation capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unclear. In this study, we wrapped SPIO nanoparticles with stearic acid grafted PEI600, termed as Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO, to generate efficient and non-toxic ESC labeling tools. Our results showed that efficient labeling of ESCs at an optimized low dosage of Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO nanoparticles did not alter the differentiation and self-renewal properties of ESCs. The localization of the transplanted ESCs observed by MRI

  19. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    pattern. We observed expression of pluripotency marker genes such as Oct4, Sox2 and Rex1 in ES and iPS cell lines with notable exception of Nanog. CONCLUSIONS: We had produced and characterized American mink ES and iPS cells. These cells were pluripotent by a number of criteria and iPS cells exhibited....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i...... with cell types representing all three germ layers. Transcriptome analysis of mink embryonic fibroblasts (EF), two ES and two iPS cell lines allowed us to identify 11831 assembled contigs which were annotated. These led to a number of 6891 unique genes. Of these 3201 were differentially expressed between...

  20. Delivery of differentiation factors by mesoporous silica particles assists advanced differentiation of transplanted murine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; Kozhevnikova, Mariya; König, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation.......Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors...

  1. Expression pattern of the human ABC transporters in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and in their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Zsuzsa; Lőrincz, Réka; Szebényi, Kornélia; Péntek, Adrienn; Varga, Nóra; Likó, István; Várady, György; Szakács, Gergely; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Agota

    2014-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have key roles in various physiological functions as well as providing chemical defense and stress tolerance in human tissues. In this study, we have examined the expression pattern of all ABC proteins in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and in their differentiated progenies. We paid special attention to the cellular expression and localization of multidrug transporter ABC proteins. Stem cell differentiation was carried out without chemical induction or cell sorting, and specialized cell types were separated mechanically. Cellular features regarding pluripotency and tissue identity, as well as ABC transporter expression were studied by flow cytomtery, immuno-microscopy, and qPCR-based low-density arrays. Pluripotent hESCs and differentiated cell types (cardiomyocytes, neuronal cells, and mesenchymal stem cells) were distinguished by morphology, immunostaining markers, and selected mRNA expression patterns. We found that the mRNA expression levels of the 48 human ABC proteins also clearly distinguished the pluripotent and the respective differentiated cell types. When multidrug and lipid transporter ABC protein expression was examined by using well characterized specific antibodies by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, the protein expression data corresponded well to the mRNA expression results. Moreover, the cellular localization of these important human ABC transporter proteins could be established in the pluripotent and differentiated hESC derived samples. These studies provide valuable information regarding ABC protein expression in human stem cells and their differentiated offspring. The results may also help to obtain further information concerning the specialized cellular functions of selected ABC transporters. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. Dynamic ABCG2 expression in human embryonic stem cells provides the basis for stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Zsuzsa; Sarkadi, Balázs; Brózik, Anna; Szebényi, Kornélia; Várady, György; Makó, Veronika; Péntek, Adrienn; Orbán, Tamás I; Apáti, Ágota

    2013-03-01

    ABCG2 is a plasma membrane multidrug transporter with an established role in the cancer drug-resistance phenotype. This protein is expressed in a variety of tissues, including several types of stem cell. Although ABCG2 is not essential for life, knock-out mice were found to be hypersensitive to xenobiotics and had reduced levels of the side population of hematopoietic stem cells. Previously we have shown that ABCG2 is present in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, with a heterogeneous expression pattern. In this study we examined this heterogeneity, and investigated whether it is related to stress responses in hESCs. We did not find any difference between expression of pluripotency markers in ABCG2-positive and negative hESCs; however, ABCG2-expressing cells had a higher growth rate after cell separation. We found that some harmful conditions (physical stress, drugs, and UV light exposure) are tolerated much better in the presence of ABCG2 protein. This property can be explained by the transporter function which eliminates potential toxic metabolites accumulated during stress conditions. In contrast, mild oxidative stress in hESCs caused rapid internalization of ABCG2, indicating that some environmental factors may induce removal of this transporter from the plasma membrane. On the basis of these results we suggest that a dynamic balance of ABCG2 expression at the population level has the advantage of enabling prompt response to changes in the cellular environment. Such actively maintained heterogeneity might be of evolutionary benefit in protecting special cell types, including pluripotent stem cells.

  3. Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie, Xin, E-mail: dr.xinnie@gmail.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  4. Characterization of p75+ ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia; Nie, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. ► We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75 + EMSCs). ► p75 + EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. ► We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75 + EMSCs. ► p75 + EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial–mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75 + EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75 + EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  5. In Vitro Osteogenic Potential of Green Fluorescent Protein Labelled Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Osteoprogenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intekhab Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy using stem cells in bone regeneration has gained increasing interest. Various studies suggest the clinical utility of osteoprogenitors-like mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration. However, limited availability of mesenchymal stem cells and conflicting evidence on their therapeutic efficacy limit their clinical application. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are potentially an unlimited source of healthy and functional osteoprogenitors (OPs that could be utilized for bone regenerative applications. However, limited ability to track hESC-derived progenies in vivo greatly hinders translational studies. Hence, in this study, we aimed to establish hESC-derived OPs (hESC-OPs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP and to investigate their osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. We fluorescently labelled H9-hESCs using a plasmid vector encoding GFP. The GFP-expressing hESCs were differentiated into hESC-OPs. The hESC-OPsGFP+ stably expressed high levels of GFP, CD73, CD90, and CD105. They possessed osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro as demonstrated by increased expression of COL1A1, RUNX2, OSTERIX, and OPG transcripts and mineralized nodules positive for Alizarin Red and immunocytochemical expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen-I. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs can maintain their GFP expression for the long term and their potential for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In future, these fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs could be used for noninvasive assessment of bone regeneration, safety, and therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Fast and Efficient Transfection of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Non-Viral Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Christoffer; Kadekar, Sandeep; Pijuan-Galitó, Sara; Annerén, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    Reliable and efficient DNA and RNA transfection methods are required when studying the role of individual genes in mouse pluripotent stem cells. However, these cells usually grow in tight clusters and are therefore more difficult to transfect than many other cell lines. We have found that transfection is especially challenging when mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells are cultured in the newly described 2i medium, which is based on two chemical inhibitors of differentiation pathways. In the present study we have performed a side-by-side comparison of commercially available, non-viral transfection reagents with regard to their ability to deliver plasmid DNA and siRNA into adherent and/or trypsinized mES cells cultured in 2i medium, assessing transfection rates, plasmid gene expression, siRNA mediated knockdown of Oct4 and viability. Finally, we present a fast and efficient method for transfection of trypsinized mES cells using the liposomal-based Lipofectamine 2000. With only a five-minute long transfection time we obtained at least 85 % transfected cells with 80 % maintained viability. Moreover, this protocol saves up to a day of experimental time since the cells are in suspension at the time of transfection, which allows for immediately re-plating into the appropriate format. This fast, simplified and highly efficient transfection method will be valuable for both basic research and high-throughput applications.

  7. Reprogramming of two somatic nuclei in the same ooplasm leads to pluripotent embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin J; Esteves, Telma C; Balbach, Sebastian T; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Stehling, Martin; Jauch, Anna; Houghton, Franchesca D; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of the nuclear program of a somatic cell from a differentiated to an undifferentiated state can be accomplished by transplanting its nucleus to an enucleated oocyte (somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]) in a process termed "reprogramming." This process achieves pluripotency and occasionally also totipotency. Exploiting the obstacle of tetraploidy to full development in mammals, we show that mouse ooplasts transplanted with two somatic nuclei simultaneously (double SCNT) support preimplantation development and derivation of novel tetraploid SCNT embryonic stem cells (tNT-ESCs). Although the double SCNT embryos do not recapitulate the expression pattern of the pluripotency-associated gene Oct4 in fertilized embryos, derivative tNT-ESCs have characteristics of genuine pluripotency: in vitro they differentiate into neurons, cardiomyocytes, and endodermal cells; in vivo, tNT-ESCs form teratomas, albeit at reduced rates compared to diploid counterparts. Global transcriptome analysis revealed only few specific alterations, for example, in the quantitative expression of gastrulation-associated genes. In conclusion, we have shown that the oocyte's reprogramming capacity is in excess of a single nucleus and that double nucleus-transplanted embryos and derivative ESCs are very similar to their diploid counterparts. These results have key implications for reprogramming studies based on pluripotency: while reprogramming in the tetraploid state was known from fusion-mediated reprogramming and from fetal and adult hepatocyte-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, we have now accomplished it with enucleated oocytes. © AlphaMed Press.

  8. Cap-independent translation by DAP5 controls cell fate decisions in human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoffe, Yael; David, Maya; Kalaora, Rinat; Povodovski, Lital; Friedlander, Gilgi; Feldmesser, Ester; Ainbinder, Elena; Saada, Ann; Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes drive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This study unveils an additional level of gene expression regulation involving noncanonical, cap-independent translation of a select group of mRNAs. This is driven by death-associated protein 5 (DAP5/eIF4G2/NAT1), a translation initiation factor mediating IRES-dependent translation. We found that the DAP5 knockdown from human ESCs (hESCs) resulted in persistence of pluripotent gene expression, delayed induction of differentiation-associated genes in different cell lineages, and defective embryoid body formation. The latter involved improper cellular organization, lack of cavitation, and enhanced mislocalized apoptosis. RNA sequencing of polysome-associated mRNAs identified candidates with reduced translation efficiency in DAP5-depleted hESCs. These were enriched in mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative respiration, a pathway essential for differentiation, the significance of which was confirmed by the aberrant mitochondrial morphology and decreased oxidative respiratory activity in DAP5 knockdown cells. Further analysis identified the chromatin modifier HMGN3 as a cap-independent DAP5 translation target whose knockdown resulted in defective differentiation. Thus, DAP5-mediated translation of a specific set of proteins is critical for the transition from pluripotency to differentiation, highlighting the importance of cap-independent translation in stem cell fate decisions. PMID:27664238

  9. Spectroscopic signature of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes using synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumanu, Kanjana; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Ye, Danna; Sangmalee, Anawat; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Parnpai, Rangsun; Heraud, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Stem cell-based therapy for liver regeneration has been proposed to overcome the persistent shortage in the supply of suitable donor organs. A requirement for this to succeed is to find a rapid method to detect functional hepatocytes, differentiated from embryonic stem cells. We propose Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy as a versatile method to identify the early and last stages of the differentiation process leading to the formation of hepatocytes. Using synchrotron-FTIR microspectroscopy, the means of identifying hepatocytes at the single-cell level is possible and explored. Principal component analysis and subsequent partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis is applied to distinguish endoderm induction from hepatic progenitor cells and matured hepatocyte-like cells. The data are well modeled by PLS with endoderm induction, hepatic progenitor cells, and mature hepatocyte-like cells able to be discriminated with very high sensitivity and specificity. This method provides a practical tool to monitor endoderm induction and has the potential to be applied for quality control of cell differentiation leading to hepatocyte formation.

  10. Bioassembly of three-dimensional embryonic stem cell-scaffold complexes using compressed gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yubing; Yang, Yong; Kang, Xihai; Li, Ruth; Volakis, Leonithas I; Zhang, Xulang; Lee, L James; Kniss, Douglas A

    2009-01-01

    Tissues are composed of multiple cell types in a well-organized three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment. To faithfully mimic the tissue in vivo, tissue-engineered constructs should have well-defined 3D chemical and spatial control over cell behavior to recapitulate developmental processes in tissue- and organ-specific differentiation and morphogenesis. It is a challenge to build a 3D complex from two-dimensional (2D) patterned structures with the presence of cells. In this study, embryonic stem (ES) cells grown on polymeric scaffolds with well-defined microstructure were constructed into a multilayer cell-scaffold complex using low pressure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrogen (N(2)). The mouse ES cells in the assembled constructs were viable, retained the ES cell-specific gene expression of Oct-4, and maintained the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs). In particular, cell viability was increased from 80% to 90% when CO(2) was replaced with N(2). The compressed gas-assisted bioassembly of stem cell-polymer constructs opens up a new avenue for tissue engineering and cell therapy. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol.

  11. The p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-{alpha}, suppresses self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed, E-mail: essam_abdelalim@yahoo.com [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Tooyama, Ikuo [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine the role of p53 in ES cells under unstressful conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} suppresses ES cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} induces ES cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} downregulates Nanog and cyclin D1. -- Abstract: Recent studies have reported the role of p53 in suppressing the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells after DNA damage and blocking the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, to date no evidence has been presented to support the function of p53 in unstressed ES cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of pifithrin (PFT)-{alpha}, an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation, on self-renewal of ES cells. Our results revealed that treatment of ES cells with PFT-{alpha} resulted in the inhibition of ES cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a marked reduction in the cell number and colony size. Also, PFT-{alpha} caused a cell cycle arrest and significant reduction in DNA synthesis. In addition, inhibition of p53 activity reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Nanog. These findings indicate that p53 pathway in ES cells rather than acting as an inactive gene, is required for ES cell proliferation and self-renewal under unstressful conditions.

  12. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined...... the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established...... between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100μg/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When...

  13. Molecular characterisation of stromal populations derived from human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, L.; Twine, N. A.; Abu Dawud, R.

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (BM-hMSC) are being employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration. A limiting factor for their clinical use is the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can provide...... an unlimited source of clinical grade cells for therapy. We have generated MSC-like cells from hESC (called here hESC-stromal) that exhibit surface markers and differentiate to osteoblasts and adipocytes, similar to BM-hMSC. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to compare the molecular phenotype...... of hESC-stromal and immortalised BM-hMSC cells (hMSC-TERT). Of the 7379 genes expressed above baseline, only 9.3% of genes were differentially expressed between undifferentiated hESC-stromal and BM-hMSC. Following ex vivo osteoblast induction, 665 and 695 genes exhibited >. 2-fold change (FC) in h...

  14. Functional and molecular characterization of the role of CTCF in human embryonic stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sri Kripa; Witcher, Michael; Berggren, Travis W; Emerson, Beverly M

    2012-01-01

    The CCCTC-binding factor CTCF is the only known vertebrate insulator protein and has been shown to regulate important developmental processes such as imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and genomic architecture. In this study, we examined the role of CTCF in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) biology. We demonstrate that CTCF associates with several important pluripotency genes, including NANOG, SOX2, cMYC and LIN28 and is critical for hESC proliferation. CTCF depletion impacts expression of pluripotency genes and accelerates loss of pluripotency upon BMP4 induced differentiation, but does not result in spontaneous differentiation. We find that CTCF associates with the distal ends and internal sites of the co-regulated 160 kb NANOG-DPPA3-GDF3 locus. Each of these sites can function as a CTCF-dependent enhancer-blocking insulator in heterologous assays. In hESCs, CTCF exists in multisubunit protein complexes and can be poly(ADP)ribosylated. Known CTCF cofactors, such as Cohesin, differentially co-localize in the vicinity of specific CTCF binding sites within the NANOG locus. Importantly, the association of some cofactors and protein PARlation selectively changes upon differentiation although CTCF binding remains constant. Understanding how unique cofactors may impart specialized functions to CTCF at specific genomic locations will further illuminate its role in stem cell biology.

  15. Functional and molecular characterization of the role of CTCF in human embryonic stem cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kripa Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available The CCCTC-binding factor CTCF is the only known vertebrate insulator protein and has been shown to regulate important developmental processes such as imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and genomic architecture. In this study, we examined the role of CTCF in human embryonic stem cell (hESC biology. We demonstrate that CTCF associates with several important pluripotency genes, including NANOG, SOX2, cMYC and LIN28 and is critical for hESC proliferation. CTCF depletion impacts expression of pluripotency genes and accelerates loss of pluripotency upon BMP4 induced differentiation, but does not result in spontaneous differentiation. We find that CTCF associates with the distal ends and internal sites of the co-regulated 160 kb NANOG-DPPA3-GDF3 locus. Each of these sites can function as a CTCF-dependent enhancer-blocking insulator in heterologous assays. In hESCs, CTCF exists in multisubunit protein complexes and can be poly(ADPribosylated. Known CTCF cofactors, such as Cohesin, differentially co-localize in the vicinity of specific CTCF binding sites within the NANOG locus. Importantly, the association of some cofactors and protein PARlation selectively changes upon differentiation although CTCF binding remains constant. Understanding how unique cofactors may impart specialized functions to CTCF at specific genomic locations will further illuminate its role in stem cell biology.

  16. Primordial germ cell differentiation of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells using surface modified electroconductive scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami-Arshaghi, Tarlan; Vakilian, Saeid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Soleimani, Masoud; Salehi, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    A combination of nanotopographical cues and surface modification of collagen and fibronectin is a potential platform in primordial germ cells (PGCs) differentiation. In the present study, the synergistic effect of nanotopography and surface modification on differentiation of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (nt-ESCs) toward PGC lineage was investigated. In order to achieve this goal, poly-anyline (PANi) was mix within poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). Afterward, the random composite mats were fabricated using PLLA and PANi mix solution. The nanofiber topography notably upregulated the expressions of prdm14, mvh and c-kit compared with tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Moreover, the combination of nanofiber topography and surface modification resulted in more enhancement of PGCs differentiation compared with non-modified nanofibrous scaffold. Additionally, gene expression results showed that mvh and c-kit were expressed at higher intensity in cells exposed to collagen and fibronectin rather than collagen or fibronectin solitary. These results demonstrated the importance of combined effect of collagen and fibronectin in order to develop a functional extracellular matrix (ECM) mimic in directing stem cell fate and the potential of such biofunctional scaffolds for treatment of infertility.

  17. The ability of mouse nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs show stem cell characteristics such as pluripotency but cause no immunological disorders. Although ntESCs are able to differentiate into somatic cells, the ability of ntESCs to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs has not been examined. In this work, we examined the capacity of mouse ntESCs to differentiate into PGCs in vitro. ntESCs aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EB in EB culture medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein 4(BMP4 as the differentiation factor. The expression level of specific PGC genes was compared at days 4 and 8 using real time PCR. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect Mvh as a specific PGC marker. ntESCs expressed particular genes related to different stages of PGC development. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining confirmed the presence of Mvh protein in a small number of cells. There were significant differences between cells that differentiated into PGCs in the group treated with Bmp4 compared to non-treated cells. These findings indicate that ntESCs can differentiate into putative PGCs. Improvement of ntESC differentiation into PGCs may be a reliable means of producing mature germ cells.

  18. Epigenetic changes of lentiviral transgenes in porcine stem cells derived from embryonic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hye-Sun; Uh, Kyung-Jun; Son, Dong-Chan; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Because of the physiological and immunological similarities that exist between pigs and humans, porcine pluripotent cell lines have been identified as important candidates for preliminary studies on human disease as well as a source for generating transgenic animals. Therefore, the establishment and characterization of porcine embryonic stem cells (pESCs), along with the generation of stable transgenic cell lines, is essential. In this study, we attempted to efficiently introduce transgenes into Epiblast stem cell (EpiSC)-like pESCs. Consequently, a pluripotent cell line could be derived from a porcine-hatched blastocyst. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was successfully introduced into the cells via lentiviral vectors under various multiplicities of infection, with pluripotency and differentiation potential unaffected after transfection. However, EGFP expression gradually declined during extended culture. This silencing effect was recovered by in vitro differentiation and treatment with 5-azadeoxycytidine. This phenomenon was related to DNA methylation as determined by bisulfite sequencing. In conclusion, we were able to successfully derive EpiSC-like pESCs and introduce transgenes into these cells using lentiviral vectors. This cell line could potentially be used as a donor cell source for transgenic pigs and may be a useful tool for studies involving EpiSC-like pESCs as well as aid in the understanding of the epigenetic regulation of transgenes.

  19. Human embryonic stem cell science and policy: the case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniei, Mansooreh

    2013-12-01

    The paper is based on a large qualitative study of ethics, policy and regulation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science in Iran. This case study in five academic research centres used semi-structured interviews to examine in depth the views of stem cell scientists, embryologists and ethics committee members on hESC research policy in this Shia Muslim country. Although Iran's policy approach has been considered 'intermediate', what is described here seems to be a 'more flexible' policy on hESC science. This article describes three arguments to explain why Iran has shaped such a policy. These are: (1) a flexibility of the Shia tradition has allowed for hESC science; (2) permissive policy related to other fields of biomedicine, such as new assisted reproductive technologies, facilitated approval of hESC research; and (3) a lack of public debate of bioscience in Iran influences how its hESC research policy is perceived. Based on the empirical data, this paper then expands and refines the conceptual bioethical basis for the co-production of science, policy, and society in Iran. The notion of co-production implies that scientists, policy-makers, and sometimes other societal actors cooperate in the exchange, production, and application of knowledge to make science policy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Rosalinda T.; Daldrup-Link, Heike [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Boddington, Sophie; Wendland, Mike; Mandrussow, Lydia [University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Henning, Tobias D. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Cologne (Germany); Liu, Siyuan [National Institutes of Health, Language Section, Voice, Speech and Language Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 {mu}g/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  1. Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Embryoid Bodies by Hanging-Drop Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Richard; Gertsenstein, Marina; Nagy, Kristina Vintersten; Nagy, Andras

    2016-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells can develop into many types of differentiated tissues if they are placed into a differentiating environment. This can occur in vivo when the ES cells are injected into or aggregated with an embryo, or in vitro if their culture conditions are modified to induce differentiation. There are an increasing number of differentiating culture conditions that can bias the differentiation of ES cells into desired cell types. Determining the mechanisms that control ES cell differentiation into therapeutically important cell types is a quickly growing area of research. Knowledge gained from these studies may eventually lead to the use of stem cells to repair specific damaged tissues. Many times ES cell differentiation proceeds through an intermediate stage called the embryoid body (EB). EBs are round structures composed of ES cells that have undergone some of the initial stages of differentiation. EBs can then be manipulated further to generate more specific cell types. This protocol describes a method to differentiate ES cells into EBs. It produces EBs of comparable size. This aspect is important because the differentiation processes taking place inside an EB are influenced by its size. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Goedland, Madelyn; Steyer, Benjamin; Movaghar, Arezoo; Lou, Meng; Kohlenberg, Lucille; Prestil, Ryan; Saha, Krishanu

    2016-01-12

    CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D reconstitution of the patterned neural tube from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Andrea; Eberle, Dominic; Tazaki, Akira; Ranga, Adrian; Niesche, Marco; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Stec, Agnieszka; Schackert, Gabriele; Lutolf, Matthias; Tanaka, Elly M

    2014-12-09

    Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen in 3D. Untreated cysts were uniformly dorsal and could be ventralized to floor plate (FP). Retinoic acid posteriorized cysts to cervical levels and induced localize FP formation yielding full patterning along the dorsal/ventral (DV) axis. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons, and dorsal interneurons along the DV axis was observed. This system serves as a valuable tool for studying morphogen action in 3D and as a source of patterned spinal cord tissue. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentiation patterns of embryonic stem cells in two- versus three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Emma T; Nerem, Robert M; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are attractive candidates as a cell source for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapies. Current methods of differentiation result in low yields and impure populations of target phenotypes, with attempts for improved efficiency often comparing protocols that vary multiple parameters. This basic science study focused on a single variable to understand the effects of two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) culture on directed differentiation. We compared mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiated on collagen type I-coated surfaces (SLIDEs), embedded in collagen type I gels (GELs), and in suspension as embryoid bodies (EBs). For a systematic analysis in these studies, key parameters were kept identical to allow for direct comparison across culture configurations. We determined that all three configurations supported differentiation of ESCs and that the kinetics of differentiation differed greatly for cells cultured in 2D versus 3D. SLIDE cultures induced overall differentiation more quickly than 3D configurations, with earlier expression of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins. For 3D culture as GELs or EBs, cells clustered similarly, formed complex structures and promoted differentiation towards cardiovascular phenotypes. GEL culture, however, also allowed for contraction of the collagen matrix. For differentiation towards fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells which actively remodel their environment, GEL culture may be particularly beneficial. Overall, this study determined the effects of dimensionality on differentiation and helps in the rational design of protocols to generate phenotypes needed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The debate surrounding human embryonic stem cell research in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikani, Mina

    2007-12-01

    Despite its potential for reducing human suffering, the advancement of human embryonic stem cell research has not been given top priority by the US government, and the scientific community has been engaged in a debate on this issue in the USA and beyond. The central question in this debate is whether the promise of stem cells justifies the destruction of human embryos - mainly embryos that are surplus to the needs of patients undergoing infertility treatment. It is argued here that this debate belongs in the same category as the debates on global warming and evolution, because it has much in common with both. It is conducted with a heavy load of scientifically uninformed views and beliefs and framed largely by an implacable opposition with the aim of creating public confusion and doubt. It is primarily politically motivated and, as is true about the debate on evolution, it is rooted in religion. A human embryo is not a human being or person even if it is deserving of - and receives - respect and extraordinary care in the context of assisted human reproduction. Rather than engaging in a futile debate that clouds the way forward in a vital branch of biology, scientists ought to continue to emphasize the importance of human embryo research.

  6. An experimental approach to the generation of human embryonic stem cells equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Katarzyna; Tomsia, Marcin; Czekaj, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Recently, particular attention has been paid to the human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in the context of their potential application in regenerative medicine; however, ethical concerns prevent their clinical application. Induction of pluripotency in somatic cells seems to be a good alternative for hESC recruitment regarding its potential use in tissue regeneration, disease modeling, and drug screening. Since Yamanaka's team in 2006 restored pluripotent state of somatic cells for the first time, a significant progress has been made in the area of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generation. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the issue of techniques applied to establish iPSC. Somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, cell extracts reprogramming, and techniques of direct reprogramming are described. Retroviral and lentiviral transduction are depicted as ways of cell reprogramming with the use of integrating vectors. Contrary to them, adenoviruses, plasmids, single multiprotein expression vectors, and PiggyBac transposition systems are examples of non-integrative vectors used in iPSC generation protocols. Furthermore, reprogramming with the delivery of specific proteins, miRNA or small chemical compounds are presented. Finally, the changes occurring during the reprogramming process are described. It is concluded that subject to some limitations iPSC could become equivalents for hESC in regenerative medicine.

  7. The p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, suppresses self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determine the role of p53 in ES cells under unstressful conditions. ► PFT-α suppresses ES cell proliferation. ► PFT-α induces ES cell cycle arrest. ► PFT-α downregulates Nanog and cyclin D1. -- Abstract: Recent studies have reported the role of p53 in suppressing the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells after DNA damage and blocking the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, to date no evidence has been presented to support the function of p53 in unstressed ES cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of pifithrin (PFT)-α, an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation, on self-renewal of ES cells. Our results revealed that treatment of ES cells with PFT-α resulted in the inhibition of ES cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a marked reduction in the cell number and colony size. Also, PFT-α caused a cell cycle arrest and significant reduction in DNA synthesis. In addition, inhibition of p53 activity reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Nanog. These findings indicate that p53 pathway in ES cells rather than acting as an inactive gene, is required for ES cell proliferation and self-renewal under unstressful conditions.

  8. Perturbations of heart development and function in cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells with trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Alexis; Letourneau, Audrey; Sartiani, Laura; Del Lungo, Martina; Ronzoni, Flavio; Kuziakiv, Rostyslav; Tohonen, Virpi; Zucchelli, Marco; Santoni, Federico; Guipponi, Michel; Dumevska, Biljana; Hovatta, Outi; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Jaconi, Marisa E

    2015-05-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in approximately 50% of patients with Down syndrome (DS); the mechanisms for this occurrence however remain unknown. In order to understand how these defects evolve in early development in DS, we focused on the earliest stages of cardiogenesis to ascertain perturbations in development leading to CHD. Using a trisomy 21 (T21) sibling human embryonic stem cell (hESC) model of DS, we show that T21-hESC display many significant differences in expression of genes and cell populations associated with mesodermal, and more notably, secondary heart field (SHF) development, in particular a reduced number of ISL1(+) progenitor cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence for two candidate genes located on chromosome 21, ETS2 and ERG, whose overexpression during cardiac commitment likely account for the disruption of SHF development, as revealed by downregulation or overexpression experiments. Additionally, we uncover an abnormal electrophysiological phenotype in functional T21 cardiomyocytes, a result further supported by mRNA expression data acquired using RNA-Seq. These data, in combination, revealed a cardiomyocyte-specific phenotype in T21 cardiomyocytes, likely due to the overexpression of genes such as RYR2, NCX, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of CHD. Stem Cells 2015;33:1434-1446. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Generation of skeletal muscle from transplanted embryonic stem cells in dystrophic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavati, Satyakam; Xu Weimin

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have great therapeutic potential because of their capacity to proliferate extensively and to form any fully differentiated cell of the body, including skeletal muscle cells. Successful generation of skeletal muscle in vivo, however, requires selective induction of the skeletal muscle lineage in cultures of ES cells and following transplantation, integration of appropriately differentiated skeletal muscle cells with recipient muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe progressive muscle wasting disease due to a mutation in the dystrophin gene and the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD, are characterized by the absence of the muscle membrane associated protein, dystrophin. Here, we show that co-culturing mouse ES cells with a preparation from mouse muscle enriched for myogenic stem and precursor cells, followed by injection into mdx mice, results occasionally in the formation of normal, vascularized skeletal muscle derived from the transplanted ES cells. Study of this phenomenon should provide valuable insights into skeletal muscle development in vivo from transplanted ES cells

  10. Stat3 signaling regulates embryonic stem cell fate in a dose-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-I Tai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stat3 is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC self-renewal mediated by LIF/gp130 receptor signaling. Current understanding of Stat3-mediated ESC self-renewal mechanisms is very limited, and has heretofore been dominated by the view that Stat3 signaling functions in a binary “on/off” manner. Here, in contrast to this binary viewpoint, we demonstrate a contextual, rheostat-like mechanism for Stat3's function in mESCs. Activation and expression levels determine whether Stat3 functions in a self-renewal or a differentiation role in mESCs. We also show that Stat3 induces rapid differentiation of mESCs toward the trophectoderm (TE lineage when its activation level exceeds certain thresholds. Stat3 induces this differentiation phenotype via induction of Tfap2c and its downstream target Cdx2. Our findings provide a novel concept in the realm of Stat3, self-renewal signaling, and pluripotent stem cell biology. Ultimately, this finding may facilitate the development of conditions for the establishment of authentic non-rodent ESCs.

  11. Evidence of Extracellular Vesicles Biogenesis and Release in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lilian; Arevalo Romero, Jenny Andrea; Brandão Prado, Mariana; Santos, Tiago G; Hohmuth Lopes, Marilene

    2017-10-14

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are considered a source of bioactive molecules that modulate their microenvironment by acting on intercellular communication. Either intracellular endosomal machinery or their derived EVs have been considered a relevant system of signal circuits processing. Herein, we show that these features are found in mESCs. Ultrastructural analysis revealed structures and organelles of the endosomal system such as coated pits and endocytosis-related vesicles, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing either few or many intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that could be released as exosomes to extracellular milieu. Besides, budding vesicles shed from the plasma membrane to the extracellular space is suggestive of microvesicle biogenesis in mESCs. mESCs and mouse blastocyst express specific markers of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) system. Ultrastructural analysis and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) of isolated EVs revealed a heterogeneous population of exosomes and microvesicles released by mESCs. These vesicles contain Wnt10b and the Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (DLL4) and also the co-chaperone stress inducible protein 1 (STI1) and its partner Hsp90. Wnt10b and Dll4 colocalize with EVs biogenesis markers in mESCs. Overall, the present study supports the function of the mESCs endocytic network and their EVs as players in stem cell biology.

  12. Activated charcoal composite biomaterial promotes human embryonic stem cell differentiation toward neuronal lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric Y T; Wang, Yung-Chen; Mintz, Alexander; Richards, Alan; Chen, Chi-Shuo; Lu, David; Nguyen, Thien; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Transplantation of biomaterial scaffolds encasing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been proposed as a clinical therapy for various neurological lesions and disorders. In light of recent developments, artificially synthesized carbon-based biomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have demonstrated feasibility in supporting stem cell attachment and differentiation. However, the applicability is significantly hampered by evidence of nanotoxic effects on multiple cell types. Thus, an emergent drive for an innovative carbonaceous biomaterial calls for a safer platform with comparable advantageous characteristics. Here, we showed for the first time, a natural coal-based activated charcoal (AC) composite biosubstrate can support and promote neuronal differentiation in hESCs. The bio-friendly AC composite biomatrices resulted in more matured neuron-like cells. Both of axonal length and density were at least twice as long and abundant, respectively, when compared with control groups. A functional assay demonstrated that the derived neuron-like cells responded to depolarization-dependent synaptic recycling and may contain active synapses. In addition, the AC composite substrate can serve to concentrate growth factors and cell adhesion proteins, further encouraging attachment and hESC differentiation. Moreover, the AC composite biomaterial can potentially be economically manufactured as implantable three-dimensional bioscaffolds, facilitating the regeneration of damaged neural and other tissues. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. RYBP and Cbx7 Define Specific Biological Functions of Polycomb Complexes in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis Morey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1 is required for decisions of stem cell fate. In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, two major variations of PRC1 complex, defined by the mutually exclusive presence of Cbx7 or RYBP, have been identified. Here, we show that although the genomic localization of the Cbx7- and RYBP-containing PRC1 complexes overlaps in certain genes, it can also be mutually exclusive. At the molecular level, Cbx7 is necessary for recruitment of Ring1B to chromatin, whereas RYBP enhances the PRC1 enzymatic activity. Genes occupied by RYBP show lower levels of Ring1B and H2AK119ub and are consequently more highly transcribed than those bound by Cbx7. At the functional level, we show that genes occupied by RYBP are primarily involved in the regulation of metabolism and cell-cycle progression, whereas those bound by Cbx7 predominantly control early-lineage commitment of ESCs. Altogether, our results indicate that different PRC1 subtypes establish a complex pattern of gene regulation that regulates common and nonoverlapping aspects of ESC pluripotency and differentiation.

  14. Proteomic profiling of rabbit embryonic stem cells derived from parthenotes and fertilized embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payungsuk Intawicha

    Full Text Available Rabbit embryonic stem (rES cells can be derived from various sources of embryos. However, understanding of the gene expression profile, which distincts embryonic stem (ES cells from other cell types, is still extremely limited. In this study, we compared the protein profiles of three independent lines of rabbit cells, i.e., fibroblasts, fertilized embryo-derived stem (f-rES cells, and parthenote-derived ES (p-rES cells. Proteomic analyses were performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry. Collectively, the expression levels of 100 out of 284 protein spots differed significantly among these three cell types (p<0.05. Of those differentially expressed spots, 91% were identified in the protein database and represented 63 distinct proteins. Proteins with known identities are mainly localized in the cytoplasmic compartments (48%, nucleus (14%, and cytoskeletal machineries (13%. These proteins were majorly involved in biological functions of energy and metabolic pathways (25%, cell growth and maintenance (25%, signal transduction (14%, and protein metabolisms (10%. When protein expression levels among cell types were compared, six proteins associated with a variety of cellular activities, including structural constituents of the cytoskeleton (tubulins, structural molecule (KRT8, catalytic molecules (α-enolase, receptor complex scaffold (14-3-3 protein sigma, microfilament motor proteins (Myosin-9, and heat shock protein (HSP60, were found highly expressed in p-rES cells. Two proteins related to HSP activity and structural constituent of cytoskeleton in f-rES cells, and one structural molecule activity protein in fibroblasts showed significantly higher expression levels (p<0.05. Marker protein expressions in f-rES and p-rES cells were further confirmed by Western blotting and immunocytochemical staining. This study demonstrated unique proteomic profiles of the three rabbit cell types and revealed some novel proteins

  15. Expression of the embryonic stem cell marker SOX2 in early-stage breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengerke, Claudia; Kanz, Lothar; Fend, Falko; Perner, Sven; Bareiss, Petra M; Staebler, Annette; Fehm, Tanja; Kurth, Ralf; Neubauer, Hans; Scheble, Veit; Müller, Friederike; Schneider, Friederike; Petersen, Karen; Wallwiener, Diethelm

    2011-01-01

    The SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors member SOX2 has been mainly studied in embryonic stem cells as well as early foregut and neural development. More recently, SOX2 was shown to participate in reprogramming of adult somatic cells to a pluripotent stem cell state and implicated in tumorigenesis in various organs. In breast cancer, SOX2 expression was reported as a feature of basal-like tumors. In this study, we assessed SOX2 expression in 95 primary tumors of postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Samples from 95 patients diagnosed and treated at the University of Tuebingen Institute of Pathology and Women's Hospital were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for SOX2 expression in the primary tumor samples and in corresponding lymph node metastasis, where present. Furthermore, SOX2 amplification status was assessed by FISH in representative samples. In addition, eighteen fresh frozen samples were analyzed for SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 gene expression by real-time PCR. SOX2 expression was detected in 28% of invasive breast carcinoma as well as in 44% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. A score of SOX2 expression (score 0 to 3) was defined in order to distinguish SOX2 negative (score 0) from SOX2 positive samples (score 1-3) and among latter the subgroup of SOX2 high expressors (score 3 > 50% positive cells). Overall, the incidence of SOX2 expression (score 1-3) was higher than previously reported in a cohort of lymph node negative patients (28% versus 16.7%). SOX2 expression was detected across different breast cancer subtypes and did not correlate with tumor grading. However, high SOX2 expression (score 3) was associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.047) and positive lymph node status (0.018). Corresponding metastatic lymph nodes showed higher SOX2 expression and were significantly more often SOX2 positive than primary tumors (p = 0.0432). In this report, we show that the embryonic stem cell factor SOX2 is expressed in a variety of early

  16. Expression of the embryonic stem cell marker SOX2 in early-stage breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallwiener Diethelm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors member SOX2 has been mainly studied in embryonic stem cells as well as early foregut and neural development. More recently, SOX2 was shown to participate in reprogramming of adult somatic cells to a pluripotent stem cell state and implicated in tumorigenesis in various organs. In breast cancer, SOX2 expression was reported as a feature of basal-like tumors. In this study, we assessed SOX2 expression in 95 primary tumors of postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Methods Samples from 95 patients diagnosed and treated at the University of Tuebingen Institute of Pathology and Women's Hospital were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for SOX2 expression in the primary tumor samples and in corresponding lymph node metastasis, where present. Furthermore, SOX2 amplification status was assessed by FISH in representative samples. In addition, eighteen fresh frozen samples were analyzed for SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 gene expression by real-time PCR. Results SOX2 expression was detected in 28% of invasive breast carcinoma as well as in 44% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS lesions. A score of SOX2 expression (score 0 to 3 was defined in order to distinguish SOX2 negative (score 0 from SOX2 positive samples (score 1-3 and among latter the subgroup of SOX2 high expressors (score 3 > 50% positive cells. Overall, the incidence of SOX2 expression (score 1-3 was higher than previously reported in a cohort of lymph node negative patients (28% versus 16.7%. SOX2 expression was detected across different breast cancer subtypes and did not correlate with tumor grading. However, high SOX2 expression (score 3 was associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.047 and positive lymph node status (0.018. Corresponding metastatic lymph nodes showed higher SOX2 expression and were significantly more often SOX2 positive than primary tumors (p = 0.0432. Conclusions In this report, we show that the embryonic stem

  17. Human amniotic epithelial cells as feeder layer to derive and maintain human embryonic stem cells from poor-quality embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ávila-González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature suggest that human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines used in research do not genetically represent all human populations. The derivation of hESC through conventional methods involve the destruction of viable human embryos, as well the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a feeder layer, which has several drawbacks. We obtained the hESC line (Amicqui-1 from poor-quality (PQ embryos derived and maintained on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC. This line displays a battery of markers of pluripotency and we demonstrated the capacity of these cells to produce derivates of the three germ layers.

  18. Dynamic microRNA expression programs during cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells: role for miR-499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kitchener D; Hu, Shijun; Venkatasubrahmanyam, Shivkumar; Fu, Ji-Dong; Sun, Ning; Abilez, Oscar J; Baugh, Joshua J A; Jia, Fangjun; Ghosh, Zhumur; Li, Ronald A; Butte, Atul J; Wu, Joseph C

    2010-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered endogenous class of small, noncoding RNAs that play important posttranscriptional regulatory roles by targeting messenger RNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Human embryonic stem cells are known to express miRNAs that are often undetectable in adult organs, and a growing body of evidence has implicated miRNAs as important arbiters of heart development and disease. To better understand the transition between the human embryonic and cardiac "miRNA-omes," we report here the first miRNA profiling study of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Analyzing 711 unique miRNAs, we have identified several interesting miRNAs, including miR-1, -133, and -208, that have been previously reported to be involved in cardiac development and disease and that show surprising patterns of expression across our samples. We also identified novel miRNAs, such as miR-499, that are strongly associated with cardiac differentiation and that share many predicted targets with miR-208. Overexpression of miR-499 and -1 resulted in upregulation of important cardiac myosin heavy-chain genes in embryoid bodies; miR-499 overexpression also caused upregulation of the cardiac transcription factor MEF2C. Taken together, our data give significant insight into the regulatory networks that govern human embryonic stem cell differentiation and highlight the ability of miRNAs to perturb, and even control, the genes that are involved in cardiac specification of human embryonic stem cells.

  19. Telomeric transgenes are silenced in adult mouse tissues and embryo fibroblasts but are expressed in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Reynolds, Gloria E; Innes, Lindsay; Pedram, Mehrdad; Jones, Ella; Junabi, Mustafa; Gao, Dong-wei; Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Van Brocklin, Henry; Franc, Benjamin L; Murnane, John P

    2007-12-01

    In addition to their role in protecting the ends of chromosomes, telomeres also influence the expression of adjacent genes, a process called telomere-position effect. We previously reported that the neo and HSV-tk transgenes located adjacent to telomeres in mouse embryonic stem cells are initially expressed at low levels and then become gradually silenced upon passage in culture through a process involving DNA methylation. We also reported extensive DNA methylation in these telomeric transgenes in three different tissues isolated from mice generated from one of these embryonic stem cell clones. In the present study, we demonstrate that embryo fibroblasts isolated from two different mouse strains show extensive DNA methylation and silencing of the telomeric transgenes. Consistent with this observation, we also demonstrate little or no detectable expression of the HSV-tk telomeric transgene in somatic tissues using whole body imaging. In contrast, both telomeric transgenes are expressed at low levels and have little DNA methylation in embryonic stem cell lines isolated from these same mouse strains. Our results demonstrate that telomere-position effect in mammalian cells can be observed either as a low level of expression in embryonic stem cells in the preimplantation embryo or as complete silencing and DNA methylation in differentiated cells and somatic tissues. This pattern of expression of the telomeric transgenes demonstrates that subtelomeric regions, like much of the genome, are epigenetically reprogrammed in the preimplantation embryo, a process that has been proposed to be important in early embryonic development. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor-10 promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Sun-Kin Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF family is essential to normal heart development. Yet, its contribution to cardiomyocyte differentiation from stem cells has not been systemically studied. In this study, we examined the mechanisms and characters of cardiomyocyte differentiation from FGF family protein treated embryonic stem (ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used mouse ES cells stably transfected with a cardiac-specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and mouse iPS cells to investigate cardiomyocyte differentiation. During cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse ES cells, FGF-3, -8, -10, -11, -13 and -15 showed an expression pattern similar to the mesodermal marker Brachyury and the cardiovascular progenitor marker Flk-1. Among them, FGF-10 induced cardiomyocyte differentiation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. FGF-10 neutralizing antibody, small molecule FGF receptor antagonist PD173074 and FGF-10 and FGF receptor-2 short hairpin RNAs inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation. FGF-10 also increased mouse iPS cell differentiation into cardiomyocyte lineage, and this effect was abolished by FGF-10 neutralizing antibody or PD173074. Following Gene Ontology analysis, microarray data indicated that genes involved in cardiac development were upregulated after FGF-10 treatment. In vivo, intramyocardial co-administration of FGF-10 and ES cells demonstrated that FGF-10 also promoted cardiomyocyte differentiation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF-10 induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from ES cells and iPS cells, which may have potential for translation into clinical applications.

  1. Selection-independent generation of gene knockout mouse embryonic stem cells using zinc-finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Osiak

    Full Text Available Gene knockout in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs has been an invaluable tool to study gene function in vitro or to generate animal models with altered phenotypes. Gene targeting using standard techniques, however, is rather inefficient and typically does not exceed frequencies of 10(-6. In consequence, the usage of complex positive/negative selection strategies to isolate targeted clones has been necessary. Here, we present a rapid single-step approach to generate a gene knockout in mouse ESCs using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs. Upon transient expression of ZFNs, the target gene is cleaved by the designer nucleases and then repaired by non-homologous end-joining, an error-prone DNA repair process that introduces insertions/deletions at the break site and therefore leads to functional null mutations. To explore and quantify the potential of ZFNs to generate a gene knockout in pluripotent stem cells, we generated a mouse ESC line containing an X-chromosomally integrated EGFP marker gene. Applying optimized conditions, the EGFP locus was disrupted in up to 8% of ESCs after transfection of the ZFN expression vectors, thus obviating the need of selection markers to identify targeted cells, which may impede or complicate downstream applications. Both activity and ZFN-associated cytotoxicity was dependent on vector dose and the architecture of the nuclease domain. Importantly, teratoma formation assays of selected ESC clones confirmed that ZFN-treated ESCs maintained pluripotency. In conclusion, the described ZFN-based approach represents a fast strategy for generating gene knockouts in ESCs in a selection-independent fashion that should be easily transferrable to other pluripotent stem cells.

  2. PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymer-based microspheres mediate cardiovascular differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liqing

    Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) based copolymers have received much attention as drug or growth factor delivery carriers and tissue engineering scaffolds due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and tunable biophysical properties. Copolymers of PCL and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) also have shape memory behaviors and can be made into thermoresponsive shape memory polymers for various biomedical applications such as smart sutures and vascular stents. However, the influence of biophysical properties of PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers on stem cell lineage commitment is not well understood. In this study, PDMS was used as soft segments of varying length to tailor the biophysical properties of PCL-based co-polymers. While low elastic modulus (embryonic stem cells, the range of 60-100 MPa PCL-PDMS-PCL showed little influence on the differentiation. Then different size (30-140 mum) of microspheres were fabricated from PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers and incorporated within embryoid bodies (EBs). Mesoderm differentiation was induced using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 for cardiovascular differentiation. Differential expressions of mesoderm progenitor marker KDR and vascular markers CD31 and VE-cadherin were observed for the cells differentiated from EBs incorporated with microspheres of different size, while little difference was observed for cardiac marker alpha-actinin expression. Small size of microspheres (30 mum) resulted in higher expression of KDR while medium size of microspheres (94 mum) resulted in higher CD31 and VE-cadherin expression. This study indicated that the biophysical properties of PCL-based copolymers impacted stem cell lineage commitment, which should be considered for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  3. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunori Ikeda

    Full Text Available We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  4. The effects of silver nanoparticles on mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Rajanahalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are gaining rapid popularity in many commonly used medical and commercial products for their unique anti-bacterial properties. The molecular mechanisms of effects of AgNPs on stem cell self-renewal and proliferation have not yet been well understood. The aim of the work is to use mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs as a cellular model to evaluate the toxicity of AgNPs. mESC is a very special cell type which has self-renewal and differentiation properties. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of AgNPs with different surface chemical compositions on the self-renewal and cell cycle of mESCs. Two different surface chemical compositions of AgNPs, polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated, were used to test their toxic effects on self-renewal and proliferation of mESCs. The results indicated that both polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated AgNPs changed the cell morphology of mESCs. Cell cycle analysis indicated that AgNPs induced mESCs cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases through inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb protein. Furthermore, AgNPs exposure reduced Oct4A isoform expression which is responsible for the pluripotency of mESCs, and induced the expression of several isoforms OCT4B-265, OCT4B-190, OCT4B-164 which were suggested involved in stem cell stresses responses. In addition, the evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS production with two different surface chemical compositions of AgNPs supported our hypothesis that the toxic effect AgNPs exposure is due to overproduction of ROS which altered the gene expression and protein modifications. Polysaccharide coating reduced ROS production, and thus reduced the AgNPs toxicity.

  5. p75 neurotrophin receptor is involved in proliferation of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscatelli, Ilana; Pierantozzi, Enrico; Camaioni, Antonella; Siracusa, Gregorio [Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, Section of Histology and Embryology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Campagnolo, Luisa, E-mail: campagno@med.uniroma2.it [Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, Section of Histology and Embryology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2009-11-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors are known to play a role in the proliferation and survival of many different cell types of neuronal and non-neuronal lineages. In addition, there is much evidence in the literature showing that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75{sup NTR}), alone or in association with members of the family of Trk receptors, is expressed in a wide variety of stem cells, although its role in such cells has not been completely elucidated. In the present work we have investigated the expression of p75{sup NTR} and Trks in totipotent and pluripotent cells, the mouse pre-implantation embryo and embryonic stem and germ cells (ES and EG cells). p75{sup NTR} and TrkA can be first detected in the blastocyst from which ES cell lines are derived. Mouse ES cells retain p75{sup NTR}/TrkA expression. Nerve growth factor is the only neurotrophin able to stimulate ES cell growth in culture, without affecting the expression of stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase, Oct4 and Nanog. Such proliferation effect was blocked by antagonizing either p75{sup NTR} or TrkA. Interestingly, immunoreactivity to anti-p75{sup NTR} antibodies is lost upon ES cell differentiation. The expression pattern of neurotrophin receptors in murine ES cells differs from human ES cells, that only express TrkB and C, and do not respond to NGF. In this paper we also show that, while primordial germ cells (PGC) do not express p75{sup NTR}, when they are made to revert to an ES-like phenotype, becoming EG cells, expression of p75{sup NTR} is turned on.

  6. Embryonic stem cells in scaffold-free three-dimensional cell culture: osteogenic differentiation and bone generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extracorporeal formation of mineralized bone-like tissue is still an unsolved challenge in tissue engineering. Embryonic stem cells may open up new therapeutic options for the future and should be an interesting model for the analysis of fetal organogenesis. Here we describe a technique for culturing embryonic stem cells (ESCs in the absence of artificial scaffolds which generated mineralized miromasses. Embryonic stem cells were harvested and osteogenic differentiation was stimulated by the addition of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and ß-glycerolphosphate (DAG. After three days of cultivation microspheres were formed. These spherical three-dimensional cell units showed a peripheral zone consisting of densely packed cell layers surrounded by minerals that were embedded in the extracellular matrix. Alizarine red staining confirmed evidence of mineralization after 10 days of DAG stimulation in the stimulated but not in the control group. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated scorching crystallites and collagenous fibrils as early indication of bone formation. These extracellular structures resembled hydroxyl apatite-like crystals as demonstrated by distinct diffraction patterns using electron diffraction analysis. The micromass culture technique is an appropriate model to form three-dimensional bone-like micro-units without the need for an underlying scaffold. Further studies will have to show whether the technique is applicable also to pluripotent stem cells of different origin.

  7. Embryonic stem cells in science and medicine, part II: law, ethics, and the continuing need for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Louis M; Brockman-Lee, Sandra A

    2008-03-01

    Just as our first article, "Embryonic Stem Cells in Science and Medicine: An Invitation for Dialogue," in the December 2007 issue of Gender Medicine went to press, two groups of researchers had just announced that adult human somatic cells had been reprogrammed to behave like pluripotent stem cells, and that the reprogrammed cells were able to differentiate into cell types of the 3 germ layers in vitro and in a mouse model. A third group has since done so. Because the reprogrammed cells were not embryonic in origin, the announcements were heralded as "stunning" and "leaps forward," because, it was argued, the ability to generate stem cells, without destroying embryos in the process, would avoid the difficult ethical questions raised by human embryonic stem (hES) cell research. This article addresses the most recent announcements and briefly retraces the relevant history so that we may consider whether the moral, ethical, and social issues do in fact disappear as a result of these new advancements. We conclude that, despite the hoopla, little has changed. If indeed there were ethical issues surrounding hES cell research, they remain-and remain as urgent to address and resolve as they had been previously. Lastly, we argue that the medical and scientific communities continue to do themselves a disservice by failing to create a cohesive governing body to address and make concrete recommendations concerning the moral, ethical, and related social issues affecting their communities.

  8. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals MAP kinase phosphatases as key ERK pathway regulators during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hsi Yang

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells represent potentially important therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Complex interlinked transcriptional and signaling networks control the fate of these cells towards maintenance of pluripotency or differentiation. In this study we have focused on how mouse embryonic stem cells begin to differentiate and lose pluripotency and, in particular, the role that the ERK MAP kinase and GSK3 signaling pathways play in this process. Through a genome-wide siRNA screen we have identified more than 400 genes involved in loss of pluripotency and promoting the onset of differentiation. These genes were functionally associated with the ERK and/or GSK3 pathways, providing an important resource for studying the roles of these pathways in controlling escape from the pluripotent ground state. More detailed analysis identified MAP kinase phosphatases as a focal point of regulation and demonstrated an important role for these enzymes in controlling ERK activation kinetics and subsequently determining early embryonic stem cell fate decisions.

  9. Changes in glycosphingolipid composition during differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to ectodermal or endodermal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuh-Jin; Yang, Bei-Chia; Chen, Jin-Mei; Lin, Yu-Hsing; Huang, Chia-Lin; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Hsu, Chi-Yen; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Shen, Chia-Ning; Yu, John

    2011-12-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous components of cell membranes that can act as mediators of cell adhesion and signal transduction and can possibly be used as cell type-specific markers. Our previous study indicated that there was a striking switch in the core structures of GSLs during differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into embryoid body (EB), suggesting a close association of GSLs with cell differentiation. In this study, to further clarify if alterations in GSL patterns are correlated with lineage-specific differentiation of hESCs, we analyzed changes in GSLs as hESCs were differentiated into neural progenitors or endodermal cells by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. During hESC differentiation into neural progenitor cells, we found that the core structures of GSLs switched from globo- and lacto- to mostly ganglio-series dominated by GD3. On the other hand, when hESCs were differentiated into endodermal cells, patterns of GSLs totally differed from those observed in EB outgrowth and neural progenitors. The most prominent GSL identified by the MALDI-MS and MS/MS analysis was Gb(4) Ceramide, with no appreciable amount of stage-specific embryonic antigens 3 or 4, or GD3, in endodermal cells. These changes in GSL profiling were accompanied by alterations in the biosynthetic pathways of expressions of key glycosyltransferases. Our findings suggest that changes in GSLs are closely associated with lineage specificity and differentiation of hESCs. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Temporal restriction of pancreatic branching competence during embryogenesis is mirrored in differentiating embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sue Mei; Li, Xueling; Schiesser, Jacqueline; Holland, Andrew M; Elefanty, Andrew G; Stanley, Edouard G; Micallef, Suzanne J

    2012-07-01

    To develop methods for the generation of insulin-producing β-cells for the treatment of diabetes, we have used GFP-tagged embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to elucidate the process of pancreas development. Using the reporter Pdx1(GFP/w) ESC line, we have previously described a serum-free differentiation protocol in which Pdx1-GFP(+) cells formed GFP bright (GFP(br)) epithelial buds that resembled those present in the developing mouse pancreas. In this study we extend these findings to demonstrate that these cells can undergo a process of branching morphogenesis, similar to that seen during pancreatic development of the mid-gestation embryo. These partially disaggregated embryoid bodies containing GFP(br) buds initially form epithelial ring-like structures when cultured in Matrigel. After several days in culture, these rings undergo a process of proliferation and form a ramified network of epithelial branches. Comparative analysis of explanted dissociated pancreatic buds from E13.5 Pdx1(GFP/w) embryos and ESC-derived GFP(br) buds reveal a similar process of proliferation and branching, with both embryonic Pdx1(GFP/w) branching pancreatic epithelium and ESC-derived GFP(br) branching organoids expressing markers representing epithelial (EpCAM and E-Cadherin), ductal (Mucin1), exocrine (Amylase and Carboxypeptidase 1A), and endocrine cell types (Glucagon and Somatostatin). ESC-derived branching structures also expressed a suite of genes indicative of ongoing pancreatic differentiation, paralleling gene expression within similar structures derived from the E13.5 fetal pancreas. In summary, differentiating mouse ESCs can generate pancreatic material that has significant similarity to the fetal pancreatic anlagen, providing an in vitro platform for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning pancreatic development.

  11. Effects of Feeder Cells on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs =1:1 and HFFs feeder respectively, and then were differentiated into DA neurons under the identical protocol. Dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and patch clamp. Our results demonstrated that these hESCs-derived neurons were genuine and functional DA neurons. However, compared to hESCs line on MFCs feeder, hESCs line on HFFs feeder had a higher proportion of TH positive cells and expressed higher levels of FOXA2, PITX3, NURR1 and TH genes. In addition, the values of threshold intensity and threshold membrane potential of DA neurons from hESCs line on HFFs feeder were lower than those of DA neurons from hESCs line on the MFCs feeder. In conclusion, HFFs feeder not only facilitated the differentiation of hESCs cells into dopaminergic neurons, but also induced hESCs-derived DA neurons to express higher electrophysiological excitability. Therefore, feeder cells could affect not only dopaminergic differentiation potential of different hESCs lines, but also electrophysiological properties of hESCs-derived DA neurons.

  12. Toxicity of nano- and ionic silver to embryonic stem cells: a comparative toxicogenomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiugong; Topping, Vanessa D; Keltner, Zachary; Sprando, Robert L; Yourick, Jeffrey J

    2017-04-11

    The widespread application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver-containing products has raised public safety concerns about their adverse effects on human health and the environment. To date, in vitro toxic effects of AgNPs and ionic silver (Ag + ) on many somatic cell types are well established. However, no studies have been conducted hitherto to evaluate their effect on cellular transcriptome in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The present study characterized transcriptomic changes induced by 5.0 µg/ml AgNPs during spontaneous differentiation of mouse ESCs, and compared them to those induced by Ag + under identical conditions. After 24 h exposure, 101 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in AgNP-treated cells, whereas 400 genes responded to Ag + . Despite the large differences in the numbers of DEGs, functional annotation and pathway analysis of the regulated genes revealed overall similarities between AgNPs and Ag + . In both cases, most of the functions and pathways impacted fell into two major categories, embryonic development and metabolism. Nevertheless, a number of canonical pathways related to cancer were found for Ag + but not for AgNPs. Conversely, it was noted that several members of the heat shock protein and the metallothionein families were upregulated by AgNPs but not Ag + , suggesting specific oxidative stress effect of AgNPs in ESCs. The effects of AgNPs on oxidative stress and downstream apoptosis were subsequently confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, the results presented in the current study demonstrate that both AgNPs and Ag + caused transcriptomic changes that could potentially exert an adverse effect on development. Although transcriptomic responses to AgNPs and Ag + were substantially similar, AgNPs exerted specific effects on ESCs due to their nanosized particulate form.

  13. Stem cell research: licit or complicit? Is a medical breakthrough based on embryonic and fetal tissue compatible with Catholic teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branick, V; Lysaught, M T

    1999-01-01

    In November 1998 biologists announced that they had discovered a way to isolate and preserve human stem cells. Since stem cells are capable of developing into any kind of human tissue or organ, this was a great scientific coup. Researchers envision using the cells to replace damaged organs and to restore tissue destroyed by, for example, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, or even Alzheimer's. But, since stem cells are taken from aborted embryonic and fetal tissue or "leftover" in vitro embryos, their use raises large ethical issues. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently decided to fund research employing, not stem cells, but "cell lines" derived from them. The NIH has essentially made an ethical determination, finding sufficient "distance" between cell lines and abortion. Can Catholic universities sponsoring biological research agree with this finding? Probably not. In Catholic teaching, the concept of "complicity" would likely preclude such research. However, Catholic teaching would probably allow research done with stem cells obtained from postpartum placental tissue and from adult bone marrow and tissue. These cells, which lack the pluripotency of embryonic and fetal stem cells, are nevertheless scientifically promising and do not involve the destruction of human life.

  14. PERKEMBANGAN KOLONI PRIMER EMBRYONIC STEM CELL (ESC MENCIT PASCA VITRIFIKASI INNER CELL MASS (ICM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rinendyaputri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Application or the basic research of the stem cells is continously conducted to explore their potential, particularly the use of stem cells in health. Cryopreservation technology is needed to maintain availability of stem cell. This study was  aimed to observe the development of murine embryonic stem cell (ESC primary colonies post-vitrified inner cell mass (ICM. Inner cell mass (ICM was derived from blastocysts of murine embryos of female Swiss webster mice using pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Inner Cell Mass (ICM was isolated  from blastocysts by immunosurgery. Inner Cell Mass (ICM were divided into two groups: the control and vitrified ICM. Both groups were cultured and observed on the ICM attachment (attachment rate/AR, the primary formation of ESC colonies (primary colony/PC and  diameter of primary colony ESC which grouped into small, medium and large. The results showed that AR and medium diameter’s group of primary colony ESC were lower (p<0.05 in vitrified ICM than control ICM. However the percentage of PC and diameter of primary colonies ESC in small and large groups were not different compared with control (p>0.05. This study shows that vitrification for cryopreserving ICM can be used as an alternative source of ESC. Key words: blastocyst, inner cell mass, ICM, vitrification Abstrak  Submit : 30-01-2013  Review : 08-02-2013 Review : 11-03-2013 revisi : 26–03-2013 Aplikasi maupun penelitian dasar untuk menggali potensi sel punca khususnya pemanfaatan sel punca di bidang kesehatan terus dilakukan. Teknologi kriopreservasi dibutuhkan untuk menjaga ketersediaan sel punca. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati perkembangan koloni primer embryonic stem cell (ESC mencit pasca vitrifikasi inner cell mass (ICM. Inner Cell Mass (ICM diperoleh dari embrio blastosis mencit betina Swis webster menggunakan pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG dan human chorionic gonadotropin (h

  15. Studying early lethality of 45,XO (Turner's syndrome embryos using human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achia Urbach

    Full Text Available Turner's syndrome (caused by monosomy of chromosome X is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in females. Although 3% of all pregnancies start with XO embryos, 99% of these pregnancies terminate spontaneously during the first trimester. The common genetic explanation for the early lethality of monosomy X embryos, as well as the phenotype of surviving individuals is haploinsufficiency of pseudoautosomal genes on the X chromosome. Another possible mechanism is null expression of imprinted genes on the X chromosome due to the loss of the expressed allele. In contrast to humans, XO mice are viable, and fertile. Thus, neither cells from patients nor mouse models can be used in order to study the cause of early lethality in XO embryos. Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs can differentiate in culture into cells from the three embryonic germ layers as well as into extraembryonic cells. These cells have been shown to have great value in modeling human developmental genetic disorders. In order to study the reasons for the early lethality of 45,XO embryos we have isolated HESCs that have spontaneously lost one of their sex chromosomes. To examine the possibility that imprinted genes on the X chromosome play a role in the phenotype of XO embryos, we have identified genes that were no longer expressed in the mutant cells. None of these genes showed a monoallelic expression in XX cells, implying that imprinting is not playing a major role in the phenotype of XO embryos. To suggest an explanation for the embryonic lethality caused by monosomy X, we have differentiated the XO HESCs in vitro an in vivo. DNA microarray analysis of the differentiated cells enabled us to compare the expression of tissue specific genes in XO and XX cells. The tissue that showed the most significant differences between the clones was the placenta. Many placental genes are expressed at much higher levels in XX cells in compare to XO cells. Thus, we suggest that abnormal

  16. Gamete derivation from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Generating gametes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has many scientific justifications and several biomedical rationales. Here, we consider several strategies for deriving gametes from PSCs from mice and primates (human and non-human) and their anticipated strengths, challenges and limitations. Although the ‘Weismann barrier’, which separates the mortal somatic cell lineages from the potentially immortal germline, has long existed, breakthroughs first in mice and now in humans are artificially creating germ cells from somatic cells. Spermatozoa with full reproductive viability establishing multiple generations of seemingly normal offspring have been reported in mice and, in humans, haploid spermatids with correct parent-of-origin imprints have been obtained. Similar progress with making oocytes has been published using mouse PSCs differentiated in vitro into primordial germ cells, which are then cultured after xenografting reconstructed artificial ovaries. Progress in making human oocytes artificially is proving challenging. The usefulness of these artificial gametes, from assessing environmental exposure toxicity to optimising medical treatments to prevent negative off-target effects on fertility, may prove invaluable, as may basic discoveries on the fundamental mechanisms of gametogenesis. PMID:25472048

  17. Gene expression profiles during early differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wride Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the mechanisms controlling stem cell differentiation is the key to future advances in tissue and organ regeneration. Embryonic stem (ES cell differentiation can be triggered by embryoid body (EB formation, which involves ES cell aggregation in suspension. EB growth in the absence of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF leads EBs to mimic early embryonic development, giving rise to markers representative of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. Here, we have used microarrays to investigate differences in gene expression between 3 undifferentiated ES cell lines, and also between undifferentiated ES cells and Day 1–4 EBs Results An initial array study identified 4 gene expression changes between 3 undifferentiated ES cell lines. Tissue culture conditions for ES differentiation were then optimized to give the maximum range of gene expression and growth. -Undifferentiated ES cells and EBs cultured with and without LIF at each day for 4 days were subjected to microarray analysis. -Differential expression of 23 genes was identified. 13 of these were also differentially regulated in a separate array comparison between undifferentiated ES cells and compartments of very early embryos. A high degree of inter-replicate variability was noted when confirming array results. Using a panel of marker genes, RNA amplification and RT-PCR, we examined expression pattern variation between individual -D4-Lif EBs. We found that individual EBs selected from the same dish were highly variable in gene expression profile. Conclusion ES cell lines derived from different mouse strains and carrying different genetic modifications are almost invariant in gene expression profile under conditions used to maintain pluripotency. Tissue culture conditions that give the widest range of gene expression and maximise EB growth involve the use of 20% serum and starting cell numbers of 1000 per EB. 23 genes of importance to early development have been

  18. Locust bean gum as an alternative polymeric coating for embryonic stem cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perestrelo, Ana Rubina [Regenerative Medicine Program, Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); PhD Program in Biomedical Sciences, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Grenha, Ana [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Rosa da Costa, Ana M. [Centro de Investigação em Química do Algarve (CIQA) and Departamento de Química e Farmácia, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Belo, José António, E-mail: jose.belo@fcm.unl.pt [Regenerative Medicine Program, Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mártires da Pátria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into any cellular type depending on specific cues (pluripotency) and, therefore, have become a vibrant research area in the biomedical field. ESCs are usually cultured in gelatin or on top of a monolayer of feeder cells such as mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFsi). The latter is the gold standard support to maintain the ESCs in the pluripotent state. Examples of versatile, non-animal derived and inexpensive materials that are able to support pluripotent ESCs are limited. Therefore, our aim was to find a biomaterial able to support ESC growth in a pluripotent state avoiding laborious and time consuming parallel culture of MEFsi and as simple to handle as gelatin. Many of the new biomaterials used to develop stem cell microenvironments are using natural polymers adsorbed or covalently attached to the surface to improve the biocompatibility of synthetic polymers. Locust beam gum (LBG) is a natural, edible polymer, which has a wide range of potential applications in different fields, such as food and pharmaceutical industry, due to its biocompatibility, adhesiveness and thickening properties. The present work brings a natural system based on the use of LBG as a coating for ESC culture. Undifferentiated mouse ESCs were cultured on commercially available LBG to evaluate its potential in maintaining pluripotent ESCs. In terms of morphology, ESC colonies in LBG presented the regular dome shape with bright borders, similar to the colonies obtained in co-cultures with MEFsi and characteristic of pluripotent ESC colonies. In short-term cultures, ESC proliferation in LBG coating was similar to ESC cultured in gelatin and the cells maintained their viability. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 expression of mouse ESCs cultured in LBG were comparable or in some cases higher than in ESCs cultured in gelatin. An in vitro

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate MHC and antigen processing molecules in human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Suárez-Alvarez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored.We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and NTera2 (NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1 and tapasin (TPN components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and beta2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs. Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation.Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance.

  20. No patent-no therapy: a matter of moral and legal consistency within the European Union regarding the use of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Timo

    2014-12-01

    In the aftermath of the European Court of Justice's decision case of Brüstle v Greenpeace of October 2011 that patent claims encompassing human embryonic stem cells were patent-ineligible in the European Union on public order and morality grounds, a rash of stories has appeared predicting the destruction or exodus of human embryonic stem cells research. Irrespective of whether these predictions are justified, amazingly it has not been examined so far whether this decision has an implication on the justification of human embryonic stem cell-based therapies. Therefore, this article presents considerations about the logical link between that patent ruling and the justification of therapies based on human embryonic stem cells.

  1. Comprehensive quantitative comparison of the membrane proteome, phosphoproteome, and sialiome of human embryonic and neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Schulz, Melanie; Liu, Qiuyue

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into neural stem cells (NSCs), which can further be differentiated into neurons and glia cells. Therefore, these cells have huge potential as source for treatment of neurological diseases. Membrane-associated proteins are very important......ESCs and NSCs as well as to investigate potential new markers for these two cell stages, we performed large-scale quantitative membrane-proteomic of hESCs and NSCs. This approach employed membrane purification followed by peptide dimethyl labeling and peptide enrichment to study the membrane subproteome as well...... in which 78% of phosphopeptides were identified with ≥99% confidence in site assignment and 1810 unique formerly sialylated N-linked glycopeptides. Several proteins were identified as significantly regulated in hESCs and NSC, including proteins involved in the early embryonic and neural development...

  2. Monitoring the differentiation and migration patterns of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells using a microfluidic culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nayeon; Park, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyung Joon; Yeon, Ju Hun; Kwon, Jihye; Ko, Jung Jae; Oh, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Aeri; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Jeon, Noo Li; Song, Jihwan

    2014-06-01

    Microfluidics can provide unique experimental tools to visualize the development of neural structures within a microscale device, which is followed by guidance of neurite growth in the axonal isolation compartment. We utilized microfluidics technology to monitor the differentiation and migration of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We co-cultured hESCs with PA6 stromal cells, and isolated neural rosette-like structures, which subsequently formed neurospheres in suspension culture. Tuj1-positive neural cells, but not nestin-positive neural precursor cells (NPCs), were able to enter the microfluidics grooves (microchannels), suggesting that neural cell-migratory capacity was dependent upon neuronal differentiation stage. We also showed that bundles of axons formed and extended into the microchannels. Taken together, these results demonstrated that microfluidics technology can provide useful tools to study neurite outgrowth and axon guidance of neural cells, which are derived from human embryonic stem cells.

  3. Expression and potential role of fibroblast growth factor 2 and its receptors in human embryonic stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr; Dvořáková, D.; Košková, S.; Vidinská, M.; Najvirtová, M.; Krekáč, D.; Hampl, Aleš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2005), s. 1200-1211 ISSN 1066-5099 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/03/1122; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0434; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : growth factor * human embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.094, year: 2005

  4. Dynamic MicroRNA expression programs during cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells: Role for miR-499

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, JC; Fu, JD; Venkatasubrahmanyam, S; Hu, S; Sun, N; Abilez, OJ; Baugh, JJA; Wilson, KD; Jia, F; Ghosh, Z; Li, RA; Butte, AJ

    2010-01-01

    Background-MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered endogenous class of small, noncoding RNAs that play important posttranscriptional regulatory roles by targeting messenger RNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Human embryonic stem cells are known to express miRNAs that are often undetectable in adult organs, and a growing body of evidence has implicated miRNAs as important arbiters of heart development and disease. Methods and Results-To better understand the transition between th...

  5. Generation of KCL035 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in HBB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL035 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the HBB gene, which is linked to the β-thalassemia syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  6. Precision mapping of coexisting modifications in histone H3 tails from embryonic stem cells by ETD-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Sidoli, Simone; Haldbo, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play a major role in regulating chromatin dynamics and influence processes such as transcription and DNA replication. Here, we report 114 distinct combinations of coexisting PTMs of histone H3 obtained from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Histone......, and K36, suggesting interdependence between histone methylation marks. We hypothesize that the most abundant coexisting PTMs may provide a signature for the permissive state of mouse ES cells....

  7. A short G1 phase imposes constitutive replication stress and fork remodelling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, Akshay K.; Jodkowska, Karolina; Teloni, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a transient biological state, where pluripotency is coupled with fast proliferation. ESCs display a constitutively active DNA damage response (DDR), but its molecular determinants have remained elusive. Here we show in cultured ESCs and mouse embryos that H2AX...... slowing and reversal leads to chromosomal breakage in unperturbed ESCs. We propose that rapid cell cycle progression makes ESCs dependent on effective replication-coupled mechanisms to protect genome integrity....

  8. Generation of a TLE3 heterozygous knockout human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR-Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Bara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we generated a monoallelic mutation in the TLE3 (Transducin Like Enhancer of Split 3 gene using CRISPR-Cas9 editing in the human embryonic stem cell (hESC line WA01. The heterozygous knockout cell line, TLE3-447-D08-A01, displays partial loss of TLE3 protein expression while maintaining pluripotency, differentiation potential and genomic integrity.

  9. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  10. Gene expression analysis of embryonic stem cells expressing VE-cadherin (CD144 during endothelial differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libermann Towia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial differentiation occurs during normal vascular development in the developing embryo. This process is recapitulated in the adult when endothelial progenitor cells are generated in the bone marrow and can contribute to vascular repair or angiogenesis at sites of vascular injury or ischemia. The molecular mechanisms of endothelial differentiation remain incompletely understood. Novel approaches are needed to identify the factors that regulate endothelial differentiation. Methods Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells were used to further define the molecular mechanisms of endothelial differentiation. By flow cytometry a population of VEGF-R2 positive cells was identified as early as 2.5 days after differentiation of ES cells, and a subset of VEGF-R2+ cells, that were CD41 positive at 3.5 days. A separate population of VEGF-R2+ stem cells expressing the endothelial-specific marker CD144 (VE-cadherin was also identified at this same time point. Channels lined by VE-cadherin positive cells developed within the embryoid bodies (EBs formed by differentiating ES cells. VE-cadherin and CD41 expressing cells differentiate in close proximity to each other within the EBs, supporting the concept of a common origin for cells of hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. Results Microarray analysis of >45,000 transcripts was performed on RNA obtained from cells expressing VEGF-R2+, CD41+, and CD144+ and VEGF-R2-, CD41-, and CD144-. All microarray experiments were performed in duplicate using RNA obtained from independent experiments, for each subset of cells. Expression profiling confirmed the role of several genes involved in hematopoiesis, and identified several putative genes involved in endothelial differentiation. Conclusion The isolation of CD144+ cells during ES cell differentiation from embryoid bodies provides an excellent model system and method for identifying genes that are expressed during endothelial differentiation and that

  11. The plasminogen activation system modulates differently adipogenesis and myogenesis of embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Hadadeh

    Full Text Available Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic differentiation capacities of PAI-1(-/- induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are augmented as compared to wt iPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the control of ESC adipogenesis by the PA system correspond to different successive steps from undifferentiated to well differentiated ESCs. Similarly, skeletal myogenesis is decreased by uPA inhibition or PAI-1 overexpression during the terminal step of differentiation. However, interfering with uPA during days 0 to 3 of the differentiation process augments ESC myotube formation. Neither neurogenesis, cardiomyogenesis, endothelial cell nor smooth muscle formation are affected by amiloride or PAI-1 induction. Our results show that the PA system is capable to specifically modulate adipogenesis and skeletal myogenesis of ESCs by successive different molecular mechanisms.

  12. The plasminogen activation system modulates differently adipogenesis and myogenesis of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadeh, Ola; Barruet, Emilie; Peiretti, Franck; Verdier, Monique; Bernot, Denis; Hadjal, Yasmine; Yazidi, Claire El; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; De Paula, Andre Maues; Nègre, Didier; Iacovino, Michelina; Kyba, Michael; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Binétruy, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA) system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic differentiation capacities of PAI-1(-/-) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are augmented as compared to wt iPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the control of ESC adipogenesis by the PA system correspond to different successive steps from undifferentiated to well differentiated ESCs. Similarly, skeletal myogenesis is decreased by uPA inhibition or PAI-1 overexpression during the terminal step of differentiation. However, interfering with uPA during days 0 to 3 of the differentiation process augments ESC myotube formation. Neither neurogenesis, cardiomyogenesis, endothelial cell nor smooth muscle formation are affected by amiloride or PAI-1 induction. Our results show that the PA system is capable to specifically modulate adipogenesis and skeletal myogenesis of ESCs by successive different molecular mechanisms.

  13. Diverse neurotoxicants target the differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells into neuronal and glial phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2016-11-30

    The large number of compounds that needs to be tested for developmental neurotoxicity drives the need to establish in vitro models to evaluate specific neurotoxic endpoints. We used neural stem cells derived from rat neuroepithelium on embryonic day 14 to evaluate the impact of diverse toxicants on their ability to differentiate into glia and neurons: a glucocorticoid (dexamethasone), organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, parathion), insecticides targeting the GABA A receptor (dieldrin, fipronil), heavy metals (Ni 2+ , Ag + ), nicotine and tobacco smoke extract. We found three broad groupings of effects. One diverse set of compounds, dexamethasone, the organophosphate pesticides, Ni 2+ and nicotine, suppressed expression of the glial phenotype while having little or no effect on the neuronal phenotype. The second pattern was restricted to the pesticides acting on GABA A receptors. These compounds promoted the glial phenotype and suppressed the neuronal phenotype. Notably, the actions of compounds eliciting either of these differentiation patterns were clearly unrelated to deficits in cell numbers: dexamethasone, dieldrin and fipronil all reduced cell numbers, whereas organophosphates and Ni 2+ had no effect. The third pattern, shared by Ag + and tobacco smoke extract, clearly delineated cytotoxicity, characterized by major cell loss with suppression of differentiation into both glial and neuronal phenotypes; but here again, there was some selectivity in that glia were suppressed more than neurons. Our results, from this survey with diverse compounds, point to convergence of neurotoxicant effects on a specific "decision node" that controls the emergence of neurons and glia from neural stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epigenetically reprogramming of human embryonic stem cells by 3-Deazaneplanocin A and sodium butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Azghadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Infertility affects about 6.1 million women aged 15-44 in the United States. The leading cause of infertility in women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ-cell development (these sentences are not mentioned in introduction so it is not correct to mention in abstract, you can omit. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM of developing blastocysts and have a broad clinical potential. hESCs have been classified into three classes based on their epigenetic state. The goal of this study was to epigenetically reprogram Class II and Class III cell lines to Class I (naïve state, and to in vitro differentiation of potent hESCs to primordial germ cells (PGCs. Methods: Recent evidence suggests that 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep is a global histone methylation inhibitor which selectively inhibits trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3K27, and it is an epigenetic therapeutic for cancer. The characteristics of DZNep lead us to hypothesize that it is a good candidate to epigenetically reprogram hESCs to the Class I. Additionally, we used sodium butyrate (NaBu shown in previous studies to up-regulate the expression of germ cell specific markers (these sentences should be come in introduction. Results: We used these two drugs to produce epigenetically stable hESC lines. hESC lines are an appropriate system for disease modeling and understanding developmental stages, therefore producing stable stem cell lines may have an outstanding impact in different research fields such as preventive medicine. Conclusions: X-Chromosome inactivation has been used as a tool to follow the reprogramming process. We have used immunostaining and western blot as methods to follow this reprogramming qualitatively and quantitatively.

  15. wnt3a but not wnt11 supports self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, Dinender K.; Schneider, David J.; LeWinter, Martin M.; Sobel, Burton E.

    2006-01-01

    wnt proteins (wnts) promote both differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic cells and self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained and self-renew on mouse feeder cell layers or in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). However, the effects of wnts on ES cells self-renewal and differentiation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that conditioned medium prepared from L cells expressing wnt3a can replace feeder cell layers and medium containing LIF in maintaining ES cells in the proliferation without differentiation (self-renewal) state. By contrast, conditioned medium from NIH3T3 cells expressing wnt11 did not. Alkaline phosphatase staining and compact colony formation were used as criteria of cells being in the undifferentiated state. ES cells maintained in medium conditioned by Wnt3a expressing cells underwent freezing and thawing while maintaining properties seen with LIF maintained ES cells. Purified wnt3a did not maintain self-renewal of ES cells for prolonged intervals. Thus, other factors in the medium conditioned by wnt3a expressing cells may have contributed to maintenance of ES cells in a self-renewal state. Pluripotency of ES cells was determined with the use of embryoid bodies in vitro. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, promoted the growth of undifferentiated ES cells maintained in conditioned medium from wnt3a expressing cells. By contrast, the P38 MAPK inhibitor SB230580 did not, suggesting a role for the MEK pathway in self-renewal and differentiation of ES cells maintained in the wnt3a cell conditioned medium. Thus, our results show that conditioned medium from wnt3a but not wnt11 expressing cells can maintain ES cells in self-renewal and in a pluripotent state

  16. Responses of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ying; Zhang, Ningzhe; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Davalos, Albert R.; Zeng, Xianmin; Campisi, Judith [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Desprez, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pydesprez@cpmcri.org [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); California Pacific Medical Center, Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hESCs and their progeny, NSCs and neurons, were exposed to ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon irradiation, most hESCs died within 5-7 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs underwent senescence and displayed features of astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs did not display the secretory phenotype expressed by pure astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is to better understand the stress-responses of hESCs and their progeny. -- Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many human pathologies. For example, hESCs and the neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and neurons derived from them have significant potential as transplantation therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Two concerns about the use of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives are their ability to function and their ability to resist neoplastic transformation in response to stresses that inevitably arise during their preparation for transplantation. To begin to understand how these cells handle genotoxic stress, we examined the responses of hESCs and derived NSCs and neurons to ionizing radiation (IR). Undifferentiated hESCs were extremely sensitive to IR, with nearly all the cells undergoing cell death within 5-7 h. NSCs and neurons were substantially more resistant to IR, with neurons showing the most resistant. Of interest, NSCs that survived IR underwent cellular senescence and acquired astrocytic characteristics. Unlike IR-treated astrocytes, however, the NSC-derived astrocytic cells that survived IR did not display the typical pro-inflammatory, pro-carcinogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These findings suggest distinct genotoxic stress-responses of hESCs and derived NSC and neuronal populations, and suggest that damaged NSCs, while failing to function, may not cause local inflammation.

  17. Regional differentiation of retinoic acid-induced human pluripotent embryonic carcinoma stem cell neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis E Coyle

    Full Text Available The NTERA2 cl D1 (NT2 cell line, derived from human teratocarcinoma, exhibits similar properties as embryonic stem (ES cells or very early neuroepithelial progenitors. NT2 cells can be induced to become postmitotic central nervous system neurons (NT2N with retinoic acid. Although neurons derived from pluripotent cells, such as NT2N, have been characterized for their neurotransmitter phenotypes, their potential suitability as a donor source for neural transplantation also depends on their ability to respond to localized environmental cues from a specific region of the CNS. Therefore, our study aimed to characterize the regional transcription factors that define the rostocaudal and dorsoventral identity of NT2N derived from a monolayer differentiation paradigm using quantitative PCR (qPCR. Purified NT2N mainly expressed both GABAergic and glutamatergic phenotypes and were electrically active but did not form functional synapses. The presence of immature astrocytes and possible radial glial cells was noted. The NT2N expressed a regional transcription factor code consistent with forebrain, hindbrain and spinal cord neural progenitors but showed minimal expression of midbrain phenotypes. In the dorsoventral plane NT2N expressed both dorsal and ventral neural progenitors. Of major interest was that even under the influence of retinoic acid, a known caudalization factor, the NT2N population maintained a rostral phenotype subpopulation which expressed cortical regional transcription factors. It is proposed that understanding the regional differentiation bias of neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells will facilitate their successful integration into existing neuronal networks within the CNS.

  18. Reconstruction of phrenic neuron identity in embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina Barcellos; Kanning, Kevin C; Kreis, Patricia; Stevenson, Danielle; Crossley, Martin; Nowak, Magdalena; Iacovino, Michelina; Kyba, Michael; Chambers, David; Blanc, Eric; Lieberam, Ivo

    2014-02-01

    Air breathing is an essential motor function for vertebrates living on land. The rhythm that drives breathing is generated within the central nervous system and relayed via specialised subsets of spinal motor neurons to muscles that regulate lung volume. In mammals, a key respiratory muscle is the diaphragm, which is innervated by motor neurons in the phrenic nucleus. Remarkably, relatively little is known about how this crucial subtype of motor neuron is generated during embryogenesis. Here, we used direct differentiation of motor neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells as a tool to identify genes that direct phrenic neuron identity. We find that three determinants, Pou3f1, Hoxa5 and Notch, act in combination to promote a phrenic neuron molecular identity. We show that Notch signalling induces Pou3f1 in developing motor neurons in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that the phrenic neuron lineage is established through a local source of Notch ligand at mid-cervical levels. Furthermore, we find that the cadherins Pcdh10, which is regulated by Pou3f1 and Hoxa5, and Cdh10, which is controlled by Pou3f1, are both mediators of like-like clustering of motor neuron cell bodies. This specific Pcdh10/Cdh10 activity might provide the means by which phrenic neurons are assembled into a distinct nucleus. Our study provides a framework for understanding how phrenic neuron identity is conferred and will help to generate this rare and inaccessible yet vital neuronal subtype directly from pluripotent stem cells, thus facilitating subsequent functional investigations.

  19. Recellularization of well-preserved acellular kidney scaffold using embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonandrini, Barbara; Figliuzzi, Marina; Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Perico, Norberto; Casiraghi, Federica; Dipl, Chemistry; Sangalli, Fabio; Conti, Sara; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Andrea; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    For chronic kidney diseases, there is little chance that the vast majority of world's population will have access to renal replacement therapy with dialysis or transplantation. Tissue engineering would help to address this shortcoming by regeneration of damaged kidney using naturally occurring scaffolds seeded with precursor renal cells. The aims of the present study were to optimize the production of three-dimensional (3D) rat whole-kidney scaffolds by shortening the duration of organ decellularization process using detergents that avoid nonionic compounds, to investigate integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and to enhance the efficacy of scaffold cellularization using physiological perfusion method. Intact rat kidneys were successfully decellularized after 17 h perfusion with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The whole-kidney scaffolds preserved the 3D architecture of blood vessels, glomeruli, and tubuli as shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) scan confirmed integrity, patency, and connection of the vascular network. Collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin staining of decellularized scaffolds were similar to those of native kidney tissues. After infusion of whole-kidney scaffolds with murine embryonic stem (mES) cells through the renal artery, and pressure-controlled perfusion with recirculating cell medium for 24 and 72 h, seeded cells were almost completely retained into the organ and uniformly distributed in the vascular network and glomerular capillaries without major signs of apoptosis. Occasionally, mES cells reached peritubular capillary and tubular compartment. We observed the loss of cell pluripotency and the start of differentiation toward meso-endodermal lineage. Our findings indicate that, with the proposed optimized protocol, rat kidneys can be efficiently decellularized to produce renal ECM scaffolds in a relatively short time, and rapid recellularization of vascular structures and

  20. Impact of stirred suspension bioreactor culture on the differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryonic stem cells (ESCs can proliferate endlessly and are able to differentiate into all cell lineages that make up the adult organism. Under particular in vitro culture conditions, ESCs can be expanded and induced to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in stirred suspension bioreactors (SSBs. However, in using these systems we must be cognizant of the mechanical forces acting upon the cells. The effect of mechanical forces and shear stress on ESC pluripotency and differentiation has yet to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the suspension culture environment on ESC pluripotency during cardiomyocyte differentiation. Results Murine D3-MHC-neor ESCs formed embyroid bodies (EBs and differentiated into cardiomyocytes over 25 days in static culture and suspension bioreactors. G418 (Geneticin was used in both systems from day 10 to enrich for cardiomyocytes by eliminating non-resistant, undifferentiated cells. Treatment of EBs with 1 mM ascorbic acid and 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide from day 3 markedly increased the number of beating EBs, which displayed spontaneous and cadenced contractile beating on day 11 in the bioreactor. Our results showed that the bioreactor differentiated cells displayed the characteristics of fully functional cardiomyocytes. Remarkably, however, our results demonstrated that the bioreactor differentiated ESCs retained their ability to express pluripotency markers, to form ESC-like colonies, and to generate teratomas upon transplantation, whereas the cells differentiated in adherent culture lost these characteristics. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although cardiomyocyte differentiation can be achieved in stirred suspension bioreactors, the addition of medium enhancers is not adequate to force complete differentiation as fluid shear forces appear to maintain a subpopulation of cells in a transient pluripotent state. The development of successful ESC

  1. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-10-12

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Finkbeiner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome (SBS is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, called human intestinal organoids (HIOs, have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  3. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Cell Line-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs of different murine ESC lines. Methods: Two wild-type (D3 and R1 and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7 were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. Action potentials (APs were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Results: Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Conclusion: Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully.

  4. Responses of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Ying; Zhang, Ningzhe; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Davalos, Albert R.; Zeng, Xianmin; Campisi, Judith; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► hESCs and their progeny, NSCs and neurons, were exposed to ionizing radiation. ► Upon irradiation, most hESCs died within 5–7 h. ► Surviving NSCs underwent senescence and displayed features of astrocytes. ► Surviving NSCs did not display the secretory phenotype expressed by pure astrocytes. ► This study is to better understand the stress-responses of hESCs and their progeny. -- Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many human pathologies. For example, hESCs and the neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and neurons derived from them have significant potential as transplantation therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Two concerns about the use of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives are their ability to function and their ability to resist neoplastic transformation in response to stresses that inevitably arise during their preparation for transplantation. To begin to understand how these cells handle genotoxic stress, we examined the responses of hESCs and derived NSCs and neurons to ionizing radiation (IR). Undifferentiated hESCs were extremely sensitive to IR, with nearly all the cells undergoing cell death within 5–7 h. NSCs and neurons were substantially more resistant to IR, with neurons showing the most resistant. Of interest, NSCs that survived IR underwent cellular senescence and acquired astrocytic characteristics. Unlike IR-treated astrocytes, however, the NSC-derived astrocytic cells that survived IR did not display the typical pro-inflammatory, pro-carcinogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These findings suggest distinct genotoxic stress-responses of hESCs and derived NSC and neuronal populations, and suggest that damaged NSCs, while failing to function, may not cause local inflammation.

  5. Patterned three-dimensional encapsulation of embryonic stem cells using dielectrophoresis and stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Piyush; Marchwiany, Daniel; Duarte, Carlos; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-03-01

    Controlling the assembly of cells in three dimensions is very important for engineering functional tissues, drug screening, probing cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions, and studying the emergent behavior of cellular systems. Although the current methods of cell encapsulation in hydrogels can distribute them in three dimensions, these methods typically lack spatial control of multi-cellular organization and do not allow for the possibility of cell-cell contacts as seen for the native tissue. Here, we report the integration of dielectrophoresis (DEP) with stereolithography (SL) apparatus for the spatial patterning of cells on custom made gold micro-electrodes. Afterwards, they are encapsulated in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels of different stiffnesses. This technique can mimic the in vivo microscale tissue architecture, where the cells have a high degree of three dimensional (3D) spatial control. As a proof of concept, we show the patterning and encapsulation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts. mESCs show high viability in both the DEP (91.79% ± 1.4%) and the no DEP (94.27% ± 0.5%) hydrogel samples. Furthermore, we also show the patterning of mouse embryoid bodies (mEBs) and C2C12 spheroids in the hydrogels, and verify their viability. This robust and flexible in vitro platform can enable various applications in stem cell differentiation and tissue engineering by mimicking elements of the native 3D in vivo cellular micro-environment. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Teratoma Formation by Human Embryonic Stem Cells is site-dependent and enhanced by the presence of Matrigel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Harkness, Linda M; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    When implanted into immunodeficient mice, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) give rise to teratoma, tumour-like formations containing tissues belonging to all three germ layers. The ability to form teratoma is a sine qua non characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. However, limited data...... of differentiated to un-differentiated tissues was significantly decreased suggesting defective pluripotency of the cells. In conclusion, subcutaneous implantation of hESC in presence of Matrigel appears to be the most efficient, reproducible and the easiest approach for teratoma formation by hESC. Also, teratoma...

  7. Distinct gene expression signatures in human embryonic stem cells differentiated towards definitive endoderm at single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Karin; Strömbeck, Anna; Semb, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards therapeutically relevant cell types, including pancreatic beta-cells and hepatocytes, depends on molecular markers and assays that resolve the signature of individual cells. Pancreas and liver both have a common origin...... for the three activin A based protocols applied. Our data provide novel insights in DE gene expression at the cellular level of in vitro differentiated human embryonic stem cells, and illustrate the power of using single-cell gene expression profiling to study differentiation heterogeneity and to characterize...

  8. Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF) Exhibit a Similar but not Identical Phenotype to Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells (BMSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Hamid; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Aldahmash, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts have been utilized as a surrogate stem cell model for the postnatal bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (BMSC) to study mesoderm-type cell differentiation e.g. osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. However, no formal characterization of MEF phenotype has been....../tricalcium phosphate, in immune deficient mice. In conclusion, MEF contain a population of stem cells that behave in ex vivo and in vivo assays, similar but not identical, to BMSC. Due to their enhanced cell growth, they may represent a good alternative for BMSC in studying molecular mechanisms of stem cell commitment...... reported. Utilizing standard in vitro and in vivo assays we performed a side-by-side comparison of MEF and BMSC to determine their ability to differentiate into mesoderm-type cells. BMSC were isolated from 8-10 weeks old mouse bone marrow by plastic adherence. MEF were established by trypsin/EDTA digestion...

  9. Ethical Assessment of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research According to Turkish Muslim Scholars: First Critical Analysis and Some Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ahmet; Ilkilic, Ilhan

    2016-08-01

    Turkey, with a Muslim population of officially over 99 %, is one of the few secular states in the Muslim world. Although state institutions are not based on Islamic juridical and ethical norms, the latter play a significant role in defining people's attitudes towards controversial issues in the modern world, especially when backed by opinions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey. Accordingly, opinions of Muslim scholars undoubtedly have an important effect on bioethical decisions made by institutions and individuals. To explore the ethical positions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey and their arguments used in the ethical assessment of embryonic stem cell research; to discuss the biological-moral tensions arising in medical research on human embryos. Qualitative study. Muslim scholars located in different parts of Turkey. Qualitative method, involving the collection of opinions of various scholars, by means of 15 individual semi-structured interviews, evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. Positions regarding embryonic stem cell research differ among Muslim scholars in Turkey. On the other hand, even where positions are similar, they are often supported by different arguments. Despite the heterogeneity of the arguments presented, the dominant position considers embryonic stem cell research as morally acceptable.

  10. Melatonin promotes cardiomyogenesis of embryonic stem cells via inhibition of HIF-1α stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudová, Jana; Vašíček, Ondřej; Číž, Milan; Kubala, Lukáš

    2016-11-01

    Melatonin, a molecule involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, has protective effects against myocardial injuries. However, its capability to regulate the maturation of cardiac progenitor cells is unclear. Recently, several studies have shown that melatonin inhibits the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), important signaling molecules with cardioprotective effects. In this study, by employing differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells, we report that melatonin significantly upregulated the expression of cardiac cell-specific markers (myosin heavy chains six and seven) as well as the percentage of myosin heavy chain-positive cells. Importantly, melatonin decreased HIF-1α stabilization and transcriptional activity and, in contrast, induced HIF-2α stabilization. Interestingly, the deletion of HIF-1α completely inhibited the pro-cardiomyogenic effect of melatonin as well as the melatonin-mediated HIF-2α stabilization. Moreover, melatonin increased Sirt-1 levels in a HIF-1α-dependent manner. Taken together, we provide new evidence of a time-specific inhibition of HIF-1α stabilization as an essential feature of melatonin-induced cardiomyogenesis and unexpected different roles of HIF-1α stabilization during various stages of cardiac development. These results uncover new mechanisms underlying the maturation of cardiac progenitor cells and can help in the development of novel strategies for using melatonin in cardiac regeneration therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. HIF-1alpha Deficiency Attenuates the Cardiomyogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kudová

    Full Text Available Cardiac cell formation, cardiomyogenesis, is critically dependent on oxygen availability. It is known that hypoxia, a reduced oxygen level, modulates the in vitro differentiation of pluripotent cells into cardiomyocytes via hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α-dependent mechanisms. However, the direct impact of HIF-1α deficiency on the formation and maturation of cardiac-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC in vitro remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that HIF-1α deficiency significantly altered the quality and quantity of mESC-derived cardiomyocytes. It was accompanied with lower mRNA and protein levels of cardiac cell specific markers (myosin heavy chains 6 and 7 and with a decreasing percentage of myosin heavy chain α and β, and cardiac troponin T-positive cells. As to structural aspects of the differentiated cardiomyocytes, the localization of contractile proteins (cardiac troponin T, myosin heavy chain α and β and the organization of myofibrils were also different. Simultaneously, HIF-1α deficiency was associated with a lower percentage of beating embryoid bodies. Interestingly, an observed alteration in the in vitro differentiation scheme of HIF-1α deficient cells was accompanied with significantly lower expression of the endodermal marker (hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha. These findings thus suggest that HIF-1α deficiency attenuates spontaneous cardiomyogenesis through the negative regulation of endoderm development in mESC differentiating in vitro.

  12. HIF-1alpha Deficiency Attenuates the Cardiomyogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudová, Jana; Procházková, Jiřina; Vašiček, Ondřej; Perečko, Tomáš; Sedláčková, Miroslava; Pešl, Martin; Pacherník, Jiří; Kubala, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac cell formation, cardiomyogenesis, is critically dependent on oxygen availability. It is known that hypoxia, a reduced oxygen level, modulates the in vitro differentiation of pluripotent cells into cardiomyocytes via hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent mechanisms. However, the direct impact of HIF-1α deficiency on the formation and maturation of cardiac-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) in vitro remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that HIF-1α deficiency significantly altered the quality and quantity of mESC-derived cardiomyocytes. It was accompanied with lower mRNA and protein levels of cardiac cell specific markers (myosin heavy chains 6 and 7) and with a decreasing percentage of myosin heavy chain α and β, and cardiac troponin T-positive cells. As to structural aspects of the differentiated cardiomyocytes, the localization of contractile proteins (cardiac troponin T, myosin heavy chain α and β) and the organization of myofibrils were also different. Simultaneously, HIF-1α deficiency was associated with a lower percentage of beating embryoid bodies. Interestingly, an observed alteration in the in vitro differentiation scheme of HIF-1α deficient cells was accompanied with significantly lower expression of the endodermal marker (hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha). These findings thus suggest that HIF-1α deficiency attenuates spontaneous cardiomyogenesis through the negative regulation of endoderm development in mESC differentiating in vitro.

  13. Effective colon cancer prophylaxis in mice using embryonic stem cells and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Teodora; Iancu, Cornel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a new concept of an anticancer vaccine has been proposed to prevent and control the proliferation and expansion of cancer cells by eliciting an immune boost in biological systems. The recent literature supports the role of embryonic stem cells (ESC) as cellular agents that stimulate the biological systems to destroy cancer cells. However, at present, a true anticancer vaccine remains elusive. There are several lines of evidence showing that carbon nanotubes may be used to initiate and maintain immune responses. The authors proposed to test the therapeutic potential of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) combined with ESC as agents to induce an immune boost and provide subsequent anticancer protection in mice. C57 BL/6 mice were immunized with ESC and MWCNTs. The proposed vaccine led to significant antitumor responses and enhanced tumor rejection in mice with subcutaneous inoculation of MC38 colon malign cells compared with groups only administered ESC, only MWCNTs, and controls. The application and potential of ESC combined with MWCNTs as anticancer immunization agents may represent the beginning of a new chapter in the treatment of colon cancer.

  14. High-Efficient Transfection of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Single-Cell Plating and Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Ren, Caiping; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Liu, Weidong; Shi, Jia; Lin, Jianxing; Xia, Xiaomeng; Zeng, Fei; Chen, Jiawen; Jiang, Xingjun

    2016-03-15

    Nowadays, the low efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or plasmid DNA (pDNA) transfection is a critical issue in genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Development of an efficient transfection method for delivery of siRNAs and plasmids into hES cells becomes more and more imperative. In this study, we tried to modify the traditional transfection protocol by introducing two crucial processes, single-cell plating and starvation, to increase the transfection efficiency in hES cells. Furthermore, we comparatively examined the transfection efficiency of some commercially available siRNA or pDNA transfection reagents in hES cells. Our results showed that the new developed method markedly enhanced the transfection efficiency without influencing the proliferation and pluripotency of hES cells. Lipofectamine RNAiMAX exhibited much higher siRNA transfection efficiency than the other reagents, and FuGENE HD was identified as the best suitable reagent for efficient pDNA transfection of hES cells among the tested reagents.

  15. Epigenetic Reprogramming of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Skeletal Muscle Cells and Generation of Contractile Myospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Albini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct generation of a homogeneous population of skeletal myoblasts from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and formation of three-dimensional contractile structures for disease modeling in vitro are current challenges in regenerative medicine. Previous studies reported on the generation of myoblasts from ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EB, but not from undifferentiated ESCs, indicating the requirement for mesodermal transition to promote skeletal myogenesis. Here, we show that selective absence of the SWI/SNF component BAF60C (encoded by SMARCD3 confers on hESCs resistance to MyoD-mediated activation of skeletal myogenesis. Forced expression of BAF60C enables MyoD to directly activate skeletal myogenesis in hESCs by instructing MyoD positioning and allowing chromatin remodeling at target genes. BAF60C/MyoD-expressing hESCs are epigenetically committed myogenic progenitors, which bypass the mesodermal requirement and, when cultured as floating clusters, give rise to contractile three-dimensional myospheres composed of skeletal myotubes. These results identify BAF60C as a key epigenetic determinant of hESC commitment to the myogenic lineage and establish the molecular basis for the generation of hESC-derived myospheres exploitable for “disease in a dish” models of muscular physiology and dysfunction.

  16. Integrated 3-dimensional expansion and osteogenic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Wesley L; Cha, Jae Min; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G; Polak, Julia M; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2007-12-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture is fragmented and laborious and involves operator decisions. Most protocols consist of 3 individual steps: maintenance, embryoid body (EB) formation, and differentiation. Integration will assist automation, ultimately aiding scale-up to clinically relevant numbers. These problems were addressed by encapsulating undifferentiated murine ESCs (mESCs) in 1.1% (w/v) low-viscosity alginic acid, 0.1% (v/v) porcine gelatin hydrogel beads (d = 2.3 mm). Six hundred beads containing 10,000 mESCs per bead were cultured in a 50-mL high-aspect-ratio vessel bioreactor. Bioreactor cultures were rotated at 17.5 revolutions per min, cultured in maintenance medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor for 3 days, replaced with EB formation medium for 5 days followed by osteogenic medium containing L-ascorbate-2-phosphate (50 microg/mL), beta-glycerophosphate (10 mM), and dexamethasone (1 microM) for an additional 21 days. After 29 days, 84 times as many cells per bead were observed and mineralized matrix was formed within the alginate beads. Osteogenesis was confirmed using von Kossa, Alizarin Red S staining, alkaline phosphatase activity, immunocytochemistry for osteocalcin, OB-cadherin, collagen type I, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, microcomputed tomography (micro-computed tomography) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging. This simplified, integrated, and potentially scaleable methodology could enable the production of 3-demensional mineralized tissue from ESCs for potential clinical applications.

  17. Effects of 17beta-estradiol and xenoestrogens on mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yu, Frank H; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2010-09-01

    Xenoestrogens such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) can adversely affect the reproductive and immune systems from their estrogenic effects in target cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of xenoestrogens on the expression of undifferentiation markers in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and of cardiomyocyte differentiation markers in mouse embryoid body (EB) cells induced to differentiate into cardiomyocytes from ES cells. The expressions of undifferentiation markers (Oct4, Sox2, Zfp206, and Rex-1) and cardiomyocyte differentiation markers (alpha-MHC, beta-MHC, ANF, and MLC-2V) were determined by semi- and quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment with E(2) or OP and NP induced an increase in Oct4 expression at the transcriptional level in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, no difference was observed in the expression of Sox2, Zfp206 or Rex-1 genes in ES cells, suggesting that E(2) may be an Oct4 enhancer in ES cells. Induction of Oct4 expression by E(2) and xenoestrogens (OP and NP) did not change the methylation pattern of the Oct4-promoter and was not affected by treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine. Taken together, these results suggest that E(2) and xenoestrogens may impact on the undifferentiation process of ES and EB cells, and retain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The homeobox gene Hex regulates hepatocyte differentiation from embryonic stem cell-derived endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Kim, Yon Hui; Irion, Stefan; Kasuda, Shogo; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ohashi, Kazuo; Iwano, Masayuki; Dohi, Yoshiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Snodgrass, Ralph; Keller, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the role of the hematopoietically expressed homeobox (Hex) in the differentiation and development of hepatocytes within embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived embryoid bodies (EBs). Analyses of hepatic endoderm derived from Hex(-/-) EBs revealed a dramatic reduction in the levels of albumin (Alb) and alpha-fetoprotein (Afp) expression. In contrast, stage-specific forced expression of Hex in EBs from wild-type ESCs led to the up-regulation of Alb and Afp expression and secretion of Alb and transferrin. These inductive effects were restricted to c-kit(+) endoderm-enriched EB-derived populations, suggesting that Hex functions at the level of hepatic specification of endoderm in this model. Microarray analysis revealed that Hex regulated the expression of a broad spectrum of hepatocyte-related genes, including fibrinogens, apolipoproteins, and cytochromes. When added to the endoderm-induced EBs, bone morphogenetic protein 4 acted synergistically with Hex in the induction of expression of Alb, Afp, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, transcription factor 1, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. These findings indicate that Hex plays a pivotal role during induction of liver development from endoderm in this in vitro model and suggest that this strategy may provide important insight into the generation of functional hepatocytes from ESCs.

  19. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  20. N-glycoproteome of E14.Tg2a mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyun Sun

    Full Text Available E14.Tg2a mouse embryonic stem (mES cells are a widely used host in gene trap and gene targeting techniques. Molecular characterization of host cells will provide background information for a better understanding of functions of the knockout genes. Using a highly selective glycopeptide-capture approach but ordinary liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS, we characterized the N-glycoproteins of E14.Tg2a cells and analyzed the close relationship between the obtained N-glycoproteome and cell-surface proteomes. Our results provide a global view of cell surface protein molecular properties, in which receptors seem to be much more diverse but lower in abundance than transporters on average. In addition, our results provide a systematic view of the E14.Tg2a N-glycosylation, from which we discovered some striking patterns, including an evolutionarily preserved and maybe functionally selected complementarity between N-glycosylation and the transmembrane structure in protein sequences. We also observed an environmentally influenced N-glycosylation pattern among glycoenzymes and extracellular matrix proteins. We hope that the acquired information enhances our molecular understanding of mES E14.Tg2a as well as the biological roles played by N-glycosylation in cell biology in general.

  1. Generation of genetically modified mice by oocyte injection of androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Shi, Linyu; Wang, Bang-An; Liang, Dan; Zhong, Cuiqing; Liu, Wei; Nie, Yongzhan; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Xiang; Li, Dangsheng; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jinsong

    2012-04-27

    Haploid cells are amenable for genetic analysis. Recent success in the derivation of mouse haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) via parthenogenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells. However, successful generation of live animals from these haESCs, which is needed to extend the genetic analysis to the organism level, has not been achieved. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from androgenetic blastocysts. These cells, designated as AG-haESCs, partially maintain paternal imprints, express classical ESC pluripotency markers, and contribute to various tissues, including the germline, upon injection into diploid blastocysts. Strikingly, live mice can be obtained upon injection of AG-haESCs into MII oocytes, and these mice bear haESC-carried genetic traits and develop into fertile adults. Furthermore, gene targeting via homologous recombination is feasible in the AG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that AG-haESCs can be used as a genetically tractable fertilization agent for the production of live animals via injection into oocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro functional gut-like organ formation from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takatsugu; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Takaki, Miyako; Torihashi, Shigeko; Kato, Yoko; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Ishizaka, Shigeaki; Tsunoda, Yukio

    2002-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a pluripotent ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro. We have recently found that ES cells can give rise to a functional gut-like unit, which forms a three-dimensional dome-like structure with lumen and exhibits mechanical activity, such as spontaneous contraction and peristalsis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological and morphological properties of ES cell-derived contracting clusters. Electrical activity was examined by an extracellular recording. Morphology and cellular components were investigated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Clusters with rhythmic contractions displayed electrical slow waves at a regular rhythm, and clusters with highly coordinated peristalsis showed regular slow waves and spontaneous spike action potentials. Immunoreactivity for c-Kit, a marker of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), was observed in dense network structures. Neuronal marker PGP9.5 immunoreactivity was observed only in clusters with peristalsis. The topographical structure of the wall was organized by an inner epithelial layer and outer smooth muscle layer. The smooth muscle layer was provided with an ICC network and innervated with enteric neurons. ES cells can differentiate into a functional gut-like organ in vitro that exhibits physiological and morphological properties characteristic of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This ES cell-derived gut provides a powerful tool for studying GI motility and gut development in vitro, and has potential for elucidating and treating a variety of motility disorders.

  3. Influence of acellular natural lung matrix on murine embryonic stem cell differentiation and tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortiella, Joaquin; Niles, Jean; Cantu, Andrea; Brettler, Andrea; Pham, Anthony; Vargas, Gracie; Winston, Sean; Wang, Jennifer; Walls, Shannon; Nichols, Joan E

    2010-08-01

    We report here the first attempt to produce and use whole acellular (AC) lung as a matrix to support development of engineered lung tissue from murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We compared the influence of AC lung, Gelfoam, Matrigel, and a collagen I hydrogel matrix on the mESC attachment, differentiation, and subsequent formation of complex tissue. We found that AC lung allowed for better retention of cells with more differentiation of mESCs into epithelial and endothelial lineages. In constructs produced on whole AC lung, we saw indications of organization of differentiating ESC into three-dimensional structures reminiscent of complex tissues. We also saw expression of thyroid transcription factor-1, an immature lung epithelial cell marker; pro-surfactant protein C, a type II pneumocyte marker; PECAM-1/CD31, an endothelial cell marker; cytokeratin 18; alpha-actin, a smooth muscle marker; CD140a or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha; and Clara cell protein 10. There was also evidence of site-specific differentiation in the trachea with the formation of sheets of cytokeratin-positive cells and Clara cell protein 10-expressing Clara cells. Our findings support the utility of AC lung as a matrix for engineering lung tissue and highlight the critical role played by matrix or scaffold-associated cues in guiding ESC differentiation toward lung-specific lineages.

  4. Characterization of in vitro gutlike organ formed from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tadao; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Horiguchi, Kazuhide; Misawa, Hiromi; Kadowaki, Makoto; Nakao, Akimasa; Inoue, Soichiro; Komuro, Terumasa; Takaki, Miyako

    2004-06-01

    Using an embryoid body (EB) culture system, we have made a functional organlike cluster: the "gut" from embryonic stem (ES) cells (ES gut). There are many types of ES clusters, because ES cells have a pluripotent ability to develop into a wide range of cell types. Before inducing specific differentiation by exogenously added factors, we characterized comprehensive physiological and morphological properties of ES guts. Each ES gut has a hemispherical (or cystic) structure and exhibits spontaneous contractions [mean frequency: 13.5 +/- 8.8 cycles per min (cpm)]. A dense distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) was identified by c-Kit immunoreactivity, and specific subcellular structures of ICC and smooth muscle cells were identified with electron microscopy. ICC frequently formed close contacts with the neighboring smooth muscle cells and occasionally formed gap junctions with other ICC. Widely propagating intracellular Ca(2+) concentration oscillations were generated in the ES gut from the aggregates of c-Kit immunopositive cells. Plateau potentials, possibly pacemaker potentials in ICC, and electrical slow waves were recorded for the first time. These events were nifedipine insensitive, as in the mouse gut. Our present results indicate that the rhythmic pacemaker activity generated in ICC efficiently spreads to smooth muscle cells and drives spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the ES gut. The present characterization of physiological and morphological properties of ES gut paves the way for making appropriate models to investigate the origin of rhythmicity in the gut.

  5. Erk5 Is a Key Regulator of Naive-Primed Transition and Embryonic Stem Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A.C. Williams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs can self-renew or differentiate into any cell type, a phenomenon known as pluripotency. Distinct pluripotent states, termed naive and primed pluripotency, have been described. However, the mechanisms that control naive-primed pluripotent transition are poorly understood. Here, we perform a targeted screen for kinase inhibitors, which modulate the naive-primed pluripotent transition. We find that XMD compounds, which selectively inhibit Erk5 kinase and BET bromodomain family proteins, drive ESCs toward primed pluripotency. Using compound selectivity engineering and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we reveal distinct functions for Erk5 and Brd4 in pluripotency regulation. We show that Erk5 signaling maintains ESCs in the naive state and suppresses progression toward primed pluripotency and neuroectoderm differentiation. Additionally, we identify a specialized role for Erk5 in defining ESC lineage selection, whereby Erk5 inhibits a cardiomyocyte-specific differentiation program. Our data therefore reveal multiple critical functions for Erk5 in controlling ESC identity.

  6. Characterization of Bovine 5′-flanking Region during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Jang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have been used as a powerful tool for research including gene manipulated animal models and the study of developmental gene regulation. Among the critical regulatory factors that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs, NANOG plays a very important role. Nevertheless, because pluripotency maintaining factors and specific markers for livestock ESCs have not yet been probed, few studies of the NANOG gene from domestic animals including bovine have been reported. Therefore, we chose mouse ESCs in order to understand and compare NANOG expression between bovine, human, and mouse during ESCs differentiation. We cloned a 600 bp (−420/+181 bovine NANOG 5′-flanking region, and tagged it with humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP as a tracing reporter. Very high GFP expression for bovine NANOG promoter was observed in the mouse ESC line. GFP expression was monitored upon ESC differentiation and was gradually reduced along with differentiation toward neurons and adipocyte cells. Activity of bovine NANOG (−420/+181 promoter was compared with already known mouse and human NANOG promoters in mouse ESC and they were likely to show a similar pattern of regulation. In conclusion, bovine NANOG 5-flanking region functions in mouse ES cells and has characteristics similar to those of mouse and human. These results suggest that bovine gene function studied in mouse ES cells should be evaluated and extrapolated for application to characterization of bovine ES cells.

  7. Nanog Fluctuations in Embryonic Stem Cells Highlight the Problem of Measurement in Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rosanna C G; Stumpf, Patrick S; Ridden, Sonya J; Sim, Aaron; Filippi, Sarah; Harrington, Heather A; MacArthur, Ben D

    2017-06-20

    A number of important pluripotency regulators, including the transcription factor Nanog, are observed to fluctuate stochastically in individual embryonic stem cells. By transiently priming cells for commitment to different lineages, these fluctuations are thought to be important to the maintenance of, and exit from, pluripotency. However, because temporal changes in intracellular protein abundances cannot be measured directly in live cells, fluctuations are typically assessed using genetically engineered reporter cell lines that produce a fluorescent signal as a proxy for protein expression. Here, using a combination of mathematical modeling and experiment, we show that there are unforeseen ways in which widely used reporter strategies can systematically disturb the dynamics they are intended to monitor, sometimes giving profoundly misleading results. In the case of Nanog, we show how genetic reporters can compromise the behavior of important pluripotency-sustaining positive feedback loops, and induce a bifurcation in the underlying dynamics that gives rise to heterogeneous Nanog expression patterns in reporter cell lines that are not representative of the wild-type. These findings help explain the range of published observations of Nanog variability and highlight the problem of measurement in live cells. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Two pore channel 2 differentially modulates neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP is an endogenous Ca(2+ mobilizing nucleotide presented in various species. NAADP mobilizes Ca(2+ from acidic organelles through two pore channel 2 (TPC2 in many cell types and it has been previously shown that NAADP can potently induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Here we examined the role of TPC2 signaling in the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells. We found that the expression of TPC2 was markedly decreased during the initial ES cell entry into neural progenitors, and the levels of TPC2 gradually rebounded during the late stages of neurogenesis. Correspondingly, TPC2 knockdown accelerated mouse ES cell differentiation into neural progenitors but inhibited these neural progenitors from committing to neurons. Overexpression of TPC2, on the other hand, inhibited mouse ES cell from entering the early neural lineage. Interestingly, TPC2 knockdown had no effect on the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of mouse ES cells. Taken together, our data indicate that TPC2 signaling plays a temporal and differential role in modulating the neural lineage entry of mouse ES cells, in that TPC2 signaling inhibits ES cell entry to early neural progenitors, but is required for late neuronal differentiation.

  9. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Ethical Views of Buddhist, Hindu and Catholic Leaders in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Mathana Amaris Fiona; Noor, Siti Nurani Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Embryonic Stem Cell Research (ESCR) raises ethical issues. In the process of research, embryos may be destroyed and, to some, such an act entails the 'killing of human life'. Past studies have sought the views of scientists and the general public on the ethics of ESCR. This study, however, explores multi-faith ethical viewpoints, in particular, those of Buddhists, Hindus and Catholics in Malaysia, on ESCR. Responses were gathered via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Three main ethical quandaries emerged from the data: (1) sanctity of life, (2) do no harm, and (3) 'intention' of the research. Concerns regarding the sanctity of life are directed at particular research protocols which interfere with religious notions of human ensoulment and early consciousness. The principle of 'do no harm' which is closely related to ahimsa prohibits all acts of violence. Responses obtained indicate that respondents either discourage research that inflicts harm on living entities or allow ESCR with reservations. 'Intention' of the research seems to be an interesting and viable rationale that would permit ESCR for the Buddhists and Hindus. Research that is intended for the purpose of alleviating human suffering is seen as being ethical. This study also notes that Catholics oppose ESCR on the basis of the inviolability of human life.

  10. Essential role of chromatin remodeling protein Bptf in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Landry

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the biological functions of the chromatin remodeling protein Bptf (Bromodomain PHD-finger Transcription Factor, the largest subunit of NURF (Nucleosome Remodeling Factor in a mammal. Bptf mutants manifest growth defects at the post-implantation stage and are reabsorbed by E8.5. Histological analyses of lineage markers show that Bptf(-/- embryos implant but fail to establish a functional distal visceral endoderm. Microarray analysis at early stages of differentiation has identified Bptf-dependent gene targets including homeobox transcriptions factors and genes essential for the development of ectoderm, mesoderm, and both definitive and visceral endoderm. Differentiation of Bptf(-/- embryonic stem cell lines into embryoid bodies revealed its requirement for development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, and uncovered many genes whose activation or repression are Bptf-dependent. We also provide functional and physical links between the Bptf-containing NURF complex and the Smad transcription factors. These results suggest that Bptf may co-regulate some gene targets of this pathway, which is essential for establishment of the visceral endoderm. We conclude that Bptf likely regulates genes and signaling pathways essential for the development of key tissues of the early mouse embryo.

  11. Genetic selection system allowing monitoring of myofibrillogenesis in living cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bugorsky

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate cardiomyogenesis in vitro and are a potential source of cells for cardiac repair. However, this requires enrichment of mixed populations of differentiating ES cells into cardiomyocytes. Toward this goal, we have generated bicistronic vectors that express both the blasticidin S deaminase (bsd gene and a fusion protein consisting of either myosin light chain (MLC-3f or human a-actinin 2A and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the transcriptional control of the a-cardiac myosin heavy chain (a-MHC promoter. Insertion of the DNase I-hypersensitive site (HS-2 element from the b-globin locus control region, which has been shown to reduce transgene silencing in other cell systems, upstream of the transgene promoter enhanced MLC3f-EGFP gene expression levels in mouse ES cell lines. The a-MHC-a- actinin-EGFP, but not the a-MHC-MLC3f-EGFP, construct resulted in the correct incorporation of the newly synthesized fusion protein at the Z-band of the sarcomeres in ES cellderived cardiomyocytes. Exposure of embryoid bodies to blasticidin S selected for a relatively pure population of cardiomyocytes within 3 days. Myofibrillogenesis could be monitored by fluorescence microscopy in living cells due to sarcomeric epitope tagging. Therefore, this genetic system permits the rapid selection of a relatively pure population of developing cardiomyocytes from a heterogeneous population of differentiating ES cells, simultaneously allowing monitoring of early myofibrillogenesis in the selected myocytes.

  12. Steps toward Maturation of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes by Defined Physical Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Shen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs may offer significant advances in creating in vitro cardiac tissues for disease modeling, drug testing, and elucidating developmental processes; however, the induction of ESCs to a more adult-like CM phenotype remains challenging. In this study, we developed a bioreactor system to employ pulsatile flow (1.48 mL/min, cyclic strain (5%, and extended culture time to improve the maturation of murine and human ESC-CMs. Dynamically-cultured ESC-CMs showed an increased expression of cardiac-associated proteins and genes, cardiac ion channel genes, as well as increased SERCA activity and a Raman fingerprint with the presence of maturation-associated peaks similar to primary CMs. We present a bioreactor platform that can serve as a foundation for the development of human-based cardiac in vitro models to verify drug candidates, and facilitates the study of cardiovascular development and disease.

  13. SON connects the splicing-regulatory network with pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyi; Göke, Jonathan; Sachs, Friedrich; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Liang, Hongqing; Feng, Bo; Bourque, Guillaume; Bubulya, Paula A; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) harbour the ability to undergo lineage-specific differentiation into clinically relevant cell types. Transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are known to play important roles in the maintenance of pluripotency of hESCs. However, little is known about regulation of pluripotency through splicing. In this study, we identify the spliceosome-associated factor SON as a factor essential for the maintenance of hESCs. Depletion of SON in hESCs results in the loss of pluripotency and cell death. Using genome-wide RNA profiling, we identified transcripts that are regulated by SON. Importantly, we confirmed that SON regulates the proper splicing of transcripts encoding for pluripotency regulators such as OCT4, PRDM14, E4F1 and MED24. Furthermore, we show that SON is bound to these transcripts in vivo. In summary, we connect a splicing-regulatory network for accurate transcript production to the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of hESCs.

  14. Functional Concentrations of BMP4 on Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells to Primordial Germ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 has a significant role in primordial germ cells(PGCs differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC. The aim of this study is to determinethe best concentration of BMP4 at a time of two days on differentiation PGCs from mESC.Materials and Methods: To differentiate PGCs, embryoid bodies (EBs from mESCs were culturedin concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 ng/ml BMP4 for two days. Germ cell markers Oct4 (Pou5f1, Stella(Dppa3 and Mvh (Ddx4 were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and reversetranscriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.Results: Flow cytometry data demonstrated most Mvh-positive cells were observed only in thetreated groups. Immunocytochemistry of EBs in the treated groups identified cells positive forMvh. PCR results showed expression of Oct4 in the control group and treated groups. Stella andMvh were expressed only in the treated groups.Conclusion: Low concentrations of BMP4 during two days had an optimal effect on differentiationof PGCs from mESC.

  15. Expression of embryonic stem cell markers in keloid-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Chelsea; Chudakova, Daria A; Itinteang, Tinte; Chibnall, Alice M; Brasch, Helen D; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2016-07-01

    To identify, characterise and localise the population of primitive cells in keloid scars (KS). 5-µm-thick formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of KS samples from 10 patients underwent immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers OCT4, SOX2, pSTAT3 and NANOG, and keloid-associated lymphoid tissue (KALT) markers CD4 and CD20. NanoString gene expression analysis and in situ hybridisation (ISH) were used to determine the abundance and localisation of the mRNA for these ESC markers. IHC staining revealed the expression of the ESC markers OCT4, SOX2, pSTAT3 and NANOG by a population of cells within KS tissue. These are localised to the endothelium of the microvessels within the KALTs. NanoString gene expression analysis confirmed the abundance of the transcriptional expression of the same ESC markers. ISH localised the expression of the ESC transcripts to the primitive endothelium in KS tissue. This report demonstrates the expression of ESC markers OCT4, SOX2, pSTAT3 and NANOG by the endothelium of the microvessels within the KALTs. These findings show a unique niche of primitive cells within KS, expressing ESC markers, revealing a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of KS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossin, Yves; Lee, Minhui; Klezovitch, Olga; Kon, Elif; Cossard, Alexia; Lien, Wen-Hui; Fernandez, Tania E; Cooper, Jonathan A; Vasioukhin, Valera

    2017-06-05

    Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1 fl/fl ), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1 fl/fl brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Peripheral Sensory Neurons derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawaf, Abdullah Jawad; Viventi, Serena; Qiu, Wanzhi; D'Abaco, Giovanna; Nayagam, Bryony; Erlichster, Michael; Chana, Gursharan; Everall, Ian; Ivanusic, Jason; Skafidas, Efstratios; Dottori, Mirella

    2018-01-12

    The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) consist of a multitude of sensory neuronal subtypes that function to relay sensory stimuli, including temperature, pressure, pain and position to the central nervous system. Our knowledge of DRG sensory neurons have been predominantly driven by animal studies and considerably less is known about the human DRG. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are valuable resource to help close this gap. Our previous studies reported an efficient system for deriving neural crest and DRG sensory neurons from hESC. Here we show that this differentiation system gives rise to heterogeneous populations of sensory neuronal subtypes as demonstrated by phenotypic and functional analyses. Furthermore, using microelectrode arrays the maturation rate of the hESC-derived sensory neuronal cultures was monitored over 8 weeks in culture, showing their spontaneous firing activities starting at about 12 days post-differentiation and reaching maximum firing at about 6 weeks. These studies are highly valuable for developing an in vitro platform to study the diversity of sensory neuronal subtypes found within the human DRG.

  18. Directed in vitro myogenesis of human embryonic stem cells and their in vivo engraftment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsung Hwang

    Full Text Available Development of human embryonic stem cell (hESC-based therapy requires derivation of in vitro expandable cell populations that can readily differentiate to specified cell types and engraft upon transplantation. Here, we report that hESCs can differentiate into skeletal muscle cells without genetic manipulation. This is achieved through the isolation of cells expressing a mesodermal marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA, following embryoid body (EB formation. The ESC-derived cells differentiated into myoblasts in vitro as evident by upregulation of various myogenic genes, irrespective of the presence of serum in the medium. This result is further corroborated by the presence of sarcomeric myosin and desmin, markers for terminally differentiated cells. When transplanted in vivo, these pre-myogenically committed cells were viable in tibialis anterior muscles 14 days post-implantation. These hESC-derived cells, which readily undergo myogenic differentiation in culture medium containing serum, could be a viable cell source for skeletal muscle repair and tissue engineering to ameliorate various muscle wasting diseases.

  19. Arrayed mutant haploid embryonic stem cell libraries facilitate phenotype-driven genetic screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Wang, Xue; Liu, Yufang; Zhang, Meili; Cai, Tao; Shen, Zhirong; Jia, Yuyan; Huang, Yue

    2017-12-15

    Forward genetic screens using mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells have identified genes required for numerous cellular processes. However, loss-of-function screens are more difficult to conduct in diploid cells because, in most cases, both alleles of a gene must be mutated to exhibit a phenotype. Recently, mammalian haploid ES cell lines were successfully established and applied to several recessive genetic screens. However, all these screens were performed in mixed pools of mutant cells and were mainly based on positive selection. In general, negative screening is not easy to apply to these mixed pools, although quantitative deep sequencing of mutagen insertions can help to identify some 'missing' mutants. Moreover, the interplay between different mutant cells in the mixed pools would interfere with the readout of the screens. Here, we developed a method for rapidly generating arrayed haploid mutant libraries in which the proportion of homozygous mutant clones can reach 85%. After screening thousands of individual mutant clones, we identified a number of novel factors required for the onset of differentiation in ES cells. A negative screen was also conducted to discover mutations conferring cells with increased sensitivity to DNA double-strand breaks induced by the drug doxorubicin. Both of these screens illustrate the value of this system. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Impact of Arachidonic Acid and the Leukotriene Signaling Pathway on Vasculogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Han; Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Becker, Sven; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into various kinds of cells, such as endothelial and hematopoietic cells. In addition, some evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes (LTs), which include the 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) family, can regulate endothelial cell differentiation. In the present study, the eicosanoid precursor arachidonic acid (AA) stimulated vasculogenesis of ES cells by increasing the number of fetal liver kinase-1+ vascular progenitor cells as well as vascular structures positive for platelet endothelial cell adhesion protein-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin. The stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the LT signaling pathway, 5-LOX-activating protein (FLAP), was blunted upon treatment with the FLAP inhibitors AM643 and REV5901. Vasculogenesis was significantly restored upon exogenous addition of LTs. Downstream of FLAP, the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) blocker U75302, the BLT2 receptor blocker LY255283 as well as the cysteinyl LT blocker BAY-u9773 inhibited vasculogenesis of ES cells. AA treatment of differentiating ES cells increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was not affected upon either FLAP or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Prevention of ROS generation by either the free radical scavengers vitamin E and N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870 downregulated vasculogenesis of ES cells and blunted the provasculogenic effect of AA. In summary, our data demonstrate that proinflammatory AA stimulates vasculogenesis of ES cells via the LT pathway by mechanisms involving ROS generation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Symmetry breaking, germ layer specification and axial organisation in aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Susanne C; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Balayo, Tina; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nowotschin, Sonja; Turner, David A; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are clonal populations derived from preimplantation mouse embryos that can be propagated in vitro and, when placed into blastocysts, contribute to all tissues of the embryo and integrate into the normal morphogenetic processes, i.e. they are pluripotent. However, although they can be steered to differentiate in vitro into all cell types of the organism, they cannot organise themselves into structures that resemble embryos. When aggregated into embryoid bodies they develop disorganised masses of different cell types with little spatial coherence. An exception to this rule is the emergence of retinas and anterior cortex-like structures under minimal culture conditions. These structures emerge from the cultures without any axial organisation. Here, we report that small aggregates of mESCs, of about 300 cells, self-organise into polarised structures that exhibit collective behaviours reminiscent of those that cells exhibit in early mouse embryos, including symmetry breaking, axial organisation, germ layer specification and cell behaviour, as well as axis elongation. The responses are signal specific and uncouple processes that in the embryo are tightly associated, such as specification of the anteroposterior axis and anterior neural development, or endoderm specification and axial elongation. We discuss the meaning and implications of these observations and the potential uses of these structures which, because of their behaviour, we suggest to call 'gastruloids'. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Phototransfection of mouse embryonic stem cells with plasmid DNA using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobakgale, Lebogang; Manoto, Sello Lebohang; Ombinda Lemboumba, Saturnin; Maaza, Malik; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2017-02-01

    Cellular manipulation by delivery of molecules into cells has been applied extensively in tissue engineering research for medical applications . The different molecular delivery techniques used range from viral and chemical agents to physical and electrical methods. Although successful in most studies, these techniques have inherent difficulties such as toxicity, unwanted genetic mutations and low reproducibility respectively. Literature recognizes pulsed lasers at femtosecond level to be most efficient in photonic interactions with biological material. As of late, laser pulses have been used for drug and DNA delivery into cells via transient optical perforation of the cellular membrane. Thus in this study, we design and construct an optical system coupled to a femtosecond laser for the purpose of phototransfection or insertion of plasmid DNA (pDNA) into cells using lasers. We used fluorescent green protein (pGFP) to transfect mouse embryonic stem cells as our model. Secondly, we applied fluorescence imaging to view the extent of DNA delivery using this method. We also assessed the biocompatibility of our system by performing molecular assays of the cells post irradiation using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

  3. Process Extension from Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neurons through Synthetic Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Daniel Devaud

    This thesis focuses on studying the extension of motor axons through synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) PEG hydrogels that have been modified with biochemical functionalities to render them more biologically relevant. Specifically, the research strategy is to encapsulate embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ESMNs) in synthetic PEG hydrogels crosslinked through three different chemistries providing three mechanisms for dynamically tuning material properties. First, a covalently crosslinked, enzymatically degradable hydrogel is developed and exploited to study the biophysical dynamics of axon extension and matrix remodeling. It is demonstrated that dispersed motor neurons require a battery of adhesive peptides and growth factors to maintain viability and extend axons while those in contact with supportive neuroglial cells do not. Additionally, cell-degradable crosslinker peptides and a soft modulus mimicking that of the spinal cord are requirements for axon extension. However, because local degradation of the hydrogel results in a cellular environment significantly different than that of the bulk, enzymatically degradable peptide crosslinkers were replaced with reversible covalent hydrazone bonds to study the effect of hydrogel modulus on axon extension. This material is characterized in detail and used to measure forces involved in axon extension. Finally, a hydrogel with photocleavable linkers incorporated into the network structure is exploited to explore motor axon response to physical channels. This system is used to direct the growth of motor axons towards co-cultured myotubes, resulting in the formation of an in vitro neural circuit.

  4. 3D imaging of Sox2 enhancer clusters in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Legant, Wesley R; Chen, Bi-Chang; Li, Li; Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D; Betzig, Eric; Tjian, Robert

    2014-12-24

    Combinatorial cis-regulatory networks encoded in animal genomes represent the foundational gene expression mechanism for directing cell-fate commitment and maintenance of cell identity by transcription factors (TFs). However, the 3D spatial organization of cis-elements and how such sub-nuclear structures influence TF activity remain poorly understood. Here, we combine lattice light-sheet imaging, single-molecule tracking, numerical simulations, and ChIP-exo mapping to localize and functionally probe Sox2 enhancer-organization in living embryonic stem cells. Sox2 enhancers form 3D-clusters that are segregated from heterochromatin but overlap with a subset of Pol II enriched regions. Sox2 searches for specific binding targets via a 3D-diffusion dominant mode when shuttling long-distances between clusters while chromatin-bound states predominate within individual clusters. Thus, enhancer clustering may reduce global search efficiency but enables rapid local fine-tuning of TF search parameters. Our results suggest an integrated model linking cis-element 3D spatial distribution to local-versus-global target search modalities essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription.

  5. Optimizing human embryonic stem cells differentiation efficiency by screening size-tunable homogenous embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Jongil; Park, Soon-Jung; Bae, Daekyeong; Chung, Hyung-Min; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are generally induced to differentiate by forming spherical structures termed embryoid bodies (EBs) in the presence of soluble growth factors. hEBs are generated by suspending small clumps of hESC colonies; however, the resulting hEBs are heterogeneous because this method lacks the ability to control the number of cells in individual EBs. This heterogeneity affects factors that influence differentiation such as cell-cell contact and the diffusion of soluble factors, and consequently, the differentiation capacity of each EB varies. Here, we fabricated size-tunable concave microwells to control the physical environment, thereby regulating the size of EBs formed from single hESCs. Defined numbers of single hESCs were forced to aggregate and generate uniformly sized EBs with high fidelity, and the size of the EBs was controlled using concave microwells of different diameters. Differentiation patterns in H9- and CHA15-hESCs were affected by EB size in both the absence and presence of growth factors. By screening EB size in the presence of various BMP4 concentrations, a two-fold increase in endothelial cell differentiation was achieved. Because each hESC line has unique characteristics, the findings of this study demonstrate that concave microwells could be used to screen different EB sizes and growth factor concentrations to optimize differentiation for each hESC line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trophoblast differentiation in embryoid bodies derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Dovzhenko, Oksana V; Durning, Maureen; Wegner, Frederick H; Thomson, James A; Golos, Thaddeus G

    2004-04-01

    Trophoblast differentiation and early placental development are essential for the establishment of pregnancy, yet these critical events are not readily investigated in human pregnancy. We used embryoid bodies (EBs) prepared from human embryonic stem (hES) cells as an in vitro model of early human development. The levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, and estradiol-17beta in medium from hES cell-derived EBs grown in suspension culture for 1 wk were higher than unconditioned culture medium or medium from undifferentiated hES cells or spontaneously differentiated hES cell colonies. EBs were explanted into Matrigel (MG) "rafts" and cultured for up to 53 d. During the first 7-10 d of three-dimensional growth in MG, small protrusions appeared on the outer surface of EBs, some of which subsequently extended into multicellular outgrowths. The secretion of hCG, progesterone, and estradiol-17beta began to increase on approximately d 20 of MG culture and remained dramatically elevated over the next 30 d. EBs maintained in suspension culture failed to demonstrate this elevation in hormone secretion. Suspension-cultured and MG-embedded EBs exhibited widespread expression of cytokeratins 7/8, demonstrating extensive epithelial differentiation as well as consistent hCG expression. We propose that hES cell-derived EBs may be a useful model for investigation of human trophoblast differentiation and placental morphogenesis.

  7. Three-dimensional epithelial tissues generated from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kyle J; Shamis, Yulia; Carlson, Mark W; Aberdam, Edith; Aberdam, Daniel; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2009-11-01

    The use of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells for tissue engineering may provide advantages over traditional sources of progenitor cells because of their ability to give rise to multiple cell types and their unlimited expansion potential. We derived cell populations with properties of ectodermal and mesenchymal cells in two-dimensional culture and incorporated these divergent cell populations into three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues. When grown in specific media and substrate conditions, two-dimensional cultures were enriched in cells (EDK1) with mesenchymal morphology and surface markers. Cells with a distinct epithelial morphology (HDE1) that expressed cytokeratin 12 and beta-catenin at cell junctions became the predominant cell type when EDK1 were grown on surfaces enriched in keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix proteins. When these cells were incorporated into the stromal and epithelial tissue compartments of 3D tissues, they generated multilayer epithelia similar to those generated with foreskin-derived epithelium and fibroblasts. Three-dimensional tissues demonstrated stromal cells with morphologic features of mature fibroblasts, type IV collagen deposition in the basement membrane, and a stratified epithelium that expressed cytokeratin 12. By deriving two distinct cell lineages from a common hES cell source to fabricate complex tissues, it is possible to explore environmental cues that will direct hES-derived cells toward optimal tissue form and function.

  8. Efficient Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Corneal Endothelial Cells by Directed Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L McCabe

    Full Text Available To generate human embryonic stem cell derived corneal endothelial cells (hESC-CECs for transplantation in patients with corneal endothelial dystrophies.Feeder-free hESC-CECs were generated by a directed differentiation protocol. hESC-CECs were characterized by morphology, expression of corneal endothelial markers, and microarray analysis of gene expression.hESC-CECs were nearly identical morphologically to primary human corneal endothelial cells, expressed Zona Occludens 1 (ZO-1 and Na+/K+ATPaseα1 (ATPA1 on the apical surface in monolayer culture, and produced the key proteins of Descemet's membrane, Collagen VIIIα1 and VIIIα2 (COL8A1 and 8A2. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed expression of all corneal endothelial pump transcripts. hESC-CECs were 96% similar to primary human adult CECs by microarray analysis.hESC-CECs are morphologically similar, express corneal endothelial cell markers and express a nearly identical complement of genes compared to human adult corneal endothelial cells. hESC-CECs may be a suitable alternative to donor-derived corneal endothelium.

  9. NO-β-catenin crosstalk modulates primitive streak formation prior to embryonic stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huawen; Keller, Kevin C; Martinez, Ivann K C; Geransar, Rose M; zur Nieden, Kai O; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Rancourt, Derrick E; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2012-11-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play a crucial role in bone formation in vivo. We sought to determine the temporal effect of NO on murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) under culture conditions that promote osteogenesis. Expression profiles of NO pathway members and osteoblast-specific markers were analyzed using appropriate assays. We found that NO was supportive of osteogenesis specifically during an early phase of in vitro development (days 3-5). Furthermore, ESCs stably overexpressing the inducible NO synthase showed accelerated and enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in bone explant cultures. To determine the role of NO in early lineage commitment, a stage in ESC differentiation equivalent to primitive streak formation in vivo, ESCs were transfected with a T-brachyury-GFP reporter. Expression levels of T-brachyury and one of its upstream regulators, β-catenin, the major effector in the canonical Wnt pathway, were responsive to NO levels in differentiating primitive streak-like cells. Our results indicate that NO may be involved in early differentiation through regulation of β-catenin and T-brachyury, controlling the specification of primitive-streak-like cells, which may continue through differentiation to later become osteoblasts.

  10. Microencapsulation technology: a powerful tool for integrating expansion and cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Serra

    Full Text Available The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i single cells, ii aggregates and iii immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors.The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration and high cell recovery yields (>70% after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics.Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks.This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications.

  11. Modeling Developmental and Tumorigenic Aspects of Trilateral Retinoblastoma via Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avior, Yishai; Lezmi, Elyad; Yanuka, Dorit; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2017-05-09

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide a platform for studying human development and understanding mechanisms underlying diseases. Retinoblastoma-1 (RB1) is a key regulator of cell cycling, of which biallelic inactivation initiates retinoblastoma, the most common congenital intraocular malignancy. We developed a model to study the role of RB1 in early development and tumor formation by generating RB1-null hESCs using CRISPR/Cas9. RB1 -/- hESCs initiated extremely large teratomas, with neural expansions similar to those of trilateral retinoblastoma tumors, in which retinoblastoma is accompanied by intracranial neural tumors. Teratoma analysis further revealed a role for the transcription factor ZEB1 in RB1-mediated ectoderm differentiation. Furthermore, RB1 -/- cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction similar to poorly differentiated retinoblastomas. Screening more than 100 chemotherapies revealed an RB1 -/- -specific cell sensitivity to carboplatin, exploiting their mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, our work provides a human pluripotent cell model for retinoblastoma and sheds light on developmental and tumorigenic roles of RB1. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells: The future for behavior genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eGerlai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  13. Integrating 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine into the Epigenomic Landscape of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulwach, Keith E.; Li, Xuekun; Li, Yujing; Song, Chun-Xiao; Han, Ji Woong; Kim, SangSung; Namburi, Sandeep; Hermetz, Karen; Kim, Julie J.; Rudd, M. Katharine; Yoon, Young-Sup; Ren, Bing; He, Chuan; Jin, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Covalent modification of DNA distinguishes cellular identities and is crucial for regulating the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The recent demonstration that 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) may be further modified to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in ES cells has revealed a novel regulatory paradigm to modulate the epigenetic landscape of pluripotency. To understand the role of 5-hmC in the epigenomic landscape of pluripotent cells, here we profile the genome-wide 5-hmC distribution and correlate it with the genomic profiles of 11 diverse histone modifications and six transcription factors in human ES cells. By integrating genomic 5-hmC signals with maps of histone enrichment, we link particular pluripotency-associated chromatin contexts with 5-hmC. Intriguingly, through additional correlations with defined chromatin signatures at promoter and enhancer subtypes, we show distinct enrichment of 5-hmC at enhancers marked with H3K4me1 and H3K27ac. These results suggest potential role(s) for 5-hmC in the regulation of specific promoters and enhancers. In addition, our results provide a detailed epigenomic map of 5-hmC from which to pursue future functional studies on the diverse regulatory roles associated with 5-hmC. PMID:21731508

  14. Cytotoxic Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by MTT Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of applications, there is a serious lack of information on the impact of the nanoparticles on human health and the environment. The present study was done to determine the range of dangerous concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticle and their effects on mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods: Iron oxide nanoparticles with less than 20 nanometers diameter were encapsulated by a PEG-phospholipid. The suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was prepared using the culture media and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Results: MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle s. Royan B1 cells were treated with medium containing different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60µg/ml of the iron oxide nanoparticle. Cell viability was determined at 12 and 24 hours after treatment which showed significant decreases when concentration and time period increased. Conclusion: The main mechanism of nanoparticles action is still unknown, but in vivo and in vitro studies in different environments suggest that they are capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, they may have an effect on the concentration of intracellular calcium, activation of transcription factors, and changes in cytokine. The results of this study show that the higher concentration and duration of treatment of cells with iron oxide nanoparticles increase the rate of cell death.

  15. Reprogramming factors involved in hybrids and cybrids of human embryonic stem cells fused with hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jitong; Tecirlioglu, R Tayfur; Nguyen, Linh; Koh, Karen; Jenkin, Graham; Trounson, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to reprogram somatic cells into ESC-like cells through cell fusion. In the present study, the potential of human (h)ESC cytoplasts and karyoplasts to reprogram human hepatocytes was evaluated. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) transfected hESCs (ENVY cells) were fused with SNARF-1 (CellTracker)-labeled human hepatocytes using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to produce hESC-hepatocyte hybrids. Immunocytochemical analysis of ESC markers showed that the hybrids expressed OCT4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA-4, and GCTM-2. However, SSEA-1, which is typically low or absent on hESCs, was detected on hESC–hepatocyte hybrids. Moreover, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that alpha-fetoprotein, which is highly expressed in hepatocytes, was erased in the hybrids. These results indicated that hESCs have the potential to reprogram hepatocyte phenotype to a relatively undifferentiated state, but such hybrid cells are not identical to hESCs. Although hESC–hepatocyte hybrids were aneuploid, they were able to differentiate into embryoid bodies and some types of somatic cells. Furthermore, cybrids of enucleated hESCs and hepatocytes were produced by cell fusion, but the cybrids were unable to self-renew in the same way as hESCs. Presumably, the reprogramming factors are associated with the karyoplast and not the cytoplast of hESCs.

  16. Attenuated Innate Immunity in Embryonic Stem Cells and Its Implications in Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Lin; Carmichael, Gordon G; Wang, Ruoxing; Hong, Xiaoxiao; Acharya, Dhiraj; Huang, Faqing; Bai, Fengwei

    2015-11-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Intensive research over the past 2 decades has led to the feasibility of using ESC-differentiated cells (ESC-DCs) in regenerative medicine. However, increasing evidence indicates that ESC-DCs generated by current differentiation methods may not have equivalent cellular functions to their in vivo counterparts. Recent studies have revealed that both human and mouse ESCs as well as some types of ESC-DCs lack or have attenuated innate immune responses to a wide range of infectious agents. These findings raise important concerns for their therapeutic applications since ESC-DCs, when implanted to a wound site of a patient, where they would likely be exposed to pathogens and inflammatory cytokines. Understanding whether an attenuated immune response is beneficial or harmful to the interaction between host and grafted cells becomes an important issue for ESC-based therapy. A substantial amount of recent evidence has demonstrated that the lack of innate antiviral responses is a common feature to ESCs and other types of pluripotent cells. This has led to the hypothesis that mammals may have adapted different antiviral mechanisms at different stages of organismal development. The underdeveloped innate immunity represents a unique and uncharacterized property of ESCs that may have important implications in developmental biology, immunology, and in regenerative medicine. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  17. CrxOS maintains the self-renewal capacity of murine embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Ryota; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Nagai, Yoko; Wu, Jinzhan; Kajiho, Hiroaki; Yokoi, Tadashi; Noda, Eiichiro; Nishina, Sachiko; Niwa, Hitoshi; Azuma, Noriyuki; Katada, Toshiaki; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells maintain pluripotency by self-renewal. Several homeoproteins, including Oct3/4 and Nanog, are known to be key factors in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of ES cells. However, other genes required for the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Here we report the identification by in silico analysis of a homeobox-containing gene, CrxOS, that is specifically expressed in murine ES cells and is essential for their self-renewal. ES cells mainly express the short isoform of endogenous CrxOS. Using a polyoma-based episomal expression system, we demonstrate that overexpression of the CrxOS short isoform is sufficient for maintaining the undifferentiated morphology of ES cells and stimulating their proliferation. Finally, using RNA interference, we show that CrxOS is essential for the self-renewal of ES cells, and provisionally identify foxD3 as a downstream target gene of CrxOS. To our knowledge, ours is the first delineation of the physiological role of CrxOS in ES cells.

  18. Function of FEZF1 during early neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Su, Pei; Lu, Lisha; Feng, Zicen; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiaxi

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development. FEZF1 is rapidly up-regulated during neural differentiation in hESCs and expressed before PAX6, a well-established marker of early human neural induction. We generated FEZF1-knockout H1 hESC lines using CRISPR-CAS9 technology and found that depletion of FEZF1 abrogates neural differentiation of hESCs. Moreover, loss of FEZF1 impairs the pluripotency exit of hESCs during neural specification, which partially explains the neural induction defect caused by FEZF1 deletion. However, enforced expression of FEZF1 itself fails to drive neural differentiation in hESCs, suggesting that FEZF1 is necessary but not sufficient for neural differentiation from hESCs. Taken together, our findings identify one of the earliest regulators expressed upon neural induction and provide insight into early neural development in human.

  19. Alternative splicing in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cardiac precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Salomonis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors were used to identify splice isoforms with cardiac-restricted or common cardiac/neural differentiation expression patterns. Splice events for these groups corresponded to the pathways of cytoskeletal remodeling, RNA splicing, muscle specification, and cell cycle checkpoint control as well as genes with serine/threonine kinase and helicase activity. Using a new program named AltAnalyze (http://www.AltAnalyze.org, we identified novel changes in protein domain and microRNA binding site architecture that were predicted to affect protein function and expression. These included an enrichment of splice isoforms that oppose cell-cycle arrest in hESCs and that promote calcium signaling and cardiac development in cardiac precursors. By combining genome-wide predictions of alternative splicing with new functional annotations, our data suggest potential mechanisms that may influence lineage commitment and hESC maintenance at the level of specific splice isoforms and microRNA regulation.

  20. Viral single-strand DNA induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Hirsch

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication.