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Sample records for transmembrane domain interactions

  1. Trimeric transmembrane domain interactions in paramyxovirus fusion proteins: roles in protein folding, stability, and function.

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    Smith, Everett Clinton; Smith, Stacy E; Carter, James R; Webb, Stacy R; Gibson, Kathleen M; Hellman, Lance M; Fried, Michael G; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2013-12-13

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote membrane fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes, a critical early step in viral infection. Although mutational analyses have indicated that transmembrane (TM) domain residues can affect folding or function of viral fusion proteins, direct analysis of TM-TM interactions has proved challenging. To directly assess TM interactions, the oligomeric state of purified chimeric proteins containing the Staphylococcal nuclease (SN) protein linked to the TM segments from three paramyxovirus F proteins was analyzed by sedimentation equilibrium analysis in detergent and buffer conditions that allowed density matching. A monomer-trimer equilibrium best fit was found for all three SN-TM constructs tested, and similar fits were obtained with peptides corresponding to just the TM region of two different paramyxovirus F proteins. These findings demonstrate for the first time that class I viral fusion protein TM domains can self-associate as trimeric complexes in the absence of the rest of the protein. Glycine residues have been implicated in TM helix interactions, so the effect of mutations at Hendra F Gly-508 was assessed in the context of the whole F protein. Mutations G508I or G508L resulted in decreased cell surface expression of the fusogenic form, consistent with decreased stability of the prefusion form of the protein. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis of TM domains containing these mutations gave higher relative association constants, suggesting altered TM-TM interactions. Overall, these results suggest that trimeric TM interactions are important driving forces for protein folding, stability and membrane fusion promotion.

  2. Role of the transmembrane domain of FXYD7 in structural and functional interactions with Na,K-ATPase.

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    Li, Ciming; Crambert, Gilles; Thuillard, Delphine; Roy, Sophie; Schaer, Danièle; Geering, Käthi

    2005-12-30

    Members of the FXYD family are tissue-specific regulators of the Na,K-ATPase. Here, we have investigated the contribution of amino acids in the transmembrane (TM) domain of FXYD7 to the interaction with Na,K-ATPase. Twenty amino acids of the TM domain were replaced individually by tryptophan, and combined mutations and alanine insertion mutants were constructed. Wild type and mutant FXYD7 were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with Na,K-ATPase. Mutational effects on the stable association with Na,K-ATPase and on the functional regulation of Na,K-ATPase were determined by co-immunoprecipitation and two-electrode voltage clamp techniques, respectively. Most residues important for the structural and functional interaction of FXYD7 are clustered in a face of the TM helix containing the two conserved glycine residues, but others are scattered over two-thirds of the FXYD TM helix. Ile-35, Ile-43, and Ile-44 are only involved in the stable association with Na,K-ATPase. Glu-26, Met-30, and Ile-44 are important for the functional effect and/or the efficient association of FXYD7 with Na,K-ATPase, consistent with the prediction that these amino acids contact TM domain 9 of the alpha subunit (Li, C., Grosdidier, A., Crambert, G., Horisberger, J.-D., Michielin, O., and Geering, K. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 38895-38902). Several amino acids that are not implicated in the efficient association of FXYD7 with the Na,K-ATPase are specifically involved in the functional effect of FXYD7. Leu-32 and Phe-37 influence the apparent affinity for external K+, whereas Val-28 and Ile-42 are implicated in the apparent affinity for both external K+ and external Na+. These amino acids act in a synergistic way. These results highlight the important structural and functional role of the TM domain of FXYD7 and delineate the determinants that mediate the complex interactions of FXYD7 with Na,K-ATPase.

  3. Repositioning antimicrobial agent pentamidine as a disruptor of the lateral interactions of transmembrane domain 5 of EBV latent membrane protein 1.

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    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available The lateral transmembrane protein-protein interactions (PPI have been regarded as "undruggable" despite their importance in many essential biological processes. The homo-trimerization of transmembrane domain 5 (TMD-5 of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1 is critical for the constitutive oncogenic activation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Herein we repurpose the antimicrobial agent pentamidine as a regulator of LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. The results of ToxR assay, tryptophan fluorescence assay, courmarin fluorescence dequenching assay, and Bis-Tris sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE consistently show pentamidine disrupts LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. Furthermore, pentamidine inhibits LMP-1 signaling, inducing cellular apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation in the EBV infected B cells. In contrast, EBV negative cells are less susceptible to pentamidine. This study provides a novel non-peptide small molecule agent for regulating LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions.

  4. Molecular characterization of the gerbil C5a receptor and identification of a transmembrane domain V amino acid that is crucial for small molecule antagonist interaction.

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    Waters, Stephen M; Brodbeck, Robbin M; Steflik, Jeremy; Yu, Jianying; Baltazar, Carolyn; Peck, Amy E; Severance, Daniel; Zhang, Lu Yan; Currie, Kevin; Chenard, Bertrand L; Hutchison, Alan J; Maynard, George; Krause, James E

    2005-12-09

    Anaphylatoxin C5a is a potent inflammatory mediator associated with pathogenesis and progression of several inflammation-associated disorders. Small molecule C5a receptor (C5aR) antagonist development is hampered by species-specific receptor biology and the associated inability to use standard rat and mouse in vivo models. Gerbil is one rodent species reportedly responsive to small molecule C5aR antagonists with human C5aR affinity. We report the identification of the gerbil C5aR cDNA using a degenerate primer PCR cloning strategy. The nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a 347-amino acid protein. The cloned receptor (expressed in Sf9 cells) bound recombinant human C5a with nanomolar affinity. Alignment of the gerbil C5aR sequence with those from other species showed that a Trp residue in transmembrane domain V is the only transmembrane domain amino acid unique to small molecule C5aR antagonist-responsive species (i.e. gerbil, human, and non-human primate). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate human and mouse C5aRs with a residue exchange of this Trp residue. Mutation of Trp to Leu in human C5aR completely eliminated small molecule antagonist-receptor interaction. In contrast, mutation of Leu to Trp in mouse C5aR enabled small molecule antagonist-receptor interaction. This crucial Trp residue is located deeper within transmembrane domain V than residues reportedly involved in C5a- and cyclic peptide C5a antagonist-receptor interaction, suggesting a novel interaction site(s) for small molecule antagonists. These data provide insight into the basis for small molecule antagonist species selectivity and further define sites critical for C5aR activation and function.

  5. The interaction between the first transmembrane domain and the thumb of ASIC1a is critical for its N-glycosylation and trafficking.

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    Lan Jing

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channel-1a (ASIC1a, the primary proton receptor in the brain, contributes to multiple diseases including stroke, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. Thus, a better understanding of its biogenesis will provide important insights into the regulation of ASIC1a in diseases. Interestingly, ASIC1a contains a large, yet well organized ectodomain, which suggests the hypothesis that correct formation of domain-domain interactions at the extracellular side is a key regulatory step for ASIC1a maturation and trafficking. We tested this hypothesis here by focusing on the interaction between the first transmembrane domain (TM1 and the thumb of ASIC1a, an interaction known to be critical in channel gating. We mutated Tyr71 and Trp287, two key residues involved in the TM1-thumb interaction in mouse ASIC1a, and found that both Y71G and W287G decreased synaptic targeting and surface expression of ASIC1a. These defects were likely due to altered folding; both mutants showed increased resistance to tryptic cleavage, suggesting a change in conformation. Moreover, both mutants lacked the maturation of N-linked glycans through mid to late Golgi. These data suggest that disrupting the interaction between TM1 and thumb alters ASIC1a folding, impedes its glycosylation and reduces its trafficking. Moreover, reducing the culture temperature, an approach commonly used to facilitate protein folding, increased ASIC1a glycosylation, surface expression, current density and slowed the rate of desensitization. These results suggest that correct folding of extracellular ectodomain plays a critical role in ASIC1a biogenesis and function.

  6. A chimeric prokaryotic-eukaryotic pentameric ligand gated ion channel reveals interactions between the extracellular and transmembrane domains shape neurosteroid modulation.

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    Ghosh, Borna; Tsao, Tzu-Wei; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2017-10-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are the targets of several clinical and endogenous allosteric modulators including anesthetics and neurosteroids. Molecular mechanisms underlying allosteric drug modulation are poorly understood. Here, we constructed a chimeric pLGIC by fusing the extracellular domain (ECD) of the proton-activated, cation-selective bacterial channel GLIC to the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the human ρ1 chloride-selective GABA A R, and tested the hypothesis that drug actions are regulated locally in the domain that houses its binding site. The chimeric channels were proton-gated and chloride-selective demonstrating the GLIC ECD was functionally coupled to the GABAρ TMD. Channels were blocked by picrotoxin and inhibited by pentobarbital, etomidate and propofol. The point mutation, ρ TMD W328M, conferred positive modulation and direct gating by pentobarbital. The data suggest that the structural machinery mediating general anesthetic modulation resides in the TMD. Proton-activation and neurosteroid modulation of the GLIC-ρ chimeric channels, however, did not simply mimic their respective actions on GLIC and GABAρ revealing that across domain interactions between the ECD and TMD play important roles in determining their actions. Proton-induced current responses were biphasic suggesting that the chimeric channels contain an additional proton sensor. Neurosteroid modulation of the GLIC-ρ chimeric channels by the stereoisomers, 5α-THDOC and 5β-THDOC, were swapped compared to their actions on GABAρ indicating that positive versus negative neurosteroid modulation is not encoded solely in the TMD nor by neurosteroid isomer structure but is dependent on specific interdomain connections between the ECD and TMD. Our data reveal a new mechanism for shaping neurosteroid modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of the Structural Topology and Lipid Interactions of a Viral Fusion Protein Chimera Containing the Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain.

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    Yao, Hongwei; Lee, Myungwoon; Liao, Shu-Yu; Hong, Mei

    2016-12-13

    The fusion peptide (FP) and transmembrane domain (TMD) of viral fusion proteins play important roles during virus-cell membrane fusion, by inducing membrane curvature and transient dehydration. The structure of the water-soluble ectodomain of viral fusion proteins has been extensively studied crystallographically, but the structures of the FP and TMD bound to phospholipid membranes are not well understood. We recently investigated the conformations and lipid interactions of the separate FP and TMD peptides of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein F using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. These studies provide structural information about the two domains when they are spatially well separated in the fusion process. To investigate how these two domains are structured relative to each other in the postfusion state, when the ectodomain forms a six-helix bundle that is thought to force the FP and TMD together in the membrane, we have now expressed and purified a chimera of the FP and TMD, connected by a Gly-Lys linker, and measured the chemical shifts and interdomain contacts of the protein in several lipid membranes. The FP-TMD chimera exhibits α-helical chemical shifts in all the membranes examined and does not cause strong curvature of lamellar membranes or membranes with negative spontaneous curvature. These properties differ qualitatively from those of the separate peptides, indicating that the FP and TMD interact with each other in the lipid membrane. However, no 13 C- 13 C cross peaks are observed in two-dimensional correlation spectra, suggesting that the two helices are not tightly associated. These results suggest that the ectodomain six-helix bundle does not propagate into the membrane to the two hydrophobic termini. However, the loosely associated FP and TMD helices are found to generate significant negative Gaussian curvature to membranes that possess spontaneous positive curvature, consistent with the notion that the FP-TMD assembly may

  8. The ER membrane protein complex is a transmembrane domain insertase

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    Guna, Alina; Volkmar, Norbert; Christianson, John C.; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2018-01-01

    Insertion of proteins into membranes is an essential cellular process. The extensive biophysical and topological diversity of membrane proteins necessitates multiple insertion pathways that remain incompletely defined. Here, we found that known membrane insertion pathways fail to effectively engage tail-anchored membrane proteins with moderately hydrophobic transmembrane domains. These proteins are instead shielded in the cytosol by calmodulin. Dynamic release from calmodulin allowed sampling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) was shown to be essential for efficient insertion in vitro and in cells. Purified EMC in synthetic liposomes catalyzed insertion of its substrates in a reconstituted system. Thus, EMC is a transmembrane domain insertase, a function that may explain its widely pleiotropic membrane-associated phenotypes across organisms. PMID:29242231

  9. Molecular determinants of interactions between the N-terminal domain and the transmembrane core that modulate hERG K+ channel gating.

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    Jorge Fernández-Trillo

    Full Text Available A conserved eag domain in the cytoplasmic amino terminus of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG potassium channel is critical for its slow deactivation gating. Introduction of gene fragments encoding the eag domain are able to restore normal deactivation properties of channels from which most of the amino terminus has been deleted, and also those lacking exclusively the eag domain or carrying a single point mutation in the initial residues of the N-terminus. Deactivation slowing in the presence of the recombinant domain is not observed with channels carrying a specific Y542C point mutation in the S4-S5 linker. On the other hand, mutations in some initial positions of the recombinant fragment also impair its ability to restore normal deactivation. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET analysis of fluorophore-tagged proteins under total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF conditions revealed a substantial level of FRET between the introduced N-terminal eag fragments and the eag domain-deleted channels expressed at the membrane, but not between the recombinant eag domain and full-length channels with an intact amino terminus. The FRET signals were also minimized when the recombinant eag fragments carried single point mutations in the initial portion of their amino end, and when Y542C mutated channels were used. These data suggest that the restoration of normal deactivation gating by the N-terminal recombinant eag fragment is an intrinsic effect of this domain directed by the interaction of its N-terminal segment with the gating machinery, likely at the level of the S4-S5 linker.

  10. Structure of the transmembrane domain of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

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    Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a heavily glycosylated, type I membrane protein that mediates fusion of viral and cell membranes to initiate infection. It is also a primary target of neutralizing antibodies and thus an important candidate for vaccine development. We have recently reported a nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in a membrane-like environment. Taking HIV-1 as an example, we discuss here how a TM domain can anchor, stabilize, and modulate a viral envelope spike and how its high-resolution structure can contribute to understanding viral membrane fusion and to immunogen design. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor.

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    Vanessa Chantreau

    Full Text Available The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR. In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors.

  12. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

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    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  13. NMR-based approach to measure the free energy of transmembrane helix-helix interactions.

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    Mineev, Konstantin S; Lesovoy, Dmitry M; Usmanova, Dinara R; Goncharuk, Sergey A; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Bocharov, Eduard V; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the energetic parameters of transmembrane helix-helix interactions is necessary for the establishment of a structure-energy relationship for α-helical membrane domains. A number of techniques have been developed to measure the free energies of dimerization and oligomerization of transmembrane α-helices, and all of these have their advantages and drawbacks. In this study we propose a methodology to determine the magnitudes of the free energy of interactions between transmembrane helices in detergent micelles. The suggested approach employs solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the population of the oligomeric states of the transmembrane domains and introduces a new formalism to describe the oligomerization equilibrium, which is based on the assumption that both the dimerization of the transmembrane domains and the dissociation of the dimer can occur only upon the collision of detergent micelles. The technique has three major advantages compared with other existing approaches: it may be used to analyze both weak and relatively strong dimerization/oligomerization processes, it works well for the analysis of complex equilibria, e.g. when monomer, dimer and high-order oligomer populations are simultaneously present in the solution, and it can simultaneously yield both structural and energetic characteristics of the helix-helix interaction under study. The proposed methodology was applied to investigate the oligomerization process of transmembrane domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and vascular endothelium growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and allowed the measurement of the free energy of dimerization of both of these objects. In addition the proposed method was able to describe the multi-state oligomerization process of the VEGFR2 transmembrane domain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal bridges between the PhoQ sensor domain and the membrane regulate transmembrane signaling.

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    Cho, Uhn Soo; Bader, Martin W; Amaya, Maria F; Daley, Margaret E; Klevit, Rachel E; Miller, Samuel I; Xu, Wenqing

    2006-03-10

    Bacterial histidine kinases respond to environmental stimuli by transducing a signal from an extracytosolic sensor domain to a cytosolic catalytic domain. Among them, PhoQ promotes bacterial virulence and is tightly repressed by the divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. We have determined the crystal structure of the PhoQ sensor domain from Salmonella typhimurium in the Ca2+-bound state, which reveals a highly negatively charged surface that is in close proximity to the inner membrane. This acidic surface binds at least three Ca2+, which mediate the PhoQ-membrane interaction. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that structural integrity at the membrane proximal region of the PhoQ sensor domain promotes metal-mediated repression. We propose that depletion or displacement of divalent cations leads to charge repulsion between PhoQ and the membrane, which initiates transmembrane signaling through a change in orientation between the PhoQ sensor domain and membrane. Therefore, both PhoQ and the membrane are required for extracytosolic sensing and transmembrane signaling.

  15. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

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    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopox-viruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. PMID:23816434

  16. Differential transmembrane domain GXXXG motif pairing impacts major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II structure.

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    Dixon, Ann M; Drake, Lisa; Hughes, Kelly T; Sargent, Elizabeth; Hunt, Danielle; Harton, Jonathan A; Drake, James R

    2014-04-25

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules exhibit conformational heterogeneity, which influences their ability to stimulate CD4 T cells and drive immune responses. Previous studies suggest a role for the transmembrane domain of the class II αβ heterodimer in determining molecular structure and function. Our previous studies identified an MHC class II conformer that is marked by the Ia.2 epitope. These Ia.2(+) class II conformers are lipid raft-associated and able to drive both tyrosine kinase signaling and efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. Here, we establish that the Ia.2(+) I-A(k) conformer is formed early in the class II biosynthetic pathway and that differential pairing of highly conserved transmembrane domain GXXXG dimerization motifs is responsible for formation of Ia.2(+) versus Ia.2(-) I-A(k) class II conformers and controlling lipid raft partitioning. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the formation of two distinct MHC class II conformers that differ in their inherent ability to signal and drive robust T cell activation, providing new insight into the role of MHC class II in regulating antigen-presenting cell-T cell interactions critical to the initiation and control of multiple aspects of the immune response.

  17. The nectin-1α transmembrane domain, but not the cytoplasmic tail, influences cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Ravi P.; Dunn, Jennifer E.; Geraghty, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Nectin-1 is a receptor for herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and a cellular adhesion molecule. To study domains of nectin-1α involved in cell fusion, we measured the ability of nectin-1α/nectin-2α chimeras, nectin-1α/CD4 chimeras, and transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail mutants of nectin-1α to promote cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that only chimeras and mutants containing the entire V-like domain and a link to the plasma membrane conferred cell-fusion activity. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of nectin-1 were not required for any viral receptor or cell adhesion function tested. Cellular cytoplasmic factors that bind to the nectin-1α cytoplasmic tail, therefore, did not influence virus entry or cell fusion. Interestingly, the efficiency of cell fusion was reduced when membrane-spanning domains of nectin-1α and gD were replaced by glycosylphosphatidylinositol tethers, indicating that transmembrane domains may play a modulatory role in the gD/nectin-1α interaction in fusion

  18. Transmembrane domain quality control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

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    Briant, Kit; Johnson, Nicholas; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2017-01-01

    Multiple protein quality control systems operate to ensure that misfolded proteins are efficiently cleared from the cell. While quality control systems that assess the folding status of soluble domains have been extensively studied, transmembrane domain (TMD) quality control mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we have used chimeras based on the type I plasma membrane protein CD8 in which the endogenous TMD was substituted with transmembrane sequences derived from different polytopic membrane proteins as a mode to investigate the quality control of unassembled TMDs along the secretory pathway. We find that the three TMDs examined prevent trafficking of CD8 to the cell surface via potentially distinct mechanisms. CD8 containing two distinct non-native transmembrane sequences escape the ER and are subsequently retrieved from the Golgi, possibly via Rer1, leading to ER localisation at steady state. A third chimera, containing an altered transmembrane domain, was predominantly localised to the Golgi at steady state, indicating the existence of an additional quality control checkpoint that identifies non-native transmembrane domains that have escaped ER retention and retrieval. Preliminary experiments indicate that protein retained by quality control mechanisms at the Golgi are targeted to lysosomes for degradation.

  19. Single methyl groups can act as toggle switches to specify transmembrane protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Li; Steinocher, Helena; Shelar, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    of leucine and isoleucine (called LIL traptamers) that specifically activate the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in mouse cells to confer growth factor independence. We discovered that the placement of a single side chain methyl group at specific positions in a traptamer determined whether it associated......Transmembrane domains (TMDs) engage in protein-protein interactions that regulate many cellular processes, but the rules governing the specificity of these interactions are poorly understood. To discover these principles, we analyzed 26-residue model transmembrane proteins consisting exclusively...... productively with the TMD of the human EPOR, the mouse EPOR, or both receptors. Association of the traptamers with the EPOR induced EPOR oligomerization in an orientation that stimulated receptor activity. These results highlight the high intrinsic specificity of TMD interactions, demonstrate that a single...

  20. Recombinant expression in E. coli of human FGFR2 with its transmembrane and extracellular domains

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    Adam Bajinting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases containing three domains: an extracellular receptor domain, a single transmembrane helix, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs are activated by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs as part of complex signal transduction cascades regulating angiogenesis, skeletal formation, cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, and cancer. We have developed the first recombinant expression system in E. coli to produce a construct of human FGFR2 containing its transmembrane and extracellular receptor domains. We demonstrate that the expressed construct is functional in binding heparin and dimerizing. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that the purified FGFR2 does not form a complex with FGF1 or adopts an inactive dimer conformation. Progress towards the successful recombinant production of intact FGFRs will facilitate further biochemical experiments and structure determination that will provide insight into how extracellular FGF binding activates intracellular kinase activity.

  1. SAXS analysis of a soluble cytosolic NgBR construct including extracellular and transmembrane domains.

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    Joshua Holcomb

    Full Text Available The Nogo-B receptor (NgBR is involved in oncogenic Ras signaling through directly binding to farnesylated Ras. It recruits farnesylated Ras to the non-lipid-raft membrane for interaction with downstream effectors. However, the cytosolic domain of NgBR itself is only partially folded. The lack of several conserved secondary structural elements makes this domain unlikely to form a complete farnesyl binding pocket. We find that inclusion of the extracellular and transmembrane domains that contain additional conserved residues to the cytosolic region results in a well folded protein with a similar size and shape to the E.coli cis-isoprenyl transferase (UPPs. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS analysis reveals the radius of gyration (Rg of our NgBR construct to be 18.2 Å with a maximum particle dimension (Dmax of 61.0 Å. Ab initio shape modeling returns a globular molecular envelope with an estimated molecular weight of 23.0 kD closely correlated with the calculated molecular weight. Both Kratky plot and pair distribution function of NgBR scattering reveal a bell shaped peak which is characteristic of a single globularly folded protein. In addition, circular dichroism (CD analysis reveals that our construct has the secondary structure contents similar to the UPPs. However, this result does not agree with the currently accepted topological orientation of NgBR which might partition this construct into three separate domains. This discrepancy suggests another possible NgBR topology and lends insight into a potential molecular basis of how NgBR facilitates farnesylated Ras recruitment.

  2. Mutagenesis of Dengue Virus Protein NS2A Revealed a Novel Domain Responsible for Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effect and Interactions between NS2A and NS2B Transmembrane Segments.

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    Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Tian, Jia Ni; Wu, Jian-Sung; Wu, Su-Ying; Chern, Jyh-Haur; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yueh, Andrew

    2017-06-15

    The NS2A protein of dengue virus (DENV) has eight predicted transmembrane segments (pTMS1 to -8) and participates in RNA replication, virion assembly, and host antiviral response. However, the roles of specific amino acid residues within the pTMS regions of NS2A during the viral life cycle are not clear. Here, we explore the function of DENV NS2A by introducing a series of alanine substitutions into the N-terminal half (pTMS1 to -4) of the protein in the context of a DENV infectious clone or subgenomic replicon. Six NS2A mutants (NM5, -7, -9, and -17 to -19) around pTMS1 and -2 displayed a novel phenotype showing a >1,000-fold reduction in virus yield, an absence of plaque formation despite wild-type-like replicon activity, and infectious-virus-like particle yields. HEK-293 cells infected with the six NS2A mutant viruses failed to cause a virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) by MitoCapture staining, cell proliferation, and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Sequencing analyses of pseudorevertant viruses derived from lethal-mutant viruses revealed two consensus reversion mutations, leucine to phenylalanine at codon 181 (L181F) within pTMS7 of NS2A and isoleucine to threonine at codon 114 (I114T) within NS2B. The introduction of an NS2A-L181F mutation into the lethal (NM15, -16, -25, and -33) and CPE-defective (NM7, -9, and -19) mutants substantially rescued virus infectivity and virus-induced CPE, respectively, whereas the NS2B-L114T mutation rescued the NM16, -25, and -33 mutants. In conclusion, the results revealed the essential roles of the N-terminal half of NS2A in RNA replication and virus-induced CPE. Intramolecular interactions between pTMSs of NS2A and intermolecular interactions between the NS2A and NS2B proteins were also implicated. IMPORTANCE The characterization of the N-terminal (current study) and C-terminal halves of DENV NS2A is the most comprehensive mutagenesis study to date to investigate the function of NS2A during the flaviviral life cycle

  3. Residues in the hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain are critical for endocytic recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andreea; Carter, James R; Smith, Stacy E; Hellman, Lance; Fried, Michael G; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus classified as a biosafety level four agent. The fusion (F) protein of Hendra virus is critical for promoting viral entry and cell-to-cell fusion. To be fusogenically active, Hendra virus F must undergo endocytic recycling and cleavage by the endosomal/lysosomal protease cathepsin L, but the route of Hendra virus F following internalization and the recycling signals involved are poorly understood. We examined the intracellular distribution of Hendra virus F following endocytosis and showed that it is primarily present in Rab5- and Rab4-positive endosomal compartments, suggesting that cathepsin L cleavage occurs in early endosomes. Hendra virus F transmembrane domain (TMD) residues S490 and Y498 were found to be important for correct Hendra virus F recycling, with the hydroxyl group of S490 and the aromatic ring of Y498 important for this process. In addition, changes in association of isolated Hendra virus F TMDs correlated with alterations to Hendra virus F recycling, suggesting that appropriate TMD interactions play an important role in endocytic trafficking.

  4. Functional relevance of aromatic residues in the first transmembrane domain of P2X receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Vávra, Vojtěch; Obšil, Tomáš; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2009), s. 923-934 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011408; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : purinergic receptors * gating * transmembrane domain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  5. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels exhibit distinct transmembrane domain archetypes for folding/expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, J P Daniel; Baenziger, John E

    2017-03-27

    Although transmembrane helix-helix interactions must be strong enough to drive folding, they must still permit the inter-helix movements associated with conformational change. Interactions between the outermost M4 and adjacent M1 and M3 α-helices of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been implicated in folding and function. Here, we evaluate the role of different physical interactions at this interface in the function of two prokaryotic homologs, GLIC and ELIC. Strikingly, disruption of most interactions in GLIC lead to either a reduction or a complete loss of expression and/or function, while analogous disruptions in ELIC often lead to gains in function. Structural comparisons suggest that GLIC and ELIC represent distinct transmembrane domain archetypes. One archetype, exemplified by GLIC, the glycine and GABA receptors and the glutamate activated chloride channel, has extensive aromatic contacts that govern M4-M1/M3 interactions and that are essential for expression and function. The other archetype, exemplified by ELIC and both the nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors, has relatively few aromatic contacts that are detrimental to function. These archetypes likely have evolved different mechanisms to balance the need for strong M4 "binding" to M1/M3 to promote folding/expression, and the need for weaker interactions that allow for greater conformational flexibility.

  6. Residues within the Transmembrane Domain of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Involved in Ligand Binding and Receptor Activation: Modelling the Ligand-Bound Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, K.; Wallis, R.; Robb, G.; Brown, A. J. H.; Wilkinson, G. F.; Timms, D.

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminal regions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) bind to the N terminus of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), facilitating interaction of the ligand N terminus with the receptor transmembrane domain. In contrast, the agonist exendin-4 relies less on the transmembrane domain, and truncated antagonist analogs (e.g. exendin 9–39) may interact solely with the receptor N terminus. Here we used mutagenesis to explore the role of residues highly conserved in the predicted transmembrane helices of mammalian GLP-1Rs and conserved in family B G protein coupled receptors in ligand binding and GLP-1R activation. By iteration using information from the mutagenesis, along with the available crystal structure of the receptor N terminus and a model of the active opsin transmembrane domain, we developed a structural receptor model with GLP-1 bound and used this to better understand consequences of mutations. Mutation at Y152 [transmembrane helix (TM) 1], R190 (TM2), Y235 (TM3), H363 (TM6), and E364 (TM6) produced similar reductions in affinity for GLP-1 and exendin 9–39. In contrast, other mutations either preferentially [K197 (TM2), Q234 (TM3), and W284 (extracellular loop 2)] or solely [D198 (TM2) and R310 (TM5)] reduced GLP-1 affinity. Reduced agonist affinity was always associated with reduced potency. However, reductions in potency exceeded reductions in agonist affinity for K197A, W284A, and R310A, while H363A was uncoupled from cAMP generation, highlighting critical roles of these residues in translating binding to activation. Data show important roles in ligand binding and receptor activation of conserved residues within the transmembrane domain of the GLP-1R. The receptor structural model provides insight into the roles of these residues. PMID:21868452

  7. Cancer Research Advance in CKLF-like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain Containing Member Family (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia; Wu, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Kai-Hua; Pang, Bing-Xin; Li, Liang; Sun, Nan; Wang, Heng-Shu; Zhang, Song; Li, Wen-Jian; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a novel family of genes first reported at international level by Peking University Human Disease Gene Research Center. The gene products are between chemokines and the transmembrane-4 superfamily. Loaceted in several human chromosomes, CMTMs, which are unregulated in kinds of tumors, are potential tumor suppressor genes consisting of CKLF and CMTM1 to CMTM8. CMTMs play important roles in immune, male reproductive and hematopoietic systems. Also, it has been approved that CMTM family has strong connection with diseases of autoimmunity, haematopoietic system and haematopoietic system. The in-depth study in recent years found the close relation between CMTMs and umorigenesis, tumor development and metastasis. CMTM family has a significant clinical value in diagnosis and treatment to the diseases linking to tumor and immune system.

  8. [Research advances in CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye-qing; Xiao, Yun-bei; Liu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-wei; Xu, Tao; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2012-12-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member(CMTM)is a novel generic family firstly reported by Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics. CMTM5 belongs to this family and has exhibited tumor-inhibiting activities. It can encode proteins approaching to the transmembrane 4 superfamily(TM4SF). CMTM5 is broadly expressed in normal adult and fetal human tissues, but is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM5 may inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear, CMTM5 may be involved in various signaling pathways governing the occurrence and development of tumors. CMTM5 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors, while further studies on CMTM5 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  9. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikder, K. U.; Stone, K. A.; Kumar, P. B. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that mic...... that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.......We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find...

  10. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Md. Kabir Uddin; Stone, Kyle A.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Laradji, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. PMID:25106608

  11. Probing the interaction mechanisms between transmembrane peptides and the chaperonin GroEL with fluorescence anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Han; Lu, Xinwei; Chi, Haixia; Li, Shixin; Huang, Fang

    2018-04-01

    Proper translocation, membrane insertion and folding are crucial biophysical steps in the biogenesis of functional transmembrane peptides/proteins (TMPs). ATP-dependent chaperonins are able to regulate each of these processes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this work, interaction between the bacterial chaperonin GroEL and a synthetic fluorescent transmembrane peptide was investigated by fluorescence anisotropy. Binding of the peptide with GroEL resulted in increased fluorescence anisotropy and intensity. The dissociation constant and binding stoichiometry, as assessed by titration of the peptide with GroEL, were estimated to be 0.6 ± 0.2 μM and 2.96 ± 0.35, respectively. Complementary study with the single-ring version of GroEL confirmed the high-affinity peptide binding, and indicates that the two GroEL rings may function alternatively in binding the peptides. The co-chaperonin GroES was found to be effective at releasing the peptides initially bound to GroEL with the help of ATP. Moreover, our observation with the single-ring GroEL mutant demonstrated that during the encapsulation of GroEL by GroES, the bound peptides may either be confined in the cage thus formed, or escape outside. Competitive binding experiments indicated that the peptides studied interact with GroEL through the paired helices H and I on its apical domain. Our spectroscopic studies revealed some basic mechanisms of interaction between transmembrane peptides and GroEL, which would be instrumental for deciphering the chaperonin-mediated TMP biogenesis.

  12. Distinct neurobehavioural effects of cannabidiol in transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora E Long

    Full Text Available The cannabis constituent cannabidiol (CBD possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. We have previously shown that transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant (Nrg1 TM HET mice display altered neurobehavioural responses to the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ(9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Here we investigated whether Nrg1 TM HET mice respond differently to CBD and whether CBD reverses schizophrenia-related phenotypes expressed by these mice. Adult male Nrg1 TM HET and wild type-like littermates (WT received vehicle or CBD (1, 50 or 100 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days. During treatment and 48 h after withdrawal we measured behaviour, whole blood CBD concentrations and autoradiographic receptor binding. Nrg1 HET mice displayed locomotor hyperactivity, PPI deficits and reduced 5-HT(2A receptor binding density in the substantia nigra, but these phenotypes were not reversed by CBD. However, long-term CBD (50 and 100 mg/kg selectively enhanced social interaction in Nrg1 TM HET mice. Furthermore, acute CBD (100 mg/kg selectively increased PPI in Nrg1 TM HET mice, although tolerance to this effect was manifest upon repeated CBD administration. Long-term CBD (50 mg/kg also selectively increased GABA(A receptor binding in the granular retrosplenial cortex in Nrg1 TM HET mice and reduced 5-HT(2A binding in the substantia nigra in WT mice. Nrg1 appears necessary for CBD-induced anxiolysis since only WT mice developed decreased anxiety-related behaviour with repeated CBD treatment. Altered pharmacokinetics in mutant mice could not explain our findings since no genotype differences existed in CBD blood concentrations. Here we demonstrate that Nrg1 modulates acute and long-term neurobehavioural effects of CBD, which does not reverse the schizophrenia-relevant phenotypes.

  13. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  14. Inhibition of Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated cytotoxicity by targeting its transmembrane domain and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Moritz; Björkholm, Patrik; Hellwig, Andrea; Himmels, Patricia; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix; Ernst, Andreas M

    2015-07-09

    The high pathogenicity of the Ebola virus reflects multiple concurrent processes on infection. Among other important determinants, Ebola fusogenic glycoprotein (GP) has been associated with the detachment of infected cells and eventually leads to vascular leakage and haemorrhagic fever. Here we report that the membrane-anchored GP is sufficient to induce the detachment of adherent cells. The results show that the detachment induced through either full-length GP1,2 or the subunit GP2 depends on cholesterol and the structure of the transmembrane domain. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism in which GP regulates Ebola virus assembly and suggest that cholesterol-reducing agents could be useful as therapeutics to counteract GP-mediated cell detachment.

  15. Research Advances in CKLFSF-like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain Containing Member 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng-zhan; Sheng, Zheng-zuo; Qin, Cai-peng; Xu, Tao

    2016-06-10

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member/chemokine-like factor super family member (CKLFSF/CMTM) is a novel tumor suppressor gene. CMTM3 is broadly expressed in normal human tissues and evolutionary conserved,especially in testis,spleen,and some cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However,its expression is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM3 may inhibit the proliferation,migration,and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear,CKLFSF3/CMTM3 is closely connected with immune system and associated with sex during tumorigenesis. The study advances of CKLFSF3/CMTM3 are elaborated in this review as CMTM3 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors,especially genitourinary tumors,while further studies on CMTM3 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  16. Hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain contributes to pre-fusion protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stacy; Nagy, Tamas; Moseley, Hunter; Fried, Michael; Dutch, Rebecca

    2017-04-07

    Enveloped viruses utilize fusion (F) proteins studding the surface of the virus to facilitate membrane fusion with a target cell membrane. Fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is required for release of viral genomic material, so the virus can ultimately reproduce and spread. To drive fusion, the F protein undergoes an irreversible conformational change, transitioning from a metastable pre-fusion conformation to a more thermodynamically stable post-fusion structure. Understanding the elements that control stability of the pre-fusion state and triggering to the post-fusion conformation is important for understanding F protein function. Mutations in F protein transmembrane (TM) domains implicated the TM domain in the fusion process, but the structural and molecular details in fusion remain unclear. Previously, analytical ultracentrifugation was utilized to demonstrate that isolated TM domains of Hendra virus F protein associate in a monomer-trimer equilibrium (Smith, E. C., Smith, S. E., Carter, J. R., Webb, S. R., Gibson, K. M., Hellman, L. M., Fried, M. G., and Dutch, R. E. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 35726-35735). To determine factors driving this association, 140 paramyxovirus F protein TM domain sequences were analyzed. A heptad repeat of β-branched residues was found, and analysis of the Hendra virus F TM domain revealed a heptad repeat leucine-isoleucine zipper motif (LIZ). Replacement of the LIZ with alanine resulted in dramatically reduced TM-TM association. Mutation of the LIZ in the whole protein resulted in decreased protein stability, including pre-fusion conformation stability. Together, our data suggest that the heptad repeat LIZ contributed to TM-TM association and is important for F protein function and pre-fusion stability. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Tryptophan Scanning Reveals Dense Packing of Connexin Transmembrane Domains in Gap Junction Channels Composed of Connexin32*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Matthew J.; Karcz, Jennifer; Vaughn, Nicholas R.; Woolwine-Cunningham, Yvonne; DePriest, Adam D.; Escalona, Yerko; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Skerrett, I. Martha

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophan was substituted for residues in all four transmembrane domains of connexin32. Function was assayed using dual cell two-electrode voltage clamp after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Tryptophan substitution was poorly tolerated in all domains, with the greatest impact in TM1 and TM4. For instance, in TM1, 15 substitutions were made, six abolished coupling and five others significantly reduced function. Only TM2 and TM3 included a distinct helical face that lacked sensitivity to tryptophan substitution. Results were visualized on a comparative model of Cx32 hemichannel. In this model, a region midway through the membrane appears highly sensitive to tryptophan substitution and includes residues Arg-32, Ile-33, Met-34, and Val-35. In the modeled channel, pore-facing regions of TM1 and TM2 were highly sensitive to tryptophan substitution, whereas the lipid-facing regions of TM3 and TM4 were variably tolerant. Residues facing a putative intracellular water pocket (the IC pocket) were also highly sensitive to tryptophan substitution. Although future studies will be required to separate trafficking-defective mutants from those that alter channel function, a subset of interactions important for voltage gating was identified. Interactions important for voltage gating occurred mainly in the mid-region of the channel and focused on TM1. To determine whether results could be extrapolated to other connexins, TM1 of Cx43 was scanned revealing similar but not identical sensitivity to TM1 of Cx32. PMID:25969535

  18. Beyond anchoring: the expanding role of the hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain in protein folding, stability, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Culler, Megan R; Hellman, Lance M; Fried, Michael G; Creamer, Trevor P; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-03-01

    While work with viral fusion proteins has demonstrated that the transmembrane domain (TMD) can affect protein folding, stability, and membrane fusion promotion, the mechanism(s) remains poorly understood. TMDs could play a role in fusion promotion through direct TMD-TMD interactions, and we have recently shown that isolated TMDs from three paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins interact as trimers using sedimentation equilibrium (SE) analysis (E. C. Smith, et al., submitted for publication). Immediately N-terminal to the TMD is heptad repeat B (HRB), which plays critical roles in fusion. Interestingly, addition of HRB decreased the stability of the trimeric TMD-TMD interactions. This result, combined with previous findings that HRB forms a trimeric coiled coil in the prefusion form of the whole protein though HRB peptides fail to stably associate in isolation, suggests that the trimeric TMD-TMD interactions work in concert with elements in the F ectodomain head to stabilize a weak HRB interaction. Thus, changes in TMD-TMD interactions could be important in regulating F triggering and refolding. Alanine insertions between the TMD and HRB demonstrated that spacing between these two regions is important for protein stability while not affecting TMD-TMD interactions. Additional mutagenesis of the C-terminal end of the TMD suggests that β-branched residues within the TMD play a role in membrane fusion, potentially through modulation of TMD-TMD interactions. Our results support a model whereby the C-terminal end of the Hendra virus F TMD is an important regulator of TMD-TMD interactions and show that these interactions help hold HRB in place prior to the triggering of membrane fusion.

  19. Assessment of the transmembrane domain structures in GPCR Dock 2013 models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Haiguang; Duan, Yong

    2018-03-01

    The community-wide blind prediction of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) structures and ligand docking has been conducted three times and the quality of the models was primarily assessed by the accuracy of ligand binding modes. The seven transmembrane (TM) helices of the receptors were taken as a whole; thus the model quality within the 7TM domains has not been evaluated. Here we evaluate the 7TM domain structures in the models submitted for the last round of prediction - GPCR Dock 2013. Applying the 7 × 7 RMSD matrix analysis described in our prior work, we show that the models vary widely in prediction accuracy of the 7TM structures, exhibiting diverse structural differences from the targets. For the prediction of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, the top 7TM models are rather close to the targets, which however are not ranked top by ligand-docking. On the other hand, notable deviations of the TMs are found in in the previously identified top docking models that closely resemble other receptors. We further reveal reasons of success and failure in ligand docking for the models. This current assessment not only complements the previous assessment, but also provides important insights into the current status of GPCR modeling and ligand docking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystal structure of hormone-bound atrial natriuretic peptide receptor extracellular domain: rotation mechanism for transmembrane signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo; Qiu, Yue; Ogata, Craig M; Misono, Kunio S

    2004-07-02

    A cardiac hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), plays a major role in blood pressure and volume regulation. ANP activities are mediated by a single span transmembrane receptor carrying intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity. ANP binding to its extracellular domain stimulates guanylate cyclase activity by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here we report the crystal structure of dimerized extracellular hormone-binding domain in complex with ANP. The structural comparison with the unliganded receptor reveals that hormone binding causes the two receptor monomers to undergo an intermolecular twist with little intramolecular conformational change. This motion produces a Ferris wheel-like translocation of two juxtamembrane domains in the dimer with essentially no change in the interdomain distance. This movement alters the relative orientation of the two domains by a shift equivalent to counterclockwise rotation of each by 24 degrees. These results suggest that transmembrane signaling by the ANP receptor is initiated via a hormone-induced rotation mechanism.

  1. The HIV-1 envelope transmembrane domain binds TLR2 through a distinct dimerization motif and inhibits TLR2-mediated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Eliran Moshe; Ali, Mohammad; Rotem, Etai; Schwarzer, Roland; Schwarzter, Roland; Gramatica, Andrea; Futerman, Anthony H; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-08-01

    HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD) of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV) directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models. This was associated with decreased levels of ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of a conserved GxxxG motif in driving this interaction within the membrane milieu. The administration of the ENV TMD in vivo to lipotechoic acid (LTA)/Galactosamine-mediated septic mice resulted in a significant decrease in mortality and in tissue damage, due to the weakening of systemic macrophage activation. Our findings suggest that the TMD of ENV is involved in modulation of the innate immune response during HIV infection. Furthermore, due to the high functional homology of viral ENV proteins this function may be a general character of viral-induced immune modulation.

  2. The HIV-1 envelope transmembrane domain binds TLR2 through a distinct dimerization motif and inhibits TLR2-mediated responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliran Moshe Reuven

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models. This was associated with decreased levels of ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of a conserved GxxxG motif in driving this interaction within the membrane milieu. The administration of the ENV TMD in vivo to lipotechoic acid (LTA/Galactosamine-mediated septic mice resulted in a significant decrease in mortality and in tissue damage, due to the weakening of systemic macrophage activation. Our findings suggest that the TMD of ENV is involved in modulation of the innate immune response during HIV infection. Furthermore, due to the high functional homology of viral ENV proteins this function may be a general character of viral-induced immune modulation.

  3. Ethanol Modulation is Quantitatively Determined by the Transmembrane Domain of Human α1 Glycine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horani, Suzzane; Stater, Evan P; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Trudell, James R; Harris, R Adron; Howard, Rebecca J

    2015-06-01

    Mutagenesis and labeling studies have identified amino acids from the human α1 glycine receptor (GlyR) extracellular, transmembrane (TM), and intracellular domains in mediating ethanol (EtOH) potentiation. However, limited high-resolution structural data for physiologically relevant receptors in this Cys-loop receptor superfamily have made pinpointing the critical amino acids difficult. Homologous ion channels from lower organisms provide conserved models for structural and functional properties of Cys-loop receptors. We previously demonstrated that a single amino acid variant of the Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) produced EtOH and anesthetic sensitivity similar to that of GlyRs and provided crystallographic evidence for EtOH binding to GLIC. We directly compared EtOH modulation of the α1 GlyR and GLIC to a chimera containing the TM domain from human α1 GlyRs and the ligand-binding domain of GLIC using 2-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology of receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. EtOH potentiated α1 GlyRs in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of zinc-chelating agents, but did not potentiate GLIC at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The GLIC/GlyR chimera recapitulated the EtOH potentiation of GlyRs, without apparent sensitivity to zinc chelation. For chimera expression in oocytes, it was essential to suppress leakage current by adding 50 μM picrotoxin to the media, a technique that may have applications in expression of other ion channels. Our results are consistent with a TM mechanism of EtOH modulation in Cys-loop receptors. This work highlights the relevance of bacterial homologs as valuable model systems for studying ion channel function of human receptors and demonstrates the modularity of these channels across species. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Impact of the [delta]F508 Mutation in First Nucleotide-binding Domain of Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator on Domain Folding and Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Hal A.; Zhao, Xun; Wang, Chi; Sauder, J. Michael; Rooney, Isabelle; Noland, Brian W.; Lorimer, Don; Kearins, Margaret C.; Conners, Kris; Condon, Brad; Maloney, Peter C.; Guggino, William B.; Hunt, John F.; Emtage, Spencer (SG); (Columbia); (JHU)

    2010-07-19

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), commonly the deletion of residue Phe-508 (DeltaF508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which results in a severe reduction in the population of functional channels at the epithelial cell surface. Previous studies employing incomplete NBD1 domains have attributed this to aberrant folding of DeltaF508 NBD1. We report structural and biophysical studies on complete human NBD1 domains, which fail to demonstrate significant changes of in vitro stability or folding kinetics in the presence or absence of the DeltaF508 mutation. Crystal structures show minimal changes in protein conformation but substantial changes in local surface topography at the site of the mutation, which is located in the region of NBD1 believed to interact with the first membrane spanning domain of CFTR. These results raise the possibility that the primary effect of DeltaF508 is a disruption of proper interdomain interactions at this site in CFTR rather than interference with the folding of NBD1. Interestingly, increases in the stability of NBD1 constructs are observed upon introduction of second-site mutations that suppress the trafficking defect caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, suggesting that these suppressors might function indirectly by improving the folding efficiency of NBD1 in the context of the full-length protein. The human NBD1 structures also solidify the understanding of CFTR regulation by showing that its two protein segments that can be phosphorylated both adopt multiple conformations that modulate access to the ATPase active site and functional interdomain interfaces.

  5. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Transmission of integrin β7 transmembrane domain topology enables gut lymphoid tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Lagarrigue, Frederic; Gingras, Alexandre R; Fan, Zhichao; Ley, Klaus; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2018-04-02

    Integrin activation regulates adhesion, extracellular matrix assembly, and cell migration, thereby playing an indispensable role in development and in many pathological processes. A proline mutation in the central integrin β3 transmembrane domain (TMD) creates a flexible kink that uncouples the topology of the inner half of the TMD from the outer half. In this study, using leukocyte integrin α4β7, which enables development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we examined the biological effect of such a proline mutation and report that it impairs agonist-induced talin-mediated activation of integrin α4β7, thereby inhibiting rolling lymphocyte arrest, a key step in transmigration. Furthermore, the α4β7(L721P) mutation blocks lymphocyte homing to and development of the GALT. These studies show that impairing the ability of an integrin β TMD to transmit talin-induced TMD topology inhibits agonist-induced physiological integrin activation and biological function in development. © 2018 Sun et al.

  7. Molecular evolution of the transmembrane domains of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh N Fatakia

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are a superfamily of integral membrane proteins vital for signaling and are important targets for pharmaceutical intervention in humans. Previously, we identified a group of ten amino acid positions (called key positions, within the seven transmembrane domain (7TM interhelical region, which had high mutual information with each other and many other positions in the 7TM. Here, we estimated the evolutionary selection pressure at those key positions. We found that the key positions of receptors for small molecule natural ligands were under strong negative selection. Receptors naturally activated by lipids had weaker negative selection in general when compared to small molecule-activated receptors. Selection pressure varied widely in peptide-activated receptors. We used this observation to predict that a subgroup of orphan GPCRs not under strong selection may not possess a natural small-molecule ligand. In the subgroup of MRGX1-type GPCRs, we identified a key position, along with two non-key positions, under statistically significant positive selection.

  8. Relevance of lysine snorkeling in the outer transmembrane domain of small viral potassium ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Manuela; Henkes, Leonhard M; Tayefeh, Sascha; Hertel, Brigitte; Greiner, Timo; Van Etten, James L; Baumeister, Dirk; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Kast, Stefan M; Thiel, Gerhard

    2012-07-17

    Transmembrane domains (TMDs) are often flanked by Lys or Arg because they keep their aliphatic parts in the bilayer and their charged groups in the polar interface. Here we examine the relevance of this so-called "snorkeling" of a cationic amino acid, which is conserved in the outer TMD of small viral K(+) channels. Experimentally, snorkeling activity is not mandatory for Kcv(PBCV-1) because K29 can be replaced by most of the natural amino acids without any corruption of function. Two similar channels, Kcv(ATCV-1) and Kcv(MT325), lack a cytosolic N-terminus, and neutralization of their equivalent cationic amino acids inhibits their function. To understand the variable importance of the cationic amino acids, we reanalyzed molecular dynamics simulations of Kcv(PBCV-1) and N-terminally truncated mutants; the truncated mutants mimic Kcv(ATCV-1) and Kcv(MT325). Structures were analyzed with respect to membrane positioning in relation to the orientation of K29. The results indicate that the architecture of the protein (including the selectivity filter) is only weakly dependent on TMD length and protonation of K29. The penetration depth of Lys in a given protonation state is independent of the TMD architecture, which leads to a distortion of shorter proteins. The data imply that snorkeling can be important for K(+) channels; however, its significance depends on the architecture of the entire TMD. The observation that the most severe N-terminal truncation causes the outer TMD to move toward the cytosolic side suggests that snorkeling becomes more relevant if TMDs are not stabilized in the membrane by other domains.

  9. Partial agonism through a zinc-Ion switch constructed between transmembrane domains III and VII in the tachykinin NK(1) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2000-01-01

    -ion site located between AspIII:08-or a His residue introduced at this position in transmembrane domain (TM)-III-and a Cys residue substituted for AsnVII:06 in TM-VII. Here, this interhelical, bidentate metal-ion site is without loss of Zn(2+) affinity transferred to the tachykinin NK(1) receptor...... metal-ion binding residues located at positions III:08 and VII:06. It is suggested that only partial agonism is obtained through this simple well defined metal-ion coordination due to lack of proper interactions with residues also in TM-VI....

  10. Transmembrane START domain proteins: in silico identification, characterization and expression analysis under stress conditions in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, Viswanathan; Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tejkumar; Kumar, Vajinder; Jain, Pradeep K; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bhat, Shripad R; Srinivasan, R

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory related transfer (StART) proteins that are involved in transport of lipid molecules, play a myriad of functions in insects, mammals and plants. These proteins consist of a modular START domain of approximately 200 amino acids which binds and transfers the lipids. In the present study we have performed a genome-wide search for all START domain proteins in chickpea. The search identified 36 chickpea genes belonging to the START domain family. Through a phylogenetic tree reconstructed with Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean START proteins, we were able to identify four transmembrane START (TM-START) proteins in chickpea. These four proteins are homologous to the highly conserved mammalian phosphatidylcholine transfer proteins. Multiple sequence alignment of all the transmembrane containing START proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean revealed that the amino acid residues to which phosphatidylcholine binds in mammals, is also conserved in all these plant species, implying an important functional role and a very similar mode of action of all these proteins across dicots and monocots. This study characterizes a few of the not so well studied transmembrane START superfamily genes that may be involved in stress signaling. Expression analysis in various tissues showed that these genes are predominantly expressed in flowers and roots of chickpea. Three of the chickpea TM-START genes showed induced expression in response to drought, salt, wound and heat stress, suggesting their role in stress response.

  11. The Endocannabinoid System across Postnatal Development in Transmembrane Domain Neuregulin 1 Mutant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Chesworth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of cannabis is a well-established component risk factor for schizophrenia, particularly in adolescent individuals with genetic predisposition for the disorder. Alterations to the endocannabinoid system have been found in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we assessed whether molecular alterations exist in the endocannabinoid signalling pathway during brain development in a mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1. We analysed transcripts encoding key molecules of the endocannabinoid system in heterozygous transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant mice (Nrg1 TM HET, which is known to have increased sensitivity to cannabis exposure. Tissue from the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus of male and female Nrg1 TM HET mice and wild type-like littermates was collected at postnatal days (PNDs 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, and 161. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to assess mRNA levels of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R and enzymes for the synthesis and breakdown of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol [i.e., diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα, monoglyceride lipase (MGLL, and α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6]. No sex differences were found for any transcripts in either brain region; thus, male and female data were pooled. Hippocampal and cortical mRNA expression of DAGLα, MGLL, and ABHD6 increased until PND 21–35 and then decreased and stabilised for the rest of postnatal development. Hippocampal CB1R mRNA expression increased until PND 21 and decreased after this age. Expression levels of these endocannabinoid markers did not differ in Nrg1 TM HET compared to control mice at any time point. Here, we demonstrate dynamic changes in the developmental trajectory of several key endocannabinoid system transcripts in the mouse brain, which may correspond with periods of endocannabinoid system maturation. Nrg1 TM HET mutation did not alter the developmental trajectory of the

  12. The Endocannabinoid System across Postnatal Development in Transmembrane DomainNeuregulin 1Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesworth, Rose; Long, Leonora E; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Karl, Tim

    2018-01-01

    The use of cannabis is a well-established component risk factor for schizophrenia, particularly in adolescent individuals with genetic predisposition for the disorder. Alterations to the endocannabinoid system have been found in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we assessed whether molecular alterations exist in the endocannabinoid signalling pathway during brain development in a mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 ( Nrg1 ). We analysed transcripts encoding key molecules of the endocannabinoid system in heterozygous transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant mice ( Nrg1 TM HET), which is known to have increased sensitivity to cannabis exposure. Tissue from the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus of male and female Nrg1 TM HET mice and wild type-like littermates was collected at postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, and 161. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to assess mRNA levels of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 R) and enzymes for the synthesis and breakdown of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol [i.e., diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα), monoglyceride lipase (MGLL), and α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6)]. No sex differences were found for any transcripts in either brain region; thus, male and female data were pooled. Hippocampal and cortical mRNA expression of DAGLα, MGLL, and ABHD6 increased until PND 21-35 and then decreased and stabilised for the rest of postnatal development. Hippocampal CB 1 R mRNA expression increased until PND 21 and decreased after this age. Expression levels of these endocannabinoid markers did not differ in Nrg1 TM HET compared to control mice at any time point. Here, we demonstrate dynamic changes in the developmental trajectory of several key endocannabinoid system transcripts in the mouse brain, which may correspond with periods of endocannabinoid system maturation. Nrg1 TM HET mutation did not alter the developmental trajectory of the endocannabinoid

  13. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Christopher L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  14. A transmembrane polar interaction is involved in the functional regulation of integrin alpha L beta 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Chng, Choon-Peng; Parthasarathy, Krupakar; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Torres, Jaume; Tan, Suet-Mien

    2010-05-14

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane (TM) receptors formed by noncovalent associations of alpha and beta subunits. Each subunit contains a single alpha-helical TM domain. Inside-out activation of an integrin involves the separation of its cytoplasmic tails, leading to disruption of alphabeta TM packing. The leukocyte integrin alpha L beta 2 is required for leukocyte adhesion, migration, proliferation, cytotoxic function, and antigen presentation. In this study, we show by mutagenesis experiments that the packing of alpha L beta 2 TMs is consistent with that of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 TMs. However, molecular dynamics simulations of alpha L beta 2 TMs in lipids predicted a polar interaction involving the side chains of alpha L Ser1071 and beta2 Thr686 in the outer-membrane association clasp (OMC). This is supported by carbonyl vibrational shifts observed in isotope-labeled alpha L beta 2 TM peptides that were incorporated into lipid bilayers. Molecular dynamics studies simulating the separation of alpha L beta 2 tails showed the presence of polar interaction during the initial perturbation of the inner-membrane association clasp. When the TMs underwent further separation, the polar interaction was disrupted. OMC polar interaction is important in regulating the functions of beta2 integrins because mutations that disrupt the OMC polar interaction generated constitutively activated alpha L beta 2, alpha M beta 2, and alpha X beta 2 in 293T transfectants. We also show that the expression of mutant beta2 Thr686Gly in beta2-deficient T cells rescued cell adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, but the cells showed overt elongated morphologies in response to chemokine stromal-cell-derived factor 1 alpha treatment as compared to wild-type beta2-expressing cells. These two TM polar residues are totally conserved in other members of the beta2 integrins in humans and across different species. Our results provide an example of the stabilizing effect of polar

  15. Transmembrane Domain Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Impair Expression and Transport Activity of ABC Transporter ABCG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjostedt, N.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Kidron, H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the function and expression of nine naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G406R, F431L, S441N, P480L, F489L, M515R, L525R, A528T and T542A) that are predicted to reside in the transmembrane regions of the ABC transporter ABCG2. METHODS: The transport activity of the

  16. Identification of amino acids essential for estrone-3-sulfate transport within transmembrane domain 2 of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available As an important structure in membrane proteins, transmembrane domains have been found to be crucial for properly targeting the protein to cell membrane as well as carrying out transport functions in transporters. Computer analysis of OATP sequences revealed transmembrane domain 2 (TM2 is among those transmembrane domains that have high amino acid identities within different family members. In the present study, we identify four amino acids (Asp70, Phe73, Glu74, and Gly76 that are essential for the transport function of OATP1B1, an OATP member that is specifically expressed in the human liver. A substitution of these four amino acids with alanine resulted in significantly reduced transport activity. Further mutagenesis showed the charged property of Asp70 and Glu74 is critical for proper function of the transporter protein. Comparison of the kinetic parameters indicated that Asp70 is likely to interact with the substrate while Glu74 may be involved in stabilizing the binding site through formation of a salt-bridge. The aromatic ring structure of Phe73 seems to play an important role because substitution of Phe73 with tyrosine, another amino acid with a similar structure, led to partially restored transport function. On the other hand, replacement of Gly76 with either alanine or valine could not recover the function of the transporter. Considering the nature of a transmembrane helix, we proposed that Gly76 may be important for maintaining the proper structure of the protein. Interestingly, when subjected to transport function analysis of higher concentration of esteone-3-sulfate (50 µM that corresponds to the low affinity binding site of OATP1B1, mutants of Phe73, Glu74, and Gly76 all showed a transport function that is comparable to that of the wild-type, suggesting these amino acids may have less impact on the low affinity component of esteone-3-sulfate within OATP1B1, while Asp 70 seems to be involved in the interaction of both sites.

  17. DIMA 3.0: Domain Interaction Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qibin; Pagel, Philipp; Vilne, Baiba; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    Domain Interaction MAp (DIMA, available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/dima) is a database of predicted and known interactions between protein domains. It integrates 5807 structurally known interactions imported from the iPfam and 3did databases and 46,900 domain interactions predicted by four computational methods: domain phylogenetic profiling, domain pair exclusion algorithm correlated mutations and domain interaction prediction in a discriminative way. Additionally predictions are filtered to exclude those domain pairs that are reported as non-interacting by the Negatome database. The DIMA Web site allows to calculate domain interaction networks either for a domain of interest or for entire organisms, and to explore them interactively using the Flash-based Cytoscape Web software.

  18. The Antibodies against the Computationally Designed Mimic of the Glycoprotein Hormone Receptor Transmembrane Domain Provide Insights into Receptor Activation and Suppress the Constitutively Activated Receptor Mutants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ritankar; Railkar, Reema; Dighe, Rajan R.

    2012-01-01

    The exoloops of glycoprotein hormone receptors (GpHRs) transduce the signal generated by the ligand-ectodomain interactions to the transmembrane helices either through direct hormonal contact and/or by modulating the interdomain interactions between the hinge region (HinR) and the transmembrane domain (TMD). The ligand-induced conformational alterations in the HinRs and the interhelical loops of luteinizing hormone receptor/follicle stimulating hormone receptor/thyroid stimulating hormone receptor were mapped using exoloop-specific antibodies generated against a mini-TMD protein designed to mimic the native exoloop conformations that were created by joining the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor exoloops constrained through helical tethers and library-derived linkers. The antibody against the mini-TMD specifically recognized all three GpHRs and inhibited the basal and hormone-stimulated cAMP production without affecting hormone binding. Interestingly, binding of the antibody to all three receptors was abolished by prior incubation of the receptors with the respective hormones, suggesting that the exoloops are buried in the hormone-receptor complexes. The antibody also suppressed the high basal activities of gain-of-function mutations in the HinRs, exoloops, and TMDs such as those involved in precocious puberty and thyroid toxic adenomas. Using the antibody and point/deletion/chimeric receptor mutants, we demonstrate that changes in the HinR-exoloop interactions play an important role in receptor activation. Computational analysis suggests that the mini-TMD antibodies act by conformationally locking the transmembrane helices by means of restraining the exoloops and the juxta-membrane regions. Using GpHRs as a model, we describe a novel computational approach of generating soluble TMD mimics that can be used to explain the role of exoloops during receptor activation and their interplay with TMDs. PMID:22904318

  19. TMDIM: an improved algorithm for the structure prediction of transmembrane domains of bitopic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Han; Ng, Marcus C. K.; Jusoh, Siti Azma; Tai, Hio Kuan; Siu, Shirley W. I.

    2017-09-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins are the most important drug targets in rational drug development. However, solving the experimental structures of these proteins remains difficult, therefore computational methods to accurately and efficiently predict the structures are in great demand. We present an improved structure prediction method TMDIM based on Park et al. (Proteins 57:577-585, 2004) for predicting bitopic transmembrane protein dimers. Three major algorithmic improvements are introduction of the packing type classification, the multiple-condition decoy filtering, and the cluster-based candidate selection. In a test of predicting nine known bitopic dimers, approximately 78% of our predictions achieved a successful fit (RMSD MySQL and Apache, with all major browsers supported.

  20. Distinct pharmacology of rat and human histamine H3 receptors: role of two amino acids in the third transmembrane domain

    OpenAIRE

    Ligneau, X; Morisset, S; Tardivel-Lacombe, J; Gbahou, F; Ganellin, C R; Stark, H; Schunack, W; Schwartz, J -C; Arrang, J -M

    2000-01-01

    Starting from the sequence of the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R) cDNA, we have cloned the corresponding rat cDNA. Whereas the two deduced proteins show 93.5% overall homology and differ only by five amino acid residues at the level of the transmembrane domains (TMs), some ligands displayed distinct affinities. Thioperamide and ciproxifan were about 10 fold more potent at the rat than at the human receptor, whereas FUB 349 displayed a reverse preference. Histamine, (R)α-methylhistamine, pr...

  1. Tryptophan Residue Located at the Middle of Putative Transmembrane Domain 11 Is Critical for the Function of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jialin; Jin, Meng; Yue, Mei; Wang, Meiyu; Zhang, Hongjian; Gui, Chunshan

    2016-10-03

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1), which is highly expressed in enterocytes and hepatocytes could be a key determinant for the intestinal absorption and hepatic uptake of its substrates, most of which are amphipathic organic anions. Tryptophan residues may possess a multitude of functions for a transport protein through aromatic interactions, such as maintaining the proper protein structure, guiding the depth of membrane insertion, or interacting directly with substrates. There are totally six tryptophan residues in OATP2B1. However, little is known about their role in the function and expression of OATP2B1. Our results show that, while W272, W276, and W277 located at the border of extracellular loop 3 and transmembrane domain 6 exhibit a moderate effect on the surface expression of OATP2B1, W611 located at the middle of transmembrane domain 11 plays a critical role in the function of OATP2B1. The tryptophan-to-alanine mutation of W611 changes the kinetic characteristics of OATP2B1-mediated estrone-3-sulfate (E3S) transport radically, from a monophasic saturation curve (with K m and V max values being of 7.1 ± 1.1 μM and 182 ± 7 pmol/normalized mg/min, respectively) to a linear curve. Replacing alanine with a phenylalanine will rescue most of OATP2B1's function, suggesting that the aromatic side chain of residue 611 is very important. However, hydrogen-bond forming and positively charged groups at this position are not favorable. The important role of W611 is not substrate-dependent. Molecular modeling indicates that the side chain of W611 faces toward the substrate translocation pathway and might interact with substrates directly. Taken together, our findings reveal that W611 is critical for the function of OATP2B1.

  2. Transmembrane Domain Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Impair Expression and Transport Activity of ABC Transporter ABCG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Noora; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Kidron, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    To study the function and expression of nine naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G406R, F431L, S441N, P480L, F489L, M515R, L525R, A528T and T542A) that are predicted to reside in the transmembrane regions of the ABC transporter ABCG2. The transport activity of the variants was tested in inside-out membrane vesicles from Sf9 insect and human derived HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCG2. Lucifer Yellow and estrone sulfate were used as probe substrates of activity. The expression levels and cellular localization of the variants was compared to the wild-type ABCG2 by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. All studied variants of ABCG2 displayed markedly decreased transport in both Sf9-ABCG2 and HEK293-ABCG2 vesicles. Impaired transport could be explained for some variants by altered expression levels and cellular localization. Moreover, the destructive effect on transport activity of variants G406R, P480L, M515R and T542A is, to our knowledge, reported for the first time. These results indicate that the transmembrane region of ABCG2 is sensitive to amino acid substitution and that patients harboring these ABCG2 variant forms could suffer from unexpected pharmacokinetic events of ABCG2 substrate drugs or have an increased risk for diseases such as gout where ABCG2 is implicated.

  3. Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions with formal concept analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Khor

    Full Text Available Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains.

  4. Graph-Theoretic Models of Mutations in the Nucleotide Binding Domain 1 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra J. Knisley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common inherited diseases and is caused by a mutation in a membrane protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. This protein serves as a chloride channel and regulates the viscosity of mucus lining the ducts of a number of organs. Although much has been learned about the consequences of mutations on the energy landscape and the resulting disrupted folding pathway of CFTR, a level of understanding needed to correct the misfolding has not been achieved. The most common mutations of CFTR are located in one of two nucleotide binding domains, namely, the nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1. We model NBD1 using a nested graph model. The vertices in the lowest layer each represent an atom in the structure of an amino acid residue, while the vertices in the mid layer each represent the residue. The vertices in the top layer each represent a subdomain of the nucleotide binding domain. We use this model to quantify the effects of a single point mutation on the protein domain. We compare the wildtype structure with eight of the most common mutations. The graph-theoretic model provides insight into how a single point mutation can have such profound structural consequences.

  5. Figure 1. Prediction of ScHP1 transmembrane domains I to XIV. (http ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 2. Comparison of the ScHP1 amino acid sequence with H. +. -PPase from other species. The conserved domains GGG,. DVGADLVGKVE, DNVGDNVGD, EYYT and GNTTAA were found in the sequence alignment (shown in red boxes).

  6. Figure 1. Prediction of ScHP1 transmembrane domains I to XIV. (http ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    embnet.org/software/TMPRED_form.html). Page 2. Figure 2. Comparison of the ScHP1 amino acid sequence with H. +. -PPase from other species. The conserved domains GGG,. DVGADLVGKVE, DNVGDNVGD, EYYT and GNTTAA were found ...

  7. Amino-terminal domain of classic cadherins determines the specificity of the adhesive interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Troyanovsky, R B; Laur, O Y

    2000-01-01

    Classic cadherins are transmembrane receptors involved in cell type-specific calcium-dependent intercellular adhesion. The specificity of adhesion is mediated by homophilic interactions between cadherins extending from opposing cell surfaces. In addition, classic cadherins can self-associate form......Classic cadherins are transmembrane receptors involved in cell type-specific calcium-dependent intercellular adhesion. The specificity of adhesion is mediated by homophilic interactions between cadherins extending from opposing cell surfaces. In addition, classic cadherins can self....... To study lateral and adhesive intercadherin interactions, we examined interactions between two classic cadherins, E- and P-cadherins, in epithelial A-431 cells co-producing both proteins. We showed that these cells exhibited heterocomplexes consisting of laterally assembled E- and P....... The specificity of adhesive interaction was localized to the amino-terminal (EC1) domain of both cadherins. Thus, EC1 domain of classic cadherins exposes two determinants responsible for nonspecific lateral and cadherin type-specific adhesive dimerization....

  8. Biosynthesis and NMR-studies of a double transmembrane domain from the Y4 receptor, a human GPCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Chao [University of Zurich, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Switzerland); Naider, Fred [College of Staten Island, CUNY, Department of Chemistry (United States); Zerbe, Oliver [University of Zurich, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Switzerland)], E-mail: oliver.zerbe@oci.uzh.ch

    2008-12-15

    The human Y4 receptor, a class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) primarily targeted by the pancreatic polypeptide (PP), is involved in a large number of physiologically important functions. This paper investigates a Y4 receptor fragment (N-TM1-TM2) comprising the N-terminal domain, the first two transmembrane (TM) helices and the first extracellular loop followed by a (His){sub 6} tag, and addresses synthetic problems encountered when recombinantly producing such fragments from GPCRs in Escherichia coli. Rigorous purification and usage of the optimized detergent mixture 28 mM dodecylphosphocholine (DPC)/118 mM% 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG) resulted in high quality TROSY spectra indicating protein conformational homogeneity. Almost complete assignment of the backbone, including all TM residue resonances was obtained. Data on internal backbone dynamics revealed a high secondary structure content for N-TM1-TM2. Secondary chemical shifts and sequential amide proton nuclear Overhauser effects defined the TM helices. Interestingly, the properties of the N-terminal domain of this large fragment are highly similar to those determined on the isolated N-terminal domain in the presence of DPC micelles.

  9. Biosynthesis and NMR-studies of a double transmembrane domain from the Y4 receptor, a human GPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Naider, Fred; Zerbe, Oliver

    2008-12-01

    The human Y4 receptor, a class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) primarily targeted by the pancreatic polypeptide (PP), is involved in a large number of physiologically important functions. This paper investigates a Y4 receptor fragment (N-TM1-TM2) comprising the N-terminal domain, the first two transmembrane (TM) helices and the first extracellular loop followed by a (His)(6) tag, and addresses synthetic problems encountered when recombinantly producing such fragments from GPCRs in Escherichia coli. Rigorous purification and usage of the optimized detergent mixture 28 mM dodecylphosphocholine (DPC)/118 mM% 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG) resulted in high quality TROSY spectra indicating protein conformational homogeneity. Almost complete assignment of the backbone, including all TM residue resonances was obtained. Data on internal backbone dynamics revealed a high secondary structure content for N-TM1-TM2. Secondary chemical shifts and sequential amide proton nuclear Overhauser effects defined the TM helices. Interestingly, the properties of the N-terminal domain of this large fragment are highly similar to those determined on the isolated N-terminal domain in the presence of DPC micelles.

  10. Association of ADAM33 gene S1 and S2 transmembrane domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolanupaka Vijaya Laxmi

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... cellular processes. The autocatalytic removal of pro-domain region is the activation signal for ADAM proteins, which are presumed to have a critical role in cell adhesion, proliferation differentiation, signalling, apoptosis and inflammatory responses [16,17]. Overall substrate specificity and function.

  11. Long-chain GM1 gangliosides alter transmembrane domain registration through interdigitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manna, M.; Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara Monne, Hector; Gabius, H. J.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1859, č. 5 (2017), s. 870-878 ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : glycosphingolipid * cholesterol * membrane domain * membrane registry * molecular dynamics * computer simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  12. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis reveals distortions in the helical structure of the δM4 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Nunez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2012-01-01

    The lipid-protein interface is an important domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that has recently garnered increased relevance. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, there is still a need to gain insight into the mechanism by which lipid-protein interactions regulate the function and conformational transitions of the nAChR. In this study, we extended the tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (TrpScanM) approach to dissect secondary structure and monitor the conformational changes experienced by the δM4 transmembrane domain (TMD) of the Torpedo californica nAChR, and to identify which positions on this domain are potentially linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The difference in oscillation patterns between the closed- and open-channel states suggests a substantial conformational change along this domain as a consequence of channel activation. Furthermore, TrpScanM revealed distortions along the helical structure of this TMD that are not present on current models of the nAChR. Our results show that a Thr-Pro motif at positions 462-463 markedly bends the helical structure of the TMD, consistent with the recent crystallographic structure of the GluCl Cys-loop receptor which reveals a highly bent TMD4 in each subunit. This Thr-Pro motif acts as a molecular hinge that delineates two gating blocks in the δM4 TMD. These results suggest a model in which a hinge-bending motion that tilts the helical structure is combined with a spring-like motion during transition between the closed- and open-channel states of the δM4 TMD.

  13. Structure-Based Sequence Alignment of the Transmembrane Domains of All Human GPCRs: Phylogenetic, Structural and Functional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvicek, Vaclav; Goddard, William A.; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is undergoing a revolution due to increased information about their signaling and the experimental determination of structures for more than 25 receptors. The availability of at least one receptor structure for each of the GPCR classes, well separated in sequence space, enables an integrated superfamily-wide analysis to identify signatures involving the role of conserved residues, conserved contacts, and downstream signaling in the context of receptor structures. In this study, we align the transmembrane (TM) domains of all experimental GPCR structures to maximize the conserved inter-helical contacts. The resulting superfamily-wide GpcR Sequence-Structure (GRoSS) alignment of the TM domains for all human GPCR sequences is sufficient to generate a phylogenetic tree that correctly distinguishes all different GPCR classes, suggesting that the class-level differences in the GPCR superfamily are encoded at least partly in the TM domains. The inter-helical contacts conserved across all GPCR classes describe the evolutionarily conserved GPCR structural fold. The corresponding structural alignment of the inactive and active conformations, available for a few GPCRs, identifies activation hot-spot residues in the TM domains that get rewired upon activation. Many GPCR mutations, known to alter receptor signaling and cause disease, are located at these conserved contact and activation hot-spot residue positions. The GRoSS alignment places the chemosensory receptor subfamilies for bitter taste (TAS2R) and pheromones (Vomeronasal, VN1R) in the rhodopsin family, known to contain the chemosensory olfactory receptor subfamily. The GRoSS alignment also enables the quantification of the structural variability in the TM regions of experimental structures, useful for homology modeling and structure prediction of receptors. Furthermore, this alignment identifies structurally and functionally important residues in all human GPCRs

  14. Novel MBTPS2 missense mutation in the N-terminus transmembrane domain in a patient with ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kosuke; Wilkens, Alisha; Treat, James R; Pride, Howard B; Krantz, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome is an X-linked dominant condition characterized by the triad of ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia caused by mutations in the MBTPS2 gene. Herein we describe a proband with IFAP syndrome with mild cutaneous manifestations and a novel MBTPS2 mutation in the N-terminal transmembrane domain. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Partial agonism through a zinc-Ion switch constructed between transmembrane domains III and VII in the tachykinin NK(1) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2000-01-01

    -ion site located between AspIII:08-or a His residue introduced at this position in transmembrane domain (TM)-III-and a Cys residue substituted for AsnVII:06 in TM-VII. Here, this interhelical, bidentate metal-ion site is without loss of Zn(2+) affinity transferred to the tachykinin NK(1) receptor...

  16. More than 1,001 problems with protein domain databases: transmembrane regions, signal peptides and the issue of sequence homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Cheong Wong

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome sequencing gained general importance for life science because functional annotation of otherwise experimentally uncharacterized sequences is made possible by the theory of biomolecular sequence homology. Historically, the paradigm of similarity of protein sequences implying common structure, function and ancestry was generalized based on studies of globular domains. Having the same fold imposes strict conditions over the packing in the hydrophobic core requiring similarity of hydrophobic patterns. The implications of sequence similarity among non-globular protein segments have not been studied to the same extent; nevertheless, homology considerations are silently extended for them. This appears especially detrimental in the case of transmembrane helices (TMs and signal peptides (SPs where sequence similarity is necessarily a consequence of physical requirements rather than common ancestry. Thus, matching of SPs/TMs creates the illusion of matching hydrophobic cores. Therefore, inclusion of SPs/TMs into domain models can give rise to wrong annotations. More than 1001 domains among the 10,340 models of Pfam release 23 and 18 domains of SMART version 6 (out of 809 contain SP/TM regions. As expected, fragment-mode HMM searches generate promiscuous hits limited to solely the SP/TM part among clearly unrelated proteins. More worryingly, we show explicit examples that the scores of clearly false-positive hits, even in global-mode searches, can be elevated into the significance range just by matching the hydrophobic runs. In the PIR iProClass database v3.74 using conservative criteria, we find that at least between 2.1% and 13.6% of its annotated Pfam hits appear unjustified for a set of validated domain models. Thus, false-positive domain hits enforced by SP/TM regions can lead to dramatic annotation errors where the hit has nothing in common with the problematic domain model except the SP/TM region itself. We suggest a workflow of

  17. Domain Specific Languages for Interactive Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    This dissertation shows how domain specific languages may be applied to the domain of interactive Web services to obtain flexible, safe, and efficient solutions. We show how each of four key aspects of interactive Web services involving sessions, dynamic creation of HTML/XML documents, form field......, , that supports virtually all aspects of the development of interactive Web services and provides flexible, safe, and efficient solutions....

  18. Interaction of batrachotoxin with the local anesthetic receptor site in transmembrane segment IVS6 of the voltage-gated sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, N J; Cantrell, A R; Qu, Y; Scheuer, T; Catterall, W A

    1998-11-10

    The voltage-gated sodium channel is the site of action of more than six classes of neurotoxins and drugs that alter its function by interaction with distinct, allosterically coupled receptor sites. Batrachotoxin (BTX) is a steroidal alkaloid that binds to neurotoxin receptor site 2 and causes persistent activation. BTX binding is inhibited allosterically by local anesthetics. We have investigated the interaction of BTX with amino acid residues I1760, F1764, and Y1771, which form part of local anesthetic receptor site in transmembrane segment IVS6 of type IIA sodium channels. Alanine substitution for F1764 (mutant F1764A) reduces tritiated BTX-A-20-alpha-benzoate binding affinity, causing a 60-fold increase in Kd. Alanine substitution for I1760, which is adjacent to F1764 in the predicted IVS6 transmembrane alpha helix, causes only a 4-fold increase in Kd. In contrast, mutant Y1771A shows no change in BTX binding affinity. For wild-type and mutant Y1771A, BTX shifted the voltage for half-maximal activation approximately 40 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction and increased the percentage of noninactivating sodium current to approximately 60%. In contrast, these BTX effects were eliminated completely for the F1764A mutant and were reduced substantially for mutant I1760A. Our data suggest that the BTX receptor site shares overlapping but nonidentical molecular determinants with the local anesthetic receptor site in transmembrane segment IVS6 as well as having unique molecular determinants in transmembrane segment IS6, as demonstrated in previous work. Evidently, BTX conforms to a domain-interface allosteric model of ligand binding and action, as previously proposed for calcium agonist and antagonist drugs acting on L-type calcium channels.

  19. Reconstituting Protein Interaction Networks Using Parameter-Dependent Domain-Domain Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    that approximately 80% of eukaryotic proteins and 67% of prokaryotic proteins have multiple domains [13,14]. Most annotation databases characterize...domain annotations, Domain-domain interactions, Protein-protein interaction networks Background The living cell is a dynamic, interconnected system...detailed in Methods. Here, we illustrate its application on a well- annotated single- cell organism. We created a merged set of protein-domain annotations

  20. Transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase (TMPAP interacts with snapin and deficient mice develop prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana B Quintero

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying prostate carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, a prostatic epithelial secretion marker, has been linked to prostate cancer since the 1930's. However, the contribution of PAP to the disease remains controversial. We have previously cloned and described two isoforms of this protein, a secretory (sPAP and a transmembrane type-I (TMPAP. The goal in this work was to understand the physiological function of TMPAP in the prostate. We conducted histological, ultra-structural and genome-wide analyses of the prostate of our PAP-deficient mouse model (PAP(-/- with C57BL/6J background. The PAP(-/- mouse prostate showed the development of slow-growing non-metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. In order to find out the mechanism behind, we identified PAP-interacting proteins byyeast two-hybrid assays and a clear result was obtained for the interaction of PAP with snapin, a SNARE-associated protein which binds Snap25 facilitating the vesicular membrane fusion process. We confirmed this interaction by co-localization studies in TMPAP-transfected LNCaP cells (TMPAP/LNCaP cells and in vivo FRET analyses in transient transfected LNCaP cells. The differential gene expression analyses revealed the dysregulation of the same genes known to be related to synaptic vesicular traffic. Both TMPAP and snapin were detected in isolated exosomes. Our results suggest that TMPAP is involved in endo-/exocytosis and disturbed vesicular traffic is a hallmark of prostate adenocarcinoma.

  1. Interaction Sheaves on Continuous Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdou, J.; Keiding, Hans

    We introduce a description of the power structure which is inherent in a strategic game form using the concept of an interaction sheaf. The latter assigns to each open set of outcomes a set of interaction arrays, specifying the changes that coalitions can make if outcome belongs to this open set....

  2. C. elegans avoids toxin-producing Streptomyces using a seven transmembrane domain chemosensory receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Alan; Tang, Angelina; O'Loughlin, Colleen T; Balistreri, Anthony; Chang, Eric; Coto Villa, Doris; Li, Joy; Varshney, Aruna; Jimenez, Vanessa; Pyle, Jacqueline; Tsujimoto, Bryan; Wellbrook, Christopher; Vargas, Christopher; Duong, Alex; Ali, Nebat

    2017-01-01

    Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator?prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced...

  3. Long-chain GM1 gangliosides alter transmembrane domain registration through interdigitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manna, Moutusi; Javanainen, Matti; Monne, Hector Martinez Seara

    2017-01-01

    together. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we find that long-chain GM1 in the extracellular leaflet exhibits a strong tendency to protrude into the opposing bilayer leaflet. This interdigitation modulates the order in the cytosolic monolayer and thereby strengthens the interaction...... and coupling across a membrane. Coarse-grained simulations probing longer time scales in large membrane systems indicate that GM1 in the extracellular leaflet modulates the phase behavior in the cytosolic monolayer. While short-chain GM1 maintains phase-symmetric bilayers with a strong membrane registration...

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of P30, the transmembrane domain of pertactin, an autotransporter from Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yanshi; Black, Isobel; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Isaacs, Neil W., E-mail: n.isaacs@chem.gla.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry and WestChem, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    P30, the transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from B. pertussis has been crystallized after refolding in vitro. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic data are reported. P30, the 32 kDa transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from Bordetella pertussis, is supposed to form a β-barrel inserted into the outer membrane for the translocation of the passenger domain. P30 was cloned and expressed in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. After refolding and purification, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 292 K. The crystals diffract to a resolution limit of 3.5 Å using synchrotron radiation and belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.27, c = 134.43 Å.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of P30, the transmembrane domain of pertactin, an autotransporter from Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanshi; Black, Isobel; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2007-01-01

    P30, the transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from B. pertussis has been crystallized after refolding in vitro. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic data are reported. P30, the 32 kDa transmembrane C-terminal domain of pertactin from Bordetella pertussis, is supposed to form a β-barrel inserted into the outer membrane for the translocation of the passenger domain. P30 was cloned and expressed in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. After refolding and purification, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 292 K. The crystals diffract to a resolution limit of 3.5 Å using synchrotron radiation and belong to the hexagonal space group P6 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.27, c = 134.43 Å

  6. Two seven-transmembrane domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O proteins cofunction in Arabidopsis root thigmomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M

    2009-07-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane-localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gbeta subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism.

  7. Three-dimensional structures of the mammalian multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein demonstrate major conformational changes in the transmembrane domains upon nucleotide binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Callaghan, Richard; Higgins, Christopher F; Ford, Robert C

    2003-03-07

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that is associated with multidrug resistance and the failure of chemotherapy in human patients. We have previously shown, based on two-dimensional projection maps, that P-glycoprotein undergoes conformational changes upon binding of nucleotide to the intracellular nucleotide binding domains. Here we present the three-dimensional structures of P-glycoprotein in the presence and absence of nucleotide, at a resolution limit of approximately 2 nm, determined by electron crystallography of negatively stained crystals. The data reveal a major reorganization of the transmembrane domains throughout the entire depth of the membrane upon binding of nucleotide. In the absence of nucleotide, the two transmembrane domains form a single barrel 5-6 nm in diameter and about 5 nm deep with a central pore that is open to the extracellular surface and spans much of the membrane depth. Upon binding nucleotide, the transmembrane domains reorganize into three compact domains that are each 2-3 nm in diameter and 5-6 nm deep. This reorganization opens the central pore along its length in a manner that could allow access of hydrophobic drugs (transport substrates) directly from the lipid bilayer to the central pore of the transporter.

  8. A monoclonal antibody prevents aggregation of the NBD1 domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, V; Roesli, C; Ahlskog, J; Scheuermann, J; Neri, D

    2007-12-01

    The homozygous deletion of the phenylalanine at position 508 (DeltaPhe508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the most common CF-causing genetic defect. It has been proposed that the propensity of NBD1 to aggregate may lead to a lower display of the CFTR chloride channel to the cell membrane and to the disease, thus opening an avenue for the pharmacological development of CFTR folding correctors. Here, we show that a human monoclonal antibody fragment specific to the folded conformation of NBD1 inhibits the aggregation of NBD1 in vitro. However, in contrast to the previously published observations, we proved experimentally that NBD1 of wild-type and DeltaPhe508 version of CFTR display comparable propensities to aggregate in vitro and that the corresponding full-length CFTR protein reaches the cell membrane with comparable efficiency in mammalian cell expression systems. On the basis of our results, the 'folding defect' hypothesis seems unlikely to represent the causal mechanism for the pathogenesis of CF. A solid understanding of how the DeltaPhe508 deletion leads to the disease represents an absolute requirement for the development of effective drugs against CF.

  9. A cataract-causing connexin 50 mutant is mislocalized to the ER due to loss of the fourth transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraju Chalasani, Madhavi Latha; Muppirala, Madhavi; G Ponnam, Surya Prakash; Kannabiran, Chitra; Swarup, Ghanshyam

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the eye lens gap junction protein connexin 50 cause cataract. Earlier we identified a frameshift mutant of connexin 50 (c.670insA; p.Thr203AsnfsX47) in a family with autosomal recessive cataract. The mutant protein is smaller and contains 46 aberrant amino acids at the C-terminus after amino acid 202. Here, we have analysed this frameshift mutant and observed that it localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not in the plasma membrane. Moreover, overexpression of the mutant resulted in disintegration of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), reduction in the level of ERGIC-53 protein and breakdown of the Golgi in many cells. Overexpression of the frameshift mutant partially inhibited the transport of wild type connexin 50 to the plasma membrane. A deletion mutant lacking the aberrant sequence showed predominant localization in the ER and inhibited anterograde protein transport suggesting, therefore, that the aberrant sequence is not responsible for improper localization of the frameshift mutant. Further deletion analysis showed that the fourth transmembrane domain and a membrane proximal region (231-294 amino acids) of the cytoplasmic domain are needed for transport from the ER and localization to the plasma membrane. Our results show that a frameshift mutant of connexin 50 mislocalizes to the ER and causes disintegration of the ERGIC and Golgi. We have also identified a sequence of connexin 50 crucial for transport from the ER and localization to the plasma membrane.

  10. Characterization of the single transmembrane domain of human receptor activity-modifying protein 3 in adrenomedullin receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Nozaki, Naomi; Kato, Johji

    2012-04-13

    Two receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP2 and RAMP3) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) to function as two heterodimeric receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3) for adrenomedullin (AM), a potent cardiovascular protective peptide. Following AM stimulation, both receptors undergo rapid internalization through a clathrin-dependent pathway, after which CLR/RAMP3, but not CLR/RAMP2, can be recycled to the cell surface for resensitization. However, human (h)RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less efficiently than does hRAMP2. Therefore, the molecular basis of the single transmembrane domain (TMD) and the intracellular domain of hRAMP3 during AM receptor internalization was investigated by transiently transfecting various RAMP chimeras and mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCLR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that substituting the RAMP3 TMD with that of RAMP2 markedly enhanced AM-induced internalization of CLR. However, this replacement did not enhance the cell surface expression of CLR, [(125)I]AM binding affinity or AM-induced cAMP response. More detailed analyses showed that substituting the Thr(130)-Val(131) sequence in the RAMP3 TMD with the corresponding sequence (Ile(157)-Pro(158)) from RAMP2 significantly enhanced AM-mediated CLR internalization. In contrast, substituting the RAMP3 target sequence with Ala(130)-Ala(131) did not significantly affect CLR internalization. Thus, the RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization, and the aforementioned introduction of the Ile-Pro sequence into the RAMP3 TMD may be a strategy for promoting receptor internalization/resensitization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing protein 1 (Tmub1/HOPS facilitates surface expression of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjeong Yang

    Full Text Available Some ubiquitin-like (UBL domain-containing proteins are known to play roles in receptor trafficking. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs undergo constitutive cycling between the intracellular compartment and the cell surface in the central nervous system. However, the function of UBL domain-containing proteins in the recycling of the AMPARs to the synaptic surface has not yet been reported.Here, we report that the Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 1 (Tmub1 protein, formerly known as the Hepatocyte Odd Protein Shuttling (HOPS protein, which is abundantly expressed in the brain and which exists in a synaptosomal membrane fraction, facilitates the recycling of the AMPAR subunit GluR2 to the cell surface. Neurons transfected with Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi plasmids showed a significant reduction in the AMPAR current as compared to their control neurons. Consistently, the synaptic surface expression of GluR2, but not of GluR1, was significantly decreased in the neurons transfected with the Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi and increased in the neurons overexpressing EGFP-Tmub1/HOPS. The altered surface expression of GluR2 was speculated to be due to the altered surface-recycling of the internalized GluR2 in our recycling assay. Eventually, we found that GluR2 and glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP were coimmunoprecipitated by the anti-Tmub1/HOPS antibody from the mouse brain. Taken together, these observations show that the Tmub1/HOPS plays a role in regulating basal synaptic transmission; it contributes to maintain the synaptic surface number of the GluR2-containing AMPARs by facilitating the recycling of GluR2 to the plasma membrane.

  12. Chimeric Glutamate Receptor Subunits Reveal the Transmembrane Domain Is Sufficient for NMDA Receptor Pore Properties but Some Positive Allosteric Modulators Require Additional Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Timothy J; Lopez, Melany N; Huettner, James E

    2016-08-24

    NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that underlie transmission at excitatory synapses and play an important role in regulating synaptic strength and stability. Functional NMDA receptors require two copies of the GluN1 subunit coassembled with GluN2 (and/or GluN3) subunits into a heteromeric tetramer. A diverse array of allosteric modulators can upregulate or downregulate NMDA receptor activity. These modulators include both synthetic compounds and endogenous modulators, such as cis-unsaturated fatty acids, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and various neurosteroids. To evaluate the structural requirements for the formation and allosteric modulation of NMDA receptor pores, we have replaced portions of the rat GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits with homologous segments from the rat GluK2 kainate receptor subunit. Our results with these chimeric constructs show that the NMDA receptor transmembrane domain is sufficient to account for most pore properties, but that regulation by some allosteric modulators requires additional cytoplasmic or extracellular domains. Glutamate receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission by forming cation channels through the membrane that open upon glutamate binding. Although many compounds have been identified that regulate glutamate receptor activity, in most cases the detailed mechanisms that underlie modulation are poorly understood. To identify what parts of the receptor are essential for pore formation and sensitivity to allosteric modulators, we generated chimeric subunits that combined segments from NMDA and kainate receptors, subtypes with distinct pharmacological profiles. Surprisingly, our results identify separate domain requirements for allosteric potentiation of NMDA receptor pores by pregnenolone sulfate, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and docosahexaenoic acid, three endogenous modulators derived from membrane constituents. Understanding where and how these compounds act on NMDA receptors should aid in designing better

  13. Transmembrane Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (TMPAP) Interacts with Snapin and Deficient Mice Develop Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ileana B.; Herrala, Annakaisa M.; Araujo, César L.; Pulkka, Anitta E.; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Ovaska, Kristian; Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Ruuth, Maija K.; Soini, Ylermi; Sormunen, Raija T.; Khirug, Leonard; Vihko, Pirkko T.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying prostate carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), a prostatic epithelial secretion marker, has been linked to prostate cancer since the 1930's. However, the contribution of PAP to the disease remains controversial. We have previously cloned and described two isoforms of this protein, a secretory (sPAP) and a transmembrane type-I (TMPAP). The goal in this work was to understand the physiological function of TMPAP in the prostate. We conducted histological, ultra-structural and genome-wide analyses of the prostate of our PAP-deficient mouse model (PAP−/−) with C57BL/6J background. The PAP−/− mouse prostate showed the development of slow-growing non-metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. In order to find out the mechanism behind, we identified PAP-interacting proteins byyeast two-hybrid assays and a clear result was obtained for the interaction of PAP with snapin, a SNARE-associated protein which binds Snap25 facilitating the vesicular membrane fusion process. We confirmed this interaction by co-localization studies in TMPAP-transfected LNCaP cells (TMPAP/LNCaP cells) and in vivo FRET analyses in transient transfected LNCaP cells. The differential gene expression analyses revealed the dysregulation of the same genes known to be related to synaptic vesicular traffic. Both TMPAP and snapin were detected in isolated exosomes. Our results suggest that TMPAP is involved in endo-/exocytosis and disturbed vesicular traffic is a hallmark of prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:24039861

  14. Interaction of protein C inhibitor with the type II transmembrane serine protease enteropeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Prohaska

    Full Text Available The serine protease inhibitor protein C inhibitor (PCI is expressed in many human tissues and exhibits broad protease reactivity. PCI binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids, which modulate its inhibitory activity. Enteropeptidase (EP is a type II transmembrane serine protease mainly found on the brush border membrane of epithelial cells in the duodenum, where it activates trypsinogen to initiate the digestion of food proteins. Some active EP is also present in duodenal fluid and has been made responsible for causing pancreatitis in case of duodeno-pancreatic reflux. Together with its substrate trypsinogen, EP is furthermore present in the epidermis and in some cancer cells. In this report, we show that PCI inhibited EP with an apparent 2nd order rate constant of 4.48 × 10(4 M(-1 s(-1. Low molecular weight (LMWH and unfractionated heparin (UFH slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of PCI. The SI (stoichiometry of inhibition value for the inhibition of EP by PCI was 10.8 in the absence and 17.9 in the presence of UFH (10 U/ml. By inhibiting trypsin, chymotrypsin, and additionally EP, PCI might play a role in the protection of the pancreas from autodigestion. Furthermore the interaction of PCI with EP may influence the regulation of epithelial differentiation.

  15. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and (125)I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300-301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery.

  16. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  17. Characterization of the single transmembrane domain of human receptor activity-modifying protein 3 in adrenomedullin receptor internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@fc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka [Division of Circulation and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Nozaki, Naomi; Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less effectively than does RAMP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new strategy of promoting internalization and resensitization of the receptor was found. -- Abstract: Two receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP2 and RAMP3) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) to function as two heterodimeric receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3) for adrenomedullin (AM), a potent cardiovascular protective peptide. Following AM stimulation, both receptors undergo rapid internalization through a clathrin-dependent pathway, after which CLR/RAMP3, but not CLR/RAMP2, can be recycled to the cell surface for resensitization. However, human (h)RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less efficiently than does hRAMP2. Therefore, the molecular basis of the single transmembrane domain (TMD) and the intracellular domain of hRAMP3 during AM receptor internalization was investigated by transiently transfecting various RAMP chimeras and mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCLR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that substituting the RAMP3 TMD with that of RAMP2 markedly enhanced AM-induced internalization of CLR. However, this replacement did not enhance the cell surface expression of CLR, [{sup 125}I]AM binding affinity or AM-induced cAMP response. More detailed analyses showed that substituting the Thr{sup 130}-Val{sup 131} sequence in the RAMP3 TMD with the corresponding sequence (Ile{sup 157}-Pro{sup 158}) from RAMP2 significantly enhanced AM-mediated CLR internalization. In contrast, substituting the RAMP3 target sequence with Ala{sup 130}-Ala{sup 131} did not significantly affect CLR internalization. Thus, the RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization, and the aforementioned introduction of the Ile-Pro sequence into the RAMP3 TMD may be a

  18. Predicting domain-domain interaction based on domain profiles with feature selection and support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alvaro J; Liao, Li

    2010-10-29

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) plays essential roles in cellular functions. The cost, time and other limitations associated with the current experimental methods have motivated the development of computational methods for predicting PPIs. As protein interactions generally occur via domains instead of the whole molecules, predicting domain-domain interaction (DDI) is an important step toward PPI prediction. Computational methods developed so far have utilized information from various sources at different levels, from primary sequences, to molecular structures, to evolutionary profiles. In this paper, we propose a computational method to predict DDI using support vector machines (SVMs), based on domains represented as interaction profile hidden Markov models (ipHMM) where interacting residues in domains are explicitly modeled according to the three dimensional structural information available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Features about the domains are extracted first as the Fisher scores derived from the ipHMM and then selected using singular value decomposition (SVD). Domain pairs are represented by concatenating their selected feature vectors, and classified by a support vector machine trained on these feature vectors. The method is tested by leave-one-out cross validation experiments with a set of interacting protein pairs adopted from the 3DID database. The prediction accuracy has shown significant improvement as compared to InterPreTS (Interaction Prediction through Tertiary Structure), an existing method for PPI prediction that also uses the sequences and complexes of known 3D structure. We show that domain-domain interaction prediction can be significantly enhanced by exploiting information inherent in the domain profiles via feature selection based on Fisher scores, singular value decomposition and supervised learning based on support vector machines. Datasets and source code are freely available on the web at http

  19. Predicting domain-domain interaction based on domain profiles with feature selection and support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI plays essential roles in cellular functions. The cost, time and other limitations associated with the current experimental methods have motivated the development of computational methods for predicting PPIs. As protein interactions generally occur via domains instead of the whole molecules, predicting domain-domain interaction (DDI is an important step toward PPI prediction. Computational methods developed so far have utilized information from various sources at different levels, from primary sequences, to molecular structures, to evolutionary profiles. Results In this paper, we propose a computational method to predict DDI using support vector machines (SVMs, based on domains represented as interaction profile hidden Markov models (ipHMM where interacting residues in domains are explicitly modeled according to the three dimensional structural information available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Features about the domains are extracted first as the Fisher scores derived from the ipHMM and then selected using singular value decomposition (SVD. Domain pairs are represented by concatenating their selected feature vectors, and classified by a support vector machine trained on these feature vectors. The method is tested by leave-one-out cross validation experiments with a set of interacting protein pairs adopted from the 3DID database. The prediction accuracy has shown significant improvement as compared to InterPreTS (Interaction Prediction through Tertiary Structure, an existing method for PPI prediction that also uses the sequences and complexes of known 3D structure. Conclusions We show that domain-domain interaction prediction can be significantly enhanced by exploiting information inherent in the domain profiles via feature selection based on Fisher scores, singular value decomposition and supervised learning based on support vector machines. Datasets and source code are freely available on

  20. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kawelke

    Full Text Available Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2 and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity.

  1. One motif to bind them: A small-XXX-small motif affects transmembrane domain 1 oligomerization, function, localization, and cross-talk between two yeast GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Antonia; Forfar, Rachel; Weston, Cathryn; Bowsher, Leo; Upton, Graham J G; Reynolds, Christopher A; Ladds, Graham; Dixon, Ann M

    2014-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell-surface receptors in mammals and facilitate a range of physiological responses triggered by a variety of ligands. GPCRs were thought to function as monomers, however it is now accepted that GPCR homo- and hetero-oligomers also exist and influence receptor properties. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe GPCR Mam2 is a pheromone-sensing receptor involved in mating and has previously been shown to form oligomers in vivo. The first transmembrane domain (TMD) of Mam2 contains a small-XXX-small motif, overrepresented in membrane proteins and well-known for promoting helix-helix interactions. An ortholog of Mam2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2, contains an analogous small-XXX-small motif which has been shown to contribute to receptor homo-oligomerization, localization and function. Here we have used experimental and computational techniques to characterize the role of the small-XXX-small motif in function and assembly of Mam2 for the first time. We find that disruption of the motif via mutagenesis leads to reduction of Mam2 TMD1 homo-oligomerization and pheromone-responsive cellular signaling of the full-length protein. It also impairs correct targeting to the plasma membrane. Mutation of the analogous motif in Ste2 yielded similar results, suggesting a conserved mechanism for assembly. Using co-expression of the two fungal receptors in conjunction with computational models, we demonstrate a functional change in G protein specificity and propose that this is brought about through hetero-dimeric interactions of Mam2 with Ste2 via the complementary small-XXX-small motifs. This highlights the potential of these motifs to affect a range of properties that can be investigated in other GPCRs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Mutations in the Transmembrane Domain and Cytoplasmic Tail of Hendra Virus Fusion Protein Disrupt Virus-Like-Particle Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Sun, Weina; Ray, Greeshma; Schmitt, Phuong Tieu; Webb, Stacy; Gibson, Kathleen; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis; Schmitt, Anthony P

    2017-07-15

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes deadly illness in horses and humans. An intriguing feature of HeV is the utilization of endosomal protease for activation of the viral fusion protein (F). Here we investigated how endosomal F trafficking affects HeV assembly. We found that the HeV matrix (M) and F proteins each induced particle release when they were expressed alone but that their coexpression led to coordinated assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) that were morphologically and physically distinct from M-only or F-only VLPs. Mutations to the F protein transmembrane domain or cytoplasmic tail that disrupted endocytic trafficking led to failure of F to function with M for VLP assembly. Wild-type F functioned normally for VLP assembly even when its cleavage was prevented with a cathepsin inhibitor, indicating that it is endocytic F trafficking that is important for VLP assembly, not proteolytic F cleavage. Under specific conditions of reduced M expression, we found that M could no longer induce significant VLP release but retained the ability to be incorporated as a passenger into F-driven VLPs, provided that the F protein was competent for endocytic trafficking. The F and M proteins were both found to traffic through Rab11-positive recycling endosomes (REs), suggesting a model in which F and M trafficking pathways converge at REs, enabling these proteins to preassemble before arriving at plasma membrane budding sites. IMPORTANCE Hendra virus and Nipah virus are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that cause lethal infections in humans. Unlike that for most paramyxoviruses, activation of the henipavirus fusion protein occurs in recycling endosomal compartments. In this study, we demonstrate that the unique endocytic trafficking pathway of Hendra virus F protein is required for proper viral assembly and particle release. These results advance our basic understanding of the henipavirus assembly process and provide a novel model for the interplay between

  3. Modeling Transmembrane Domain Dimers/Trimers of Plexin Receptors: Implications for Mechanisms of Signal Transmission across the Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Polyansky, Anton; Buck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Single-pass transmembrane (TM) receptors transmit signals across lipid bilayers by helix association or by configurational changes within preformed dimers. The structure determination for such TM regions is challenging and has mostly been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. Recently, the computational prediction of TM dimer structures is becoming recognized for providing models, including alternate conformational states, which are important for receptor regulation. Here we pursued a strategy to predict helix oligomers that is based on packing considerations (using the PREDDIMER webserver) and is followed by a refinement of structures, utilizing microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We applied this method to plexin TM receptors, a family of 9 human proteins, involved in the regulation of cell guidance and motility. The predicted models show that, overall, the preferences identified by PREDDIMER are preserved in the unrestrained simulations and that TM structures are likely to be diverse across the plexin family. Plexin-B1 and –B3 TM helices are regular and tend to associate, whereas plexin-A1, -A2, –A3, -A4, -C1 and –D1 contain sequence elements, such as poly-Glycine or aromatic residues that distort helix conformation and association. Plexin-B2 does not form stable dimers due to the presence of TM prolines. No experimental structural information on the TM region is available for these proteins, except for plexin-C1 dimeric and plexin-B1 – trimeric structures inferred from X-ray crystal structures of the intracellular regions. Plexin-B1 TM trimers utilize Ser and Thr sidechains for interhelical contacts. We also modeled the juxta-membrane (JM) region of plexin-C1 and plexin-B1 and show that it synergizes with the TM structures. The structure and dynamics of the JM region and TM-JM junction provide determinants for the distance and distribution of the intracellular domains, and for their binding partners relative to the membrane. The structures

  4. Evolution of a protein domain interaction network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Feng, Gao; Jian-Jun, Shi; Shan, Guan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to understand complex network evolution from the underlying evolutionary relationship between biological organisms. Firstly, we construct a Pfam domain interaction network for each of the 470 completely sequenced organisms, and therefore each organism is correlated with a specific Pfam domain interaction network; secondly, we infer the evolutionary relationship of these organisms with the nearest neighbour joining method; thirdly, we use the evolutionary relationship between organisms constructed in the second step as the evolutionary course of the Pfam domain interaction network constructed in the first step. This analysis of the evolutionary course shows: (i) there is a conserved sub-network structure in network evolution; in this sub-network, nodes with lower degree prefer to maintain their connectivity invariant, and hubs tend to maintain their role as a hub is attached preferentially to new added nodes; (ii) few nodes are conserved as hubs; most of the other nodes are conserved as one with very low degree; (iii) in the course of network evolution, new nodes are added to the network either individually in most cases or as clusters with relative high clustering coefficients in a very few cases. (general)

  5. Navigation domain representation for interactive multiview imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugey, Thomas; Daribo, Ismael; Cheung, Gene; Frossard, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    Enabling users to interactively navigate through different viewpoints of a static scene is a new interesting functionality in 3D streaming systems. While it opens exciting perspectives toward rich multimedia applications, it requires the design of novel representations and coding techniques to solve the new challenges imposed by the interactive navigation. In particular, the encoder must prepare a priori a compressed media stream that is flexible enough to enable the free selection of multiview navigation paths by different streaming media clients. Interactivity clearly brings new design constraints: the encoder is unaware of the exact decoding process, while the decoder has to reconstruct information from incomplete subsets of data since the server generally cannot transmit images for all possible viewpoints due to resource constrains. In this paper, we propose a novel multiview data representation that permits us to satisfy bandwidth and storage constraints in an interactive multiview streaming system. In particular, we partition the multiview navigation domain into segments, each of which is described by a reference image (color and depth data) and some auxiliary information. The auxiliary information enables the client to recreate any viewpoint in the navigation segment via view synthesis. The decoder is then able to navigate freely in the segment without further data request to the server; it requests additional data only when it moves to a different segment. We discuss the benefits of this novel representation in interactive navigation systems and further propose a method to optimize the partitioning of the navigation domain into independent segments, under bandwidth and storage constraints. Experimental results confirm the potential of the proposed representation; namely, our system leads to similar compression performance as classical inter-view coding, while it provides the high level of flexibility that is required for interactive streaming. Because of

  6. Mutation G805R in the transmembrane domain of the LDL receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia by inducing ectodomain cleavage of the LDL receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Bismo Strøm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 1700 mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene have been found to cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. These are commonly divided into five classes based upon their effects on the structure and function of the LDLR. However, little is known about the mechanism by which mutations in the transmembrane domain of the LDLR gene cause FH. We have studied how the transmembrane mutation G805R affects the function of the LDLR. Based upon Western blot analyses of transfected HepG2 cells, mutation G805R reduced the amounts of the 120 kDa precursor LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This led to reduced amounts of the mature 160 kDa LDLR at the cell surface. However, significant amounts of a secreted 140 kDa G805R-LDLR ectodomain fragment was observed in the culture media. Treatment of the cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat largely restored the amounts of the 120 and 160 kDa forms in cell lysates, and prevented secretion of the 140 kDa ectodomain fragment. Together, these data indicate that a metalloproteinase cleaved the ectodomain of the 120 kDa precursor G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was the presence of the polar Arg805 and not the lack of Gly805 which led to ectodomain cleavage. Arg805 also prevented γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. It is conceivable that introducing a charged residue within the hydrophobic membrane lipid bilayer, results in less efficient incorporation of the 120 kDa G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and makes it a substrate for metalloproteinase cleavage.

  7. The transmembrane domain and acidic lipid flip-flop regulates voltage-dependent fusion mediated by class II and III viral proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben M Markosyan

    Full Text Available Voltage dependence of fusion induced by class II and class III viral fusion proteins was investigated. Class II proteins from Ross River and Sindbus virus and a mutant class III protein from Epstein Barr virus were found to induce cell-cell fusion that is voltage dependent. Combined with previous studies, in all, four class II and two class III protein have now been shown to exhibit voltage-dependent fusion, demonstrating that this is probably a general phenomenon for these two classes of viral fusion proteins. In the present study, monitoring fusion of pseudovirus expressing Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV G within endosomes shows that here, too, fusion is voltage dependent. This supports the claim that voltage dependence of fusion is biologically relevant and that cell-cell fusion reliably models the voltage dependence. Fusion induced by class I viral proteins is independent of voltage; chimeras expressing the ectodomain of a class I fusion protein and the transmembrane domain of VSV G could therefore be used to explore the location within the protein responsible for voltage dependence. Results showed that the transmembrane domain is the region associated with voltage dependence. Experiments in which cells were enriched with acidic lipids led to the conclusion that it is the flip-flop of acidic lipids that carries the charge responsible for the observed voltage dependence of fusion. This flip-flop occurred downstream of hemifusion, in accord with previous findings that the voltage dependent steps of fusion occur at a stage subsequent to hemifusion.

  8. Homophilic interactions mediated by receptor tyrosine phosphatases mu and kappa. A critical role for the novel extracellular MAM domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zondag, G C; Koningstein, G M; Jiang, Y P

    1995-01-01

    and is found in diverse transmembrane proteins, is not known. We previously reported that both RPTP mu and RPTP kappa can mediate homophilic cell interactions when expressed in insect cells. Here we show that despite their striking structural similarity, RPTP mu and RPTP kappa fail to interact...... in a heterophilic manner. To examine the role of the MAM domain in homophilic binding, we expressed a mutant RPTP mu lacking the MAM domain in insect Sf9 cells. Truncated RPTP mu is properly expressed at the cell surface but fails to promote cell-cell adhesion. Homophilic cell adhesion is fully restored...... in a chimeric RPTP mu molecule containing the MAM domain of RPTP kappa. However, this chimeric RPTP mu does not interact with either RPTP mu or RPTP kappa. These results indicate that the MAM domain of RPTP mu and RPTP kappa is essential for homophilic cell-cell interaction and helps determine the specificity...

  9. Role of the transmembrane domain of the VanT serine racemase in resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, C A; Peña, J; Panesso, D; Reynolds, P

    2003-03-01

    Enterococcus gallinarum BM4175 (a vancomycin-susceptible derivative of BM4174 obtained by insertional inactivation of vanC-1) was transformed with plasmid constructs pCA10 (containing the genes necessary for resistance, vanC-1-XYc-T), pJP1 (with a fragment lacking the DNA encoding the transmembrane region of VanT, -vanC-1-XYc-T((Delta))(2-322)-) and with plasmids containing fragments encoding either the transmembrane (mvanT(1-322)) or racemase (svanT(323-698)) domains of VanT under the control of a constitutive promoter. Accumulated peptidoglycan precursors were measured in all strains in the presence of L-Ser, D-Ser (50 mM) or in the absence of any growth supplement. Uptake of 0.1 mM L-[(14)C]serine was also determined in BM4174, BM4175 and BM4175/pCA10. Vancomycin resistance was restored in BM4175 transformed with pCA10(C-1-XYc-T), and the profile of peptidoglycan precursors was similar to wild-type E. gallinarum BM4174. Transformation of E. gallinarum BM4175 with plasmid pJP1(vanC-1-XYc-T((Delta))(2-322)) resulted in: (i) vancomycin MICs remaining within susceptible levels (VanT is likely to be involved in the transport of L-Ser, and that in its absence the resistance phenotype is compromised.

  10. The cytoplasmic domain close to the transmembrane region of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor contains sequence elements that regulate agonist-dependent internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Patricia; Roncero, Isabel; Blázquez, Enrique; Alvarez, Elvira

    2005-07-01

    In order to gain better insight into the molecular events involved in the signal transduction generated through glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors, we tested the effect of deletions and point mutations within the cytoplasmic tail of this receptor with a view to establishing relationships between signal transduction desensitisation and receptor internalisation. Wild-type and truncated (deletion of the last 27 amino acids (GLPR 435R) and deletion of 44 amino acids (GLPR 418R)) GLP-1 receptors bound the agonist with similar affinity. Deletion of the last 27 amino acids decreased the internalisation rate by 78%, while deletion of 44 amino acids containing all the phosphorylation sites hitherto described in this receptor decreased the internalisation rate by only 47%. Binding of the ligand to both receptors stimulated adenylyl cyclase. In contrast, deletion of the region containing amino acids 419 to 435 (GLPR 419delta435) increased the internalisation rate by 268%, and the replacement of EVQ(408-410) by alanine (GLPR A(408-410)) increased this process to 296%. In both receptors, the efficacy in stimulating adenylate cyclase was decreased. All the receptors studied were internalised by coated pits, except for the receptor with a deletion of the last 44 amino acids, which also had a faster resensitisation rate. Our findings indicate that the neighbouring trans-membrane domain of the carboxyl-terminal tail of the GLP-1 receptor contains sequence elements that regulate agonist-dependent internalisation and transmembrane signalling.

  11. Stabilization of a nucleotide-binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator yields insight into disease-causing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Robert M; Chong, P Andrew; Lin, Hong; Yang, Zhengrong; Zhou, Qingxian; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Dawson, Jennifer E; Riordan, John R; Brouillette, Christie G; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2017-08-25

    Characterization of the second nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has lagged behind research into the NBD1 domain, in part because NBD1 contains the F508del mutation, which is the dominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Research on NBD2 has also been hampered by the overall instability of the domain and the difficulty of producing reagents. Nonetheless, multiple disease-causing mutations reside in NBD2, and the domain is critical for CFTR function, because channel gating involves NBD1/NBD2 dimerization, and NBD2 contains the catalytically active ATPase site in CFTR. Recognizing the paucity of structural and biophysical data on NBD2, here we have defined a bioinformatics-based method for manually identifying stabilizing substitutions in NBD2, and we used an iterative process of screening single substitutions against thermal melting points to both produce minimally mutated stable constructs and individually characterize mutations. We present a range of stable constructs with minimal mutations to help inform further research on NBD2. We have used this stabilized background to study the effects of NBD2 mutations identified in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, demonstrating that mutants such as N1303K and G1349D are characterized by lower stability, as shown previously for some NBD1 mutations, suggesting a potential role for NBD2 instability in the pathology of CF. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigen α-Fetoprotein Is Enhanced by a Fusion with a Transmembrane Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vector to induce an immune response against a well-tolerated self-antigen. Methods. rMVA vectors expressing different form of α-fetoprotein (AFP were produced and characterized. Naïve mice were vaccinated with MVA vectors expressing the AFP antigen in either a secreted, or a membrane-bound, or an intracellular form. The immune response was monitored by an IFNΓ ELISpot assay and antibody detection. Results. Vaccination with the membrane-associated form of AFP induced a stronger CD8+ T-cell response compared to the ones obtained with the MVA encoding the secreted or the intracellular forms of AFP. Moreover, the vaccination with the membrane-bound AFP elicited the production of AFP-specific antibodies. Conclusions. The AFP transmembrane form is more immunogenic. Expressing a membrane-bound form in the context of an MVA vaccination could enhance the immunogenicity of a self-antigen.

  14. Simulation of the coupling between nucleotide binding and transmembrane domains in the ABC transporter BtuCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jacob; Kandt, C.; Peters, Günther H.j.

    2007-01-01

    binding domains and the shared role of ATP in ABC transporters. The rearrangements in the cytoplasmic gate region do not provide enough space for B12 to diffuse from the transporter pore into the cytoplasm, which could suggest that peristaltic forces are needed to exclude B12 from the transporter pore....

  15. Structural elucidation of transmembrane domain zero (TMD0) of EcdL: A multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein revealed by atomistic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Krishnendu; Rani, Priyanka; Kishor, Gaurav; Agarwal, Shikha; Kumar, Antresh; Singh, Durg Vijay

    2017-09-20

    ATP-Binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an extensive role in the translocation of diverse sets of biologically important molecules across membrane. EchnocandinB (antifungal) and EcdL protein of Aspergillus rugulosus are encoded by the same cluster of genes. Co-expression of EcdL and echinocandinB reflects tightly linked biological functions. EcdL belongs to Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) subfamily of ABC transporters with an extra transmembrane domain zero (TMD0). Complete structure of MRP subfamily comprising of TMD0 domain, at atomic resolution is not known. We hypothesized that the transportation of echonocandinB is mediated via EcdL protein. Henceforth, it is pertinent to know the topological arrangement of TMD0, with other domains of protein and its possible role in transportation of echinocandinB. Absence of effective template for TMD0 domain lead us to model by I-TASSER, further structure has been refined by multiple template modelling using homologous templates of remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2, NBD2). The modelled structure has been validated for packing, folding and stereochemical properties. MD simulation for 0.1 μs has been carried out in the biphasic environment for refinement of modelled protein. Non-redundant structures have been excavated by clustering of MD trajectory. The structural alignment of modelled structure has shown Z-score -37.9; 31.6, 31.5 with RMSD; 2.4, 4.2, 4.8 with ABC transporters; PDB ID 4F4C, 4M1 M, 4M2T, respectively, reflecting the correctness of structure. EchinocandinB has been docked to the modelled as well as to the clustered structures, which reveals interaction of echinocandinB with TMD0 and other TM helices in the translocation path build of TMDs.

  16. Domain-specific knowledge as playful interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Starting from reflections on designing games for learning, aimed at providing a tangible grounding to abstract knowledge, we designed Prime Slaughter, a game to support learning of factorisation and prime numbers, targeted to primary and early secondary school children. This new study draws upon ...... on activity theory, aimed at facilitating the transposition of abstract knowledge into playful interactions, so to develop new learning games of this kind, also keeping into account children’s individual needs regarding play.......Starting from reflections on designing games for learning, aimed at providing a tangible grounding to abstract knowledge, we designed Prime Slaughter, a game to support learning of factorisation and prime numbers, targeted to primary and early secondary school children. This new study draws upon...... the design process of Prime Slaughter, to move further in developing a general approach in developing games, aimed at effectively conveying knowledge from a specific domain. Hence this paper will discuss the past design process, as a concrete case, and then formulate a theoretical framework, based...

  17. Structural basis of typhod: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PilS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  18. Structural basis of typhoid: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PiLS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Mok, H. Y.-K.; Swaminathan, K.

    2009-11-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein ({Delta}PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of {Delta}PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 {angstrom}, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  19. Structural Basis of Typhoid: Salmonella typhi Type IVb pilin (PilS) and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulatory Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  20. Hydrophobic interaction between contiguous residues in the S6 transmembrane segment acts as a stimuli integration node in the BK channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquel-Ursulaez, Willy; Contreras, Gustavo F.; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Aguayo, Daniel; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ channel (BK) open probability is enhanced by depolarization, increasing Ca2+ concentration, or both. These stimuli activate modular voltage and Ca2+ sensors that are allosterically coupled to channel gating. Here, we report a point mutation of a phenylalanine (F380A) in the S6 transmembrane helix that, in the absence of internal Ca2+, profoundly hinders channel opening while showing only minor effects on the voltage sensor active–resting equilibrium. Interpretation of these results using an allosteric model suggests that the F380A mutation greatly increases the free energy difference between open and closed states and uncouples Ca2+ binding from voltage sensor activation and voltage sensor activation from channel opening. However, the presence of a bulky and more hydrophobic amino acid in the F380 position (F380W) increases the intrinsic open–closed equilibrium, weakening the coupling between both sensors with the pore domain. Based on these functional experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that F380 interacts with another S6 hydrophobic residue (L377) in contiguous subunits. This pair forms a hydrophobic ring important in determining the open–closed equilibrium and, like an integration node, participates in the communication between sensors and between the sensors and pore. Moreover, because of its effects on open probabilities, the F380A mutant can be used for detailed voltage sensor experiments in the presence of permeant cations. PMID:25548136

  1. Tryptophan Substitutions at Lipid-exposed Positions of the Gamma M3 Transmembrane Domain Increase the Macroscopic Ionic Current Response of the Torpedo californica Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martín, A.; Mercado, J.L.; Rojas, L.V.; McNamee, M.G.; Lasalde-Dominicci, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous amino-acid substitutions at the postulated lipid-exposed transmembrane segment M4 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR) focused on the alpha subunit. In this study we have extended the mutagenesis analysis using single tryptophan replacements in seven positions (I288, M291, F292, S294, L296, M299 and N300) near the center of the third transmembrane domain of the gamma subunit (γM3). All the tryptophan substitution mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes following mRNA injections at levels close to wild type. The functional response of these mutants was evaluated using macroscopic current analysis in voltage-clamped oocytes. For all the substitutions the concentration for half-maximal activation, EC50, is similar to wild type using acetylcholine. For F292W, L296W and M299W the normalized macroscopic responses are 2- to 3-fold higher than for wild type. Previous photolabeling studies demonstrated that these three positions were in contact with membrane lipids. Each of these M3 mutations was co-injected with the previously characterized αC418W mutant to examine possible synergistic effects of single lipid-exposed mutations on two different subunits. For the γM3/αM4 double mutants, the EC50s were similar to those measured for the αC418W mutant alone. Tryptophan substitutions at positions that presumably face the interior of the protein (S294 and M291) or neighboring helices (I288) did not cause significant inhibition of channel function or surface expression of AChRs. PMID:11547353

  2. The Atomic Structure of the HIV-1 gp41 Transmembrane Domain and Its Connection to the Immunogenic Membrane-proximal External Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apellániz, Beatriz; Rujas, Edurne; Serrano, Soraya; Morante, Koldo; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Jiménez, M Ángeles; Nieva, José L

    2015-05-22

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) C-terminal segment and the transmembrane domain (TMD) of gp41 are involved in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion and modulation of immune responses during viral infection. However, the atomic structure of this functional region remains unsolved. Here, based on the high resolution NMR data obtained for peptides spanning the C-terminal segment of MPER and the TMD, we report two main findings: (i) the conformational variability of the TMD helix at a membrane-buried position; and (ii) the existence of an uninterrupted α-helix spanning MPER and the N-terminal region of the TMD. Thus, our structural data provide evidence for the bipartite organization of TMD predicted by previous molecular dynamics simulations and functional studies, but they do not support the breaking of the helix at Lys-683, as was suggested by some models to mark the initiation of the TMD anchor. Antibody binding energetics examined with isothermal titration calorimetry and humoral responses elicited in rabbits by peptide-based vaccines further support the relevance of a continuous MPER-TMD helix for immune recognition. We conclude that the transmembrane anchor of HIV-1 envelope is composed of two distinct subdomains: 1) an immunogenic helix at the N terminus also involved in promoting membrane fusion; and 2) an immunosuppressive helix at the C terminus, which might also contribute to the late stages of the fusion process. The unprecedented high resolution structural data reported here may guide future vaccine and inhibitor developments. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Cloning of a human epididymis-specific mRNA, HE6, encoding a novel member of the seven transmembrane-domain receptor superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, C; Ivell, R; Kirchhoff, C

    1997-04-01

    A novel gene product, HE6, showing homology to the seven transmembrane-domain (Tm7) receptor superfamily, has been cloned by differential screening from a human epididymal cDNA library. The cDNA clone represented an abundant approximately 5-kb mRNA, comprising 0.01% of the cDNA library. Northern blot analysis including various human tissues revealed an epididymis-specific expression. In situ transcript hybridization localized the mRNA within the epithelial cells lining the epididymal duct. Southern blot analysis, employing a fragment encoding part of the amino-terminal extracellular domain as a probe, identified an autosomal single-copy gene in the human genome. Homologous cDNA products showing 90% sequence identity were observed in the epididymides of all mammalian species investigated. A cloning and sequencing strategy, combining approximately 3.7-kb cDNA fragments obtained by conventional cDNA library construction with overlapping 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) fragments, yielded total sequence information of 4.7 kb for the human mRNA. This sequence comprises a long open reading frame of 3.1 kb. A homology search for related sequences revealed highest similarity (25% amino acid identity) with the secretin/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. The predicted extracellular amino-terminal extension, however, was much longer than in the other members, and showed similarity to highly glycosylated mucin-like cell-surface molecules.

  4. Homophilic interactions mediated by receptor tyrosine phosphatases mu and kappa. A critical role for the novel extracellular MAM domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zondag, G C; Koningstein, G M; Jiang, Y P

    1995-01-01

    and is found in diverse transmembrane proteins, is not known. We previously reported that both RPTP mu and RPTP kappa can mediate homophilic cell interactions when expressed in insect cells. Here we show that despite their striking structural similarity, RPTP mu and RPTP kappa fail to interact......The receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTP) mu and RPTP kappa have a modular ectodomain consisting of four fibronectin type III-like repeats, a single Ig-like domain, and a newly identified N-terminal MAM domain. The function of the latter module, which comprises about 160 amino acids...... in a heterophilic manner. To examine the role of the MAM domain in homophilic binding, we expressed a mutant RPTP mu lacking the MAM domain in insect Sf9 cells. Truncated RPTP mu is properly expressed at the cell surface but fails to promote cell-cell adhesion. Homophilic cell adhesion is fully restored...

  5. The different roles of aggrecan interaction domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    glycosaminoglycan chains, that provide the basis for the viscoelastic properties necessary for load distribution over the articular surface. This review is focused on the globular domains of aggrecan and their role in anchoring the proteoglycans to other extracellular matrix components. The N-terminal G1 domain...

  6. Establishing the importance of oil-membrane interactions on the transmembrane diffusion of physicochemically diverse compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Omaima N; Martin, Gary P; Kirton, Stewart B; Sallam, Al-Sayed; Murnane, Darragh

    2016-06-15

    The diffusion process through a non-porous barrier membrane depends on the properties of the drug, vehicle and membrane. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a series of oily vehicles might have the potential to interact to varying degrees with synthetic membranes and to determine whether any such interaction might affect the permeation of co-formulated permeants: methylparaben (MP); butylparaben (BP) or caffeine (CF). The oils (isopropyl myristate (IPM), isohexadecane (IHD), hexadecane (HD), oleic acid (OA) and liquid paraffin (LP)) and membranes (silicone, high density polyethylene and polyurethane) employed in the study were selected such that they displayed a range of different structural, and physicochemical properties. Diffusion studies showed that many of the vehicles were not inert and did interact with the membranes resulting in a modification of the permeants' flux when corrected for membrane thickness (e.g. normalized flux of MP increased from 1.25±0.13μgcm(-1)h(-1) in LP to 17.94±0.25μgcm(-1)h(-1)in IPM). The oils were sorbed differently to membranes (range of weight gain: 2.2±0.2% for polyurethane with LP to 105.6±1.1% for silicone with IHD). Membrane interaction was apparently dependent upon the physicochemical properties including; size, shape, flexibility and the Hansen solubility parameter values of both the membranes and oils. Sorbed oils resulted in modified permeant diffusion through the membranes. No simple correlation was found to exist between the Hansen solubility parameters of the oils or swelling of the membrane and the normalized fluxes of the three compounds investigated. More sophisticated modelling would appear to be required to delineate and quantify the key molecular parameters of membrane, permeant and vehicle compatibility and their interactions of relevance to membrane permeation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of charged amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of L-alanine exporter, AlaE, of Escherichia coli on the L-alanine export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli alaE gene encodes the L-alanine exporter, AlaE, that catalyzes active export of L-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. The transporter comprises only 149 amino acid residues and four predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), which contain three charged amino acid residues. The AlaE-deficient L-alanine non-metabolizing cells (ΔalaE cells) appeared hypersusceptible to L-alanyl-L-alanine showing a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 µg/ml for the dipeptide due to a toxic accumulation of L-alanine. To elucidate the mechanism by which AlaE exports L-alanine, we replaced charged amino acid residues in the TMs, glutamic acid-30 (TM-I), arginine-45 (TM-II), and aspartic acid-84 (TM-III) with their respective charge-conserved amino acid or a net neutral cysteine. The ΔalaE cells producing R45K or R45C appeared hypersusceptible to the dipeptide, indicating that arginine-45 is essential for AlaE activity. MIC of the dipeptide in the ΔalaE cells expressing E30D and E30C was 156 µg/ml and >10,000 µg/ml, respectively, thereby suggesting that a negative charge at this position is not essential. The ΔalaE cells expressing D84E or D84C showed an MIC >10,000 and 78 µg/ml, respectively, implying that a negative charge is required at this position. These results were generally consistent with that of the L-alanine accumulation experiments in intact cells. We therefore concluded that charged amino acid residues (R45 and D84) in the AlaE transmembrane domain play a pivotal role in L-alanine export. Replacement of three cysteine residues at C22, C28 (both in TM-I), and C135 (C-terminal region) with alanine showed only a marginal effect on L-alanine export.

  8. The melanocortin-2 receptor of the rainbow trout: Identifying a role for critical positions in transmembrane domain 4, extracellular loop 2, and transmembrane domain 5 in the activation of rainbow trout MC2R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Davis, Perry V; Dores, Michael R; Dores, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    The activation of either teleost or tetrapod melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs requires interaction between the HFRW motif and R/KKRRP motif in the primary sequence of ACTH, and two corresponding sites on the melanocortin 2 receptor. While the HFRW contact site on MC2R appears to involve residues in TM2, TM3, and TM6, several studies on human MC2R point to the EC2/TM5 region of MC2R as a possible location for the R/KKRRP contact site. In this study nineteen single-alanine mutants of rainbow trout (rt) MC2R were made beginning at V 153 in TM4, at all positions in EC2 (extracellular loop 2), to F 175 in TM5. For twelve of these alanine mutants (i.e., V 153 , G 155 , C 162 , D 163 , T 165 , V 166 , I 167 , H 169 , F 170 , H 172 , V 173 , L 174 ), alanine substitution did not have a statistically significant effect on activation of the receptor. For four of these alanine mutations (i.e., V 157 , M 158 , F 161 , K 168 ), while the negative shift in ligand sensitivity was statistically significant, the magnitude of the negative shift in activation was fivefold or less. However, for substitution at V 159 in TM4 (negative shift in activation: 110 fold), F 171 in TM5 (negative shift in activation: 48-fold), and F 175 in TM5 (negative shift in activation: 100 fold), the effect on activation was both statistically significant and may be physiologically relevant. To support this conclusion, a triple alanine mutant of rtMC2R (V 159 /A, F 171 /A, F 175 /A), and this mutant receptor could not be activated by ACTH at concentrations as high as 10 -6 M. A Cell Surface ELISA analysis indicated that the trafficking of the triple alanine mutant rtMC2R to the plasma membrane was not impaired by the alanine substitutions. Collectively, these observations point to a critical role for TM4 and TM5 in the activation of the rainbow trout melanocortin-2 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two Seven-Transmembrane Domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O Proteins Cofunction in Arabidopsis Root Thigmomorphogenesis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H. Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane–localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gβ subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism. PMID:19602625

  10. CKLF-Like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain-Containing Member 3 (CMTM3) Inhibits the Proliferation and Tumorigenisis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wujun; Zhang, Shaobo

    2017-01-26

    The CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 (CMTM3), a member of the CMTM family, was found in several human tumors and plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. However, the role of CMTM3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. Thus, in the present study, we explored its expression pattern in human HCC cell lines, as well as its functions in HCC cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of CMTM3 is lowly expressed in HCC cell lines. In vitro, we found that overexpression of CMTM3 obviously inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and EMT process in HCC cells. Furthermore, overexpression of CMTM3 significantly downregulated the expression levels of phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in HepG2 cells. In vivo, overexpression of CMTM3 attenuated the tumor growth in Balb/c nude mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CMTM3 could play an important role in HCC metastasis by EMT induction via, at least partially, suppressing the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Therefore, CMTM3 may serve as a potential molecular target in the prevention and/or treatment of HCC invasion and metastasis.

  11. Chimeric rabies glycoprotein with a transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail from Newcastle disease virus fusion protein incorporates into the Newcastle disease virion at reduced levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui Mei; Zu, Shu Long; Zhou, Wei Wei; Wang, Xi Jun; Shuai, Lei; Wang, Xue Lian; Ge, Jin Ying; Bu, Zhi Gao

    2017-08-31

    Rabies remains an important worldwide health problem. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed as a vaccine vector in animals by using a reverse genetics approach. Previously, our group generated a recombinant NDV (LaSota strain) expressing the complete rabies virus G protein (RVG), named rL-RVG. In this study, we constructed the variant rL-RVGTM, which expresses a chimeric rabies virus G protein (RVGTM) containing the ectodomain of RVG and the transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic tail (CT) from the NDV fusion glycoprotein to study the function of RVG's TM and CT. The RVGTM did not detectably incorporate into NDV virions, though it was abundantly expressed at the surface of infected BHK-21 cells. Both rL-RVG and rL-RVGTM induced similar levels of NDV virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) after initial and secondary vaccination in mice, whereas rabies VNA induction by rL-RVGTM was markedly lower than that induced by rL-RVG. Though rL-RVG could spread from cell to cell like that in rabies virus, rL-RVGTM lost this ability and spread in a manner similar to the parental NDV. Our data suggest that the TM and CT of RVG are essential for its incorporation into NDV virions and for spreading of the recombinant virus from the initially infected cells to surrounding cells.

  12. Vaccination with Recombinant Non-transmembrane Domain of Protein Mannosyltransferase 4 Improves Survival during Murine Disseminated Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yan, Lan; Li, Xing Xing; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. The C. albicans cell wall proteins play an important role in crucial host-fungus interactions and might be ideal vaccine targets to induce protective immune response in host. Meanwhile, protein that is specific to C. albicans is also an ideal target of vaccine. In this study, 11 proteins involving cell wall biosynthesis, yeast-to-hypha formation, or specific to C. albicans were chosen and were successfully cloned, purified and verified. The immune protection of vaccination with each recombinant protein respectively in preventing systemic candidiasis in BALB/c mice was assessed. The injection of rPmt4p vaccination significantly increased survival rate, decreased fungal burdens in the heart, liver, brain, and kidneys, and increased serum levels of both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM against rPmt4p in the immunized mice. Histopathological assessment demonstrated that rPmt4p vaccination protected the tissue structure, and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Passive transfer of the rPmt4p immunized serum increased survival rate against murine systemic candidiasis and significantly reduced organ fungal burden. The immune serum enhanced mouse neutrophil killing activity by directly neutralizing rPmt4p effects in vitro. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum were higher in the immunized mice compared to those in the adjuvant control group. In conclusion, our results suggested that rPmt4p vaccination may be considered as a potential vaccine candidate against systemic candidiasis.

  13. Integral UBL domain proteins: a family of proteasome interacting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs) comprises a conserved group of proteins involved in a multitude of different cellular activities. However, recent studies on UBL-domain proteins indicate that these proteins appear to share a common property in their ability to interact......-domain proteins catalyse the formation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, whereas others appear to target ubiquitinated proteins for degradation and interact with chaperones. Hence, by binding to the 26S proteasome the UBL-domain proteins seem to tailor and direct the basic proteolytic functions of the particle...

  14. High affinity recognition of serotonin transporter antagonists defined by species-scanning mutagenesis. An aromatic residue in transmembrane domain I dictates species-selective recognition of citalopram and mazindol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, E L; Perlman, M A; Adkins, E M; Houlihan, W J; Pristupa, Z B; Niznik, H B; Blakely, R D

    1998-07-31

    Human and Drosophila melanogaster serotonin (5-HT) transporters (SERTs) exhibit similar 5-HT transport kinetics and can be distinguished pharmacologically by many, but not all, biogenic amine transporter antagonists. By using human and Drosophila SERT chimeras, major determinants of potencies of two transporter antagonists, mazindol and citalopram, were tracked to the amino-terminal domains encompassing transmembrane domains I and II. Species-scanning mutagenesis, whereby amino acid substitutions are made switching residues from one species to another, was employed on the eight amino acids that differ between human and Drosophila SERTs in this region, and antagonist potencies were reassessed in 5-HT uptake assays. A single mutation in transmembrane domain I of human SERT, Y95F, shifted both citalopram and mazindol to Drosophila SERT-like potencies. Strikingly, these potency changes were in opposite directions suggesting Tyr95 contributes both positive and negative determinants of antagonist potency. To gain insight into how the Y95F mutant might influence mazindol potency, we determined how structural variants of mazindol responded to the mutation. Our studies demonstrate the importance of the hydroxyl group on the heterocyclic nucleus of mazindol for maintaining species-selective recognition of mazindol and suggest that transmembrane domain I participates in the formation of antagonist-binding sites for amine transporters.

  15. System and methods for predicting transmembrane domains in membrane proteins and mining the genome for recognizing G-protein coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rene J; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E; Goddard, William A; Floriano, Wely

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides computer-implemented methods and apparatus implementing a hierarchical protocol using multiscale molecular dynamics and molecular modeling methods to predict the presence of transmembrane regions in proteins, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR), and protein structural models generated according to the protocol. The protocol features a coarse grain sampling method, such as hydrophobicity analysis, to provide a fast and accurate procedure for predicting transmembrane regions. Methods and apparatus of the invention are useful to screen protein or polynucleotide databases for encoded proteins with transmembrane regions, such as GPCRs.

  16. Full-length cellular β-secretase has a trimeric subunit stoichiometry, and its sulfur-rich transmembrane interaction site modulates cytosolic copper compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Filip; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Bethge, Tobias; McGuire, Hugo; Scolari, Silvia; Herrmann, Andreas; Blunck, Rikard; Bowie, Derek; Multhaup, Gerd

    2017-08-11

    The β-secretase (BACE1) initiates processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) into Aβ peptides, which have been implicated as central players in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. BACE1 has been described as a copper-binding protein and its oligomeric state as being monomeric, dimeric, and/or multimeric, but the native cellular stoichiometry has remained elusive. Here, by using single-molecule fluorescence and in vitro cross-linking experiments with photo-activatable unnatural amino acids, we show that full-length BACE1, independently of its subcellular localization, exists as trimers in human cells. We found that trimerization requires the BACE1 transmembrane sequences (TMSs) and cytoplasmic domains, with residues Ala 463 and Cys 466 buried within the trimer interface of the sulfur-rich core of the TMSs. Our 3D model predicts that the sulfur-rich core of the trimeric BACE1 TMS is accessible to metal ions, but copper ions did not trigger trimerization. The results of functional assays of endogenous BACE1 suggest that it has a role in intracellular copper compartmentalization by transferring cytosolic copper to intracellular compartments, while leaving the overall cellular copper concentration unaltered. Adding to existing physiological models, our results provide novel insight into the atypical interactions between copper and BACE1 and into its non-enzymatic activities. In conclusion, therapeutic Alzheimer disease prevention strategies aimed at decreasing BACE1 protein levels should be regarded with caution, because adverse effects in copper homeostasis may occur. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Borthwick

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2 forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36-54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A. Overlay (Far-Western and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351-727. Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia.

  18. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: Binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotelo, N.S.; Schepens, J.T.G.; Valiente, M.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Pulido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from

  19. A residue in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain I in insect and mammalian sodium channels regulate differential sensitivities to pyrethroid insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eugênio E.; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system. Pyrethroid insecticides exert their toxic action by modifying the gating of sodium channels. A valine to methionine mutation in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain I (IS6) of sodium channels from tobacco budworms (Heliothis virescens) has been shown to alter channel gating and reduce insect sodium channel sensitivity to pyrethroids. A valine to leucine substitution was subsequently reported in pyrethroid-resistant bedbug populations. Intriguingly, pyrethroid-resistant mammalian sodium channels possess an isoleucine at the corresponding position. To determine whether different substitutions at this position alter channel gating and confer pyrethroid resistance, we made valine to methionine, isoleucine or leucine substitutions at the corresponding position, V409, in a cockroach sodium channel and examined the gating properties and pyrethroid sensitivity of the three mutants in Xenopus oocytes. All three mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to three pyrethroids (permethrin, cismethrin and deltamethrin). V409M, but not V409I or V409L, caused 6-7 mV depolarizing shifts in the voltage dependences of both activation and inactivation. V409M and V409L slowed channel activation kinetics and accelerated open-state deactivation kinetics, but V409I did not. Furthermore, the substitution of isoleucine with valine, but not with methionine nor leucine, at the corresponding position in a rat skeletal muscle sodium channel, rNav1.4, enhanced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. Collectively, our study highlights an important role of residues at 409 in regulating not only sodium channel gating, but also the differential sensitivities of insect and mammalian sodium channels to pyrethroids. PMID:23764339

  20. Chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 expression is associated with a favorable prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianci; Shu, Tianci; Dong, Siyuan; Li, Peiwen; Li, Weinan; Liu, Dali; Qi, Ruiqun; Zhang, Shuguang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Decreased expression of human chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 (CMTM3) has been identified in a number of human tumors and tumor cell lines, including gastric and testicular cancer, and PC3, CAL27 and Tca-83 cell lines. However, the association between CMTM3 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between CMTM3 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in ESCC. CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression was analyzed in ESCC and paired non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot survival curves and the Cox proportional hazards regression model was also used for univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results revealed that CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in 82.5% (30/40) and 75% (30/40) of ESCC tissues, respectively, when compared with matched non-tumor tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated that CMTM3 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.002) and clinical stage (P<0.001) in ESCC tissues. Furthermore, the survival time of ESCC patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly shorter than that of ESCC patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.01). In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival time of patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly decreased compared with patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.010). Cox multivariate analysis indicated that CMTM3 protein expression was an independent prognostic predictor for ESCC after resection. This study indicated that CMTM3 expression is significantly decreased in ESCC tissues and CMTM3 protein expression in resected tumors may present an effective prognostic

  1. CMTM3 (CKLF-Like Marvel Transmembrane Domain 3) Mediates Angiogenesis by Regulating Cell Surface Availability of VE-Cadherin in Endothelial Adherens Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrifi, Ihsan; Louzao-Martinez, Laura; Brandt, Maarten; van Dijk, Christian G M; Burgisser, Petra; Zhu, Changbin; Kros, Johan M; Duncker, Dirk J; Cheng, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Decrease in VE-cadherin adherens junctions reduces vascular stability, whereas disruption of adherens junctions is a requirement for neovessel sprouting during angiogenesis. Endocytosis plays a key role in regulating junctional strength by altering bioavailability of cell surface proteins, including VE-cadherin. Identification of new mediators of endothelial endocytosis could enhance our understanding of angiogenesis. Here, we assessed the function of CMTM3 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain 3), which we have previously identified as highly expressed in Flk1 + endothelial progenitor cells during embryonic development. Using a 3-dimensional coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and pericytes-RFP (red fluorescent protein), we demonstrated that siRNA-mediated CMTM3 silencing in human umbilical vein endothelial cells impairs angiogenesis. In vivo CMTM3 inhibition by morpholino injection in developing zebrafish larvae confirmed that CMTM3 expression is required for vascular sprouting. CMTM3 knockdown in human umbilical vein endothelial cells does not affect proliferation or migration. Intracellular staining demonstrated that CMTM3 colocalizes with early endosome markers EEA1 (early endosome marker 1) and Clathrin + vesicles and with cytosolic VE-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Adenovirus-mediated CMTM3 overexpression enhances endothelial endocytosis, shown by an increase in Clathrin + , EEA1 + , Rab11 + , Rab5 + , and Rab7 + vesicles. CMTM3 overexpression enhances, whereas CMTM3 knockdown decreases internalization of cell surface VE-cadherin in vitro. CMTM3 promotes loss of endothelial barrier function in thrombin-induced responses, shown by transendothelial electric resistance measurements in vitro. In this study, we have identified a new regulatory function for CMTM3 in angiogenesis. CMTM3 is involved in VE-cadherin turnover and is a regulator of the cell surface pool of VE-cadherin. Therefore, CMTM

  2. Integral UBL domain proteins: a family of proteasome interacting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs) comprises a conserved group of proteins involved in a multitude of different cellular activities. However, recent studies on UBL-domain proteins indicate that these proteins appear to share a common property in their ability to interact wi...

  3. Transmembrane Signaling Proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    and their glycosaminoglycan chains is matched by diverse functions. However, all assume roles as coreceptors, often working alongside high-affinity growth factor receptors or adhesion receptors such as integrins. Other common themes are an ability to signal through their cytoplasmic domains, often to the actin cytoskeleton......, and linkage to PDZ protein networks. Many transmembrane proteoglycans associate on the cell surface with metzincin proteases and can be shed by them. Work with model systems in vivo and in vitro reveal roles in growth, adhesion, migration, and metabolism. Furthermore, a wide range of phenotypes for the core...

  4. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Natalia S; Schepens, Jan T G; Valiente, Miguel; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Pulido, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from scaffolding and regulatory proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on PTEN-PDZ domain interactions and tumor suppressor networks, describe methodology suitable to analyze these interactions, and report the binding of PTEN and the PDZ domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down analyses showed that PTEN binds to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain in a manner that depends on the specific PTPN13 PDZ domain arrangement involving the interdomain region between PDZ1 and PDZ2. Furthermore, a specific binding profile of PTEN to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain was observed by mutational analysis of the PTEN PDZ-BM. Our results disclose a PDZ-mediated physical interaction of PTEN and PTPN13 with potential relevance in tumor suppression and cell homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A protein domain interaction interface database: InterPare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jungsul

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most proteins function by interacting with other molecules. Their interaction interfaces are highly conserved throughout evolution to avoid undesirable interactions that lead to fatal disorders in cells. Rational drug discovery includes computational methods to identify the interaction sites of lead compounds to the target molecules. Identifying and classifying protein interaction interfaces on a large scale can help researchers discover drug targets more efficiently. Description We introduce a large-scale protein domain interaction interface database called InterPare http://interpare.net. It contains both inter-chain (between chains interfaces and intra-chain (within chain interfaces. InterPare uses three methods to detect interfaces: 1 the geometric distance method for checking the distance between atoms that belong to different domains, 2 Accessible Surface Area (ASA, a method for detecting the buried region of a protein that is detached from a solvent when forming multimers or complexes, and 3 the Voronoi diagram, a computational geometry method that uses a mathematical definition of interface regions. InterPare includes visualization tools to display protein interior, surface, and interaction interfaces. It also provides statistics such as the amino acid propensities of queried protein according to its interior, surface, and interface region. The atom coordinates that belong to interface, surface, and interior regions can be downloaded from the website. Conclusion InterPare is an open and public database server for protein interaction interface information. It contains the large-scale interface data for proteins whose 3D-structures are known. As of November 2004, there were 10,583 (Geometric distance, 10,431 (ASA, and 11,010 (Voronoi diagram entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB containing interfaces, according to the above three methods. In the case of the geometric distance method, there are 31,620 inter-chain domain-domain

  6. 15N and 31P solid-state NMR study of transmembrane domain alignment of M2 protein of influenza A virus in hydrated cylindrical lipid bilayers confined to anodic aluminum oxide nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Hu, Jun; Gor'kov, Peter L.; Brey, William W.; Cross, Timothy A.; Ruuge, Andres; Smirnov, Alex I.

    2005-04-01

    This communication reports the first example of a high resolution solid-state 15N 2D PISEMA NMR spectrum of a transmembrane peptide aligned using hydrated cylindrical lipid bilayers formed inside nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. The transmembrane domain SSDPLVVA(A- 15N)SIIGILHLILWILDRL of M2 protein from influenza A virus was reconstituted in hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine bilayers that were macroscopically aligned by a conventional micro slide glass support or by the AAO nanoporous substrate. 15N and 31P NMR spectra demonstrate that both the phospholipids and the protein transmembrane domain are uniformly aligned in the nanopores. Importantly, nanoporous AAO substrates may offer several advantages for membrane protein alignment in solid-state NMR studies compared to conventional methods. Specifically, higher thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide is expected to suppress thermal gradients associated with inhomogeneous radio frequency heating. Another important advantage of the nanoporous AAO substrate is its excellent accessibility to the bilayer surface for exposure to solute molecules. Such high accessibility achieved through the substrate nanochannel network could facilitate a wide range of structure-function studies of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR.

  7. Bupropion Binds to Two Sites in the Torpedo Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Transmembrane Domain: A Photoaffinity Labeling Study with the Bupropion Analog [125I]-SADU-3-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Akash; Hamouda, Ayman K.; Staggs, Brandon; Aggarwal, Shaili; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K.; Lever, John R.; Lapinsky, David J.; Jansen, Michaela; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Blanton, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Bupropion, a clinically-used antidepressant and smoking-cessation drug, acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To identify its binding site(s) in nAChRs, we developed a photoreactive bupropion analog, (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3′-[125I]-iodo-4′-azidopropiophenone (SADU-3-72). Based upon inhibition of [125I]SADU-3-72 binding, SADU-3-72 binds with high affinity (IC50 = 0.8 μM) to the Torpedo nAChR in the resting (closed channel) state and in the agonist-induced desensitized state, and bupropion binds to that site with three-fold higher affinity in the desensitized (IC50 = 1.2 μM) than in the resting state. Photolabeling of Torpedo nAChRs with [125I]SADU-3-72 followed by limited in-gel digestion of nAChR subunits with endoproteinase Glu-C established the presence of [125I]SADU-3-72 photoincorporation within nAChR subunit fragments containing M1-M2-M3 helices (αV8-20K, βV8-22/23K and γV8-24K) or M1-M2 helices (δV8-14). Photolabeling within βV8-22/23K, γV8-24K and δV8-14 was reduced in the desensitized state and inhibited by ion channel blockers selective for the resting (tetracaine) or desensitized (thienycyclohexylpiperidine (TCP)) state, and this pharmacologically specific photolabeling was localized to the M2-9 leucine ring (δLeu265, βLeu257) within the ion channel. In contrast, photolabeling within the αV8-20K was enhanced in the desensitized state and not inhibited by TCP, but was inhibited by bupropion. This agonist-enhanced photolabeling was localized to αTyr213 in αM1. These results establish the presence of two distinct bupropion binding sites within the Torpedo nAChR transmembrane domain: a high affinity site at the middle (M2-9) of the ion channel and a second site near the extracellular end of αM1 within a previously described halothane (general anesthetic) binding pocket. PMID:22394379

  8. Bupropion binds to two sites in the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane domain: a photoaffinity labeling study with the bupropion analogue [(125)I]-SADU-3-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Akash; Hamouda, Ayman K; Staggs, Brandon; Aggarwal, Shaili; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K; Lever, John R; Lapinsky, David J; Jansen, Michaela; Cohen, Jonathan B; Blanton, Michael P

    2012-03-27

    Bupropion, a clinically used antidepressant and smoking-cessation drug, acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To identify its binding site(s) in nAChRs, we developed a photoreactive bupropion analogue, (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3'-[(125)I]-iodo-4'-azidopropiophenone (SADU-3-72). Based on inhibition of [(125)I]SADU-3-72 binding, SADU-3-72 binds with high affinity (IC(50) = 0.8 μM) to the Torpedo nAChR in the resting (closed channel) state and in the agonist-induced desensitized state, and bupropion binds to that site with 3-fold higher affinity in the desensitized (IC(50) = 1.2 μM) than in the resting state. Photolabeling of Torpedo nAChRs with [(125)I]SADU-3-72 followed by limited in-gel digestion of nAChR subunits with endoproteinase Glu-C established the presence of [(125)I]SADU-3-72 photoincorporation within nAChR subunit fragments containing M1-M2-M3 helices (αV8-20K, βV8-22/23K, and γV8-24K) or M1-M2 helices (δV8-14). Photolabeling within βV8-22/23K, γV8-24K, and δV8-14 was reduced in the desensitized state and inhibited by ion channel blockers selective for the resting (tetracaine) or desensitized (thienycyclohexylpiperidine (TCP)) state, and this pharmacologically specific photolabeling was localized to the M2-9 leucine ring (δLeu(265), βLeu(257)) within the ion channel. In contrast, photolabeling within the αV8-20K was enhanced in the desensitized state and not inhibited by TCP but was inhibited by bupropion. This agonist-enhanced photolabeling was localized to αTyr(213) in αM1. These results establish the presence of two distinct bupropion binding sites within the Torpedo nAChR transmembrane domain: a high affinity site at the middle (M2-9) of the ion channel and a second site near the extracellular end of αM1 within a previously described halothane (general anesthetic) binding pocket.

  9. The phosphoCTD-interacting domain of Topoisomerase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianhong; Phatnani, Hemali P.; Hsieh, Tao-Shih [Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Greenleaf, Arno L., E-mail: arno.greenleaf@duke.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2010-06-18

    The N-terminal domain (NTD) of Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) Topoisomerase I has been shown to bind to RNA polymerase II, but the domain of RNAPII with which it interacts is not known. Using bacterially-expressed fusion proteins carrying all or half of the NTDs of Dm and human (Homo sapiens, Hs) Topo I, we demonstrate that the N-terminal half of each NTD binds directly to the hyperphosphorylated C-terminal repeat domain (phosphoCTD) of the largest RNAPII subunit, Rpb1. Thus, the amino terminal segment of metazoan Topo I (1-157 for Dm and 1-114 for Hs) contains a novel phosphoCTD-interacting domain that we designate the Topo I-Rpb1 interacting (TRI) domain. The long-known in vivo association of Topo I with active genes presumably can be attributed, wholly or in part, to the TRI domain-mediated binding of Topo I to the phosphoCTD of transcribing RNAPII.

  10. The phospholipase PNPLA7 functions as a lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolase and interacts with lipid droplets through its catalytic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Christoph; Kien, Benedikt; Huang, Feifei; Eichmann, Thomas O; Xie, Hao; Zechner, Rudolf; Chang, Ping-An

    2017-11-17

    Mammalian patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins (PNPLAs) are lipid-metabolizing enzymes with essential roles in energy metabolism, skin barrier development, and brain function. A detailed annotation of enzymatic activities and structure-function relationships remains an important prerequisite to understand PNPLA functions in (patho-)physiology, for example, in disorders such as neutral lipid storage disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and neurodegenerative syndromes. In this study, we characterized the structural features controlling the subcellular localization and enzymatic activity of PNPLA7, a poorly annotated phospholipase linked to insulin signaling and energy metabolism. We show that PNPLA7 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein that specifically promotes hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian cells. We found that transmembrane and regulatory domains in the PNPLA7 N-terminal region cooperate to regulate ER targeting but are dispensable for substrate hydrolysis. Enzymatic activity is instead mediated by the C-terminal domain, which maintains full catalytic competence even in the absence of N-terminal regions. Upon elevated fatty acid flux, the catalytic domain targets cellular lipid droplets and promotes interactions of PNPLA7 with these organelles in response to increased cAMP levels. We conclude that PNPLA7 acts as an ER-anchored lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolase that is composed of specific functional domains mediating catalytic activity, subcellular positioning, and interactions with cellular organelles. Our study provides critical structural insights into an evolutionarily conserved class of phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Drug-domain interaction networks in myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2013-09-01

    It has been well recognized that the pace of the development of new drugs and therapeutic interventions lags far behind biological knowledge discovery. Network-based approaches have emerged as a promising alternative to accelerate the discovery of new safe and effective drugs. Based on the integration of several biological resources including two recently published datasets i.e., Drug-target interactions in myocardial infarction (My-DTome) and drug-domain interaction network, this paper reports the association between drugs and protein domains in the context of myocardial infarction (MI). A MI drug-domain interaction network, My-DDome, was firstly constructed, followed by topological analysis and functional characterization of the network. The results show that My-DDome has a very clear modular structure, where drugs interacting with the same domain(s) within each module tend to have similar therapeutic effects. Moreover it has been found that drugs acting on blood and blood forming organs (ATC code B) and sensory organs (ATC code S) are significantly enriched in My-DDome (p drugs, their known targets, and seemingly unrelated proteins can be revealed.

  12. Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Zhou, Qingxian; An, Jianli; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Kappes, John C; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Riordan, John R; Urbatsch, Ina L; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2014-06-01

    Detergent interaction with extramembranous soluble domains (ESDs) is not commonly considered an important determinant of integral membrane protein (IMP) behavior during purification and crystallization, even though ESDs contribute to the stability of many IMPs. Here we demonstrate that some generally nondenaturing detergents critically destabilize a model ESD, the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) from the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a model IMP. Notably, the detergents show equivalent trends in their influence on the stability of isolated NBD1 and full-length CFTR. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to monitor changes in NBD1 stability and secondary structure, respectively, during titration with a series of detergents. Their effective harshness in these assays mirrors that widely accepted for their interaction with IMPs, i.e., anionic > zwitterionic > nonionic. It is noteworthy that including lipids or nonionic detergents is shown to mitigate detergent harshness, as will limiting contact time. We infer three thermodynamic mechanisms from the observed thermal destabilization by monomer or micelle: (i) binding to the unfolded state with no change in the native structure (all detergent classes); (ii) native state binding that alters thermodynamic properties and perhaps conformation (nonionic detergents); and (iii) detergent binding that directly leads to denaturation of the native state (anionic and zwitterionic). These results demonstrate that the accepted model for the harshness of detergents applies to their interaction with an ESD. It is concluded that destabilization of extramembranous soluble domains by specific detergents will influence the stability of some IMPs during purification. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  13. New insights into interactions between the nucleotide‐binding domain of CFTR and keratin 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premchandar, Aiswarya; Kupniewska, Anna; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Faure, Grazyna; Fraczyk, Tomasz; Roldan, Ariel; Hoffmann, Brice; Faria da Cunha, Mélanie; Herrmann, Harald; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The intermediate filament protein keratin 8 (K8) interacts with the nucleotide‐binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) with phenylalanine 508 deletion (ΔF508), and this interaction hampers the biogenesis of functional ΔF508‐CFTR and its insertion into the plasma membrane. Interruption of this interaction may constitute a new therapeutic target for CF patients bearing the ΔF508 mutation. Here, we aimed to determine the binding surface between these two proteins, to facilitate the design of the interaction inhibitors. To identify the NBD1 fragments perturbed by the ΔF508 mutation, we used hydrogen–deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX‐MS) on recombinant wild‐type (wt) NBD1 and ΔF508‐NBD1 of CFTR. We then performed the same analysis in the presence of a peptide from the K8 head domain, and extended this investigation using bioinformatics procedures and surface plasmon resonance, which revealed regions affected by the peptide binding in both wt‐NBD1 and ΔF508‐NBD1. Finally, we performed HDX‐MS analysis of the NBD1 molecules and full‐length K8, revealing hydrogen‐bonding network changes accompanying complex formation. In conclusion, we have localized a region in the head segment of K8 that participates in its binding to NBD1. Our data also confirm the stronger binding of K8 to ΔF508‐NBD1, which is supported by an additional binding site located in the vicinity of the ΔF508 mutation in NBD1. PMID:27870250

  14. Energetics and Structure Prediction of the Network of Homo- and Hetero-Oligomers Formed by the Transmembrane Domains of the ErbReceptor Family of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    higher-order oligomer) can bind to the cholera toxin promoter and activate transcription of a reporter gene. Using this assay, Lemmon and colleagues...identical to the transmembrane sequences of the chicken Klg and Hydra Lemon orthologues (9), and a pattern of residues with helical periodicity is...Steele, R. E. (2000) Lemon encodes an unusual receptor protein-tyrosine kinase expressed during gametogenesis in Hydra , DeV. Biol. 224, 286-298. 10

  15. Scrambling of the amino acids within the transmembrane domain of Vpu results in a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVTM) that is less pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, David R; Gomez, Melissa L; Pacyniak, Erik; Gomez, Lisa M; Inbody, Sarah H; Mulcahy, Ellyn R; Culley, Nathan; Pinson, David M; Powers, Michael F; Wong, Scott W; Stephens, Edward B

    2005-08-15

    Previous studies have shown that the transmembrane (TM) domain of the subtype B Vpu enhances virion release from cells and some studies have shown that this domain may form an oligomeric structure with properties of an ion channel. To date, no studies have been performed to assess the role of this domain in virus pathogenesis in a macaque model of disease. Using a pathogenic molecular clone of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVKU-1bMC33), we have generated a novel virus in which the transmembrane domain of the Vpu protein was scrambled but maintained hydrophobic in nature (SHIVTM), which presumably would disrupt any ion channel TM properties of this protein. Vectors expressing the Vpu as a fusion protein with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (VpuTMEGFP) indicate that it was transported to the same intracellular compartment as the unmodified Vpu protein but did not down-regulate cell surface expression of CD4. To assess the pathogenicity of SHIVTM, three pig-tailed macaques were inoculated with the SHIVTM and monitored for 6-8 months for CD4+ T cell levels, viral loads and the stability of the sequence of the vpu gene. Our results indicated that unlike the parental SHIVKU-1bMC33, inoculation of macaques with SHIVTM did not cause a severe CD4+ T cell loss over the course of their infections. Sequence analysis of the vpu gene analyzed from sequential PBMC samples derived from macaques revealed that the scrambled TM was stable during the course of infection. At necropsy, examination of tissues revealed low viral loads and none of the pathology commonly observed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues following inoculation with the pathogenic parental SHIVKU-1bMC33 virus. Thus, these results show for the first time that the TM domain of Vpu contributes to the pathogenicity of SHIVKU-1bMC33 in pig-tailed macaques.

  16. Scrambling of the amino acids within the transmembrane domain of Vpu results in a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVTM) that is less pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Melissa L.; Pacyniak, Erik; Gomez, Lisa M.; Inbody, Sarah H.; Mulcahy, Ellyn R.; Culley, Nathan; Pinson, David M.; Powers, Michael F.; Wong, Scott W.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the transmembrane (TM) domain of the subtype B Vpu enhances virion release from cells and some studies have shown that this domain may form an oligomeric structure with properties of an ion channel. To date, no studies have been performed to assess the role of this domain in virus pathogenesis in a macaque model of disease. Using a pathogenic molecular clone of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV KU-1bMC33 ), we have generated a novel virus in which the transmembrane domain of the Vpu protein was scrambled but maintained hydrophobic in nature (SHIV TM ), which presumably would disrupt any ion channel TM properties of this protein. Vectors expressing the Vpu as a fusion protein with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (Vpu TM EGFP) indicate that it was transported to the same intracellular compartment as the unmodified Vpu protein but did not down-regulate cell surface expression of CD4. To assess the pathogenicity of SHIV TM , three pig-tailed macaques were inoculated with the SHIV TM and monitored for 6-8 months for CD4 + T cell levels, viral loads and the stability of the sequence of the vpu gene. Our results indicated that unlike the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 , inoculation of macaques with SHIV TM did not cause a severe CD4 + T cell loss over the course of their infections. Sequence analysis of the vpu gene analyzed from sequential PBMC samples derived from macaques revealed that the scrambled TM was stable during the course of infection. At necropsy, examination of tissues revealed low viral loads and none of the pathology commonly observed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues following inoculation with the pathogenic parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 virus. Thus, these results show for the first time that the TM domain of Vpu contributes to the pathogenicity of SHIV KU-1bMC33 in pig-tailed macaques

  17. Structures of the Sgt2/SGTA Dimerization Domain with the Get5/UBL4A UBL Domain Reveal an Interaction that Forms a Conserved Dynamic Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W. Chartron

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the cytoplasm, the correct delivery of membrane proteins is an essential and highly regulated process. The posttranslational targeting of the important tail-anchor membrane (TA proteins has recently been under intense investigation. A specialized pathway, called the guided entry of TA proteins (GET pathway in yeast and the transmembrane domain recognition complex (TRC pathway in vertebrates, recognizes endoplasmic-reticulum-targeted TA proteins and delivers them through a complex series of handoffs. An early step is the formation of a complex between Sgt2/SGTA, a cochaperone with a presumed ubiquitin-like-binding domain (UBD, and Get5/UBL4A, a ubiquitin-like domain (UBL-containing protein. We structurally characterize this UBD/UBL interaction for both yeast and human proteins. This characterization is supported by biophysical studies that demonstrate that complex formation is mediated by electrostatics, generating an interface that has high-affinity with rapid kinetics. In total, this work provides a refined model of the interplay of Sgt2 homologs in TA targeting.

  18. A segmental labeling strategy for unambiguous determination of domain–domain interactions of large multi-domain proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianglei; Wang Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    NMR structural determination of large multi-domain proteins is a challenging task due to significant spectral overlap with a particular difficulty in unambiguous identification of domain–domain interactions. Segmental labeling is a NMR strategy that allows for isotopically labeling one domain and leaves the other domain unlabeled. This significantly simplifies spectral overlaps and allows for quick identification of domain–domain interaction. Here, a novel segmental labeling strategy is presented for detection of inter-domain NOEs. To identify domain–domain interactions in human apolipoprotein E (apoE), a multi-domain, 299-residues α-helical protein, on-column expressed protein ligation was utilized to generate a segmental-labeled apoE samples in which the N-terminal (NT-) domain was 2 H(99%)/ 15 N-labeled whereas the C-terminal (CT-) domain was either 15 N- or 15 N/ 13 C-labeled. 3-D 15 N-edited NOESY spectra of these segmental-labeled apoE samples allow for direct observation of the inter-domain NOEs between the backbone amide protons of the NT-domain and the aliphatic protons of the CT-domain. This straightforward approach permits unambiguous identification of 78 inter-domain NOEs, enabling accurate definition of the relative positions of both the NT- and the CT-domains and determination of the NMR structure of apoE.

  19. Assembly and misassembly of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: folding defects caused by deletion of F508 occur before and after the calnexin-dependent association of membrane spanning domain (MSD) 1 and MSD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Meredith F N; Grove, Diane E; Chen, Liling; Cyr, Douglas M

    2008-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a Cl(-) channel and consists of two membrane spanning domains (MSDs), two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), and a cytosolic regulatory domain. Cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70), and endoplasmic reticulum-localized calnexin are chaperones that facilitate CFTR biogenesis. Hsp70 functions in both the cotranslational folding and posttranslational degradation of CFTR. Yet, the mechanism for calnexin action in folding and quality control of CFTR is not clear. Investigation of this question revealed that calnexin is not essential for CFTR or CFTRDeltaF508 degradation. We identified a dependence on calnexin for proper assembly of CFTR's membrane spanning domains. Interestingly, efficient folding of NBD2 was also found to be dependent upon calnexin binding to CFTR. Furthermore, we identified folding defects caused by deletion of F508 that occurred before and after the calnexin-dependent association of MSD1 and MSD2. Early folding defects are evident upon translation of the NBD1 and R-domain and are sensed by the RMA-1 ubiquitin ligase complex.

  20. The 1.75 Å resolution structure of fission protein Fis1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals elusive interactions of the autoinhibitory domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooley, James E.; Khangulov, Victor; Lees, Jonathan P. B.; Schlessman, Jamie L.; Bewley, Maria C.; Heroux, Annie; Bosch, Jürgen; Hill, R. Blake

    2011-01-01

    A 1.75 Å resolution crystal structure of the Fis1 cytoplasmic domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported which adopts a tetratricopeptide-repeat fold. Fis1 mediates mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. It is tail-anchored to these organelles by a transmembrane domain, exposing a soluble cytoplasmic domain. Previous studies suggested that Fis1 is autoinhibited by its N-terminal region. Here, a 1.75 Å resolution crystal structure of the Fis1 cytoplasmic domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported which adopts a tetratricopeptide-repeat fold. It is observed that this fold creates a concave surface important for fission, but is sterically occluded by its N-terminal region. Thus, this structure provides a physical basis for autoinhibition and allows a detailed examination of the interactions that stabilize the inhibited state of this molecule

  1. Stapled Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (CaV) α-Interaction Domain (AID) Peptides Act As Selective Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors of CaV Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Campiglio, Marta; Jo, Hyunil; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Rumpf, Christine H; Pope, Lianne; Rossen, Nathan D; Flucher, Bernhard E; DeGrado, William F; Minor, Daniel L

    2017-06-21

    For many voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs), creation of a properly functioning ion channel requires the formation of specific protein-protein interactions between the transmembrane pore-forming subunits and cystoplasmic accessory subunits. Despite the importance of such protein-protein interactions in VGIC function and assembly, their potential as sites for VGIC modulator development has been largely overlooked. Here, we develop meta-xylyl (m-xylyl) stapled peptides that target a prototypic VGIC high affinity protein-protein interaction, the interaction between the voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca V ) pore-forming subunit α-interaction domain (AID) and cytoplasmic β-subunit (Ca V β). We show using circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the m-xylyl staples enhance AID helix formation are structurally compatible with native-like AID:Ca V β interactions and reduce the entropic penalty associated with AID binding to Ca V β. Importantly, electrophysiological studies reveal that stapled AID peptides act as effective inhibitors of the Ca V α 1 :Ca V β interaction that modulate Ca V function in an Ca V β isoform-selective manner. Together, our studies provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of the use of protein-protein interaction inhibitors to control VGIC function and point to strategies for improved AID-based Ca V modulator design.

  2. A single base insertion in the putative transmembrane domain of the tyrosinase gene as a cause for tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintamaneni, C.D.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kwon, B.S. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis (United States)); Halaban, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)); Witkop, C.J. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States))

    1991-06-15

    The authors have determined a molecular defect to be the likely basis for inactivity of the tyrosinase from a patient with tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism. A single base (thymine) was inserted in exon 5 of the tyrosinase gene following codon 471 in the putative transmembrane coding region. This insertion caused a shift in the reading frame of 19 amino acids at the 3{prime} end and introduced a premature termination signal that would be expected to truncate the protein by 21 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus. The albino tyrosinase was not recognized by antibodies directed to the carboxyl terminus of tyrosinase. Furthermore, as shown by gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitated protein, the tyrosinase was {approx} 3kDa smaller than normal. Similar immunoprecipitation data were obtained when cloned normal and mutant tyrosinases were expressed in COS-1 cells.

  3. Expression, refolding and spectroscopic characterization of fibronectin type III (FnIII)-homology domains derived from human fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT)-1,-2, and-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lila; Falkesgaard, Maria Hansen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben

    2017-01-01

    various species have been determined, the expression and purification of recombinant FLRT FnIII domains, important steps for further structural and functional characterizations of the proteins, have not yet been described. Here we present a protocol for expressing recombinant FLRT-FnIII domains...... that a strand-strand cystine bridge has significant effect on the stability of the FLRT FnIII fold. We further show by Surface Plasmon Resonance that all three FnIII domains bind to FGFR1, and roughly estimate a Kd for each domain, all Kds being in the µM range....

  4. Elucidating the Interacting Domains of Chandipura Virus Nucleocapsid Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleocapsid (N protein of Chandipura virus (CHPV plays a crucial role in viral life cycle, besides being an important structural component of the virion through proper organization of its interactions with other viral proteins. In a recent study, the authors had mapped the associations among CHPV proteins and shown that N protein interacts with four of the viral proteins: N, phosphoprotein (P, matrix protein (M, and glycoprotein (G. The present study aimed to distinguish the regions of CHPV N protein responsible for its interactions with other viral proteins. In this direction, we have generated the structure of CHPV N protein by homology modeling using SWISS-MODEL workspace and Accelrys Discovery Studio client 2.55 and mapped the domains of N protein using PiSQRD. The interactions of N protein fragments with other proteins were determined by ZDOCK rigid-body docking method and validated by yeast two-hybrid and ELISA. The study revealed a unique binding site, comprising of amino acids 1–30 at the N terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N1 that is instrumental in its interactions with N, P, M, and G proteins. It was also observed that N2 associates with N and G proteins while N3 interacts with N, P, and M proteins.

  5. Blocking the Interactions between Calcium-Bound S100A12 Protein and the V Domain of RAGE Using Tranilast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jian Wei; Fu, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a transmembrane receptor in the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in several inflammatory processes. RAGE induces cellular signaling pathways upon binding with various ligands, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), β-amyloids, and S100 proteins. The solution structure of S100A12 and the V ligand-binding region of RAGE have been reported previously. Using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy to conduct 1H–15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) titration experiments, we identified and mapped the binding interface between S100A12 and the V domain of RAGE. The NMR chemical shift data were used as the constraints for the High Ambiguity Driven biomolecular DOCKing (HADDOCK) calculation to generate a structural model of the S100A12–V domain complex. In addition, tranilast (an anti-allergic drug) showed strong interaction with S100A12 in the 1H–15N HSQC titration, fluorescence experiments, and WST-1 assay. The results also indicated that tranilast was located at the binding site between S100A12 and the V domain, blocking interaction between these two proteins. Our results provide the mechanistic details for a structural model and reveal a potential precursor for an inhibitor for pro-inflammatory diseases, which could be useful for the development of new drugs. PMID:27598566

  6. Prediction of Cancer Proteins by Integrating Protein Interaction, Domain Frequency, and Domain Interaction Data Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins are known to be associated with cancer diseases. It is quite often that their precise functional role in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. A strategy to gain a better understanding of the function of these proteins is to make use of a combination of different aspects of proteomics data types. In this study, we extended Aragues’s method by employing the protein-protein interaction (PPI data, domain-domain interaction (DDI data, weighted domain frequency score (DFS, and cancer linker degree (CLD data to predict cancer proteins. Performances were benchmarked based on three kinds of experiments as follows: (I using individual algorithm, (II combining algorithms, and (III combining the same classification types of algorithms. When compared with Aragues’s method, our proposed methods, that is, machine learning algorithm and voting with the majority, are significantly superior in all seven performance measures. We demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed method on two independent datasets. The best algorithm can achieve a hit ratio of 89.4% and 72.8% for lung cancer dataset and lung cancer microarray study, respectively. It is anticipated that the current research could help understand disease mechanisms and diagnosis.

  7. A monodisperse transmembrane α-helical peptide barrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Niitsu, Ai; Kong, Lingbing; Thomson, Andrew R.; Sessions, Richard B.; Woolfson, Derek N.; Bayley, Hagan

    2017-05-01

    The fabrication of monodisperse transmembrane barrels formed from short synthetic peptides has not been demonstrated previously. This is in part because of the complexity of the interactions between peptides and lipids within the hydrophobic environment of a membrane. Here we report the formation of a transmembrane pore through the self-assembly of 35 amino acid α-helical peptides. The design of the peptides is based on the C-terminal D4 domain of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide transporter Wza. By using single-channel current recording, we define discrete assembly intermediates and show that the pore is most probably a helix barrel that contains eight D4 peptides arranged in parallel. We also show that the peptide pore is functional and capable of conducting ions and binding blockers. Such α-helix barrels engineered from peptides could find applications in nanopore technologies such as single-molecule sensing and nucleic-acid sequencing.

  8. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) susceptible to rimantadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, David R; Gomez, Lisa M; Pacyniak, Erik; Miller, Jean-Marie; Hill, M Sarah; Stephens, Edward B

    2006-05-10

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV(KU-1bMC33) in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV(M2)) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV(VpuA19H) replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV(KU-1bMC33) and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV(KU-1bMC33). This SHIV(VpuA19H) virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV(M2). Electron microscopic examination of SHIV(VpuA19H)-infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV(M2)-infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the alteration of one amino acid and provide

  9. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVKU-1bMC33) susceptible to rimantadine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Lisa M.; Pacyniak, Erik; Miller, Jean-Marie; Hill, M. Sarah; Stephens, Edward B.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV KU-1bMC33 in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV M2 ) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV KU-1bMC33 ) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV VpuA19H replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV KU-1bMC33 . This SHIV VpuA19H virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV M2 . Electron microscopic examination of SHIV VpuA19H -infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV M2 -infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the alteration of one amino acid and provide

  10. Conformational instability of the MARK3 UBA domain compromises ubiquitin recognition and promotes interaction with the adjacent kinase domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, James M.; Korzhnev, Dmitry M.; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Briant, Douglas J.; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash; Sicheri, Frank; Kay, Lewis E.; Pawson, Tony (Mount Sinai Hospital); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    The Par-1/MARK protein kinases play a pivotal role in establishing cellular polarity. This family of kinases contains a unique domain architecture, in which a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain is located C-terminal to the kinase domain. We have used a combination of x-ray crystallography and NMR dynamics experiments to understand the interaction of the human (h) MARK3 UBA domain with the adjacent kinase domain as compared with ubiquitin. The x-ray crystal structure of the linked hMARK3 kinase and UBA domains establishes that the UBA domain forms a stable intramolecular interaction with the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain. However, solution-state NMR studies of the isolated UBA domain indicate that it is highly dynamic, undergoing conformational transitions that can be explained by a folding-unfolding equilibrium. NMR titration experiments indicated that the hMARK3 UBA domain has a detectable but extremely weak affinity for mono ubiquitin, which suggests that conformational instability of the isolated hMARK3 UBA domain attenuates binding to ubiquitin despite the presence of residues typically involved in ubiquitin recognition. Our data identify a molecular mechanism through which the hMARK3 UBA domain has evolved to bind the kinase domain, in a fashion that stabilizes an open conformation of the N- and C-terminal lobes, at the expense of its capacity to engage ubiquitin. These results may be relevant more generally to the 30% of UBA domains that lack significant ubiquitin-binding activity, and they suggest a unique mechanism by which interaction domains may evolve new binding properties.

  11. Progesterone modulation of transmembrane helix-helix interactions between the α-subunit of Na/K-ATPase and phospholipid N-methyltransferase in the oocyte plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askari Amir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone binding to the surface of the amphibian oocyte initiates the meiotic divisions. Our previous studies with Rana pipiens oocytes indicate that progesterone binds to a plasma membrane site within the external loop between the M1 and M2 helices of the α-subunit of Na/K-ATPase, triggering a cascade of lipid second messengers and the release of the block at meiotic prophase. We have characterized this site, using a low affinity ouabain binding isoform of the α1-subunit. Results Preparations of isolated plasma membranes from Rana oocytes demonstrate that physiological levels of progesterone (or the non-metabolizable progestin R5020 successively activate phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PE-NMT and sphingomyelin synthase within seconds. Inhibition of PE-NMT blocks the progesterone induction of meiosis in intact oocytes, whereas its initial product, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PME, can itself initiate meiosis in the presence of the inhibitor. Published X-ray crystallographic data on Na/K-ATPase, computer-generated 3D projections, heptad repeat analysis and hydrophobic cluster analysis of the transmembrane helices predict that hydrophobic residues L, V, V, I, F and Y of helix M2 of the α1-subunit interact with F, L, G, L, L and F, respectively, of helix M3 of PE-NMT. Conclusion We propose that progesterone binding to the first external loop of the α1-subunit facilitates specific helix-helix interactions between integral membrane proteins to up-regulate PE-NMT, and, that successive interactions between two or more integral plasma membrane proteins induce the signaling cascades which result in completion of the meiotic divisions.

  12. Differential occurrence of interactions and interaction domains in proteins containing homopolymeric amino acid repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria ePelassa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Homopolymeric amino acids repeats (AARs, which are widespread in proteomes, have often been viewed simply as spacers between protein domains, or even as ‘junk’ sequences with no obvious function but with a potential to cause harm upon expansion as in genetic diseases associated with polyglutamine or polyalanine expansions, including Huntington disease and cleidocranial dysplasia. A growing body of evidence indicates however that at least some AARs can form organized, functional protein structures and can regulate protein function. In particular, certain AARs can mediate protein-protein interactions, either through homotypic AAR-AAR contacts or through heterotypic contacts with other protein domains. It is still unclear however, whether AARs may have a generalized, proteome-wide role in shaping protein-protein interaction networks. Therefore, we have undertaken here a bioinformatics screening of the human proteome and interactome in search of quantitative evidence of such a role. We first identified the sets of proteins that contain repeats of any one of the 20 amino acids, as well as control sets of proteins chosen at random in the proteome. We then analyzed the connectivity between the proteins of the AAR-containing protein sets and we compared it with that observed in the corresponding control networks. We find evidence for different degrees of connectivity in the different AAR-containing protein networks. Indeed, networks of proteins containing polyglutamine, polyglutamate, polyproline and other AARs show significantly increased levels of connectivity, whereas networks containing polyleucine and other hydrophobic repeats show lower degrees of connectivity. Furthermore, we observed that numerous protein-protein, -nucleic acid and -lipid interaction domains are significantly enriched in specific AAR protein groups. These findings support the notion of a generalized, combinatorial role of AARs, together with conventional protein interaction

  13. Topology and weights in a protein domain interaction network – a novel way to predict protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchty Stefan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the analysis of unweighted biological webs as diverse as genetic, protein and metabolic networks allowed spectacular insights in the inner workings of a cell, biological networks are not only determined by their static grid of links. In fact, we expect that the heterogeneity in the utilization of connections has a major impact on the organization of cellular activities as well. Results We consider a web of interactions between protein domains of the Protein Family database (PFAM, which are weighted by a probability score. We apply metrics that combine the static layout and the weights of the underlying interactions. We observe that unweighted measures as well as their weighted counterparts largely share the same trends in the underlying domain interaction network. However, we only find weak signals that weights and the static grid of interactions are connected entities. Therefore assuming that a protein interaction is governed by a single domain interaction, we observe strong and significant correlations of the highest scoring domain interaction and the confidence of protein interactions in the underlying interactions of yeast and fly. Modeling an interaction between proteins if we find a high scoring protein domain interaction we obtain 1, 428 protein interactions among 361 proteins in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Assessing their quality by a logistic regression method we observe that increasing confidence of predicted interactions is accompanied by high scoring domain interactions and elevated levels of functional similarity and evolutionary conservation. Conclusion Our results indicate that probability scores are randomly distributed, allowing to treat static grid and weights of domain interactions as separate entities. In particular, these finding confirms earlier observations that a protein interaction is a matter of a single interaction event on domain level. As an immediate application, we

  14. 3did: a catalog of domain-based interactions of known three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Roberto; Céol, Arnaud; Stein, Amelie; Olivella, Roger; Aloy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The database of 3D interacting domains (3did, available online for browsing and bulk download at http://3did.irbbarcelona.org) is a catalog of protein-protein interactions for which a high-resolution 3D structure is known. 3did collects and classifies all structural templates of domain-domain interactions in the Protein Data Bank, providing molecular details for such interactions. The current version also includes a pipeline for the discovery and annotation of novel domain-motif interactions. For every interaction, 3did identifies and groups different binding modes by clustering similar interfaces into 'interaction topologies'. By maintaining a constantly updated collection of domain-based structural interaction templates, 3did is a reference source of information for the structural characterization of protein interaction networks. 3did is updated every 6 months.

  15. Interaction Between the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Domain and the Biotin Carboxylase Domain in Pyruvate Carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D.; Menefee, Ann L.; Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Attwood, Paul V.; Wallace, John C.; Cleland, W. Wallace; Maurice, Martin St.

    2011-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To effect catalysis, the tethered biotin of PC must gain access to active sites in both the biotin carboxylase domain and the carboxyl transferase domain. Previous studies have demonstrated that a mutation of threonine 882 to alanine in PC from Rhizobium etli renders the carboxyl transferase domain inactive and favors the positioning of biotin in the biotin carboxylase domain. We report the 2.4 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the Rhizobium etli PC T882A mutant which reveals the first high-resolution description of the domain interaction between the biotin carboxyl carrier protein domain and the biotin carboxylase domain. The overall quaternary arrangement of Rhizobium etli PC remains highly asymmetrical and is independent of the presence of allosteric activator. While biotin is observed in the biotin carboxylase domain, its access to the active site is precluded by the interaction between Arg353 and Glu248, revealing a mechanism for regulating carboxybiotin access to the BC domain active site. The binding location for the biotin carboxyl carrier protein domain demonstrates that tethered biotin cannot bind in the biotin carboxylase domain active site in the same orientation as free biotin, helping to explain the difference in catalysis observed between tethered biotin and free biotin substrates in biotin carboxylase enzymes. Electron density located in the biotin carboxylase domain active site is assigned to phosphonoacetate, offering a probable location for the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate formed during biotin carboxylation. The insights gained from the T882A Rhizobium etli PC crystal structure provide a new series of catalytic snapshots in PC and offer a revised perspective on catalysis in the biotin-dependent enzyme family. PMID:21958016

  16. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lenoir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH and Tec homology (TH domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  17. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Marc; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael

    2015-10-23

    The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH) and Tec homology (TH) domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA) program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  18. Assessing the Structure and Stability of Transmembrane Oligomeric Intermediates of an α-Helical Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Rajat; Maiti, Prabal K; Ayappa, K Ganapathy

    2017-10-24

    Protein membrane interactions play an important role in our understanding of diverse phenomena ranging from membrane-assisted protein aggregation to oligomerization and folding. Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are the primary vehicle for infection by several strains of bacteria. These proteins which are expressed in a water-soluble form (monomers) bind to the target membrane and conformationally transform (protomers) and self-assemble to form a multimer transmembrane pore complex through a process of oligomerization. On the basis of the structure of the transmembrane domains, PFTs are broadly classified into β or α toxins. In contrast to β-PFTs, the paucity of available crystal structures coupled with the amphipathic nature of the transmembrane domains has hindered our understanding of α-PFT pore formation. In this article, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the process of pore formation of the bacterial α-PFT, cytolysin A from Escherichia coli (ClyA) in lipid bilayer membranes. Using atomistic MD simulations ranging from 50 to 500 ns, we show that transmembrane oligomeric intermediates or "arcs" form stable proteolipidic complexes consisting of protein arcs with toroidal lipids lining the free edges. By creating initial conditions where the lipids are contained within the arcs, we study the dynamics of spontaneous lipid evacuation and toroidal edge formation. This process occurs on the time scale of tens of nanoseconds, suggesting that once protomers oligomerize, transmembrane arcs are rapidly stabilized to form functional water channels capable of leakage. Using umbrella sampling with a coarse-grained molecular model, we obtain the free energy of insertion of a single protomer into the membrane. A single inserted protomer has a stabilization free energy of -52.9 ± 1.2 kJ/mol and forms a stable transmembrane water channel capable of leakage. Our simulations reveal that arcs are stable and viable intermediates that can occur during the pore

  19. Domain-Based Predictive Models for Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xue-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein interactions are of biological interest because they orchestrate a number of cellular processes such as metabolic pathways and immunological recognition. Recently, methods for predicting protein interactions using domain information are proposed and preliminary results have demonstrated their feasibility. In this paper, we develop two domain-based statistical models (neural networks and decision trees for protein interaction predictions. Unlike most of the existing methods which consider only domain pairs (one domain from one protein and assume that domain-domain interactions are independent of each other, the proposed methods are capable of exploring all possible interactions between domains and make predictions based on all the domains. Compared to maximum-likelihood estimation methods, our experimental results show that the proposed schemes can predict protein-protein interactions with higher specificity and sensitivity, while requiring less computation time. Furthermore, the decision tree-based model can be used to infer the interactions not only between two domains, but among multiple domains as well.

  20. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein–protein interaction network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein–protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-represented in hubs when compared with non-hubs, with the number of interactions in hubs increasing with domain diversity. Conversely, the fraction of intrinsic disorder in hubs decreased with increasing number of ordered domains. The difference in the levels of disorder was more prominent in hubs and non-hubs with fewer domains. Functional analysis showed that hubs were enriched in kinase and adaptor domains acting primarily in signal transduction and transcription regulation, whereas non-hubs had more DNA-binding domains and were involved in catalytic activity. Consistent with the differences in the functional nature of their domains, hubs with two or more domains were more likely to connect distinct functional modules in the interaction network when compared with single domain hubs. We conclude that the availability of greater number and diversity of ordered domains, in addition to the tendency to have promiscuous domains, differentiates hubs from non-hubs and provides an additional means of achieving interaction promiscuity. Further, hubs with fewer domains use greater levels of intrinsic disorder to facilitate interaction promiscuity with the prevalence of disorder decreasing with increasing number of ordered domains. PMID:20509167

  1. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-08-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-represented in hubs when compared with non-hubs, with the number of interactions in hubs increasing with domain diversity. Conversely, the fraction of intrinsic disorder in hubs decreased with increasing number of ordered domains. The difference in the levels of disorder was more prominent in hubs and non-hubs with fewer domains. Functional analysis showed that hubs were enriched in kinase and adaptor domains acting primarily in signal transduction and transcription regulation, whereas non-hubs had more DNA-binding domains and were involved in catalytic activity. Consistent with the differences in the functional nature of their domains, hubs with two or more domains were more likely to connect distinct functional modules in the interaction network when compared with single domain hubs. We conclude that the availability of greater number and diversity of ordered domains, in addition to the tendency to have promiscuous domains, differentiates hubs from non-hubs and provides an additional means of achieving interaction promiscuity. Further, hubs with fewer domains use greater levels of intrinsic disorder to facilitate interaction promiscuity with the prevalence of disorder decreasing with increasing number of ordered domains.

  2. The eighth and ninth transmembrane domains in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 affect the transport kinetics of estrone-3-sulfate and estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Mayuko; Maeda, Kazuya; Aoyama, Akinori; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2009-05-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 are responsible for the hepatic uptake of organic anions. They share similar sequences and structures with 12 putative transmembrane domains (TMs). Their substrate specificities are very broad and overlap each other, whereas each transporter specifically recognizes certain substrates. Because the homology of the amino acid sequence in the latter part of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 is relatively low, to determine which TMs in the latter part of OATP1B1 are important for its substrate recognition, we constructed several cell lines expressing chimeric transporters in which some TMs of OATP1B1 were substituted with those of OATP1B3, and we investigated the transport kinetics of estrone-3-sulfate (E-sul; a substrate preferentially accepted by OATP1B1) and estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide (EG; a substrate accepted by both transporters). As the number of substituted TMs at the N terminus with those of OATP1B3 increased, the K(m) value of E-sul greatly increased and its uptake clearance decreased. The substitution of TM7 or TM9 of OATP1B1 with that of OATP1B3 (named 1B1-TM7 or 1B1-TM9) did not change the transport kinetics of EG, whereas the K(m) value of E-sul in 1B1-TM9 increased 7.4-fold. Conversely, the substitution of TM8 resulted in an 18-fold increase in the K(m) value of E-sul and abolished the transporter-mediated uptake of EG. These results suggest that TM8 in OATP1B1 is critical for the substrate recognition of both E-sul and EG and that TM9 is important for the recognition of E-sul, whereas it is interchangeable with that of OATP1B3 for EG transport.

  3. Role of Side-Chain Conformational Entropy in Transmembrane Helix Dimerization of Glycophorin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Crocker, Evan; Siminovitch, David J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2003-01-01

    Dimerization of the transmembrane domain of glycophorin A is mediated by a seven residue motif LIxxGVxxGVxxT through a combination of van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. One of the unusual features of the motif is the large number of β-branched amino acids that may limit the entropic cost of dimerization by restricting side-chain motion in the monomeric transmembrane helix. Deuterium NMR spectroscopy is used to characterize the dynamics of fully deuterated Val80 and Val84, two essential amino acids of the dimerization motif. Deuterium spectra of the glycophorin A transmembrane dimer were obtained using synthetic peptides corresponding to the transmembrane sequence containing either perdeuterated Val80 or Val84. These data were compared with spectra of monomeric glycophorin A peptides deuterated at Val84. In all cases, the deuterium line shapes are characterized by fast methyl group rotation with virtually no motion about the Cα-Cβ bond. This is consistent with restriction of the side chain in both the monomer and dimer due to intrahelical packing interactions involving the β-methyl groups, and indicates that there is no energy cost associated with dimerization due to loss of conformational entropy. In contrast, deuterium NMR spectra of Met81 and Val82, in the lipid interface, reflected greater motional averaging and fast exchange between different side-chain conformers. PMID:12547806

  4. iPfam: a database of protein family and domain interactions found in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Robert D; Miller, Benjamin L; Clements, Jody; Bateman, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The database iPfam, available at http://ipfam.org, catalogues Pfam domain interactions based on known 3D structures that are found in the Protein Data Bank, providing interaction data at the molecular level. Previously, the iPfam domain-domain interaction data was integrated within the Pfam database and website, but it has now been migrated to a separate database. This allows for independent development, improving data access and giving clearer separation between the protein family and interactions datasets. In addition to domain-domain interactions, iPfam has been expanded to include interaction data for domain bound small molecule ligands. Functional annotations are provided from source databases, supplemented by the incorporation of Wikipedia articles where available. iPfam (version 1.0) contains >9500 domain-domain and 15 500 domain-ligand interactions. The new website provides access to this data in a variety of ways, including interactive visualizations of the interaction data.

  5. Amino-terminal domain of classic cadherins determines the specificity of the adhesive interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Troyanovsky, R B; Laur, O Y

    2000-01-01

    Classic cadherins are transmembrane receptors involved in cell type-specific calcium-dependent intercellular adhesion. The specificity of adhesion is mediated by homophilic interactions between cadherins extending from opposing cell surfaces. In addition, classic cadherins can self......-associate forming lateral dimers. Whereas it is widely excepted that lateral dimerization of cadherins is critical for adhesion, details of this process are not known. Yet, no evidence for physical association between different classic cadherins in cells expressing complex cadherin patterns has been reported....... To study lateral and adhesive intercadherin interactions, we examined interactions between two classic cadherins, E- and P-cadherins, in epithelial A-431 cells co-producing both proteins. We showed that these cells exhibited heterocomplexes consisting of laterally assembled E- and P...

  6. The STI and UBA Domains of UBQLN1 Are Critical Determinants of Substrate Interaction and Proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlawala, Zimple; Shah, Parag P; Shah, Charmi; Beverly, Levi J

    2017-08-01

    There are five Ubiquilin proteins (UBQLN1-4, UBQLN-L), which are evolutionarily conserved and structurally similar. UBQLN proteins have three functional domains: N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UBL), C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA), and STI chaperone-like regions in the middle. Alterations in UBQLN1 gene have been detected in a variety of disorders ranging from Alzheimer's disease to cancer. UBQLN1 has been largely studied in neurodegenerative disorders in the context of protein quality control. Several studies have hypothesized that the UBA domain of UBQLN1 binds to poly-ubiquitin chains of substrate and shuttles it to the proteasome via its UBL domain for degradation. UBQLN1 either facilitates degradation (Ataxin3, EPS15) or stabilizes (PSEN1/2, BCLb) substrates it binds to. The signal that determines this fate is unknown and there is conflicting data to support the existing working model of UBQLN1. Using BCLb as a model substrate, we characterized UBQLN1-substrate interaction. We identified the first two STI domains of UBQLN1 as critical for binding to BCLb. Interaction of UBQLN1 with BCLb is independent of ubiquitination of BCLb, but interaction with ubiquitin via UBA domain is required for stabilization of BCLb. Similarly, we showed that UBQLN1 interacts with IGF1R and ESYT2 through the STI domains and stabilizes these proteins through its UBA domain. Interactions that are not dependent on STI domains, for example, UBL mediated interaction with PSMD4 and BAG6, do not appear to be stabilized by UBQLN1. We conclude that fate of substrates that UBQLN1 associates with, is interaction domain specific. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2261-2270, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membranes and a Transmembrane Helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tap Ha; Mehler, Ernest L.; Weinstein, Harel

    1999-05-01

    Three molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1.5-ns length were carried out on fully hydrated patches of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase. The simulations were performed using different ensembles and electrostatic conditions: a microcanonical ensemble or constant pressure-temperature ensemble, with or without truncated electrostatic interactions. Calculated properties of the membrane patches from the three different protocols were compared to available data from experiments. These data include the resulting overall geometrical dimensions, the order characteristics of the lipid hydrocarbon chains, as well as various measures of the conformations of the polar head groups. The comparisons indicate that the simulation carried out within the microcanonical ensemble with truncated electrostatic interactions yielded results closest to the experimental data, provided that the initial equilibration phase preceding the production run was sufficiently long. The effects of embedding a non-ideal helical protein domain in the membrane patch were studied with the same MD protocols. This simulation was carried out for 2.5 ns. The protein domain corresponds to the seventh transmembrane segment (TMS7) of the human serotonin 5HT 2Areceptor. The peptide is composed of two α-helical segments linked by a hinge domain around a perturbing Asn-Pro motif that produces at the end of the simulation a kink angle of nearly 80° between the two helices. Several aspects of the TMS7 structure, such as the bending angle, backbone Φ and Ψ torsion angles, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and the overall conformation, were found to be very similar to those determined by NMR for the corresponding transmembrane segment of the tachykinin NK-1 receptor. In general, the simulations were found to yield structural and dynamic characteristics that are in good agreement with experiment. These findings support the application of simulation methods to the study

  8. Mechanism of mRNA-STAR domain interaction: Molecular dynamics simulations of Mammalian Quaking STAR protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Anirudh, C R

    2017-10-03

    STAR proteins are evolutionary conserved mRNA-binding proteins that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression at all stages of RNA metabolism. These proteins possess conserved STAR domain that recognizes identical RNA regulatory elements as YUAAY. Recently reported crystal structures show that STAR domain is composed of N-terminal QUA1, K-homology domain (KH) and C-terminal QUA2, and mRNA binding is mediated by KH-QUA2 domain. Here, we present simulation studies done to investigate binding of mRNA to STAR protein, mammalian Quaking protein (QKI). We carried out conventional MD simulations of STAR domain in presence and absence of mRNA, and studied the impact of mRNA on the stability, dynamics and underlying allosteric mechanism of STAR domain. Our unbiased simulations results show that presence of mRNA stabilizes the overall STAR domain by reducing the structural deviations, correlating the 'within-domain' motions, and maintaining the native contacts information. Absence of mRNA not only influenced the essential modes of motion of STAR domain, but also affected the connectivity of networks within STAR domain. We further explored the dissociation of mRNA from STAR domain using umbrella sampling simulations, and the results suggest that mRNA binding to STAR domain occurs in multi-step: first conformational selection of mRNA backbone conformations, followed by induced fit mechanism as nucleobases interact with STAR domain.

  9. Structural insights into a wildtype domain of the oncoprotein E6 and its interaction with a PDZ domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mischo

    Full Text Available The high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 interact with key cellular regulators and are etiological agents for tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance in cervical cancer and other malignant conditions. E6 induces degradation of the tumor suppressor p53, activates telomerase and deregulates cell polarity. Analysis of E6 derived from a number of high risk HPV finally yielded the first structure of a wild-type HPV E6 domain (PDB 2M3L representing the second zinc-binding domain of HPV 51 E6 (termed 51Z2 determined by NMR spectroscopy. The 51Z2 structure provides clues about HPV-type specific structural differences between E6 proteins. The observed temperature sensitivity of the well-folded wild-type E6 domain implies a significant malleability of the oncoprotein in vivo. Hence, the structural differences between individual E6 and their malleability appear, together with HPV type-specific surface exposed side-chains, to provide the structural basis for the different interaction networks reported for individual E6 proteins. Furthermore, the interaction of 51Z2 with a PDZ domain of hDlg was analyzed. Human Dlg constitutes a prototypic representative of the large family of PDZ proteins regulating cell polarity, which are common targets of high-risk HPV E6. Nine C-terminal residues of 51Z2 interact with the second PDZ domain of hDlg2. Surface plasmon resonance in conjunction with the NMR spectroscopy derived complex structure (PDB 2M3M indicate that E6 residues N-terminal to the canonical PDZ-BM of E6 significantly contribute to this interaction and increase affinity. The structure of the complex reveals how residues outside of the classical PDZ-BM enhance the affinity of E6 towards PDZ domains. Such mechanism facilitates successful competition of E6 with cellular PDZ-binding proteins and may apply to PDZ-binding proteins of other viruses as well.

  10. GAIA: a gram-based interaction analysis tool--an approach for identifying interacting domains in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kelvin X; Ouellette, B F Francis

    2009-01-30

    Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) play important roles in many biological functions. Protein domains, which are defined as independently folding structural blocks of proteins, physically interact with each other to perform these biological functions. Therefore, the identification of Domain-Domain Interactions (DDIs) is of great biological interests because it is generally accepted that PPIs are mediated by DDIs. As a result, much effort has been put on the prediction of domain pair interactions based on computational methods. Many DDI prediction tools using PPIs network and domain evolution information have been reported. However, tools that combine the primary sequences, domain annotations, and structural annotations of proteins have not been evaluated before. In this study, we report a novel approach called Gram-bAsed Interaction Analysis (GAIA). GAIA extracts peptide segments that are composed of fixed length of continuous amino acids, called n-grams (where n is the number of amino acids), from the annotated domain and DDI data set in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and identifies a list of n-grams that may contribute to DDIs and PPIs based on the frequencies of their appearance. GAIA also reports the coordinate position of gram pairs on each interacting domain pair. We demonstrate that our approach improves on other DDI prediction approaches when tested against a gold-standard data set and achieves a true positive rate of 82% and a false positive rate of 21%. We also identify a list of 4-gram pairs that are significantly over-represented in the DDI data set and may mediate PPIs. GAIA represents a novel and reliable way to predict DDIs that mediate PPIs. Our results, which show the localizations of interacting grams/hotspots, provide testable hypotheses for experimental validation. Complemented with other prediction methods, this study will allow us to elucidate the interactome of cells.

  11. A domain-based approach to predict protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Haluk

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowing which proteins exist in a certain organism or cell type and how these proteins interact with each other are necessary for the understanding of biological processes at the whole cell level. The determination of the protein-protein interaction (PPI networks has been the subject of extensive research. Despite the development of reasonably successful methods, serious technical difficulties still exist. In this paper we present DomainGA, a quantitative computational approach that uses the information about the domain-domain interactions to predict the interactions between proteins. Results DomainGA is a multi-parameter optimization method in which the available PPI information is used to derive a quantitative scoring scheme for the domain-domain pairs. Obtained domain interaction scores are then used to predict whether a pair of proteins interacts. Using the yeast PPI data and a series of tests, we show the robustness and insensitivity of the DomainGA method to the selection of the parameter sets, score ranges, and detection rules. Our DomainGA method achieves very high explanation ratios for the positive and negative PPIs in yeast. Based on our cross-verification tests on human PPIs, comparison of the optimized scores with the structurally observed domain interactions obtained from the iPFAM database, and sensitivity and specificity analysis; we conclude that our DomainGA method shows great promise to be applicable across multiple organisms. Conclusion We envision the DomainGA as a first step of a multiple tier approach to constructing organism specific PPIs. As it is based on fundamental structural information, the DomainGA approach can be used to create potential PPIs and the accuracy of the constructed interaction template can be further improved using complementary methods. Explanation ratios obtained in the reported test case studies clearly show that the false prediction rates of the template networks constructed

  12. Interaction domains in high-performance NdFeB thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, T.G. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: t.woodcock@ifw-dresden.de; Khlopkov, K. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Walther, A. [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA Leti - MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Dempsey, N.M.; Givord, D. [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Schultz, L.; Gutfleisch, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The magnetic domain structure in sputtered NdFeB thick films has been imaged by magnetic force microscopy. The local texture of the films was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The average misorientation of the grains was shown to decrease with increasing substrate temperature during deposition. Interaction domains were observed and are discussed with reference (i) to the sample grain size compared to the single domain particle size and (ii) to sample texture.

  13. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported.Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species.All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments

  14. New method of detecting hydrophobic interaction between C-terminal binding domain and biomacromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, JiaFeng; Wu, RiBang; Wu, CuiLing; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Jiang; Liao, BinQiang; Lei, Ming; Xiao, Xiao; Ma, ChangBei; He, HaiLun

    2018-01-10

    The C-terminal domains of proteases play crucial roles in hydrolysis, substrate adsorption and targeted binding. Identifying and characterizing interactions between C-terminal domains and biomacromolecules can help to examine the diversity as well as the substrate-binding ability of C-terminal domains and to explore novel functions. The bacterial pre-peptidase C-terminal (PPC) domain is a typical C-terminal domain normally found at the C-terminus of bacterial secreted proteases. In this work, we successfully demonstrated that 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) could be used to rapidly determine the interactions between this C-terminal domain and biomacromolecules. The time-resolved ANS fluorescence of PPC and collagen interaction could be used for quantitative analysis of the collagen-binding capability based on the slope of the time-scanning curve. Using this method, we found that PPC domains had an obvious affinity to fibrillar proteins but had little or no capacity to bind polysaccharides or linear DNAs. Docking studies proved that collagen bound to the same hydrophobic site of PPC as the ANS probe, causing a decrease in the emission intensity. This method is simple and cost effective and provides an effective detection technique to analyze the interaction between this C-terminal domain and biomolecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein–protein interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein–protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-re...

  16. Protein-lipid interactions: from membrane domains to cellular networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamm, Lukas K

    2005-01-01

    ... membranes is the lipid bilayer. Embedded in the fluid lipid bilayer are proteins of various shapes and traits. This volume illuminates from physical, chemical and biological angles the numerous - mostly quite weak - interactions between lipids, proteins, and proteins and lipids that define the delicate, highly dynamic and yet so stable fabri...

  17. Structure of Staphylococcal α-Hemolysin, a Heptameric Transmembrane Pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langzhou; Hobaugh, Michael R.; Shustak, Christopher; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan; Gouaux, J. Eric

    1996-12-01

    The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin pore has been determined to 1.9 overset{circ}{mathrm A} resolution. Contained within the mushroom-shaped homo-oligomeric heptamer is a solvent-filled channel, 100 overset{circ}{mathrm A} in length, that runs along the sevenfold axis and ranges from 14 overset{circ}{mathrm A} to 46 overset{circ}{mathrm A} in diameter. The lytic, transmembrane domain comprises the lower half of a 14-strand antiparallel β barrel, to which each protomer contributes two β strands, each 65 overset{circ}{mathrm A} long. The interior of the β barrel is primarily hydrophilic, and the exterior has a hydrophobic belt 28 overset{circ}{mathrm A} wide. The structure proves the heptameric subunit stoichiometry of the α-hemolysin oligomer, shows that a glycine-rich and solvent-exposed region of a water-soluble protein can self-assemble to form a transmembrane pore of defined structure, and provides insight into the principles of membrane interaction and transport activity of β barrel pore-forming toxins.

  18. Energetics of Src homology domain interactions in receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, John E; Arold, Stefan T

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) on extracellular stimulation is fundamental to all cellular processes. The protein-protein interactions which form the basis of this signaling are mediated through a limited number of polypeptide domains. For signal transduction without corruption, based on a model where signaling pathways are considered as linear bimolecular relays, these interactions have to be highly specific. This is particularly the case when one considers that any cell may have copies of similar binding domains found in numerous proteins. In this work, an overview of the thermodynamics of binding of two of the most common of these domains (SH2 and SH3 domains) is given. This, coupled with insight from high-resolution structural detail, provides a comprehensive survey of how recognition of cognate binding sites for these domains occurs. Based on the data presented, we conclude that specificity offered by these interactions of SH2 and SH3 domains is limited and not sufficient to enforce mutual exclusivity in RTK-mediated signaling. This may explain the current lack of success in pharmaceutical intervention to inhibit the interactions of these domains when they are responsible for aberrant signaling and the resulting disease states such as cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Membrane Interaction of the Factor VIIIa Discoidin Domains in Atomistic Detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Ohkubo, Y. Zenmei; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed membrane-mimetic model was applied to study membrane interaction and binding of the two anchoring C2-like discoidin domains of human coagulation factor VIIIa (FVIIIa), the C1 and C2 domains. Both individual domains, FVIII C1 and FVIII C2, were observed to bind the phospholipi...... binding of FVIIIa, based on the prevalent nonspecificity of ionic interactions in the simulated membrane-bound states of FVIII C1 and FVIII C2.......A recently developed membrane-mimetic model was applied to study membrane interaction and binding of the two anchoring C2-like discoidin domains of human coagulation factor VIIIa (FVIIIa), the C1 and C2 domains. Both individual domains, FVIII C1 and FVIII C2, were observed to bind the phospholipid....... The results indicate that FVIII C1 may be important in modulating the orientation of the FVIIIa molecule to optimize the interaction with FIXa, which is anchored to the membrane via its γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (Gla) domain. Additionally, a structural change was observed in FVIII C1 in the coiled main...

  20. Prediction of inter domain interactions in modular polyketide synthases by docking and correlated mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Gitanjali; Anand, Swadha; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are huge multi-enzymatic protein complexes involved in the biosynthesis of one of the largest families of bioactive natural products, namely polyketides. The specificity of interactions between various catalytic domains of these megasynthases is one of the pivotal factors which control the precise order in which the extender units are joined during the biosynthetic process. Hence, understanding the molecular details of protein-protein interactions in the PKS megasynthases would be crucial for rational design of novel polyketides by domain swapping experiments involving engineered combinations of PKS catalytic domains. We have developed a computational method for exploring the binding interface between two proteins, and used it to identify the interacting residue pairs, which govern the specificity of recognition between acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain and two core catalytic domains, namely the ketosynthase (KS) and acyl transferase (AT). Both of these domain interactions i.e. the KS-ACP and the AT-ACP, are likely to play a major role in channelling of substrates and control of specificity during polyketide biosynthesis. The method, called interface scan, uses a combination of geometric docking and evolutionary information for the identification of the most appropriate mode of association between two proteins. The parameters of interface scan have been standardized based on analysis of contacts in the crystal structure of ACP in complex with ACP synthase (AcpS). Many of the contacts predicted for PKS domains are in agreement with available experiments.

  1. Domain Structures and Inter-Domain Interactions Defining the Holoenzyme Architecture of Archaeal D-Family DNA Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideshi Yokoyama

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Archaea-specific D-family DNA polymerase (PolD forms a dimeric heterodimer consisting of two large polymerase subunits and two small exonuclease subunits. According to the protein-protein interactions identified among the domains of large and small subunits of PolD, a symmetrical model for the domain topology of the PolD holoenzyme is proposed. The experimental evidence supports various aspects of the model. The conserved amphipathic nature of the N-terminal putative α-helix of the large subunit plays a key role in the homodimeric assembly and the self-cyclization of the large subunit and is deeply involved in the archaeal PolD stability and activity. We also discuss the evolutional transformation from archaeal D-family to eukaryotic B-family polymerase on the basis of the structural information.

  2. Domain structures and inter-domain interactions defining the holoenzyme architecture of archaeal d-family DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ikuo; Matsui, Eriko; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Yokoyama, Hideshi

    2013-07-05

    Archaea-specific D-family DNA polymerase (PolD) forms a dimeric heterodimer consisting of two large polymerase subunits and two small exonuclease subunits. According to the protein-protein interactions identified among the domains of large and small subunits of PolD, a symmetrical model for the domain topology of the PolD holoenzyme is proposed. The experimental evidence supports various aspects of the model. The conserved amphipathic nature of the N-terminal putative α-helix of the large subunit plays a key role in the homodimeric assembly and the self-cyclization of the large subunit and is deeply involved in the archaeal PolD stability and activity. We also discuss the evolutional transformation from archaeal D-family to eukaryotic B-family polymerase on the basis of the structural information.

  3. Interacting domain-specific languages with biological problem solving environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cickovski, Trevor M.

    Iteratively developing a biological model and verifying results with lab observations has become standard practice in computational biology. This process is currently facilitated by biological Problem Solving Environments (PSEs), multi-tiered and modular software frameworks which traditionally consist of two layers: a computational layer written in a high level language using design patterns, and a user interface layer which hides its details. Although PSEs have proven effective, they still enforce some communication overhead between biologists refining their models through repeated comparison with experimental observations in vitro or in vivo, and programmers actually implementing model extensions and modifications within the computational layer. I illustrate the use of biological Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) as a middle-level PSE tier to ameliorate this problem by providing experimentalists with the ability to iteratively test and develop their models using a higher degree of expressive power compared to a graphical interface, while saving the requirement of general purpose programming knowledge. I develop two radically different biological DSLs: XML-based BIOLOGO will model biological morphogenesis using a cell-centered stochastic cellular automaton and translate into C++ modules for an object-oriented PSE C OMPUCELL3D, and MDLab will provide a set of high-level Python libraries for running molecular dynamics simulations, using wrapped functionality from the C++ PSE PROTOMOL. I describe each language in detail, including its its roles within the larger PSE and its expressibility in terms of representable phenomena, and a discussion of observations from users of the languages. Moreover I will use these studies to draw general conclusions about biological DSL development, including dependencies upon the goals of the corresponding PSE, strategies, and tradeoffs.

  4. Soil-structure interaction analysis of NPP containments: substructure and frequency domain methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venancio-Filho, F.; Almeida, M.C.F.; Ferreira, W.G.; De Barros, F.C.P.

    1997-01-01

    Substructure and frequency domain methods for soil-structure interaction are addressed in this paper. After a brief description of mathematical models for the soil and of excitation, the equations for dynamic soil-structure interaction are developed for a rigid surface foundation and for an embedded foundation. The equations for the frequency domain analysis of MDOF systems are provided. An example of soil-structure interaction analysis with frequency-dependent soil properties is given and examples of identification of foundation impedance functions and soil properties are presented. (orig.)

  5. Interaction of calmodulin with the calmodulin binding domain of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorherr, T.; James, P.; Krebs, J.; Carafoli, E.; McCormick, D.J.; Penniston, J.T.; Enyedi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Peptides corresponding to the calmodulin binding domain of the plasma membrane Ca 2+ pump were synthesized, and their interaction with calmodulin was studied with circular dichroism, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and fluorescence techniques. They corresponded to the complete calmodulin binding domain (28 residues), to its first 15 or 20 amino acids, and to its C-terminal 14 amino acids. The first three peptides interacted with calmodulin. The K value was similar to that of the intact enzyme in the 28 and 20 amino acid peptides, but increased substantially in the shorter 15 amino acid peptide. The 14 amino acid peptide corresponding to the C-terminal portion of the domain failed to bind calmodulin. 2D NMR experiments on the 20 amino acid peptides have indicated that the interaction occurred with the C-terminal half of calmodulin. A tryptophan that is conserved in most calmodulin binding domains of proteins was replaced by other amino acids, giving rise to modified peptides which had lower affinity for calmodulin. An 18 amino acid peptide corresponding to an acidic sequence immediately N-terminal to the calmodulin binding domain which is likely to be a Ca 2+ binding site in the pump was also synthesized. Circular dichroism experiments have shown that it interacted with calmodulin binding domain, supporting the suggestion that the latter, or a portion of it, may act as a natural inhibitor of the pump

  6. An Efficient Semi-supervised Learning Approach to Predict SH2 Domain Mediated Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Kousik; Backofen, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is an important subclass of modular protein domains that plays an indispensable role in several biological processes in eukaryotes. SH2 domains specifically bind to the phosphotyrosine residue of their binding peptides to facilitate various molecular functions. For determining the subtle binding specificities of SH2 domains, it is very important to understand the intriguing mechanisms by which these domains recognize their target peptides in a complex cellular environment. There are several attempts have been made to predict SH2-peptide interactions using high-throughput data. However, these high-throughput data are often affected by a low signal to noise ratio. Furthermore, the prediction methods have several additional shortcomings, such as linearity problem, high computational complexity, etc. Thus, computational identification of SH2-peptide interactions using high-throughput data remains challenging. Here, we propose a machine learning approach based on an efficient semi-supervised learning technique for the prediction of 51 SH2 domain mediated interactions in the human proteome. In our study, we have successfully employed several strategies to tackle the major problems in computational identification of SH2-peptide interactions.

  7. Characterization of the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of Japanese encephalitis virus precursor membrane (prM protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Suh-Chin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The interaction between prM and E proteins in flavivirus-infected cells is a major driving force for the assembly of flavivirus particles. We used site-directed mutagenesis to study the potential role of the transmembrane domains of the prM proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in prM-E heterodimerization as well as subviral particle formation. Alanine insertion scanning mutagenesis within the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of JEV prM protein affected the prM-E heterodimerization; its specificity was confirmed by replacing the two glycines of the GXXXG motif with alanine, leucine and valine. The GXXXG motif was found to be conserved in the JEV serocomplex viruses but not other flavivirus groups. These mutants with alanine inserted in the two prM transmembrane segments all impaired subviral particle formation in cell cultures. The prM transmembrane domains of JEV may play importation roles in prM-E heterodimerization and viral particle assembly.

  8. Interaction of von Willebrand factor domains with collagen investigated by single molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Sandra; Obser, Tobias; König, Gesa; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Tampé, Robert; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2018-03-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a huge multimeric protein that plays a key role in primary hemostasis. Sites for collagen binding, an initial event of hemostasis, are located in the VWF-domains A1 and A3. In this study, we investigated single molecule interactions between collagen surfaces and wild type VWF A1A2A3 domain constructs, as well as clinically relevant VWF A3 domain point mutations, such as p.Ser1731Thr, p.Gln1734His, and p.His1786Arg. For this, we utilized atomic force microscopy based single molecular force spectroscopy. The p.Ser1731Thr mutant had no impact on the VWF-collagen type III and VI interactions, while the p.Gln1734His and p.His1786Arg mutants showed a slight increase in bond stability to collagen type III. This effect probably arises from additional hydrogen bonds that come along with the introduction of these mutations. Using the same mutants, but collagen type VI as a binding partner, resulted in a significant increase in bond stability. VWF domain A1 was reported to be essential for the interaction with collagen type VI and thus our findings strengthen the hypothesis that the VWF A1 domain can compensate for mutations in the VWF A3 domain. Additionally, our data suggest that the mutations could even stabilize the interaction between VWF and collagen without shear. VWF-collagen interactions seem to be an important system in which defective interactions between one VWF domain and one type of collagen can be compensated by alternative binding events.

  9. A physical model describing the interaction of nuclear transport receptors with FG nucleoporin domain assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Raphael; Osmanović, Dino; Ehret, Severin; Araya Callis, Carolina; Frey, Steffen; Stewart, Murray; You, Changjiang; Görlich, Dirk; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Richter, Ralf P

    2016-04-08

    The permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) controls bulk nucleocytoplasmic exchange. It consists of nucleoporin domains rich in phenylalanine-glycine motifs (FG domains). As a bottom-up nanoscale model for the permeability barrier, we have used planar films produced with three different end-grafted FG domains, and quantitatively analyzed the binding of two different nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), NTF2 and Importin β, together with the concomitant film thickness changes. NTR binding caused only moderate changes in film thickness; the binding isotherms showed negative cooperativity and could all be mapped onto a single master curve. This universal NTR binding behavior - a key element for the transport selectivity of the NPC - was quantitatively reproduced by a physical model that treats FG domains as regular, flexible polymers, and NTRs as spherical colloids with a homogeneous surface, ignoring the detailed arrangement of interaction sites along FG domains and on the NTR surface.

  10. Integrating natural language processing and web GIS for interactive knowledge domain visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangming

    Recent years have seen a powerful shift towards data-rich environments throughout society. This has extended to a change in how the artifacts and products of scientific knowledge production can be analyzed and understood. Bottom-up approaches are on the rise that combine access to huge amounts of academic publications with advanced computer graphics and data processing tools, including natural language processing. Knowledge domain visualization is one of those multi-technology approaches, with its aim of turning domain-specific human knowledge into highly visual representations in order to better understand the structure and evolution of domain knowledge. For example, network visualizations built from co-author relations contained in academic publications can provide insight on how scholars collaborate with each other in one or multiple domains, and visualizations built from the text content of articles can help us understand the topical structure of knowledge domains. These knowledge domain visualizations need to support interactive viewing and exploration by users. Such spatialization efforts are increasingly looking to geography and GIS as a source of metaphors and practical technology solutions, even when non-georeferenced information is managed, analyzed, and visualized. When it comes to deploying spatialized representations online, web mapping and web GIS can provide practical technology solutions for interactive viewing of knowledge domain visualizations, from panning and zooming to the overlay of additional information. This thesis presents a novel combination of advanced natural language processing - in the form of topic modeling - with dimensionality reduction through self-organizing maps and the deployment of web mapping/GIS technology towards intuitive, GIS-like, exploration of a knowledge domain visualization. A complete workflow is proposed and implemented that processes any corpus of input text documents into a map form and leverages a web

  11. Interaction of the superconducting domains induced by external electric field with electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of a superconductor in time-independent electric field perpendicular to the surface and in the external electromagnetic wave is theoretically investigated. A new type of the resonance interaction between superconducting domains localized along the magnetic field (if the superconducting phase transition takes place in the external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface) and electromagnetic waves is predicted. The surface impedance of the superconductor with domains is calculated. It is shown that the real part of the impedance has a saturation if the skin length equals the domain size. (orig.)

  12. The measles virus phosphoprotein interacts with the linker domain of STAT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaux, Patricia, E-mail: devaux.patricia@mayo.edu; Priniski, Lauren; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2013-09-15

    The measles virus (MV) phosphoprotein (P) and V proteins block the interferon (IFN) response by impeding phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) by the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). We characterized how STAT1 mutants interact with P and JAK1 phosphorylation. Certain mutants of the linker, the Src-homology 2 domain (SH2), or the transactivation domain had reduced or abolished phosphorylation through JAK1 after IFN treatment. Other mutants, mainly localized in the linker, failed to interact with P as documented by the lack of interference with nuclear translocation. Thus the functional footprint of P on STAT1 localizes mainly to the linker domain; there is also some overlap with the STAT1 phosphorylation functional footprint on the SH2 domain. Based on these observations, we discuss how the MV-P might operate to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway. - Highlights: • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for MV-P interaction. • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for STAT1 phosphorylation. • Residues interferring with both functions have similar location on STAT1. • The viral P and V proteins may operate in concert to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway.

  13. The measles virus phosphoprotein interacts with the linker domain of STAT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, Patricia; Priniski, Lauren; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) phosphoprotein (P) and V proteins block the interferon (IFN) response by impeding phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) by the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). We characterized how STAT1 mutants interact with P and JAK1 phosphorylation. Certain mutants of the linker, the Src-homology 2 domain (SH2), or the transactivation domain had reduced or abolished phosphorylation through JAK1 after IFN treatment. Other mutants, mainly localized in the linker, failed to interact with P as documented by the lack of interference with nuclear translocation. Thus the functional footprint of P on STAT1 localizes mainly to the linker domain; there is also some overlap with the STAT1 phosphorylation functional footprint on the SH2 domain. Based on these observations, we discuss how the MV-P might operate to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway. - Highlights: • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for MV-P interaction. • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for STAT1 phosphorylation. • Residues interferring with both functions have similar location on STAT1. • The viral P and V proteins may operate in concert to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway

  14. Phosphomimetic mutation of the mitotically phosphorylated serine 1880 compromises the interaction of the transmembrane nucleoporin gp210 with the nuclear pore complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onischenko, Evgeny A.; Crafoord, Ellinor; Hallberg, Einar

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) reversibly disassemble and reassemble during mitosis. Disassembly of the NPC is accompanied by phosphorylation of many nucleoporins although the function of this is not clear. It was previously shown that in the transmembrane nucleoporin gp210 a single serine residue at position 1880 is specifically phosphorylated during mitosis. Using amino acid substitution combined with live cell imaging, time-lapse microscopy and FRAP, we investigated the role of serine 1880 in binding of gp210 to the NPC in vivo. An alanine substitution mutant (S1880A) was significantly more dynamic at the NPC compared to the wild-type protein, suggesting that serine 1880 is important for binding of gp210 to the NPC. Moreover a glutamate substitution (S1880E) closely mimicking phosphorylated serine specifically interfered with incorporation of gp210 into the NPC and compromised its post-mitotic recruitment to the nuclear envelope of daughter nuclei. Our findings are consistent with the idea that mitotic phosphorylation acts to dissociate gp210 from the structural elements of the NPC

  15. Identification of the interaction and interaction domains of chicken anemia virus VP2 and VP3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fenfen; Pan, Wei; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2018-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small, single-stranded DNA virus of Anelloviridae family. Its genome segments encode three proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3. This study identified an interaction between VP2 and VP3 and mapped the interaction domains. Through the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, VP2 was found to interact with VP3. The presence of the VP2-VP3 complex in CAV-infected chicken cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal microscopy showed that VP2 and VP3 were expressed in the cytoplasm in cotransfected Vero cells. In the Y2H system, the interaction domains were identified as being within the N-terminal aa 1-30 and C-terminal aa 17-60 for VP2 and the N-terminal aa 46-60 and C-terminal aa 1-7 for VP3. This study showed the interaction between VP2 and VP3 of CAV and identified multiple independent interactive domains within the two proteins. This provides novel information for investigating the biological functions of these proteins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Interactions of U24 from Roseolovirus with WW domains: canonical vs noncanonical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yurou; Zhang, Rui; Creagh, A Louise; Haynes, Charles A; Straus, Suzana K

    2017-06-01

    U24 is a C-terminal membrane-anchored protein found in both human herpes virus type 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7), with an N-terminal segment that is rich in prolines (PPxY motif in both HHV-6A and 7; PxxP motif in HHV-6A). Previous work has shown that U24 interacts strongly with Nedd4 WW domains, in particular, hNedd4L-WW3*. It was also shown that this interaction depends strongly on the nature of the amino acids that are upstream from the PY motif in U24. In this contribution, data was obtained from pull-downs, isothermal titration calorimetry, and NMR to further determine what modulates U24:WW domain interactions. Specifically, 3 non-canonical WW domains from human Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor (Smurf), namely hSmurf2-WW2, hSmurf2-WW3, and a tandem construct hSmurf2-WW2 + 3, were studied. Overall, the interactions between U24 and these Smurf WW domains were found to be weaker than those in U24:Nedd4 WW domain pairs, suggesting that U24 function is tightly linked to specific E3 ubiqitin ligases.

  17. Structures of the NLRP14 pyrin domain reveal a conformational switch mechanism regulating its molecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibl, Clarissa; Hessenberger, Manuel; Wenger, Julia; Brandstetter, Hans, E-mail: hans.brandstetter@sbg.ac.at [University of Salzburg, Billrothstrasse 11, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Pyrin domains (PYDs) recruit downstream effector molecules in NLR signalling. A specific charge-relay system suggests a the formation of a signalling complex involving a PYD dimer. The cytosolic tripartite NLR receptors serve as important signalling platforms in innate immunity. While the C-terminal domains act as sensor and activation modules, the N-terminal death-like domain, e.g. the CARD or pyrin domain, is thought to recruit downstream effector molecules by homotypic interactions. Such homotypic complexes have been determined for all members of the death-domain superfamily except for pyrin domains. Here, crystal structures of human NLRP14 pyrin-domain variants are reported. The wild-type protein as well as the clinical D86V mutant reveal an unexpected rearrangement of the C-terminal helix α6, resulting in an extended α5/6 stem-helix. This reordering mediates a novel symmetric pyrin-domain dimerization mode. The conformational switching is controlled by a charge-relay system with a drastic impact on protein stability. How the identified charge relay allows classification of NLRP receptors with respect to distinct recruitment mechanisms is discussed.

  18. Channel Gating Regulation by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) First Cytosolic Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Annette; Chung, W Joon; Pyle, Louise C; Wang, Wei; Nowotarski, Krzysztof; Mulvihill, Cory M; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Hong, Jeong; Velu, Sadanandan E; Lewis, Hal A; Atwell, Shane; Aller, Steve; Bear, Christine E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Kirk, Kevin L; Sorscher, Eric J

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we present data indicating a robust and specific domain interaction between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) first cytosolic loop (CL1) and nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) that allows ion transport to proceed in a regulated fashion. We used co-precipitation and ELISA to establish the molecular contact and showed that binding kinetics were not altered by the common clinical mutation F508del. Both intrinsic ATPase activity and CFTR channel gating were inhibited severely by CL1 peptide, suggesting that NBD1/CL1 binding is a crucial requirement for ATP hydrolysis and channel function. In addition to cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acquired rhinosinusitis, pancreatitis, and lethal secretory diarrhea (e.g. cholera). On the basis of clinical relevance of the CFTR as a therapeutic target, a cell-free drug screen was established to identify modulators of NBD1/CL1 channel activity independent of F508del CFTR and pharmacologic rescue. Our findings support a targetable mechanism of CFTR regulation in which conformational changes in the NBDs cause reorientation of transmembrane domains via interactions with CL1 and result in channel gating. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The expanded octarepeat domain selectively binds prions and disrupts homomeric prion protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliveld, Sirik Rutger; Dame, Remus Thei; Wuite, Gijs J L; Stitz, Lothar; Korth, Carsten

    2006-02-10

    Insertion of additional octarepeats into the prion protein gene has been genetically linked to familial Creutzfeldt Jakob disease and hence to de novo generation of infectious prions. The pivotal event during prion formation is the conversion of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into the pathogenic conformer PrPSc, which subsequently induces further conversion in an autocatalytic manner. Apparently, an expanded octarepeat domain directs folding of PrP toward the PrPSc conformation and initiates a self-replicating conversion process. Here, based on three main observations, we have provided a model on how altered molecular interactions between wild-type and mutant PrP set the stage for familial Creutzfeldt Jakob disease with octarepeat insertions. First, we showed that wild-type octarepeat domains interact in a copper-dependent and reversible manner, a "copper switch." This interaction becomes irreversible upon domain expansion, possibly reflecting a loss of function. Second, expanded octarepeat domains of increasing length gradually form homogenous globular multimers of 11-21 nm in the absence of copper ions when expressed as soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Third, octarepeat domain expansion causes a gain of function with at least 10 repeats selectively binding PrPSc in a denaturant-resistant complex in the absence of copper ions. Thus, the combination of both a loss and gain of function profoundly influences homomeric interaction behavior of PrP with an expanded octarepeat domain. A multimeric cluster of prion proteins carrying expanded octarepeat domains may therefore capture and incorporate spontaneously arising short-lived PrPSc-like conformers, thereby providing a matrix for their conversion.

  20. Accommodation of structural rearrangements in the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled-coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Jeremy D., E-mail: jwilbur@msg.ucsf.edu [Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Hwang, Peter K. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Brodsky, Frances M. [The G. W. Hooper Foundation, Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Fletterick, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Variable packing interaction related to the conformational flexibility within the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled coil domain. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an important link between the actin cytoskeleton and clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery. HIP1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. The binding of HIP1 to actin is regulated through an interaction with clathrin light chain. Clathrin light chain binds to a flexible coiled-coil domain in HIP1 and induces a compact state that is refractory to actin binding. To understand the mechanism of this conformational regulation, a high-resolution crystal structure of a stable fragment from the HIP1 coiled-coil domain was determined. The flexibility of the HIP1 coiled-coil region was evident from its variation from a previously determined structure of a similar region. A hydrogen-bond network and changes in coiled-coil monomer interaction suggest that the HIP1 coiled-coil domain is uniquely suited to allow conformational flexibility.

  1. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovich, Sandor

    2005-01-01

    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...

  2. Structure and function of the interacting domains of Spire and Fmn-family formins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcarra, Christina L.; Kreutz, Barry; Rodal, Avital A.; Toms, Angela V.; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Quinlan, Margot E.; Eck, Michael J. (UCLA); (Brandeis); (DFCI)

    2012-07-11

    Evidence for cooperation between actin nucleators is growing. The WH2-containing nucleator Spire and the formin Cappuccino interact directly, and both are essential for assembly of an actin mesh during Drosophila oogenesis. Their interaction requires the kinase noncatalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) domain of Spire and the C-terminal tail of the formin. Here we describe the crystal structure of the KIND domain of human Spir1 alone and in complex with the tail of Fmn2, a mammalian ortholog of Cappuccino. The KIND domain is structurally similar to the C-lobe of protein kinases. The Fmn2 tail is coordinated in an acidic cleft at the base of the domain that appears to have evolved via deletion of a helix from the canonical kinase fold. Our functional analysis of Cappuccino reveals an unexpected requirement for its tail in actin assembly. In addition, we find that the KIND/tail interaction blocks nucleation by Cappuccino and promotes its displacement from filament barbed ends providing insight into possible modes of cooperation between Spire and Cappuccino.

  3. Structure and function of the interacting domains of Spire and Fmn-family formins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, Christina L.; Kreutz, Barry; Rodal, Avital A.; Toms, Angela V.; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Quinlan, Margot E.; Eck, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for cooperation between actin nucleators is growing. The WH2-containing nucleator Spire and the formin Cappuccino interact directly, and both are essential for assembly of an actin mesh during Drosophila oogenesis. Their interaction requires the kinase noncatalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) domain of Spire and the C-terminal tail of the formin. Here we describe the crystal structure of the KIND domain of human Spir1 alone and in complex with the tail of Fmn2, a mammalian ortholog of Cappuccino. The KIND domain is structurally similar to the C-lobe of protein kinases. The Fmn2 tail is coordinated in an acidic cleft at the base of the domain that appears to have evolved via deletion of a helix from the canonical kinase fold. Our functional analysis of Cappuccino reveals an unexpected requirement for its tail in actin assembly. In addition, we find that the KIND/tail interaction blocks nucleation by Cappuccino and promotes its displacement from filament barbed ends providing insight into possible modes of cooperation between Spire and Cappuccino. PMID:21730168

  4. The K Domain Mediates Homologous and Heterologous Interactions Between FLC and SVP Proteins of Brassica juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Guanpeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP can interact to form homologous and heterologous protein complexes that regulate flowering time in Brassica juncea Coss. (Mustard.Previous studies showed that protein interactions were mediated by the K domain, which contains the subdomains K1, K2 and K3. However, it remains unknown how the subdomains mediate the interactions between FLC and SVP. In the present study, we constructed several mutants of subdomains K1–K3 and investigated the mechanisms involved in the heterologous interaction of BjFLC/BjSVP and in the homologous interaction of BjFLC/BjFLC or BjSVP/BjSVP. Yeast two-hybrid and β-Galactosidase activity assays showed that the 19 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjSVP and the 17 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjFLC were functional subdomains that interact with each other to mediate hetero-dimerization. The heterologous interaction was enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjSVP protein, but weakened by its interhelical domain L2. The heterologous interaction was also enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjFLC protein, but weakened by its K3 subdomain. The homologous interaction of BjSVP was mediated by the full K-domain. However, the homologous interaction of BjFLC was regulated only by its K1 and weakened by its K2 and K3 subdomains. The results provided new insights into the interactions between FLC and SVP, which will be valuable for further studies on the molecular regulation mechanisms of the regulation of flowering time in B. juncea and other Brassicaceae.

  5. Interaction domains in high performance NdFeB thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, Tom; Khlopkov, Kirill; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver [IFW Dresden, IMW, Dresden (Germany); Walther, Arno [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France); CEA Leti - MINATEC, Grenoble (France); Dempsey, Nora; Givord, Dominique [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-01

    Thick sputtered films (5-300 micron) of NdFeB have excellent hard magnetic properties which make them attractive for applications in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). A two step process consisting of triode sputtering and high temperature annealing produced films with energy densities approaching those of sintered NdFeB magnets. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) using hard magnetic tips showed that the films deposited without substrate heating and at 300 C exhibited magnetic domains typical of low anisotropy materials. These films were amorphous in the as-deposited state. The film deposited at 500 C was crystalline and displaid hard magnetic properties. This was reflected in the magnetic microstructure which showed interaction domains typical of highly textured and high magnetic anisotropy materials with a grain size below or equal to the critical single-domain particle limit. With increasing substrate temperature, the domain patterns of the annealed films became coarser, indicating higher degrees of texture.

  6. Unidirectional Magnon-Driven Domain Wall Motion due to Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seo-Won

    2018-03-28

    We theoretically study magnon-driven motion of a tranverse domain wall in the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Contrary to previous studies, the domain wall moves along the same direction regardless of the magnon-flow direction. Our symmetry analysis reveals that the odd order DMI contributions to the domain wall velocity are independent of the magnon-flow direction. Corresponding DMI-induced asymmetric transitions from a spin-wave state to another give rise to a large momentum transfer to the domain wall without nonreciprocity and much reflection. This counterintuitive unidirectional motion occurs not only for a spin wave with a single wavevector but also for thermal magnons with distributed wavevectors.

  7. A Model of Inter and Multi Disciplinary Domains, and their Mutual Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophir Dan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Melvil Dewey Decimal Classification system maps the human knowledge domains into a library classification decimal system, which means that the knowledge is discretized. The domains are countable similarly to how Cantor proved the countability of the fractions' domain. The debate about the "inter-" and "multi-" disciplinary domains may also be extended into "sub-domains" or from another point of view – into "super-domains". However, Science and Technology has rapidly developed after it was classified. If at the beginning, two decimal digits were enough to classify the world's knowledge into a knowledge domain, today we need more digits – about five. This means we are able to display about a million domains of knowledge. The decimal point indicates the sub-division in the zooming-in; the number of such decimal points is unlimited. Thus, the number of hierarchical levels in the knowledge-tree is unlimited. The maximal level is unreachable since it propagates in time. This intriguing issue raises doubts whether the tree is the most appropriate structure in the current state of the knowledge classification. However, I believe that the knowledge tree is a convenient way of expressing various connections between the knowledge domains. There are other models such as multi-level graph-networks that approximate closer to reality. These models can be further visualized by graph diagrams. The knowledge diagram is more complicated, considering the interaction between science and industry relative to each domain. The model of reality might be compared to the object-oriented programming languages approximating reality in order to construct more naturally computer programs that can model the world. The mutual correspondence of the knowledge domains is dynamic. Some examples of relatively new domains are as follows: biotechnology, bioinformatics, nanotechnology, integro-differential equations, data warehouse, data mining, requirements engineering, micro

  8. Importance of a Conserved Lys/Arg Residue for Ligand/PDZ Domain Interactions as Examined by Protein Semisynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren W; Moran, Griffin E; Sereikaité, Vita

    2016-01-01

    PDZ domains are ubiquitous small protein domains that are mediators of numerous protein-protein interactions, and play a pivotal role in protein trafficking, synaptic transmission, and the assembly of signaling-transduction complexes. In recent years, PDZ domains have emerged as novel and exciting...... drug targets for diseases (in the brain in particular), so understanding the molecular details of PDZ domain interactions is of fundamental importance. PDZ domains bind to a protein partner at either a C-terminal peptide or internal peptide motifs. Here, we examined the importance of a conserved Lys...... into the mechanism of PDZ/ligand interaction....

  9. Frequency- and Time-Domain Methods in Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Coleman, Justin L.

    2015-06-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis in the nuclear industry is currently performed using linear codes that function in the frequency domain. There is a consensus that these frequency-domain codes give reasonably accurate results for low-intensity ground motions that result in almost linear response. For higher intensity ground motions, which may result in nonlinear response in the soil, structure or at the vicinity of the foundation, the adequacy of frequency-domain codes is unproven. Nonlinear analysis, which is only possible in the time domain, is theoretically more appropriate in such cases. These methods are available but are rarely used due to the large computational requirements and a lack of experience with analysts and regulators. This paper presents an assessment of the linear frequency-domain code, SASSI, which is widely used in the nuclear industry, and the time-domain commercial finite-element code, LS-DYNA, for SSI analysis. The assessment involves benchmarking the SSI analysis procedure in LS-DYNA against SASSI for linearly elastic models. After affirming that SASSI and LS-DYNA result in almost identical responses for these models, they are used to perform nonlinear SSI analyses of two structures founded on soft soil. An examination of the results shows that, in spite of using identical material properties, the predictions of frequency- and time-domain codes are significantly different in the presence of nonlinear behavior such as gapping and sliding of the foundation.

  10. Inferring protein function by domain context similarities in protein-protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhirong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing projects generate massive amounts of sequence data but there are still many proteins whose functions remain unknown. The availability of large scale protein-protein interaction data sets makes it possible to develop new function prediction methods based on protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. Although several existing methods combine multiple information resources, there is no study that integrates protein domain information and PPI networks to predict protein functions. Results The domain context similarity can be a useful index to predict protein function similarity. The prediction accuracy of our method in yeast is between 63%-67%, which outperforms the other methods in terms of ROC curves. Conclusion This paper presents a novel protein function prediction method that combines protein domain composition information and PPI networks. Performance evaluations show that this method outperforms existing methods.

  11. PDZ domain-mediated interactions of G protein-coupled receptors with postsynaptic density protein 95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thor C; Wirth, Volker F; Roberts, Nina Ingerslev

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Their signaling is regulated by scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, but although these interactions are important for GPCR function, they are still poorly understood. We here present ...

  12. INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF PDZ-DOMAIN INTERACTIONS FOR DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER FUNCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Jacob; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Gether, Ulrik

    PICK1 has been shown to interact with the distal dopamine transporter (DAT) C-terminus via its PDZ domain. Although we recently have shown that ER export and targeting of the DAT to the cell surface is critically dependent on discrete epitopes in the distal C-terminus, these events do not require...

  13. Interactions among Domain-Specific Expectancies, Values, and Gender: Predictors of Test Anxiety during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Laura C.; Bouchey, Heather A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on the interaction between students' domain-specific expectancies and values as a predictor of test anxiety. A subsample of adolescents from the MSALT dataset are used in the current study; students complete measures during the spring of sixth grade and again during the spring of seventh grade. Overall, findings provide…

  14. Mapping the interactions between the Alzheimer's Aβ-peptide and human serum albumin beyond domain resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algamal, Moustafa; Milojevic, Julijana; Jafari, Naeimeh; Zhang, William; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a potent inhibitor of Aβ self-association and this novel, to our knowledge, function of HSA is of potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. It is known that HSA interacts with Aβ oligomers through binding sites evenly partitioned across the three albumin domains and with comparable affinities. However, as of this writing, no information is available on the HSA-Aβ interactions beyond domain resolution. Here, we map the HSA-Aβ interactions at subdomain and peptide resolution. We show that each separate subdomain of HSA domain 3 inhibits Aβ self-association. We also show that fatty acids (FAs) compete with Aβ oligomers for binding to domain 3, but the determinant of the HSA/Aβ oligomer interactions are markedly distinct from those of FAs. Although salt bridges with the FA carboxylate determine the FA binding affinities, hydrophobic contacts are pivotal for Aβ oligomer recognition. Specifically, we identified a site of Aβ oligomer recognition that spans the HSA (494-515) region and aligns with the central hydrophobic core of Aβ. The HSA (495-515) segment includes residues affected by FA binding and this segment is prone to self-associate into β-amyloids, suggesting that sites involved in fibrilization may provide a lead to develop inhibitors of Aβ self-association. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. C2 Domains as Protein-Protein Interaction Modules in the Ciliary Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Remans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1 is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L, is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR. RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca2+ and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.

  16. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho [Division of Hematology and Immunology, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. - Highlights: • I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax. • HIC and I-mfa repress the Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. • HIC represses the Tax-dependent transactivation of NF-κΒ. • HIC decreases the nuclear distribution of Tax. • HIC stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax.

  17. The role of cytochrome b5 structural domains in interaction with cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, G V; Gilep, A A; Usanov, S A

    2014-05-01

    To understand the role of the structural elements of cytochrome b5 in its interaction with cytochrome P450 and the catalysis performed by this heme protein, we carried out comparative structural and functional analysis of the two major mammalian forms of membrane-bound cytochrome b5 - microsomal and mitochondrial, designed chimeric forms of the heme proteins in which the hydrophilic domain of one heme protein is replaced by the hydrophilic domain of another one, and investigated the effect of the highly purified native and chimeric heme proteins on the enzymatic activity of recombinant cytochromes P4503A4 and P45017A1 (CYP3A4 and CYP17A1). We show that the presence of a hydrophobic domain in the structure of cytochrome b5 is necessary for its effective interaction with its redox partners, while the nature of the hydrophobic domain has no significant effect on the ability of cytochrome b5 to stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions. Thus, the functional properties of cytochrome b5 are mainly determined by the structure of the heme-binding domain.

  18. HiTAD: detecting the structural and functional hierarchies of topologically associating domains from chromatin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tao; Cui, Wang; Peng, Cheng

    2017-11-02

    A current question in the high-order organization of chromatin is whether topologically associating domains (TADs) are distinct from other hierarchical chromatin domains. However, due to the unclear TAD definition in tradition, the structural and functional uniqueness of TAD is not well studied. In this work, we refined TAD definition by further constraining TADs to the optimal separation on global intra-chromosomal interactions. Inspired by this constraint, we developed a novel method, called HiTAD, to detect hierarchical TADs from Hi-C chromatin interactions. HiTAD performs well in domain sensitivity, replicate reproducibility and inter cell-type conservation. With a novel domain-based alignment proposed by us, we defined several types of hierarchical TAD changes which were not systematically studied previously, and subsequently used them to reveal that TADs and sub-TADs differed statistically in correlating chromosomal compartment, replication timing and gene transcription. Finally, our work also has the implication that the refinement of TAD definition could be achieved by only utilizing chromatin interactions, at least in part. HiTAD is freely available online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Analysis of the interaction between human interleukin-5 and the soluble domain of its receptor using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, T A; Bennett, D B; Appelbaum, E R; Cusimano, D M; Johanson, K O; Matico, R E; Young, P R; Doyle, M; Chaiken, I M

    1994-03-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was used to study the interaction of human interleukin-5 (hIL5) with its receptor. IL5 is a major growth factor in the production and activation of eosinophils. The receptor for IL5 is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit provides the specificity for IL5 and consists of an extracellular soluble domain, a single transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail. We expressed the soluble domain of the human IL5 receptor alpha subunit (shIL5R alpha) and human IL5 (hIL5) in Drosophila. Both hIL5 and shIL5R alpha were immobilized separately through amine groups onto the carboxylated dextran layer of sensor chips of the BIAcore (Pharmacia) SPR biosensor after N-hydroxysuccinimide/carbodiimide activation of the chip surface. Interactions were measured for the complementary macromolecule, either shIL5R alpha or hIL5, in solution. Kinetics of binding of soluble analyte to immobilized ligand were measured and from this the association rate constant, dissociation rate constant and equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) were derived. With immobilized shIL5R alpha and soluble hIL5, the measured Kd was 2 nM. A similar value was obtained by titration calorimetry. The Kd for Drosophila expressed receptor and IL5 is higher than the values reported for proteins expressed in different systems, likely due to differences in the methods of interaction analysis used or differences in protein glycosylation. Receptor-IL5 binding was relatively pH independent between pH 6.5 and 9.5. Outside this range, the dissociation rate increased with comparatively little increase in association rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The BAR domain protein PICK1 regulates cell recognition and morphogenesis by interacting with Neph proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Martin; Lorscheider, Johannes; von Bardeleben, Anna; Dufner, Matthias; Scharf, M Antonia; Gödel, Markus; Helmstädter, Martin; Schurek, Eva-Maria; Zank, Sibylle; Gerke, Peter; Kurschat, Christine; Sivritas, Sema Hayriye; Neumann-Haefelin, Elke; Huber, Tobias B; Reinhardt, H Christian; Schauss, Astrid C; Schermer, Bernhard; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich; Benzing, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Neph proteins are evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily that control the formation of specific intercellular contacts. Cell recognition through these proteins is essential in diverse cellular contexts such as patterning of the compound eye in Drosophila melanogaster, neuronal connectivity in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the formation of the kidney filtration barrier in mammals. Here we identify the PDZ and BAR domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) as a Neph-interacting protein. Binding required dimerization of PICK1, was dependent on PDZ domain protein interactions, and mediated stabilization of Neph1 at the plasma membrane. Moreover, protein kinase C (PKCα) activity facilitated the interaction through releasing Neph proteins from their binding to the multidomain scaffolding protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), another PDZ domain protein. In Drosophila, the Neph homologue Roughest is essential for sorting of interommatidial precursor cells and patterning of the compound eye. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PICK1 in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc caused a Roughest destabilization at the plasma membrane and a phenotype that resembled rst mutation. These data indicate that Neph proteins and PICK1 synergistically regulate cell recognition and contact formation.

  1. Nac1 interacts with the POZ-domain transcription factor, Miz1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Mark A.; Wright, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Nac1 (nucleus accumbens 1) is a POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger)-domain transcriptional repressor that is expressed at high levels in ovarian serous carcinoma. Here we identify Nac1 as a novel interacting partner of the POZ-domain transcriptional activator, Miz1 (Myc-interacting zinc-finger protein 1), and using chemical crosslinking we show that this association is mediated by a heterodimeric interaction of the Nac1 and Miz1 POZ domains. Nac1 is found in discrete bodies within the nucleus of mammalian cells, and we demonstrate the relocalization of Miz1 to these structures in transfected HeLa cells. We show that siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of Nac1 in ovarian cancer cells results in increased levels of the Miz1 target gene product, p21Cip1. The interaction of Nac1 with Miz1 may thus be relevant to its mechanism of tumourigenesis in ovarian cancer. PMID:24702277

  2. Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 9A is an interacting protein for tropomyosin Tm5NM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Gay

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 9A (TTC9A protein is a recently identified protein which contains three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs on its C-terminus. In our previous studies, we have shown that TTC9A was a hormonally-regulated gene in breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that TTC9A was over-expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with the adjacent controls (P Methods Breast samples from 25 patients including the malignant breast tissues and the adjacent normal tissues were processed for Southern blot analysis. Yeast-two-hybrid assay, GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation were used to identify and verify the interaction between TTC9A and other proteins. Results Tropomyosin Tm5NM-1 was identified as one of the TTC9A partner proteins. The interaction between TTC9A and Tm5NM-1 was further confirmed by GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation in mammalian cells. TTC9A domains required for the interaction were also characterized in this study. The results suggested that the first TPR domain and the linker fragment between the first two TPR domains of TTC9A were important for the interaction with Tm5NM-1 and the second and the third TPR might play an inhibitory role. Conclusion Since the primary function of tropomyosin is to stabilize actin filament, its interaction with TTC9A may play a role in cell shape and motility. In our previous results, we have found that progesterone-induced TTC9A expression was associated with increased cell motility and cell spreading. We speculate that TTC9A acts as a chaperone protein to facilitate the function of tropomyosins in stabilizing microfilament and it may play a role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

  3. Structures of OppA and PstS from Yersinia pestis indicate variability of interactions with transmembrane domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanabe, Mikio; Mirza, Osman; Bertrand, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    -infective development. Here, the crystallization of five proteins (OppA, PstS, PiuA, YrbD and CysP) from Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, are reported that diffracted to resolution limits ranging from 1.6 to 5 A. The first crystal structures of ABC system components from Y. pestis, OppA and Pst...

  4. Characterization of the TRBP domain required for Dicer interaction and function in RNA interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Far Mohamed

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dicer, Ago2 and TRBP are the minimum components of the human RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. While Dicer and Ago2 are RNases, TRBP is the double-stranded RNA binding protein (dsRBP that loads small interfering RNA into the RISC. TRBP binds directly to Dicer through its C-terminal domain. Results We show that the TRBP binding site in Dicer is a 165 amino acid (aa region located between the ATPase and the helicase domains. The binding site in TRBP is a 69 aa domain, called C4, located at the C-terminal end of TRBP. The TRBP1 and TRBP2 isoforms, but not TRBPs lacking the C4 site (TRBPsΔC4, co-immunoprecipitated with Dicer. The C4 domain is therefore necessary to bind Dicer, irrespective of the presence of RNA. Immunofluorescence shows that while full-length TRBPs colocalize with Dicer, TRBPsΔC4 do not. tarbp2-/- cells, which do not express TRBP, do not support RNA interference (RNAi mediated by short hairpin or micro RNAs against EGFP. Both TRBPs, but not TRBPsΔC4, were able to rescue RNAi function. In human cells with low RNAi activity, addition of TRBP1 or 2, but not TRBPsΔC4, rescued RNAi function. Conclusion The mapping of the interaction sites between TRBP and Dicer show unique domains that are required for their binding. Since TRBPsΔC4 do not interact or colocalize with Dicer, we suggest that TRBP and Dicer, both dsRBPs, do not interact through bound dsRNA. TRBPs, but not TRBPsΔC4, rescue RNAi activity in RNAi-compromised cells, indicating that the binding of Dicer to TRBP is critical for RNAi function.

  5. FLS2-BAK1 extracellular domain interaction sites required for defense signaling activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Koller

    Full Text Available Signaling initiation by receptor-like kinases (RLKs at the plasma membrane of plant cells often requires regulatory leucine-rich repeat (LRR RLK proteins such as SERK or BIR proteins. The present work examined how the microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptor FLS2 builds signaling complexes with BAK1 (SERK3. We first, using in vivo methods that validate separate findings by others, demonstrated that flg22 (flagellin epitope ligand-initiated FLS2-BAK1 extracellular domain interactions can proceed independent of intracellular domain interactions. We then explored a candidate SERK protein interaction site in the extracellular domains (ectodomains; ECDs of the significantly different receptors FLS2, EFR (MAMP receptors, PEPR1 (damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP receptor, and BRI1 (hormone receptor. Repeat conservation mapping revealed a cluster of conserved solvent-exposed residues near the C-terminus of models of the folded LRR domains. However, site-directed mutagenesis of this conserved site in FLS2 did not impair FLS2-BAK1 ECD interactions, and mutations in the analogous site of EFR caused receptor maturation defects. Hence this conserved LRR C-terminal region apparently has functions other than mediating interactions with BAK1. In vivo tests of the subsequently published FLS2-flg22-BAK1 ECD co-crystal structure were then performed to functionally evaluate some of the unexpected configurations predicted by that crystal structure. In support of the crystal structure data, FLS2-BAK1 ECD interactions were no longer detected in in vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments after site-directed mutagenesis of the FLS2 BAK1-interaction residues S554, Q530, Q627 or N674. In contrast, in vivo FLS2-mediated signaling persisted and was only minimally reduced, suggesting residual FLS2-BAK1 interaction and the limited sensitivity of co-immunoprecipitation data relative to in vivo assays for signaling outputs. However, Arabidopsis plants

  6. Interaction between the PH and START domains of ceramide transfer protein competes with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding by the PH domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashek, Jennifer; Bouyain, Samuel; Fu, Mingui; Li, Yong; Berkes, Dusan; Yao, Xiaolan

    2017-08-25

    De novo synthesis of the sphingolipid sphingomyelin requires non-vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi by the multidomain protein ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT's N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain targets it to the Golgi by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) in the Golgi membrane, whereas its C-terminal StAR-related lipid transfer domain (START) carries out ceramide transfer. Hyperphosphorylation of a serine-rich motif immediately after the PH domain decreases both PtdIns(4)P binding and ceramide transfer by CERT. This down-regulation requires both the PH and START domains, suggesting a possible inhibitory interaction between the two domains. In this study we show that isolated PH and START domains interact with each other. The crystal structure of a PH-START complex revealed that the START domain binds to the PH domain at the same site for PtdIns(4)P-binding, suggesting that the START domain competes with PtdIns(4)P for association with the PH domain. We further report that mutations disrupting the PH-START interaction increase both PtdIns(4)P-binding affinity and ceramide transfer activity of a CERT-serine-rich phosphorylation mimic. We also found that these mutations increase the Golgi localization of CERT inside the cell, consistent with enhanced PtdIns(4)P binding of the mutant. Collectively, our structural, biochemical, and cellular investigations provide important structural insight into the regulation of CERT function and localization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Interaction between the PH and START domains of ceramide transfer protein competes with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding by the PH domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prashek, Jennifer; Bouyain, Samuel; Fu, Mingui; Li, Yong; Berkes, Dusan; Yao, Xiaolan

    2017-06-26

    De novo synthesis of the sphingolipid sphingomyelin requires non-vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi by the multidomain protein ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT's N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain targets it to the Golgi by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) in the Golgi membrane, whereas its C-terminal StAR-related lipid transfer domain (START) carries out ceramide transfer. Hyperphosphorylation of a serine-rich motif immediately after the PH domain decreases both PtdIns(4)P binding and ceramide transfer by CERT. This down-regulation requires both the PH and START domains, suggesting a possible inhibitory interaction between the two domains. In this study we show that isolated PH and START domains interact with each other. The crystal structure of a PH–START complex revealed that the START domain binds to the PH domain at the same site for PtdIns(4)P-binding, suggesting that the START domain competes with PtdIns(4)P for association with the PH domain. We further report that mutations disrupting the PH–START interaction increase both PtdIns(4)P-binding affinity and ceramide transfer activity of a CERT-serine–rich phosphorylation mimic. We also found that these mutations increase the Golgi localization of CERT inside the cell, consistent with enhanced PtdIns(4)P binding of the mutant. Collectively, our structural, biochemical, and cellular investigations provide important structural insight into the regulation of CERT function and localization.

  8. A computational domain decomposition approach for solving coupled flow-structure-thermal interaction problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Aulisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solving complex coupled processes involving fluid-structure-thermal interactions is a challenging problem in computational sciences and engineering. Currently there exist numerous public-domain and commercial codes available in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD and Computational Thermodynamics (CTD. Different groups specializing in modelling individual process such as CSD, CFD, CTD often come together to solve a complex coupled application. Direct numerical simulation of the non-linear equations for even the most simplified fluid-structure-thermal interaction (FSTI model depends on the convergence of iterative solvers which in turn rely heavily on the properties of the coupled system. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a flexible multilevel algorithm with finite elements that can be used to study a coupled FSTI. The method relies on decomposing the complex global domain, into several local sub-domains, solving smaller problems over these sub-domains and then gluing back the local solution in an efficient and accurate fashion to yield the global solution. Our numerical results suggest that the proposed solution methodology is robust and reliable.

  9. Current-driven domain wall ratchet in a nanomagnet with functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri; Saxena, Avadh

    We develop a concept of functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which provides novel ways of efficient control of the magnetization dynamics. Using this approach we realize the ratchet motion of the domain wall in a magnetic nanowire driven by spin polarized current with potential applications in magnetic devices such as race-track memory and magnetic logical devices. By engineering the spatial profile of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya parameters we provide a unidirectional motion of the domain wall along the wire. We base our study on phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations using a collective variable approach. In effective equations of motion the functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction appears as a driving force, which can either suppress the action of the pumping by the current or can reinforce it. All analytical predictions are well confirmed by numerical simulations.

  10. Interactions between Intracellular Domains as Key Determinants of the Quaternary Structure and Function of Receptor Heteromers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Ferré, Sergi; Cordomi, Arnau; Moreno, Estefania; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Cortés, Antoni; Hoffmann, Hanne; Ortiz, Jordi; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Pardo, Leonardo; Franco, Rafael; Woods, Amina S.

    2010-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromers are macromolecular complexes with unique functional properties different from those of its individual protomers. Little is known about what determines the quaternary structure of GPCR heteromers resulting in their unique functional properties. In this study, using resonance energy transfer techniques in experiments with mutated receptors, we provide for the first time clear evidence for a key role of intracellular domains in the determination of the quaternary structure of GPCR heteromers between adenosine A2A, cannabinoid CB1, and dopamine D2 receptors. In these interactions, arginine-rich epitopes form salt bridges with phosphorylated serine or threonine residues from CK1/2 consensus sites. Each receptor (A2A, CB1, and D2) was found to include two evolutionarily conserved intracellular domains to establish selective electrostatic interactions with intracellular domains of the other two receptors, indicating that these particular electrostatic interactions constitute a general mechanism for receptor heteromerization. Mutation experiments indicated that the interactions of the intracellular domains of the CB1 receptor with A2A and D2 receptors are fundamental for the correct formation of the quaternary structure needed for the function (MAPK signaling) of the A2A-CB1-D2 receptor heteromers. Analysis of MAPK signaling in striatal slices of CB1 receptor KO mice and wild-type littermates supported the existence of A1-CB1-D2 receptor heteromer in the brain. These findings allowed us to propose the first molecular model of the quaternary structure of a receptor heteromultimer. PMID:20562103

  11. A computational domain decomposition approach for solving coupled flow-structure-thermal interaction problems

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio Aulisa; Sandro Manservisi; Padmanabhan Seshaiyer

    2009-01-01

    Solving complex coupled processes involving fluid-structure-thermal interactions is a challenging problem in computational sciences and engineering. Currently there exist numerous public-domain and commercial codes available in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) and Computational Thermodynamics (CTD). Different groups specializing in modelling individual process such as CSD, CFD, CTD often come together to solve a complex coupled ap...

  12. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén González Montoro

    Full Text Available Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs, characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called "Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain" (DHHC-CRD. There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether.Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as

  13. The Cold Shock Domain of YB-1 Segregates RNA from DNA by Non-Bonded Interactions.

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    Vladislav Kljashtorny

    Full Text Available The human YB-1 protein plays multiple cellular roles, of which many are dictated by its binding to RNA and DNA through its Cold Shock Domain (CSD. Using molecular dynamics simulation approaches validated by experimental assays, the YB1 CSD was found to interact with nucleic acids in a sequence-dependent manner and with a higher affinity for RNA than DNA. The binding properties of the YB1 CSD were close to those observed for the related bacterial Cold Shock Proteins (CSP, albeit some differences in sequence specificity. The results provide insights in the molecular mechanisms whereby YB-1 interacts with nucleic acids.

  14. Interaction between the glutamate transporter GLT1b and the synaptic PDZ domain protein PICK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassan, Merav; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Kenneth L

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is implemented by the interaction of glutamate receptors with PDZ domain proteins. Glutamate transporters provide the only known mechanism of clearance of glutamate from excitatory synapses, and GLT1 is the major glutamate transporter. We show here that GLT1 interacts...... expressing PICK1 and GLT1b. In addition, expression of GLT1b in COS7 cells changed the distribution of PICK1, bringing it to the surface. GLT1b and PICK1 co-localized with each other and with synaptic markers in hippocampal neurons in culture. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a known...

  15. Distinct TERB1 Domains Regulate Different Protein Interactions in Meiotic Telomere Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope (NE and drive the chromosome movement required for the pairing of homologous chromosomes. The meiosis-specific telomere proteins TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN are required to regulate these events, but their assembly processes are largely unknown. Here, we developed a germ-cell-specific knockout mouse of the canonical telomere-binding protein TRF1 and revealed an essential role for TRF1 in directing the assembly of TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN. Further, we identified a TERB2 binding (T2B domain in TERB1 that is dispensable for the TRF1-TERB1 interaction but is essential for the subsequent TERB1-TERB2 interaction and therefore for telomere attachment to the NE. Meanwhile, cohesin recruitment at telomeres, which is required for efficient telomere movement, is mediated by the MYB-like domain of TERB1, but not by TERB2-MAJIN. Our results reveal distinct protein interactions through various domains of TERB1, which enable the sequential assembly of the meiotic telomere complex for their movements.

  16. Aromatic Residues in the Fourth Transmembrane-Spanning Helix M4 Are Important for GABAρ Receptor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory-Wright, James; Alqazzaz, Mona; Wroe, Francesca; Jeffreys, Jenny; Zhou, Lu; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2018-02-21

    GABAρ receptors are a subfamily of the GABA A receptor family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). Each of the five subunits has four transmembrane α-helices (M1-M4), with M4 most distant from the central pore. Aromatic residues in this M4 helix are important for receptor assembly in pLGICs and also may interact with adjacent lipids and/or residues in neighboring α-helices and the extracellular domain to modify or enable channel gating. This study examines the role of M4 receptor aromatic residues in the GABAρ receptor transmembrane domain using site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent expression in HEK293 cells, probing functional parameters using a fluorescent membrane-potential-sensitive dye. The data indicate that many of the aromatic residues in M4 play a role in receptor function, as substitution with other residues can ablate and/or modify functional parameters. Modeling showed that these residues likely interact with residues in the adjacent M1 and M3 α-helices and/or residues in the Cys-loop in the extracellular domain. We suggest that many of these aromatic interactions contribute to an "aromatic zipper", which allows interactions between M4 and the rest of the receptor that are essential for function. Thus, the data support other studies showing that M4 does not play a passive role in "protecting" the other transmembrane helices from the lipid bilayer but is actively involved in the function of the protein.

  17. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment on preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Grabich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141 were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD and 95% confidence intervals (CI comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a each individual domain main effect b the interaction contrast and c the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e., the net effect to show departure from additivity for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interactions, between the sociodemographic/air domains (net effect (i.e. the association including main effects and interaction effects PD: -0.004 (95% CI:-0.007, 0.000, interaction contrast: -0.013 (95% CI:-0.020, -0.007 and built/air domains (net effect PD: 0.008 (95% CI 0.004, 0.011, interaction contrast: -0.008 (95% CI:-0.015, -0.002. Most interactions were between the air domain and other respective domains. Interactions differed by urbanicity, with more interactions observed in non-metropolitan regions

  18. Biologically Complex Planar Cell Plasma Membranes Supported on Polyelectrolyte Cushions Enhance Transmembrane Protein Mobility and Retain Native Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Liang; Ober, Christopher K; Daniel, Susan

    2018-01-23

    Reconstituted supported lipid bilayers (SLB) are widely used as in vitro cell-surface models because they are compatible with a variety of surface-based analytical techniques. However, one of the challenges of using SLBs as a model of the cell surface is the limited complexity in membrane composition, including the incorporation of transmembrane proteins and lipid diversity that may impact the activity of those proteins. Additionally, it is challenging to preserve the transmembrane protein native orientation, function, and mobility in SLBs. Here, we leverage the interaction between cell plasma membrane vesicles and polyelectrolyte brushes to create planar bilayers from cell plasma membrane vesicles that have budded from the cell surface. This approach promotes the direct incorporation of membrane proteins and other species into the planar bilayer without using detergent or reconstitution and preserves membrane constituents. Furthermore, the structure of the polyelectrolyte brush serves as a cushion between the planar bilayer and rigid supporting surface, limiting the interaction of the cytosolic domains of membrane proteins with this surface. Single particle tracking was used to analyze the motion of GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins (GPI-YFP) and neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors (P2X2-neon) and shows that this platform retains over 75% mobility of multipass transmembrane proteins in its native membrane environment. An enzyme accessibility assay confirmed that the protein orientation is preserved and results in the extracellular domain facing toward the bulk phase and the cytosolic side facing the support. Because the platform presented here retains the complexity of the cell plasma membrane and preserves protein orientation and mobility, it is a better representative mimic of native cell surfaces, which may find many applications in biological assays aimed at understanding cell membrane phenomena.

  19. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  20. HD domain of SAMHD1 influences Vpx-induced degradation at a post-interaction step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jian; Hou, Jingwei; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Du, Juan, E-mail: jdu@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-02-12

    Primate SAMHD1 proteins are potent inhibitors of viruses, including retroviruses such as HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Vpx, a distinctive viral protein expressed by HIV-2 and some SIVs, induces SAMHD1 degradation by forming a Vpx-DCAF1-based ubiquitin ligase complex. Either the N- or the C-terminus of SAMHD1 is critical for Vpx-induced degradation, depending on the types of SAMHD1 and Vpx proteins. However, it was not fully understood whether other regions of SAMHD1 also contribute to its depletion by Vpx. In the present study, we report that SAMHD1 from chicken (SAMHD1{sub GG}) was not degraded by SIVmac Vpx, in contrast with results for human SAMHD1 (SAMHD1{sub HS}). Results regarding to SAMHD1{sub HS} and SAMHD1{sub GG} fusion proteins supported previous findings that the C-terminus of SAMHD1{sub HS} is essential for Vpx-induced degradation. Internal domain substitution, however, revealed that the HD domain also contributes to Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation. Interestingly, the HD domain influenced Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation without affecting Vpx-SAMHD1 interaction. Therefore, our findings revealed that factors in addition to Vpx-SAMHD1 binding influence the efficiency of Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation. - Highlights: • SAMHD1{sub GG} from chicken could not be depleted by SIVmac Vpx. • The C-terminus of human SAMHD1{sub HS} is critical for its degradation by Vpx. • The HD domain is essential for Vpx-induced degradation of SAMHD1{sub HS}. • Altering the HD domain does not affect Vpx-SAMHD1 interaction.

  1. Atomic interaction networks in the core of protein domains and their native folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Raman, Rahul; Raguram, S; Sasisekharan, V; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2010-02-23

    Vastly divergent sequences populate a majority of protein folds. In the quest to identify features that are conserved within protein domains belonging to the same fold, we set out to examine the entire protein universe on a fold-by-fold basis. We report that the atomic interaction network in the solvent-unexposed core of protein domains are fold-conserved, extraordinary sequence divergence notwithstanding. Further, we find that this feature, termed protein core atomic interaction network (or PCAIN) is significantly distinguishable across different folds, thus appearing to be "signature" of a domain's native fold. As part of this study, we computed the PCAINs for 8698 representative protein domains from families across the 1018 known protein folds to construct our seed database and an automated framework was developed for PCAIN-based characterization of the protein fold universe. A test set of randomly selected domains that are not in the seed database was classified with over 97% accuracy, independent of sequence divergence. As an application of this novel fold signature, a PCAIN-based scoring scheme was developed for comparative (homology-based) structure prediction, with 1-2 angstroms (mean 1.61A) C(alpha) RMSD generally observed between computed structures and reference crystal structures. Our results are consistent across the full spectrum of test domains including those from recent CASP experiments and most notably in the 'twilight' and 'midnight' zones wherein <30% and <10% target-template sequence identity prevails (mean twilight RMSD of 1.69A). We further demonstrate the utility of the PCAIN protocol to derive biological insight into protein structure-function relationships, by modeling the structure of the YopM effector novel E3 ligase (NEL) domain from plague-causative bacterium Yersinia Pestis and discussing its implications for host adaptive and innate immune modulation by the pathogen. Considering the several high-throughput, sequence

  2. Endophilin-A1 BAR domain interaction with arachidonyl CoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoukhov, Maxim V; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2014-01-01

    Endophilin-A1 belongs to the family of BAR domain containing proteins that catalyze membrane remodeling processes via sensing, inducing and stabilizing membrane curvature. We show that the BAR domain of endophilin-A1 binds arachidonic acid and molds its coenzyme A (CoA) activated form, arachidonyl-CoA into a defined structure. We studied low resolution structures of endophilin-A1-BAR and its complex with arachidonyl-CoA in solution using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The free endophilin-A1-BAR domain is shown to be dimeric at lower concentrations but builds tetramers and higher order complexes with increasing concentrations. Extensive titration SAXS studies revealed that the BAR domain produces a homogenous complex with the lipid micelles. The structural model of the complexes revealed two arachidonyl-CoA micelles bound to the distal arms of an endophilin-A1-BAR dimer. Intriguingly, the radius of the bound micelles significantly decreases compared to that of the free micelles, and this structural result may provide hints on the potential biological relevance of the endophilin-A1-BAR interaction with arachidonyl CoA.

  3. The Hippo pathway target, YAP, promotes metastasis through its TEAD-interaction domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, John M; Stern, Patrick; Liu, Hui; Schindler, Jeffrey W; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Hynes, Richard O

    2012-09-11

    The transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a major regulator of organ size and proliferation in vertebrates. As such, YAP can act as an oncogene in several tissue types if its activity is increased aberrantly. Although no activating mutations in the yap1 gene have been identified in human cancer, yap1 is located on the 11q22 amplicon, which is amplified in several human tumors. In addition, mutations or epigenetic silencing of members of the Hippo pathway, which represses YAP function, have been identified in human cancers. Here we demonstrate that, in addition to increasing tumor growth, increased YAP activity is potently prometastatic in breast cancer and melanoma cells. Using a Luminex-based approach to multiplex in vivo assays, we determined that the domain of YAP that interacts with the TEAD/TEF family of transcription factors but not the WW domains or PDZ-binding motif, is essential for YAP-mediated tumor growth and metastasis. We further demonstrate that, through its TEAD-interaction domain, YAP enhances multiple processes known to be important for tumor progression and metastasis, including cellular proliferation, transformation, migration, and invasion. Finally, we found that the metastatic potential of breast cancer and melanoma cells is strongly correlated with increased TEAD transcriptional activity. Together, our results suggest that increased YAP/TEAD activity plays a causal role in cancer progression and metastasis.

  4. Crystal structure of a multi-domain human smoothened receptor in complex with a super stabilizing ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun; Zhao, Fei; Wu, Yiran; Yang, Jun; Han, Gye Won; Zhao, Suwen; Ishchenko, Andrii; Ye, Lintao; Lin, Xi; Ding, Kang; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Griffin, Patrick R.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Hunter, Mark S.; Hanson, Michael A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.; Tan, Wenfu; Tao, Houchao; Xu, Fei

    2017-05-01

    The Smoothened receptor (SMO) belongs to the Class Frizzled of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, constituting a key component of the Hedgehog signalling pathway. Here we report the crystal structure of the multi-domain human SMO, bound and stabilized by a designed tool ligand TC114, using an X-ray free-electron laser source at 2.9 Å. The structure reveals a precise arrangement of three distinct domains: a seven-transmembrane helices domain (TMD), a hinge domain (HD) and an intact extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD). This architecture enables allosteric interactions between the domains that are important for ligand recognition and receptor activation. By combining the structural data, molecular dynamics simulation, and hydrogen-deuterium-exchange analysis, we demonstrate that transmembrane helix VI, extracellular loop 3 and the HD play a central role in transmitting the signal employing a unique GPCR activation mechanism, distinct from other multi-domain GPCRs.

  5. iDoRNA: An Interacting Domain-based Tool for Designing RNA-RNA Interaction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittrawan Thaiprasit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RNA-RNA interactions play a crucial role in gene regulation in living organisms. They have gained increasing interest in the field of synthetic biology because of their potential applications in medicine and biotechnology. However, few novel regulators based on RNA-RNA interactions with desired structures and functions have been developed due to the challenges of developing design tools. Recently, we proposed a novel tool, called iDoDe, for designing RNA-RNA interacting sequences by first decomposing RNA structures into interacting domains and then designing each domain using a stochastic algorithm. However, iDoDe did not provide an optimal solution because it still lacks a mechanism to optimize the design. In this work, we have further developed the tool by incorporating a genetic algorithm (GA to find an RNA solution with maximized structural similarity and minimized hybridized RNA energy, and renamed the tool iDoRNA. A set of suitable parameters for the genetic algorithm were determined and found to be a weighting factor of 0.7, a crossover rate of 0.9, a mutation rate of 0.1, and the number of individuals per population set to 8. We demonstrated the performance of iDoRNA in comparison with iDoDe by using six RNA-RNA interaction models. It was found that iDoRNA could efficiently generate all models of interacting RNAs with far more accuracy and required far less computational time than iDoDe. Moreover, we compared the design performance of our tool against existing design tools using forty-four RNA-RNA interaction models. The results showed that the performance of iDoRNA is better than RiboMaker when considering the ensemble defect, the fitness score and computation time usage. However, it appears that iDoRNA is outperformed by NUPACK and RNAiFold 2.0 when considering the ensemble defect. Nevertheless, iDoRNA can still be an useful alternative tool for designing novel RNA-RNA interactions in synthetic biology research. The source code of i

  6. Does action planning moderate the intention-habit interaction in the exercise domain? A three-way interaction analysis investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Rhodes, Ryan E; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2012-10-01

    Both habit strength and action planning have been found to moderate the intention-exercise behaviour relationship, but no research exists that has investigated how habit strength and action planning simultaneously influence this relationship. The present study was designed to explore this issue in a prospective sample of undergraduate students (N = 415): action planning, habit strength, intention, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were assessed at baseline and exercise behaviour was assessed 2 weeks later. Both habit strength and action planning moderated the intention-exercise relationship, with stronger relationship at higher levels of planning or habit strength. Decomposing a significant action planning × habit strength × intention interaction showed that the strength of the intention-exercise relationship progressed linearly through levels of action planning and habit strength. These novel results show that action planning strengthens the intention-habit strength interaction in the exercise domain: exercise interventions should therefore focus on simultaneously bolstering action planning and habit strength.

  7. Regulation of the interaction between the neuronal BIN1 isoform 1 and Tau proteins - role of the SH3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Idir; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Sottejeau, Yoann; Lippens, Guy; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Landrieu, Isabelle

    2017-10-01

    Bridging integrator 1 (bin1) gene is a genetic determinant of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been reported to modulate Alzheimer's pathogenesis through pathway(s) involving Tau. The functional impact of Tau/BIN1 interaction as well as the molecular details of this interaction are still not fully resolved. As a consequence, how BIN1 through its interaction with Tau affects AD risk is also still not determined. To progress in this understanding, interaction of Tau with two BIN1 isoforms was investigated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. 1 H, 15 N spectra showed that the C-terminal SH3 domain of BIN1 isoform 1 (BIN1Iso1) is not mobile in solution but locked with the core of the protein. In contrast, the SH3 domain of BIN1 isoform 9 (BIN1Iso9) behaves as an independent mobile domain. This reveals an equilibrium between close and open conformations for the SH3 domain. Interestingly, a 334-376 peptide from the clathrin and AP-2-binding domain (CLAP) domain of BIN1Iso1, which contains a SH3-binding site, is able to compete with BIN1-SH3 intramolecular interaction. For both BIN1 isoforms, the SH3 domain can interact with Tau(210-240) sequence. Tau(210-240) peptide can indeed displace the intramolecular interaction of the BIN1-SH3 of BIN1Iso1 and form a complex with the released domain. The measured K d were in agreement with a stronger affinity of Tau peptide. Both CLAP and Tau peptides occupied the same surface on the BIN1-SH3 domain, showing that their interaction is mutually exclusive. These results emphasize an additional level of complexity in the regulation of the interaction between BIN1 and Tau dependent of the BIN1 isoforms. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Construction and genetic selection of small transmembrane proteins that activate the human erythropoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammett, Tobin J; Jun, Susan J; Cohen, Emily B; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M; Dimaio, Daniel

    2010-02-23

    This work describes a genetic approach to isolate small, artificial transmembrane (TM) proteins with biological activity. The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein is a dimeric, 44-amino acid TM protein that transforms cells by specifically binding and activating the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGFbetaR). We used the E5 protein as a scaffold to construct a retrovirus library expressing approximately 500,000 unique 44-amino acid proteins with randomized TM domains. We screened this library to select small, dimeric TM proteins that were structurally unrelated to erythropoietin (EPO), but specifically activated the human EPO receptor (hEPOR). These proteins did not activate the murine EPOR or the PDGFbetaR. Genetic studies with one of these activators suggested that it interacted with the TM domain of the hEPOR. Furthermore, this TM activator supported erythroid differentiation of primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro in the absence of EPO. Thus, we have changed the specificity of a protein so that it no longer recognizes its natural target but, instead, modulates an entirely different protein. This represents a novel strategy to isolate small artificial proteins that affect diverse membrane proteins. We suggest the word "traptamer" for these transmembrane aptamers.

  9. Role of the σ54 Activator Interacting Domain in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Alexander R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Bacterial sigma factors are subunits of RNA polymerase that direct the holoenzyme to specific sets of promoters in the genome and are a central element of regulating transcription. Most polymerase holoenzymes open the promoter and initiate transcription rapidly after binding. However, polymerase containing the members of the σ54 family must be acted on by a transcriptional activator before DNA opening and initiation occur. A key domain in these transcriptional activators forms a hexameric AAA + ATPase that acts through conformational changes brought on by ATP hydrolysis. Contacts between the transcriptional activator and σ54 are primarily made through an N-terminal σ54 activator interacting domain (AID). To better understand this mechanism of bacterial transcription initiation, we characterized the σ54 AID by NMR spectroscopy and other biophysical methods and show that it is an intrinsically disordered domain in σ54 alone. In this paper, we identified a minimal construct of the Aquifex aeolicus σ54 AID that consists of two predicted helices and retains native-like binding affinity for the transcriptional activator NtrC1. Using the NtrC1 ATPase domain, bound with the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog ADP-beryllium fluoride, we studied the NtrC1–σ54 AID complex using NMR spectroscopy. We show that the σ54 AID becomes structured after associating with the core loops of the transcriptional activators in their ATP state and that the primary site of the interaction is the first predicted helix. Finally, understanding this complex, formed as the first step toward initiation, will help unravel the mechanism of σ54 bacterial transcription initiation.

  10. Antibody V and C domain sequence, structure, and interaction analysis with special reference to IMGT®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamyar, Eltaf; Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2014-01-01

    IMGT(®), the international ImMunoGeneTics information system(®) (http://www.imgt.org), created in 1989 (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Montpellier University), is acknowledged as the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. The accuracy and the consistency of the IMGT(®) data are based on IMGT-ONTOLOGY which bridges the gap between genes, sequences, and three-dimensional (3D) structures. Thus, receptors, chains, and domains are characterized with the same IMGT(®) rules and standards (IMGT standardized labels, IMGT gene and allele nomenclature, IMGT unique numbering, IMGT Collier de Perles), independently from the molecule type (genomic DNA, complementary DNA, transcript, or protein) or from the species. More particularly, IMGT(®) tools and databases provide a highly standardized analysis of the immunoglobulin (IG) or antibody and T cell receptor (TR) V and C domains. IMGT/V-QUEST analyzes the V domains of IG or TR rearranged nucleotide sequences, integrates the IMGT/JunctionAnalysis and IMGT/Automat tools, and provides IMGT Collier de Perles. IMGT/HighV-QUEST analyzes sequences from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) (up to 150,000 sequences per batch) and performs statistical analysis on up to 450,000 results, with the same resolution and high quality as IMGT/V-QUEST online. IMGT/DomainGapAlign analyzes amino acid sequences of V and C domains and IMGT/3Dstructure-DB and associated tools provide information on 3D structures, contact analysis, and paratope/epitope interactions. These IMGT(®) tools and databases, and the IMGT/mAb-DB interface with access to therapeutical antibody data, provide an invaluable help for antibody engineering and antibody humanization.

  11. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVKU1bMC33) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Melissa L.; Pacyniak, Erik; Gomez, Lisa M.; Fegley, Barbara; Mulcahy, Ellyn R.; Hill, M. Sarah; Culley, Nathan; Pinson, David M.; Nothnick, Warren; Powers, Michael F.; Wong, Scott W.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2006-01-01

    The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to shunt the CD4 receptor molecule to the proteasome for degradation and to enhance virus release from infected cells. The exact mechanism by which the Vpu protein enhances virus release is currently unknown but some investigators have shown that this function is associated with the transmembrane domain and potential ion channel properties. In this study, we determined if the transmembrane domain of Vpu could be functionally substituted with that of the prototypical viroporin, the M2 protein of influenza A virus. We constructed chimeric vpu gene in which the transmembrane domain of Vpu was replaced with that of the M2 protein of influenza. This chimeric vpu gene was substituted for the vpu gene in the genome of a pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV KU-1bMC33 . The resulting virus, SHIV M2 , synthesized a Vpu protein that had a slightly different M r compared to the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 , reflecting the different sizes of the two Vpu proteins. The SHIV M2 was shown to replicate with slightly reduced kinetics when compared to the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 but electron microscopy revealed that the site of maturation was similar to the parental virus SHIV KU1bMC33 . We show that the replication and spread of SHIV M2 could be blocked with the antiviral drug rimantadine, which is known to target the M2 ion channel. Our results indicate a dose dependent inhibition of SHIV M2 with 100 μM rimantadine resulting in a >95% decrease in p27 released into the culture medium. Rimantadine did not affect the replication of the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 . Examination of SHIV M2 -infected cells treated with 50 μM rimantadine revealed numerous viral particles associated with the cell plasma membrane and within intracytoplasmic vesicles, which is similar to HIV-1 mutants lacking a functional vpu. To determine if SHIV M2 was as pathogenic as the parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 virus, two pig-tailed macaques

  12. Interaction domains in permanent-magnetic rare-earth transition-metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielsch, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of this dissertation the phenomenon of the interaction domains was studied both experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulation. Object of the study were one-phase NdFeB magnets, which were fabricated from commercial MQU-F powders of the Magnequench Inc. company by hot pressing and subsequent warm deformation in the IWF Dresden. Additionally via the same fabrication way also composite samples of NdFeB and Fe with different original particle sizes ere obtained and studied. Supported wer the experimental works by simulations with the FEMME software package, which is based on a hybrid finite-element method/boundary-element method.

  13. Dielectric relaxation and hydrogen bonding interaction in xylitol-water mixtures using time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rander, D. N.; Joshi, Y. S.; Kanse, K. S.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The measurements of complex dielectric permittivity of xylitol-water mixtures have been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz-30 GHz using a time domain reflectometry technique. Measurements have been done at six temperatures from 0 to 25 °C and at different weight fractions of xylitol (0 xylitol-water can be well described by Cole-Davidson model having an asymmetric distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant and relaxation time for the mixtures have been evaluated. The molecular interaction between xylitol and water molecules is discussed using the Kirkwood correlation factor ( g eff ) and thermodynamic parameter.

  14. Vitamin A transport and the transmembrane pore in the cell-surface receptor for plasma retinol binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhong

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids play diverse and crucial functions from embryogenesis to adulthood and are used as therapeutic agents in human medicine for eye and skin diseases, infections and cancer. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP is the principal and specific vitamin A carrier in the blood and binds vitamin A at 1:1 ratio. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. STRA6 null mice have severely depleted vitamin A reserves for vision and consequently have vision loss, even under vitamin A sufficient conditions. STRA6 null humans have a wide range of severe pathological phenotypes in many organs including the eye, brain, heart and lung. Known membrane transport mechanisms involve transmembrane pores that regulate the transport of the substrate (e.g., the gating of ion channels. STRA6 represents a new type of membrane receptor. How this receptor interacts with its transport substrate vitamin A and the functions of its nine transmembrane domains are still completely unknown. These questions are critical to understanding the molecular basis of STRA6's activities and its regulation. We employ acute chemical modification to introduce chemical side chains to STRA6 in a site-specific manner. We found that modifications with specific chemicals at specific positions in or near the transmembrane domains of this receptor can almost completely suppress its vitamin A transport activity. These experiments provide the first evidence for the existence of a transmembrane pore, analogous to the pore of ion channels, for this new type of cell-surface receptor.

  15. Formation of supported lipid bilayers containing phase-segregated domains and their interaction with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melby, Eric S.; Mensch, Arielle C.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Murphy, Catherine J.; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The cell membrane represents an important biological interface that nanoparticles may encounter after being released into the environment. Interaction of nanoparticles with cellular membranes may alter membrane structure and function, lead to their uptake into cells, and elicit adverse biological responses. Supported lipid bilayers have proven to be valuable ex vivo models for biological membranes, allowing investigation of their mechanisms of interaction with nanoparticles with a degree of control impossible in living cells. To date, the majority of research on nanoparticle interaction with supported lipid bilayers has employed membranes composed of single or binary mixtures of phospholipids. Cellular membranes contain a wide variety of lipids and exhibit lateral organization. Ordered membrane domains enriched in specific membrane components are referred to as lipid rafts and have not been explored with respect to their interaction with nanoparticles. Here we develop model lipid raft-containing membranes amenable to investigation by a variety of surface-sensitive analytical techniques and demonstrate that lipid rafts influence the extent of nanoparticle attachment to model membranes. We determined conditions that allow reliable formation of bilayers containing rafts enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol and confirmed their morphology by structured illumination and atomic force microscopies. We demonstrate that lipid rafts increase attachment of cationic gold nanoparticles to model membranes under near physiological ionic strength conditions (0.1 M NaCl) at pH 7.4. We anticipate that these results will serve as the foundation for and motivate further study of nanoparticle interaction with compositionally varied lipid rafts.

  16. Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; Confalonieri, S; Doria, M

    1997-01-01

    EH is a recently identified protein-protein interaction domain found in the signal transducers Eps15 and Eps15R and several other proteins of yeast nematode. We show that EH domains from Eps15 and Eps15R bind in vitro to peptides containing an asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF) motif. Direct...

  17. Structural and functional importance of transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) in the aspartate:alanine antiporter AspT: topology and function of the residues of TM3 and oligomerization of AspT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanatani, Kei; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2009-04-01

    AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, a membrane protein of 543 amino acids with 10 putative transmembrane (TM) helices, is the prototype of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAE) family of transporters. Because TM3 (isoleucine 64 to methionine 85) has many amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the AAE family and because TM3 contains two charged residues and four polar residues, it is thought to be located near (or to form part of) the substrate translocation pathway that includes the binding site for the substrates. To elucidate the role of TM3 in the transport process, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The substitutions of tyrosine 75 and serine 84 had the strongest inhibitory effects on transport (initial rates of l-aspartate transport were below 15% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Considerable but less-marked effects were observed upon the replacement of methionine 70, phenylalanine 71, glycine 74, arginine 76, serine 83, and methionine 85 (initial rates between 15% and 30% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Introduced cysteine residues at the cytoplasmic half of TM3 could be labeled with Oregon green maleimide (OGM), whereas cysteines close to the periplasmic half (residues 64 to 75) were not labeled. These results suggest that TM3 has a hydrophobic core on the periplasmic half and that hydrophilic residues on the cytoplasmic half of TM3 participate in the formation of an aqueous cavity in membranes. Furthermore, the presence of l-aspartate protected the cysteine introduced at glycine 62 against a reaction with OGM. In contrast, l-aspartate stimulated the reactivity of the cysteine introduced at proline 79 with OGM. These results demonstrate that TM3 undergoes l-aspartate-induced conformational alterations. In addition, nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking assay suggest that functional AspT forms homo-oligomers as a

  18. Structural and Functional Importance of Transmembrane Domain 3 (TM3) in the Aspartate:Alanine Antiporter AspT: Topology and Function of the Residues of TM3 and Oligomerization of AspT▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanatani, Kei; Maloney, Peter C.; Abe, Keietsu

    2009-01-01

    AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, a membrane protein of 543 amino acids with 10 putative transmembrane (TM) helices, is the prototype of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAE) family of transporters. Because TM3 (isoleucine 64 to methionine 85) has many amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the AAE family and because TM3 contains two charged residues and four polar residues, it is thought to be located near (or to form part of) the substrate translocation pathway that includes the binding site for the substrates. To elucidate the role of TM3 in the transport process, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The substitutions of tyrosine 75 and serine 84 had the strongest inhibitory effects on transport (initial rates of l-aspartate transport were below 15% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Considerable but less-marked effects were observed upon the replacement of methionine 70, phenylalanine 71, glycine 74, arginine 76, serine 83, and methionine 85 (initial rates between 15% and 30% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Introduced cysteine residues at the cytoplasmic half of TM3 could be labeled with Oregon green maleimide (OGM), whereas cysteines close to the periplasmic half (residues 64 to 75) were not labeled. These results suggest that TM3 has a hydrophobic core on the periplasmic half and that hydrophilic residues on the cytoplasmic half of TM3 participate in the formation of an aqueous cavity in membranes. Furthermore, the presence of l-aspartate protected the cysteine introduced at glycine 62 against a reaction with OGM. In contrast, l-aspartate stimulated the reactivity of the cysteine introduced at proline 79 with OGM. These results demonstrate that TM3 undergoes l-aspartate-induced conformational alterations. In addition, nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking assay suggest that functional AspT forms homo-oligomers as a

  19. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  20. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2014-07-06

    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  1. LOADS INTERACTION DOMAINS METHODOLOGY FOR THE DESIGN OF STEEL GREENHOUSE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castellano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to develop a design methodology which correlates main structural design parameters, whose production is characterised by high levels of standardization, such as the height of gutter or the distance between frames, with actions on the greenhouse. The methodology, based on the use of charts and abacus, permits a clear and a direct interpretation of the structural response to design load combinations and allows the design of structural improvements with the aim of the optimization of the ratio benefits (structural strength/costs. The study of structural interaction domains allowed a clear and a direct interpretation of the structural response to design load combinations. The diagrams highlight not only if the structure fulfils the standard requirements but also the safety levels with respect to design load combinations and allow the structural designer how to operate in order to optimize the structural response with standard requirements achieving the best ratio benefits (structural safety/ costs. The methodology was developed basing on criteria assigned by EN13031 on two different kinds of greenhouse structures: an arched greenhouse with a film plastic covering and a duo pitched roof greenhouse cover with rigid plastic membranes. Structural interaction domains for arched greenhouse showed a better capability of the structure to resist to vertical loads then to horizontal one. Moreover, the climatic load distribution on the structure assigned by EN13031 is such that the combination of climatic actions is less dangerous for the structure then their individual application. Whilst, duo pitched roof steel greenhouse interaction domains, showed a better capability of the structure to resist to vertical loads then to horizontal one and that, in any case, the serviceability limit states analysis is more strict then the ULS one. The shape of structural domains highlighted that the combination of actions is more dangerous for the

  2. Time-Domain Modeling of RF Antennas and Plasma-Surface Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in finite-difference time-domain (FDTD modeling techniques allow plasma-surface interactions such as sheath formation and sputtering to be modeled concurrently with the physics of antenna near- and far-field behavior and ICRF power flow. Although typical sheath length scales (micrometers are much smaller than the wavelengths of fast (tens of cm and slow (millimeter waves excited by the antenna, sheath behavior near plasma-facing antenna components can be represented by a sub-grid kinetic sheath boundary condition, from which RF-rectified sheath potential variation over the surface is computed as a function of current flow and local plasma parameters near the wall. These local time-varying sheath potentials can then be used, in tandem with particle-in-cell (PIC models of the edge plasma, to study sputtering effects. Particle strike energies at the wall can be computed more accurately, consistent with their passage through the known potential of the sheath, such that correspondingly increased accuracy of sputtering yields and heat/particle fluxes to antenna surfaces is obtained. The new simulation capabilities enable time-domain modeling of plasma-surface interactions and ICRF physics in realistic experimental configurations at unprecedented spatial resolution. We will present results/animations from high-performance (10k-100k core FDTD/PIC simulations of Alcator C-Mod antenna operation.

  3. A Novel Protein Interaction between Nucleotide Binding Domain of Hsp70 and p53 Motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asita Elengoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, protein interaction of Homo sapiens nucleotide binding domain (NBD of heat shock 70 kDa protein (PDB: 1HJO with p53 motif remains to be elucidated. The NBD-p53 motif complex enhances the p53 stabilization, thereby increasing the tumor suppression activity in cancer treatment. Therefore, we identified the interaction between NBD and p53 using STRING version 9.1 program. Then, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of p53 motif through homology modeling and determined the binding affinity and stability of NBD-p53 motif complex structure via molecular docking and dynamics (MD simulation. Human DNA binding domain of p53 motif (SCMGGMNR retrieved from UniProt (UniProtKB: P04637 was docked with the NBD protein, using the Autodock version 4.2 program. The binding energy and intermolecular energy for the NBD-p53 motif complex were −0.44 Kcal/mol and −9.90 Kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, and secondary structure analyses revealed that the NBD protein had a strong bond with p53 motif and the protein-ligand complex was stable. Thus, the current data would be highly encouraging for designing Hsp70 structure based drug in cancer therapy.

  4. Tailor-made ezrin actin binding domain to probe its interaction with actin in-vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Shrivastava

    Full Text Available Ezrin, a member of the ERM (Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin protein family, is an Actin-plasma membrane linker protein mediating cellular integrity and function. In-vivo study of such interactions is a complex task due to the presence of a large number of endogenous binding partners for both Ezrin and Actin. Further, C-terminal actin binding capacity of the full length Ezrin is naturally shielded by its N-terminal, and only rendered active in the presence of Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2 or phosphorylation at the C-terminal threonine. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the design, expression and purification of constructs, combining the Ezrin C-terminal actin binding domain, with functional elements such as fusion tags and fluorescence tags to facilitate purification and fluorescence microscopy based studies. For the first time, internal His tag was employed for purification of Ezrin actin binding domain based on in-silico modeling. The functionality (Ezrin-actin interaction of these constructs was successfully demonstrated by using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. This design can be extended to other members of the ERM family as well.

  5. Viral Interactions with PDZ Domain-Containing Proteins—An Oncogenic Trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D. James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the human viruses with oncogenic capabilities, either in their natural host or in experimental systems (hepatitis B and C, human T cell leukaemia virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, human immunodeficiency virus, high-risk human papillomaviruses and adenovirus type 9, encode in their limited genome the ability to target cellular proteins containing PSD95/ DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ interaction modules. In many cases (but not always, the viruses have evolved to bind the PDZ domains using the same short linear peptide motifs found in host protein-PDZ interactions, and in some cases regulate the interactions in a similar fashion by phosphorylation. What is striking is that the diverse viruses target a common subset of PDZ proteins that are intimately involved in controlling cell polarity and the structure and function of intercellular junctions, including tight junctions. Cell polarity is fundamental to the control of cell proliferation and cell survival and disruption of polarity and the signal transduction pathways involved is a key event in tumourigenesis. This review focuses on the oncogenic viruses and the role of targeting PDZ proteins in the virus life cycle and the contribution of virus-PDZ protein interactions to virus-mediated oncogenesis. We highlight how many of the viral associations with PDZ proteins lead to deregulation of PI3K/AKT signalling, benefitting virus replication but as a consequence also contributing to oncogenesis.

  6. Interaction domains in die-upset NdFeB magnets in dependence on the degree of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopkov, K.; Gutfleisch, O.; Schaefer, R.; Hinz, D.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic domain structure of NdFeB magnets has been studied using high resolution, digitally enhanced Kerr-microscopy. Melt-spun NdFeB powder (MQU-F TM ) was hot pressed into fully dense samples and then hot deformed to axially textured magnets. Various degrees of deformation (height reduction) up to 76% have been realized. Pronounced interaction domains have been observed only in magnets, which were deformed to a degree of deformation of at least 52%. With increasing alignment of the grains the interaction domains become more and more visible and their size increases

  7. Pentamidine blocks the interaction between mutant S100A5 and RAGE V domain and inhibits the RAGE signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-08-19

    The human S100 protein family contains small, dimeric and acidic proteins that contain two EF-hand motifs and bind calcium. When S100A5 binds calcium, its conformation changes and promotes interaction with the target protein. The extracellular domain of RAGE (Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products) contain three domains: C1, C2 and V. The RAGE V domain is the target protein of S100A5 that promotes cell survival, growth and differentiation by activating several signaling pathways. Pentamidine is an apoptotic and antiparasitic drug that is used to treat or prevent pneumonia. Here, we found that pentamidine interacts with S100A5 using HSQC titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A5 with RAGE V domain and pentamidine using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. We generated two binary models-the S100A5-RAGE V domain and S100A5-Pentamidine complex-and then observed that the pentamidine and RAGE V domain share a similar binding region in mS100A5. We also used the WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A5, RAGE V domain and pentamidine. These results indicated that pentamidine blocks the binding between S100A5 and RAGE V domain. This finding is useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Solution structure of tensin2 SH2 domain and its phosphotyrosine-independent interaction with DLC-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Dai

    Full Text Available Src homology 2 (SH2 domain is a conserved module involved in various biological processes. Tensin family member was reported to be involved in tumor suppression by interacting with DLC-1 (deleted-in-liver-cancer-1 via its SH2 domain. We explore here the important questions that what the structure of tensin2 SH2 domain is, and how it binds to DLC-1, which might reveal a novel binding mode.Tensin2 SH2 domain adopts a conserved SH2 fold that mainly consists of five β-strands flanked by two α-helices. Most SH2 domains recognize phosphorylated ligands specifically. However, tensin2 SH2 domain was identified to interact with nonphosphorylated ligand (DLC-1 as well as phosphorylated ligand.We determined the solution structure of tensin2 SH2 domain using NMR spectroscopy, and revealed the interactions between tensin2 SH2 domain and its ligands in a phosphotyrosine-independent manner.

  9. Numerical time-domain modelling of hoof-ground interaction during the stance phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, R

    2017-11-09

    Hoof-ground interaction impacts on the health and performance characteristics of horses. Due to complex interactions between hoof and ground during the stance phase, previous experimentally dominated studies concentrated on subproblems of the phenomena observed. A multidisciplinary methodology with mathematical modelling, material testing and in vivo experimental measurements seems promising. With the help of a mathematical approach, this contribution aims to explain from a biomechanical point of view the phenomena observed during experimental investigations (hoof acceleration, interacting forces) and aims to contribute to an overall experimental-mathematical multidisciplinary approach. In silico modelling of hoof-ground interaction (limb, hoof and horizontally unbounded ground). Hoof-ground interaction is represented by a time-domain finite element model including the limb, the hoof and the unbounded representation of the ground via the scaled boundary finite element method to capture radiation damping during the stance phase. Motoric forces (driving forces) of the horse during locomotion are included. Numerical model results for acceleration-time relations (hoof) at different trotting velocities are compared with previously published acceleration-time relations and show qualitative agreement. From the model approach, power loss due to different ground properties and ground damping is computed in combination with the maximum limb force during the stance phase. Intentionally, a simplified model approach for the material and structural representation of the limb, the hoof and the ground in terms of material features and spatial resolution has been used for this study, which might be the basis for a model refinement in terms of contact properties as well as the integration of bone and joint structures. The comparison to experimentally obtained results demonstrates the applicability of the model, which, in turn, enables an insight into the processes taking place

  10. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  11. Time-domain soil-structure interaction analysis of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Justin L.; Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix S requires consideration of soil-structure interaction (SSI) in nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis and design. Soil-structure interaction analysis for NPPs is routinely carried out using guidance provided in the ASCE Standard 4-98 titled “Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary”. This Standard, which is currently under revision, provides guidance on linear seismic soil-structure-interaction (SSI) analysis of nuclear facilities using deterministic and probabilistic methods. A new appendix has been added to the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 to provide guidance for time-domain, nonlinear SSI (NLSSI) analysis. Nonlinear SSI analysis will be needed to simulate material nonlinearity in soil and/or structure, static and dynamic soil pressure effects on deeply embedded structures, local soil failure at the foundation-soil interface, nonlinear coupling of soil and pore fluid, uplift or sliding of the foundation, nonlinear effects of gaps between the surrounding soil and the embedded structure and seismic isolation systems, none of which can be addressed explicitly at present. Appendix B of ASCE Standard 4 provides general guidance for NLSSI analysis but will not provide a methodology for performing the analysis. This paper provides a description of an NLSSI methodology developed for application to nuclear facilities, including NPPs. This methodology is described as series of sequential steps to produce reasonable results using any time-domain numerical code. These steps require some numerical capabilities, such as nonlinear soil constitutive models, which are also described in the paper.

  12. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey.

  13. Modulation of domain-domain interaction and protein function by a charged linker: a case study of mycobacteriophage D29 endolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohane, Amol Arunrao; Patidar, Neelam Devidas; Jain, Vikas

    2015-03-12

    Phage-encoded cell wall peptidoglycan hydrolyzing enzymes, called endolysins, are essential for efficient release of virions from bacteria, and show species-specific killing of the host. We have demonstrated previously that the interaction between N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal cell wall binding domains of mycobacteriophage D29 endolysin makes the enzyme inactive in Escherichiacoli. Here, we demonstrate that such interaction occurs intramolecularly and is facilitated by a charged linker that connects the two domains. We also show that linker composition is crucial for the inactivation of PG hydrolase in E. coli. Such knowledge will immensely help in bioengineering of endolysins with narrow or broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of ion acceleration mechanism through laser-matter interaction in femtosecond domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C., E-mail: altana@lns.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore”, Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Tudisco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Brandi, F. [CNR, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cristoforetti, G. [CNR, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Fazzi, A. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Ferrara, P.; Fulgentini, L. [CNR, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Giove, D. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Koester, P. [CNR, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Labate, L. [CNR, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2016-09-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the ion acceleration mechanisms through laser-matter interaction in the femtosecond domain has been carried out at the ILIL facility at a laser intensity of up to 2×10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. A Thomson Parabola Spectrometer was used to identify different ion species and measure the energy spectra and the corresponding temperature parameters. We discuss the dependence of the protons spectra upon the structural characteristics of the targets (thickness and atomic mass) and the role of surface versus target bulk during acceleration process. - Highlights: • Ion acceleration mechanism in TNSA regime was investigated. • The energy spectra and the corresponding temperature parameters were measured. • Dependence of the spectra upon the target structural characteristics was discussed.

  15. Plasticity of BRCA2 function in homologous recombination: genetic interactions of the PALB2 and DNA binding domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Siaud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The breast cancer suppressor BRCA2 is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammalian cells through its role in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR. Human BRCA2 is 3,418 amino acids and is comprised of multiple domains that interact with the RAD51 recombinase and other proteins as well as with DNA. To gain insight into the cellular function of BRCA2 in HR, we created fusions consisting of various BRCA2 domains and also introduced mutations into these domains to disrupt specific protein and DNA interactions. We find that a BRCA2 fusion peptide deleted for the DNA binding domain and active in HR is completely dependent on interaction with the PALB2 tumor suppressor for activity. Conversely, a BRCA2 fusion peptide deleted for the PALB2 binding domain is dependent on an intact DNA binding domain, providing a role for this conserved domain in vivo; mutagenesis suggests that both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA binding activities in the DNA binding domain are required for its activity. Given that PALB2 itself binds DNA, these results suggest alternative mechanisms to deliver RAD51 to DNA. In addition, the BRCA2 C terminus contains both RAD51-dependent and -independent activities which are essential to HR in some contexts. Finally, binding the small peptide DSS1 is essential for activity when its binding domain is present, but not when it is absent. Our results reveal functional redundancy within the BRCA2 protein and emphasize the plasticity of this large protein built for optimal HR function in mammalian cells. The occurrence of disease-causing mutations throughout BRCA2 suggests sub-optimal HR from a variety of domain modulations.

  16. Soliton-like magnetic domain wall motion induced by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Teruo

    Topological defects such as magnetic solitons, vortices, Bloch lines, and skyrmions start to play an important role in modern magnetism due to their extraordinary stability which can be hailed as future memory devices. Recently, novel type of antisymmetric exchange interaction, namely the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), has been uncovered and found to influence on the formation of topological defects. Exploring how the DMI affects the dynamics of topological defects is therefore an important task. Here we investigate the dynamics of the magnetic domain wall (DW) under a DMI by developing a time-of-flight measurement scheme which allows us to measure the DW velocity for magnetic fields up to 0.3T. For a weak DMI, the trend of DW velocity follows the Walker's model which predicts that the velocity of DW increases with field up to a threshold (Walker field) and decreases abruptly. On the other hand, for a strong DMI, velocity breakdown is completely suppressed and the DW keeps its maximum velocity even far above the Walker field. Such a distinct trend of the DW velocity, which has never been predicted, can be explained in terms of magnetic soliton, of which topology can be protected by the DMI. Importantly, such a soliton-like DW motion is only observed in two dimensional systems, implying that the vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) creating inside of the magnetic domain-wall play a crucial role. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15H05702, 26870300, 26870304, 26103002, 25.4251, Collaborative Research Program of the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, and R & D Project for ICT Key Technology of MEXT from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  17. Characterization of the interaction between Actinin-Associated LIM Protein (ALP) and the rod domain of α-actinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaavuniemi, Tuula; Alho, Nanna; Hotulainen, Pirta; Kelloniemi, Annina; Havukainen, Heli; Permi, Perttu; Mattila, Sampo; Ylänne, Jari

    2009-01-01

    Background The PDZ-LIM proteins are a family of signalling adaptors that interact with the actin cross-linking protein, α-actinin, via their PDZ domains or via internal regions between the PDZ and LIM domains. Three of the PDZ-LIM proteins have a conserved 26-residue ZM motif in the internal region, but the structure of the internal region is unknown. Results In this study, using circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we showed that the ALP internal region (residues 107–273) was largely unfolded in solution, but was able to interact with the α-actinin rod domain in vitro, and to co-localize with α-actinin on stress fibres in vivo. NMR analysis revealed that the titration of ALP with the α-actinin rod domain induces stabilization of ALP. A synthetic peptide (residues 175–196) that contained the N-terminal half of the ZM motif was found to interact directly with the α-actinin rod domain in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements. Short deletions at or before the ZM motif abrogated the localization of ALP to actin stress fibres. Conclusion The internal region of ALP appeared to be largely unstructured but functional. The ZM motif defined part of the interaction surface between ALP and the α-actinin rod domain. PMID:19327143

  18. Structure and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Morales

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Mutations in the CFTR gene may result in a defective processing of its protein and alter the function and regulation of this channel. Mutations are associated with different symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bile duct obstruction, infertility in males, high sweat Cl-, intestinal obstruction, nasal polyp formation, chronic sinusitis, mucus dehydration, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus lung infection, responsible for 90% of the mortality of CF patients. The gene responsible for the cellular defect in CF was cloned in 1989 and its protein product CFTR is activated by an increase of intracellular cAMP. The CFTR contains two membrane domains, each with six transmembrane domain segments, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, and a cytoplasmic domain. In this review we discuss the studies that have correlated the role of each CFTR domain in the protein function as a chloride channel and as a regulator of the outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs.

  19. Interaction of the phosphorylated DNA-binding domain in nuclear receptor CAR with its ligand-binding domain regulates CAR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Min, Jungki; Sobhany, Mack; Pedersen, Lars C; Mutoh, Shingo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2018-01-05

    The nuclear protein constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR or NR1I3) regulates several liver functions such as drug and energy metabolism and cell growth or death, which are often involved in the development of diseases such as diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. CAR undergoes a conversion from inactive homodimers to active heterodimers with retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), and phosphorylation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) at Thr-38 in CAR regulates this conversion. Here, we uncovered the molecular mechanism by which this phosphorylation regulates the intramolecular interaction between CAR's DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD), enabling the homodimer-heterodimer conversion. Phosphomimetic substitution of Thr-38 with Asp increased co-immunoprecipitation of the CAR DBD with CAR LBD in Huh-7 cells. Isothermal titration calorimetry assays also revealed that recombinant CAR DBD-T38D, but not nonphosphorylated CAR DBD, bound the CAR LBD peptide. This DBD-LBD interaction masked CAR's dimer interface, preventing CAR homodimer formation. Of note, EGF signaling weakened the interaction of CAR DBD T38D with CAR LBD, converting CAR to the homodimer form. The DBD-T38D-LBD interaction also prevented CAR from forming a heterodimer with RXRα. However, this interaction opened up a CAR surface, allowing interaction with protein phosphatase 2A. Thr-38 dephosphorylation then dissociated the DBD-LBD interaction, allowing CAR heterodimer formation with RXRα. We conclude that the intramolecular interaction of phosphorylated DBD with the LBD enables CAR to adapt a transient monomer configuration that can be converted to either the inactive homodimer or the active heterodimer.

  20. Transmembrane amyloid-related proteins in CSF as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada eLopez-Font

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing search for new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, reasonable candidates are the secretase enzymes involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, as well as the large proteolytic cleavage fragments sAPPα and sAPPβ. The enzymatic activities of some of these secretases, such as BACE1 and TACE, have been investigated as potential AD biomarkers, and it has been assumed that these activities present in human CSF result from the soluble truncated forms of the membrane-bound enzymes. However, we and others recently identified soluble forms of BACE1 and APP in CSF containing the intracellular domains, as well as the multi-pass transmembrane presenilin-1 (PS1 and other subunits of γ-secretase. We also review recent findings that suggest that most of these soluble transmembrane proteins could display self-association properties based on hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions leading to the formation of heteromeric complexes. The oligomerization state of these potential new biomarkers needs to be taken into consideration for assessing their real potential as CSF biomarkers for AD by adequate molecular tools.

  1. The minimal essential unit for cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion comprises extracellular domains 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shan, Weisong; Yagita, Yoshiki; Wang, Zhaohui

    2004-01-01

    . Cell lines expressing longer extracellular domains or N-cadherin wild type cells formed larger cellular aggregates than those expressing shorter aggregates. However, adhesion strength, as measured by a shearing test, did not reveal any differences among these aggregative cell lines, suggesting......N-cadherin comprises five homologous extracellular domains, a transmembrane, and a cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domains of N-cadherin play important roles in homophilic cell adhesion, but the contribution of each domain to this phenomenon has not been fully evaluated. In particular......, the following questions remain unanswered: what is the minimal domain combination that can generate cell adhesion, how is domain organization related to adhesive strength, and does the cytoplasmic domain serve to facilitate extracellular domain interaction? To address these issues, we made serial constructs...

  2. Sequence-Specific Interaction between the Disintegrin Domain of Mouse ADAM 3 and Murine Eggs: Role of β1 Integrin-associated Proteins CD9, CD81, and CD98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Bigler, Dora; Ito, Yasuhiko; White, Judith M.

    2001-01-01

    ADAM 3 is a sperm surface glycoprotein that has been implicated in sperm-egg adhesion. Because little is known about the adhesive activity of ADAMs, we investigated the interaction of ADAM 3 disintegrin domains, made in bacteria and in insect cells, with murine eggs. Both recombinant proteins inhibited sperm-egg binding and fusion with potencies similar to that which we recently reported for the ADAM 2 disintegrin domain. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed a critical importance for the glutamine at position 7 of the disintegrin loop. Fluorescent beads coated with the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain bound to the egg surface. Bead binding was inhibited by an authentic, but not by a scrambled, peptide analog of the disintegrin loop. Bead binding was also inhibited by the function-blocking anti-α6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GoH3, but not by a nonfunction blocking anti-α6 mAb, or by mAbs against either the αv or β3 integrin subunits. We also present evidence that in addition to the tetraspanin CD9, two other β1-integrin-associated proteins, the tetraspanin CD81 as well as the single pass transmembrane protein CD98 are expressed on murine eggs. Antibodies to CD9 and CD98 inhibited in vitro fertilization and binding of the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain. Our findings are discussed in terms of the involvement of multiple sperm ADAMs and multiple egg β1 integrin-associated proteins in sperm-egg binding and fusion. We propose that an egg surface “tetraspan web” facilitates fertilization and that it may do so by fostering ADAM–integrin interactions. PMID:11294888

  3. Sequence-specific interaction between the disintegrin domain of mouse ADAM 3 and murine eggs: role of beta1 integrin-associated proteins CD9, CD81, and CD98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Bigler, D; Ito, Y; White, J M

    2001-04-01

    ADAM 3 is a sperm surface glycoprotein that has been implicated in sperm-egg adhesion. Because little is known about the adhesive activity of ADAMs, we investigated the interaction of ADAM 3 disintegrin domains, made in bacteria and in insect cells, with murine eggs. Both recombinant proteins inhibited sperm-egg binding and fusion with potencies similar to that which we recently reported for the ADAM 2 disintegrin domain. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed a critical importance for the glutamine at position 7 of the disintegrin loop. Fluorescent beads coated with the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain bound to the egg surface. Bead binding was inhibited by an authentic, but not by a scrambled, peptide analog of the disintegrin loop. Bead binding was also inhibited by the function-blocking anti-alpha6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GoH3, but not by a nonfunction blocking anti-alpha6 mAb, or by mAbs against either the alphav or beta3 integrin subunits. We also present evidence that in addition to the tetraspanin CD9, two other beta1-integrin-associated proteins, the tetraspanin CD81 as well as the single pass transmembrane protein CD98 are expressed on murine eggs. Antibodies to CD9 and CD98 inhibited in vitro fertilization and binding of the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain. Our findings are discussed in terms of the involvement of multiple sperm ADAMs and multiple egg beta1 integrin-associated proteins in sperm-egg binding and fusion. We propose that an egg surface "tetraspan web" facilitates fertilization and that it may do so by fostering ADAM-integrin interactions.

  4. Investigation of the Josephin Domain protein-protein interaction by molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Deriu

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA 3, the most common form of SCA, is a neurodegenerative rare disease characterized by polyglutamine tract expansion and self-assembly of Ataxin3 (At3 misfolded proteins into highly organized fibrillar aggregates. The At3 N-terminal Josephin Domain (JD has been suggested as being responsible for mediating the initial phase of the At3 double-step fibrillogenesis. Several issues concerning the residues involved in the JD's aggregation and, more generally, the JD clumping mechanism have not been clarified yet. In this paper we present an investigation focusing on the JD protein-protein interaction by means of molecular modeling. Our results suggest possible aminoacids involved in JD contact together with local and non-local effects following JD dimerization. Surprisingly, JD conformational changes following the binding may involve ubiquitin binding sites and hairpin region even though they do not pertain to the JD interaction surfaces. Moreover, the JD binding event has been found to alter the hairpin open-like conformation toward a closed-like arrangement over the simulated timescale. Finally, our results suggest that the JD aggregation might be a multi-step process, with an initial fast JD-JD binding mainly driven by Arg101, followed by slower structural global rearrangements involving the exposure to the solvent of Leu84-Trp87, which might play a role in a second step of JD aggregation.

  5. Mathematics for Maths Anxious Tertiary Students: Integrating the cognitive and affective domains using interactive multimedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Taylor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, commencing university students come from a diversity of backgrounds and have a broad range of abilities and attitudes. It is well known that attitudes towards mathematics, especially mathematics anxiety, can affect students’ performance to the extent that mathematics is often seen as a barrier to success by many. This paper reports on the design, development and evaluation of an interactive multimedia resource designed to explicitly address students’ beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics by following five characters as they progress through the highs and low of studying a preparatory mathematics course. The resource was built within two theoretical frameworks, one related to effective numeracy teaching (Marr and Helme 1991 and the other related to effective educational technology development (Laurillard 2002. Further, it uses a number of multimedia alternatives (video, audio, animations, diarying, interactive examples and self assessment to encourage students to feel part of a group, to reflect on their feelings and beliefs about mathematics, to expose students to authentic problem solving and generally build confidence through practice and self-assessment. Evaluation of the resource indicated that it encouraged students to value their own mathematical ability and helped to build confidence, while developing mathematical problem solving skills. The evaluation clearly demonstrated that it is possible to address the affective domain through multimedia initiatives and that this can complement the current focus on computer mediated communication as the primary method of addressing affective goals within the online environment.

  6. Dynamic Analysis of Partially Embedded Structures Considering Soil-Structure Interaction in Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mahmoudpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and design of structures subjected to arbitrary dynamic loadings especially earthquakes have been studied during past decades. In practice, the effects of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures are usually neglected. In this study, the effect of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures has been examined. The substructure method using dynamic stiffness of soil is used to analyze soil-structure system. A coupled model based on finite element method and scaled boundary finite element method is applied. Finite element method is used to analyze the structure, and scaled boundary finite element method is applied in the analysis of unbounded soil region. Due to analytical solution in the radial direction, the radiation condition is satisfied exactly. The material behavior of soil and structure is assumed to be linear. The soil region is considered as a homogeneous half-space. The analysis is performed in time domain. A computer program is prepared to analyze the soil-structure system. Comparing the results with those in literature shows the exactness and competency of the proposed method.

  7. Homotypic interactions of the infectious bursal disease virus proteins VP3, pVP2, VP4, and VP5: mapping of the interacting domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacken, Mirriam G.J.; Beuken, Patricia A.J. van den; Peeters, Ben P.H.; Thomas, Adri A.M.; Rottier, Peter J.M.; Boot, Hein J.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus of chicken, encodes five proteins. Of these, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1) is specified by the smaller genome segment, while the large segment directs synthesis of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and a structural protein precursor from which the capsid proteins pVP2 and VP3 as well as the viral protease VP4 are derived. Using the recently redefined processing sites of the precursor, we have reevaluated the homotypic interactions of the viral proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Except for VP1, which interacted weakly, all proteins appeared to self-associate strongly. Using a deletion mutagenesis approach, we subsequently mapped the interacting domains in these polypeptides, where possible confirming the observations made in the two-hybrid system by performing coimmunoprecipitation analyses of tagged protein constructs coexpressed in avian culture cells. The results revealed that pVP2 possesses multiple interaction domains, consistent with available structural information about this external capsid protein. VP3-VP3 interactions were mapped to the amino-terminal part of the polypeptide. Interestingly, this domain is distinct from two other interaction domains occurring in this internal capsid protein: while binding to VP1 has been mapped to the carboxy-terminal end of the protein, interaction with the genomic dsRNA segments has been suggested to occur just upstream thereof. No interaction sites could be assigned to the VP4 protein; any deletion applied abolished its self-association. Finally, one interaction domain was detected in the central, most hydrophobic region of VP5, supporting the idea that this virulence determinant may function as a membrane pore-forming protein in infected cells

  8. The chitin-binding domain of a GH-18 chitinase from Vibrio harveyi is crucial for chitin-chitinase interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suginta, Wipa; Sirimontree, Paknisa; Sritho, Natchanok; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio harveyi chitinase A (VhChiA) is a GH-18 glycosyl hydrolase with a structure containing three distinct domains: i) the N-terminal chitin-binding domain; ii) the (α/β) 8 TIM barrel catalytic domain; and iii) the α+β insertion domain. In this study, we cloned the gene fragment encoding the chitin-binding domain of VhChiA, termed ChBD Vh ChiA . The recombinant ChBD Vh ChiA was heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 strain Tuner(DE3)pLacI host cells, and purified to homogeneity. CD measurements suggested that ChBD Vh ChiA contained β-sheets as major structural components and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the protein domain was folded correctly, and suitable for functional characterization. Chitin binding assays showed that ChBD Vh ChiA bound to both α- and β-chitins, with the greatest affinity for β-colloidal chitin, but barely bound to polymeric chitosan. These results identified the tandem N-acetamido functionality on chitin chains as the specific sites of enzyme-substrate interactions. The binding affinity of the isolated domain was significantly lower than that of intact VhChiA, suggesting that the catalytic domain works synergistically with the chitin-binding domain to guide the polymeric substrate into the substrate binding cleft. These data confirm the physiological role of the chitin-binding domain of the marine bacterial GH-18 chitinase A in chitin-chitinase interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The conservation pattern of short linear motifs is highly correlated with the function of interacting protein domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiguo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many well-represented domains recognize primary sequences usually less than 10 amino acids in length, called Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs. Accurate prediction of SLiMs has been difficult because they are short (often Results Our combined approach revealed that SLiMs are highly conserved in proteins from functional classes that are known to interact with a specific domain, but that they are not conserved in most other protein groups. We found that SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains were highly conserved in receptor kinases/phosphatases, adaptor molecules, and tyrosine kinases/phosphatases, that SLiMs recognized by SH3 domains were highly conserved in cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins, that SLiMs recognized by PDZ domains were highly conserved in membrane proteins such as channels and receptors, and that SLiMs recognized by S/T kinase domains were highly conserved in adaptor molecules, S/T kinases/phosphatases, and proteins involved in transcription or cell cycle control. We studied Tyr-SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains in more detail, and found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs on the cytoplasmic side of membrane proteins are more highly conserved than those on the extra-cellular side. Also, we found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs that are associated with SH3 motifs and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif are more highly conserved. Conclusion The interactome of protein domains is reflected by the evolutionary conservation of SLiMs recognized by these domains. Combining scoring matrixes derived from peptide libraries and conservation analysis, we would be able to find those protein groups that are more likely to interact with specific domains.

  10. Molecular mechanisms for generating transmembrane proton gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunner, M.R.; Amin, Muhamed; Zhu, Xuyu; Lu, Jianxun

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins use the energy of light or high energy substrates to build a transmembrane proton gradient through a series of reactions leading to proton release into the lower pH compartment (P-side) and proton uptake from the higher pH compartment (N-side). This review considers how the proton affinity of the substrates, cofactors and amino acids are modified in four proteins to drive proton transfers. Bacterial reaction centers (RCs) and photosystem II (PSII) carry out redox chemistry with the species to be oxidized on the P-side while reduction occurs on the N-side of the membrane. Terminal redox cofactors are used which have pKas that are strongly dependent on their redox state, so that protons are lost on oxidation and gained on reduction. Bacteriorhodopsin is a true proton pump. Light activation triggers trans to cis isomerization of a bound retinal. Strong electrostatic interactions within clusters of amino acids are modified by the conformational changes initiated by retinal motion leading to changes in proton affinity, driving transmembrane proton transfer. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the reduction of O2 to water. The protons needed for chemistry are bound from the N-side. The reduction chemistry also drives proton pumping from N- to P-side. Overall, in CcO the uptake of 4 electrons to reduce O2 transports 8 charges across the membrane, with each reduction fully coupled to removal of two protons from the N-side, the delivery of one for chemistry and transport of the other to the P-side. PMID:23507617

  11. The BARD1 C-Terminal Domain Structure and Interactions with Polyadenylation Factor CstF-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ross A.; Lee, Megan S.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Williams, R. Scott; Tainer, John A.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-07-13

    The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF- 50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate phosphopeptide binding pocket lacking the key arginine required for phosphopeptide interactions in other BRCT proteins.Small angle X-ray scattering together with limited proteolysis results indicates that ankyrin and BRCT domains are linked by a flexible tether and do not adopt a fixed orientation relative to one another. Protein pull-down experiments utilizing a series of purified BARD1 deletion mutants indicate that interactions between the CstF-50 WD-40 domain and BARD1 involve the ankyrin-BRCT linker but do not require ankyrin or BRCT domains. The structural plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker helps to explain the regulated assembly of different protein BARD1 complexes with distinct functions in DNA damage signaling including BARD1-dependent induction of apoptosis plus p53 stabilization and interactions. BARD1 architecture and plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker are suitable to allow the BARD1 C-terminus to act as a hub with multiple binding sites to integrate diverse DNA damage signals directly to RNA polymerase.

  12. Analysis on the Interaction Domain of VirG and Apyrase by Pull-Down Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available VirG is outer membrane protein of Shigella and affects the spread of Shigella. Recently it has been reported that apyrase influences the location of VirG, although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The site of interaction between apyrase and VirG is the focus of our research. First we constructed recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and pS-(v1–1102, v53–758, v759–1102, v53–319, v320–507, v507–758 by denaturation-renaturation, the phoN2:kan mutant of Shigella flexneri 5a M90T by a modified version of the lambda red recombination protocol originally described by Datsenko and Wanner and the complemented strain M90TΔphoN2/pET24a(PhisphoN2. Second, the recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and the pS-(v1–1102, v53–758, v759–1102, v53–319, v320–507, v507–758 were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3 and induced to express the fusion proteins. Third, the fusion proteins were purified and the interaction of VirG and apyrase was identified by pull-down. Fourth, VirG was divided and the interaction site of apyrase and VirG was determined. Finally, how apyrase affects the function of VirG was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, the results provided the data supporting the fact that apyrase combines with the α-domain of VirG to influence the function of VirG.

  13. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qianlong [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Blissard, Gary W. [Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United State (United States); Liu, Tong-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Zhaofei, E-mail: zhaofeili73@outlook.com [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  14. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qianlong; Blissard, Gary W.; Liu, Tong-Xian; Li, Zhaofei

    2016-01-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  15. Nonlinear Time Domain Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) Deep Soil Site Methodology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear industry perform seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis using equivalent linear numerical analysis tools. For lower levels of ground motion, these tools should produce reasonable in-structure response values for evaluation of existing and new facilities. For larger levels of ground motion these tools likely overestimate the in-structure response (and therefore structural demand) since they do not consider geometric nonlinearities (such as gaping and sliding between the soil and structure) and are limited in the ability to model nonlinear soil behavior. The current equivalent linear SSI (SASSI) analysis approach either joins the soil and structure together in both tension and compression or releases the soil from the structure for both tension and compression. It also makes linear approximations for material nonlinearities and generalizes energy absorption with viscous damping. This produces the potential for inaccurately establishing where the structural concerns exist and/or inaccurately establishing the amplitude of the in-structure responses. Seismic hazard curves at nuclear facilities have continued to increase over the years as more information has been developed on seismic sources (i.e. faults), additional information gathered on seismic events, and additional research performed to determine local site effects. Seismic hazard curves are used to develop design basis earthquakes (DBE) that are used to evaluate nuclear facility response. As the seismic hazard curves increase, the input ground motions (DBE's) used to numerically evaluation nuclear facility response increase causing larger in-structure response. As ground motions increase so does the importance of including nonlinear effects in numerical SSI models. To include material nonlinearity in the soil and geometric nonlinearity using contact (gaping and sliding) it is necessary to develop a nonlinear time domain methodology. This

  16. The role of palmitoylation and transmembrane domain in sorting of transmembrane adaptor proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chum, T.; Glatzová, Daniela; Kvíčalová, Zuzana; Malínský, Jan; Brdička, Tomáš; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 1 (2016), s. 95-107 ISSN 0021-9533 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : LAT * PAG * Palmitoylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.431, year: 2016

  17. Neto1 is a novel CUB-domain NMDA receptor-interacting protein required for synaptic plasticity and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, a major excitatory ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system (CNS, is a principal mediator of synaptic plasticity. Here we report that neuropilin tolloid-like 1 (Neto1, a complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1 (CUB domain-containing transmembrane protein, is a novel component of the NMDAR complex critical for maintaining the abundance of NR2A-containing NMDARs in the postsynaptic density. Neto1-null mice have depressed long-term potentiation (LTP at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, with the subunit dependency of LTP induction switching from the normal predominance of NR2A- to NR2B-NMDARs. NMDAR-dependent spatial learning and memory is depressed in Neto1-null mice, indicating that Neto1 regulates NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity and cognition. Remarkably, we also found that the deficits in LTP, learning, and memory in Neto1-null mice were rescued by the ampakine CX546 at doses without effect in wild-type. Together, our results establish the principle that auxiliary proteins are required for the normal abundance of NMDAR subunits at synapses, and demonstrate that an inherited learning defect can be rescued pharmacologically, a finding with therapeutic implications for humans.

  18. Ketolide antimicrobial activity persists after disruption of interactions with domain II of 23S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Guy W; Jakobsen, Lene; Andersen, Niels M; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Ketolides are the latest derivatives developed from the macrolide erythromycin to improve antimicrobial activity. All macrolides and ketolides bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit, where they come into contact with adenosine 2058 (A2058) within domain V of the 23S rRNA and block protein synthesis. An additional interaction at nucleotide A752 in the rRNA domain II is made via the synthetic carbamate-alkyl-aryl substituent in the ketolides HMR3647 (telithromycin) and HMR3004, and this interaction contributes to their improved activities. Only a few macrolides, including tylosin, come into contact with domain II of the rRNA and do so via interactions with nucleotides G748 and A752. We have disrupted these macrolide-ketolide interaction sites in the rRNA to assess their relative importance for binding. Base substitutions at A752 were shown to confer low levels of resistance to telithromycin but not to HMR3004, while deletion of A752 confers low levels of resistance to both ketolides. Mutations at position 748 confer no resistance. Substitution of guanine at A2058 gives rise to the MLS(B) (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype, which confers resistance to all the drugs. However, resistance to ketolides was abolished when the mutation at position 2058 was combined with a mutation in domain II of the same rRNA. In contrast, the same dual mutations in rRNAs conferred enhanced resistance to tylosin. Our results show that the domain II interactions of telithromycin and HMR3004 differ from each other and from those of tylosin. The data provide no indication that mutations within domain II, either alone or in combination with an A2058 mutation, can confer significant levels of telithromycin resistance.

  19. DPP6 domains responsible for its localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Long, Laura K; Hatch, Michael M; Hoffman, Dax A

    2014-11-14

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) is an auxiliary subunit of the Kv4 family of voltage-gated K(+) channels known to enhance channel surface expression and potently accelerate their kinetics. DPP6 is a single transmembrane protein, which is structurally remarkable for its large extracellular domain. Included in this domain is a cysteine-rich motif, the function of which is unknown. Here we show that this cysteine-rich domain of DPP6 is required for its export from the ER and expression on the cell surface. Disulfide bridges formed at C349/C356 and C465/C468 of the cysteine-rich domain are necessary for the enhancement of Kv4.2 channel surface expression but not its interaction with Kv4.2 subunits. The short intracellular N-terminal and transmembrane domains of DPP6 associates with and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of Kv4.2, but the entire extracellular domain is necessary to enhance Kv4.2 surface expression and stabilization. Our findings show that the cysteine-rich domain of DPP6 plays an important role in protein folding of DPP6 that is required for transport of DPP6/Kv4.2 complexes out of the ER. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Kinetics of Endophilin N-BAR Domain Dimerization and Membrane Interactions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Benjamin R.; Shi, Zheng; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Zhiming; Dunn, Joanna M.; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Baumgart, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment to plasma membrane invaginations of the protein endophilin is a temporally regulated step in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Endophilin is believed to sense or stabilize membrane curvature, which in turn likely depends on the dimeric structure of the protein. The dynamic nature of the membrane association and dimerization of endophilin is thus functionally important and is illuminated herein. Using subunit exchange Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we determine dimer dissociation kinetics and find a dimerization equilibrium constant orders of magnitude lower than previously published values. We characterize N-BAR domain membrane association kinetics under conditions where the dimeric species predominates, by stopped flow, observing prominent electrostatic sensitivity of membrane interaction kinetics. Relative to membrane binding, we find that protein monomer/dimer species equilibrate with far slower kinetics. Complementary optical microscopy studies reveal strikingly slow membrane dissociation and an increase of dissociation rate constant for a construct lacking the amphipathic segment helix 0 (H0). We attribute the slow dissociation kinetics to higher-order protein oligomerization on the membrane. We incorporate our findings into a kinetic scheme for endophilin N-BAR membrane binding and find a significant separation of time scales for endophilin membrane binding and subsequent oligomerization. This separation may facilitate the regulation of membrane trafficking phenomena. PMID:23482561

  1. Interactions of photoactive DNAs with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase: Identification of peptides in the DNA binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Y.J.K.; Evans, R.K.; Beach, C.M.; Coleman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (terminal transferase) was specifically modified in the DNA binding site by a photoactive DNA substrate (hetero-40-mer duplex containing eight 5-azido-dUMP residues at one 3' end). Under optimal photolabeling conditions, 27-40% of the DNA was covalently cross-linked to terminal transferase. The specificity of the DNA and protein interaction was demonstrated by protection of photolabeling at the DNA binding domain with natural DNA substrates. In order to recover high yields of modified peptides from limited amounts of starting material, protein modified with 32 P-labeled photoactive DNA and digested with trypsin was extracted 4 times with phenol followed by gel filtration chromatography. All peptides not cross-linked to DNA were extracted into the phenol phase while the photolyzed DNA and the covalently cross-linked peptides remained in the aqueous phase. The 32 P-containing peptide-DNA fraction was subjected to amino acid sequence analysis. Two sequences, Asp 221 -Lys 231 (peptide B8) and Cys 234 -Lys 249 (peptide B10), present in similar yield, were identified. Structure predictions placed the two peptides in an α-helical array of 39 angstrom which would accommodate a DNA helix span of 11 nucleotides. These peptides share sequence similarity with a region in DNA polymerase β that has been implicated in the binding of DNA template

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  3. Magnetic properties, domain-wall creep motion, and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in Pt/Co/Ir thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Philippa M.; Tunnicliffe, Harry; Shahbazi, Kowsar; Burnell, Gavin; Moore, Thomas A.

    2018-04-01

    We study the magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Ir thin films and investigate the domain-wall creep method of determining the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in ultrathin films. Measurements of the Co layer thickness dependence of saturation magnetization, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and symmetric and antisymmetric (i.e., DM) exchange energies in Pt/Co/Ir thin films have been made to determine the relationship between these properties. We discuss the measurement of the DM interaction by the expansion of a reverse domain in the domain-wall creep regime. We show how the creep parameters behave as a function of in-plane bias field and discuss the effects of domain-wall roughness on the measurement of the DM interaction by domain expansion. Whereas modifications to the creep law with DM field and in-plane bias fields have taken into account changes in the energy barrier scaling parameter α , we find that both α and the velocity scaling parameter v0 change as a function of in-plane bias field.

  4. Solution structure of the first SH3 domain of human vinexin and its interaction with vinculin peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiahai; Li, Xiang; Yao, Bo; Shen, Weiqun; Sun, Hongbin; Xu, Chao; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2007-01-01

    Solution structure of the first Src homology (SH) 3 domain of human vinexin (V S H3 1 ) was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method and revealed that it was a canonical SH3 domain, which has a typical β-β-β-β-α-β fold. Using chemical shift perturbation and surface plasmon resonance experiments, we studied the binding properties of the SH3 domain with two different peptides from vinculin hinge regions: P856 and P868. The observations illustrated slightly different affinities of the two peptides binding to V S H3 1 . The interaction between P868 and V S H3 1 belonged to intermediate exchange with a modest binding affinity, while the interaction between P856 and V S H3 1 had a low binding affinity. The structure and ligand-binding interface of V S H3 1 provide a structural basis for the further functional study of this important molecule

  5. The structure and function of an RNA polymerase interaction domain in the PcrA/UvrD helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kelly; Lin, Chia-Liang; Smith, Abigail J; Cronin, Nora; Fisher, Gemma; Eftychidis, Vasileios; McGlynn, Peter; Savery, Nigel J; Wigley, Dale B; Dillingham, Mark S

    2017-04-20

    The PcrA/UvrD helicase functions in multiple pathways that promote bacterial genome stability including the suppression of conflicts between replication and transcription and facilitating the repair of transcribed DNA. The reported ability of PcrA/UvrD to bind and backtrack RNA polymerase (1,2) might be relevant to these functions, but the structural basis for this activity is poorly understood. In this work, we define a minimal RNA polymerase interaction domain in PcrA, and report its crystal structure at 1.5 Å resolution. The domain adopts a Tudor-like fold that is similar to other RNA polymerase interaction domains, including that of the prototype transcription-repair coupling factor Mfd. Removal or mutation of the interaction domain reduces the ability of PcrA/UvrD to interact with and to remodel RNA polymerase complexes in vitro. The implications of this work for our understanding of the role of PcrA/UvrD at the interface of DNA replication, transcription and repair are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Mapping the Interactions between the Alzheimer’s Aβ-Peptide and Human Serum Albumin beyond Domain Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algamal, Moustafa; Milojevic, Julijana; Jafari, Naeimeh; Zhang, William; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a potent inhibitor of Aβ self-association and this novel, to our knowledge, function of HSA is of potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. It is known that HSA interacts with Aβ oligomers through binding sites evenly partitioned across the three albumin domains and with comparable affinities. However, as of this writing, no information is available on the HSA-Aβ interactions beyond domain resolution. Here, we map the HSA-Aβ interactions at subdomain and peptide resolution. We show that each separate subdomain of HSA domain 3 inhibits Aβ self-association. We also show that fatty acids (FAs) compete with Aβ oligomers for binding to domain 3, but the determinant of the HSA/Aβ oligomer interactions are markedly distinct from those of FAs. Although salt bridges with the FA carboxylate determine the FA binding affinities, hydrophobic contacts are pivotal for Aβ oligomer recognition. Specifically, we identified a site of Aβ oligomer recognition that spans the HSA (494–515) region and aligns with the central hydrophobic core of Aβ. The HSA (495–515) segment includes residues affected by FA binding and this segment is prone to self-associate into β-amyloids, suggesting that sites involved in fibrilization may provide a lead to develop inhibitors of Aβ self-association. PMID:24094411

  7. CX3CL1, a chemokine finely tuned to adhesion: critical roles of the stalk glycosylation and the membrane domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano A. Ostuni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-domain CX3CL1 transmembrane chemokine triggers leukocyte adherence without rolling and migration by presenting its chemokine domain (CD to its receptor CX3CR1. Through the combination of functional adhesion assays with structural analysis using FRAP, we investigated the functional role of the other domains of CX3CL1, i.e., its mucin stalk, transmembrane domain, and cytosolic domain. Our results indicate that the CX3CL1 molecular structure is finely adapted to capture CX3CR1 in circulating cells and that each domain has a specific purpose: the mucin stalk is stiffened by its high glycosylation to present the CD away from the membrane, the transmembrane domain generates the permanent aggregation of an adequate amount of monomers to guarantee adhesion and prevent rolling, and the cytosolic domain ensures adhesive robustness by interacting with the cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which quasi-immobile CX3CL1 bundles are organized to quickly generate adhesive patches with sufficiently high strength to capture CX3CR1+ leukocytes but with sufficiently low strength to allow their patrolling behavior.

  8. The MARVEL transmembrane motif of occludin mediates oligomerization and targeting to the basolateral surface in epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Yakey; Shepshelovitch, Jeanne; Nevo-Yassaf, Inbar; Yeheskel, Adva; Shmerling, Hedva; Kwiatek, Joanna M; Gaus, Katharina; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Hirschberg, Koret

    2012-08-01

    Occludin (Ocln), a MARVEL-motif-containing protein, is found in all tight junctions. MARVEL motifs are comprised of four transmembrane helices associated with the localization to or formation of diverse membrane subdomains by interacting with the proximal lipid environment. The functions of the Ocln MARVEL motif are unknown. Bioinformatics sequence- and structure-based analyses demonstrated that the MARVEL domain of Ocln family proteins has distinct evolutionarily conserved sequence features that are consistent with its basolateral membrane localization. Live-cell microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were used to analyze the intracellular distribution and self-association of fluorescent-protein-tagged full-length human Ocln or the Ocln MARVEL motif excluding the cytosolic C- and N-termini (amino acids 60-269, FP-MARVEL-Ocln). FP-MARVEL-Ocln efficiently arrived at the plasma membrane (PM) and was sorted to the basolateral PM in filter-grown polarized MDCK cells. A series of conserved aromatic amino acids within the MARVEL domain were found to be associated with Ocln dimerization using BiFC. FP-MARVEL-Ocln inhibited membrane pore growth during Triton-X-100-induced solubilization and was shown to increase the membrane-ordered state using Laurdan, a lipid dye. These data demonstrate that the Ocln MARVEL domain mediates self-association and correct sorting to the basolateral membrane.

  9. Transmembrane-sequence-dependent overexpression and secretion of glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Wasserbauer, E; Aversa, G; Jungbauer, A

    2001-02-01

    Protein expression using the secretory pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to high amounts of overexpressed and secreted proteins in culture supernatants in a short period of time. These post-translational modified expression products can be purified up to >90% in a single step. The overexpression and secretion of the transmembrane glycoprotein signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) was studied. SLAM belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and its engagement results in T-cell expansion and INF-gamma production. The molecule is composed of an extracellular, a single-span transmembrane and a cytoplasmatic domain. The extracellular part may be relevant for stimulation studies in vitro since SLAM is a high-affinity self-ligand. Therefore several fragments of this region have been expressed as Flag-fusions in S. cerevisiae: a full-length fragment containing the transmembrane region and the autologous signal sequence, another without the transmembrane region, and two fragments without the autologous signal sequence with and without the transmembrane region. By molecular cloning, the different deletion mutants of the cDNA encoding the full-length construct have been inserted in a yeast episomal plasmid. Upstream of the cDNA, the alpha-leader sequence of a yeast mating pheromone has been cloned to direct the fusion proteins into the secretory protein maturation pathway. All four fragments were expressed but yield, location, and maturation were highly influenced by the transmembrane domain and the autologous signal sequence. Only the fragment without autologous signal sequence and transmembrane domain could be efficiently secreted. High-mannose glycosylation was analyzed by lectin mapping and digestion with specific glycosidases. After enzyme treatment, a single band product with the theoretical size could be detected and identified as SLAM by a specific monoclonal antibody. The fusion protein concentration in the supernatant was 30 microg/ml. The

  10. Regulation of abiotic stress signalling by Arabidopsis C-terminal domain phosphatase-like 1 requires interaction with a k-homology domain-containing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sil Jeong

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana CARBOXYL-TERMINAL DOMAIN (CTD PHOSPHATASE-LIKE 1 (CPL1 regulates plant transcriptional responses to diverse stress signals. Unlike typical CTD phosphatases, CPL1 contains two double-stranded (ds RNA binding motifs (dsRBMs at its C-terminus. Some dsRBMs can bind to dsRNA and/or other proteins, but the function of the CPL1 dsRBMs has remained obscure. Here, we report identification of REGULATOR OF CBF GENE EXPRESSION 3 (RCF3 as a CPL1-interacting protein. RCF3 co-purified with tandem-affinity-tagged CPL1 from cultured Arabidopsis cells and contains multiple K-homology (KH domains, which were predicted to be important for binding to single-stranded DNA/RNA. Yeast two-hybrid, luciferase complementation imaging, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses established that CPL1 and RCF3 strongly associate in vivo, an interaction mediated by the dsRBM1 of CPL1 and the KH3/KH4 domains of RCF3. Mapping of functional regions of CPL1 indicated that CPL1 in vivo function requires the dsRBM1, catalytic activity, and nuclear targeting of CPL1. Gene expression profiles of rcf3 and cpl1 mutants were similar during iron deficiency, but were distinct during the cold response. These results suggest that tethering CPL1 to RCF3 via dsRBM1 is part of the mechanism that confers specificity to CPL1-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  11. Solution structure of the dimeric cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, J; Lee, W; Lee, D

    2001-01-01

    cytoplasmic domain is dependent on its oligomeric status, the conformation of the syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain itself is important in the understanding of its biological roles. Gel filtration results show that the syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain (4L) itself forms a dimer stabilized by ionic interactions......The syndecans, transmembrane proteoglycans which are involved in the organization of cytoskeleton and/or actin microfilaments, have important roles as cell surface receptors during cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions. Since previous studies indicate that the function of the syndecan-4...... in the center of the dimeric twist similar to our previously reported 4V structure. The overall topology of the central variable region within the 4L structure is very similar to that of 4V complexed with the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; however, the intersubunit interaction mode is affected...

  12. Structure, Stability, and Interaction of Fibrin αC-Domain Polymers†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurupa, Galina; Mahid, Ariza; Veklich, Yuri; Weisel, John W.; Medved, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that in fibrinogen the αC-domains are not reactive with their ligands, suggesting that their binding sites are cryptic and become exposed upon its conversion into fibrin, in which these domains form αC polymers. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that polymerization of the αC-domains in fibrin results in the exposure of their binding sites and that these domains adopt the physiologically active conformation only in αC-domain polymers. To test this hypothesis, we prepared a recombinant αC region (residues Aα221-610) including the αC-domain (Aα392-610), demonstrated that it forms soluble oligomers in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner, and stabilized such oligomers by covalent cross-linking with factor XIIIa. Cross-linked Aα221-610 oligomers were stable in solution and appeared as ordered linear, branching filaments when analyzed by electron microscopy. Spectral studies revealed that the αC-domains in such oligomers were folded into compact structures of high thermal stability with a significant amount of β-sheets. These findings indicate that cross-linked Aα221-610 oligomers are highly ordered and mimic the structure of fibrin αC polymers. The oligomers also exhibited functional properties of polymeric fibrin since, in contrast to the monomeric αC-domain, they bound tPA and plasminogen and stimulated activation of the latter by the former. Altogether, the results obtained with cross-linked Aα221-610 oligomers clarify the structure of the αC-domains in fibrin αC polymers and confirm our hypothesis that their binding sites are exposed upon polymerization. Such oligomers represent a stable, soluble model of fibrin αC polymers that can be used for further structure/function studies of fibrin αC-domains. PMID:21806028

  13. Pentamidine blocks the interaction between mutant S100A5 and RAGE V domain and inhibits the RAGE signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ching Chang, E-mail: ccjwo@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chou, Ruey Hwang, E-mail: rhchou@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology and Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University, No.91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chin, E-mail: cyu.nthu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-19

    The human S100 protein family contains small, dimeric and acidic proteins that contain two EF-hand motifs and bind calcium. When S100A5 binds calcium, its conformation changes and promotes interaction with the target protein. The extracellular domain of RAGE (Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products) contain three domains: C1, C2 and V. The RAGE V domain is the target protein of S100A5 that promotes cell survival, growth and differentiation by activating several signaling pathways. Pentamidine is an apoptotic and antiparasitic drug that is used to treat or prevent pneumonia. Here, we found that pentamidine interacts with S100A5 using HSQC titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A5 with RAGE V domain and pentamidine using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. We generated two binary models—the S100A5-RAGE V domain and S100A5-Pentamidine complex—and then observed that the pentamidine and RAGE V domain share a similar binding region in mS100A5. We also used the WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A5, RAGE V domain and pentamidine. These results indicated that pentamidine blocks the binding between S100A5 and RAGE V domain. This finding is useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. - Highlights: • The interaction between mS100A5–RAGE V was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. • The interfacial residues on mS100A5–RAGE V and mS100A5–pentamidine contact surface were mapped by {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC experiments. • mS100A5–RAGE V and mS100A5–pentamidine complex models were generated from NMR restraints using HADDOCK program. • The bioactivity of the mS100A5–RAGE V and mS100A5–pentamidine complex was studied using WST-1 assay.

  14. A graph kernel approach for alignment-free domain-peptide interaction prediction with an application to human SH3 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Kousik; Costa, Fabrizio; Backofen, Rolf

    2013-07-01

    State-of-the-art experimental data for determining binding specificities of peptide recognition modules (PRMs) is obtained by high-throughput approaches like peptide arrays. Most prediction tools applicable to this kind of data are based on an initial multiple alignment of the peptide ligands. Building an initial alignment can be error-prone, especially in the case of the proline-rich peptides bound by the SH3 domains. Here, we present a machine-learning approach based on an efficient graph-kernel technique to predict the specificity of a large set of 70 human SH3 domains, which are an important class of PRMs. The graph-kernel strategy allows us to (i) integrate several types of physico-chemical information for each amino acid, (ii) consider high-order correlations between these features and (iii) eliminate the need for an initial peptide alignment. We build specialized models for each human SH3 domain and achieve competitive predictive performance of 0.73 area under precision-recall curve, compared with 0.27 area under precision-recall curve for state-of-the-art methods based on position weight matrices. We show that better models can be obtained when we use information on the noninteracting peptides (negative examples), which is currently not used by the state-of-the art approaches based on position weight matrices. To this end, we analyze two strategies to identify subsets of high confidence negative data. The techniques introduced here are more general and hence can also be used for any other protein domains, which interact with short peptides (i.e. other PRMs). The program with the predictive models can be found at http://www.bioinf.uni-freiburg.de/Software/SH3PepInt/SH3PepInt.tar.gz. We also provide a genome-wide prediction for all 70 human SH3 domains, which can be found under http://www.bioinf.uni-freiburg.de/Software/SH3PepInt/Genome-Wide-Predictions.tar.gz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  15. The structure of Prp40 FF1 domain and its interaction with the crn-TPR1 motif of Clf1 gives a new insight into the binding mode of FF domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Alexander; Wiesner, Silke; Martin-Malpartida, Pau; Ramirez-Espain, Ximena; Ruiz, Lidia; Macias, Maria J

    2006-01-06

    The yeast splicing factor Prp40 (pre-mRNA processing protein 40) consists of a pair of WW domains followed by several FF domains. The region comprising the FF domains has been shown to associate with the 5' end of U1 small nuclear RNA and to interact directly with two proteins, the Clf1 (Crooked neck-like factor 1) and the phosphorylated repeats of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD-RNAPII). In this work we reported the solution structure of the first FF domain of Prp40 and the identification of a novel ligand-binding site in FF domains. By using chemical shift assays, we found a binding site for the N-terminal crooked neck tetratricopeptide repeat of Clf1 that is distinct and structurally separate from the previously identified CTD-RNAPII binding pocket of the FBP11 (formin-binding protein 11) FF1 domain. No interaction, however, was observed between the Prp40 FF1 domain and three different peptides derived from the CTD-RNAPII protein. Indeed, the equivalent CTD-RNAPII-binding site in the Prp40 FF1 domain is predominantly negatively charged and thus unfavorable for an interaction with phosphorylated peptide sequences. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree reconstructions using the FF domains of three functionally related proteins, Prp40, FBP11, and CA150, revealed that Prp40 and FBP11 are not orthologous proteins and supported the different ligand specificities shown by their respective FF1 domains. Our results also revealed that not all FF domains in Prp40 are functionally equivalent. We proposed that at least two different interaction surfaces exist in FF domains that have evolved to recognize distinct binding motifs.

  16. Promoter-enhancer interactions identified from Hi-C data using probabilistic models and hierarchical topological domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Gil; Globerson, Yuval; Moran, Dror; Kaplan, Tommy

    2017-12-21

    Proximity-ligation methods such as Hi-C allow us to map physical DNA-DNA interactions along the genome, and reveal its organization into topologically associating domains (TADs). As the Hi-C data accumulate, computational methods were developed for identifying domain borders in multiple cell types and organisms. Here, we present PSYCHIC, a computational approach for analyzing Hi-C data and identifying promoter-enhancer interactions. We use a unified probabilistic model to segment the genome into domains, which we then merge hierarchically and fit using a local background model, allowing us to identify over-represented DNA-DNA interactions across the genome. By analyzing the published Hi-C data sets in human and mouse, we identify hundreds of thousands of putative enhancers and their target genes, and compile an extensive genome-wide catalog of gene regulation in human and mouse. As we show, our predictions are highly enriched for ChIP-seq and DNA accessibility data, evolutionary conservation, eQTLs and other DNA-DNA interaction data.

  17. The nuclear cofactor RAC3/AIB1/SRC-3 enhances Nrf2 signaling by interacting with transactivation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-H; Yu, S; Chen, J D; Kong, A N

    2013-01-24

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, NM 006164, 605 AA) is essential for the antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-mediated expression of a group of detoxifying antioxidant genes that detoxify carcinogens and protect against oxidative stress. Several proteins have been identified as Nrf2-interacting molecules. In this study, we found that the overexpression of receptor-associated coactivator 3 (RAC3)/AIB-1/steroid receptor coactivator-3, a nuclear coregulator and oncogene frequently amplified in human breast cancers, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through Nrf2 transactivation in HeLa cells. Next, we determined the interaction between RAC3 and Nrf2 proteins using a co-immunoprecipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. The results showed that RAC3 bound directly to the Nrf2 protein in the nucleus. Subsequently, we identified the interacting domains of Nrf2 and RAC3 using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. The results showed that both the N-terminal RAC3-pasB and C-terminal RAC3-R3B3 domains were tightly bound to the Neh4 and Neh5 transactivation domains. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that RAC3 bound tightly to the ARE enhancer region of the HO-1 promoter via Nrf2 binding. These data suggest that Nrf2 activation is modulated and directly controlled through interactions with the RAC3 protein in HeLa cells.

  18. Influence of domain interactions on conformational mobility of the progesterone receptor detected by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Devrishi; Callaway, Celetta; Pascal, Bruce D; Kumar, Raj; Edwards, Dean P; Griffin, Patrick R

    2014-07-08

    Structural and functional details of the N-terminal activation function 1 (AF1) of most nuclear receptors are poorly understood due to the highly dynamic intrinsically disordered nature of this domain. A hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass-spectrometry-based investigation of TATA box-binding protein (TBP) interaction with various domains of progesterone receptor (PR) demonstrate that agonist-bound PR interaction with TBP via AF1 impacts the mobility of the C-terminal AF2. Results from HDX and other biophysical studies involving agonist- and antagonist-bound full-length PR and isolated PR domains reveal the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic transcriptional activation mediated by AF1 and AF2, dominance of PR-B isoform over PR-A, and the necessity of AF2 for full AF1-mediated transcriptional activity. These results provide a comprehensive picture elaborating the underlying mechanism of PR-TBP interactions as a model for studying nuclear receptor (NR)-transcription factor functional interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinct functional domains of PNMA5 mediate protein-protein interaction, nuclear localization, and apoptosis signaling in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hoi; Pang, Siew Wai; Poh, Chit Laa; Tan, Kuan Onn

    2016-09-01

    Members of paraneoplastic Ma (PNMA) family have been identified as onconeuronal antigens, which aberrant expressions in cancer cells of patients with paraneoplastic disorder (PND) are closely linked to manifestation of auto-immunity, neuro-degeneration, and cancer. The purpose of present study was to determine the role of PNMA5 and its functional relationship to MOAP-1 (PNMA4) in human cancer cells. PNMA5 mutants were generated through deletion or site-directed mutagenesis and transiently expressed in human cancer cell lines to investigate their role in apoptosis, subcellular localization, and potential interaction with MOAP-1 through apoptosis assays, fluorescence microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation studies, respectively. Over-expressed human PNMA5 exhibited nuclear localization pattern in both MCF-7 and HeLa cells. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that C-terminus of PNMA5 is responsible for nuclear localization, while the amino acid residues (391KRRR) within the C-terminus of PNMA5 are required for nuclear targeting. Deletion mapping and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that PNMA5 interacts with MOAP-1 and N-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for interaction with MOAP-1. Furthermore, co-expression of PNMA5 and MOAP-1 in MCF-7 cells significantly enhanced chemo-sensitivity of MCF-7 to Etoposide treatment, indicating that PNMA5 and MOAP-1 interact synergistically to promote apoptotic signaling in MCF-7 cells. Our results show that PNMA5 promotes apoptosis signaling in HeLa and MCF-7 cells and interacts synergistically with MOAP-1 through its N-terminal domain to promote apoptosis and chemo-sensitivity in human cancer cells. The C-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for nuclear localization; however, both N-and C-terminal domains of PNMA5 appear to be required for pro-apoptotic function.

  20. Grb7 SH2 domain structure and interactions with a cyclic peptide inhibitor of cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Stephanie C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7 is an adapter protein that mediates the coupling of tyrosine kinases with their downstream signaling pathways. Grb7 is frequently overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human cancers and is implicated in cancer progression via its interaction with the ErbB2 receptor and focal adhesion kinase (FAK that play critical roles in cell proliferation and migration. It is thus a prime target for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Recently, an inhibitory peptide (G7-18NATE has been developed which binds specifically to the Grb7 SH2 domain and is able to attenuate cancer cell proliferation and migration in various cancer cell lines. Results As a first step towards understanding how Grb7 may be inhibited by G7-18NATE, we solved the crystal structure of the Grb7 SH2 domain to 2.1 Å resolution. We describe the details of the peptide binding site underlying target specificity, as well as the dimer interface of Grb 7 SH2. Dimer formation of Grb7 was determined to be in the μM range using analytical ultracentrifugation for both full-length Grb7 and the SH2 domain alone, suggesting the SH2 domain forms the basis of a physiological dimer. ITC measurements of the interaction of the G7-18NATE peptide with the Grb7 SH2 domain revealed that it binds with a binding affinity of Kd = ~35.7 μM and NMR spectroscopy titration experiments revealed that peptide binding causes perturbations to both the ligand binding surface of the Grb7 SH2 domain as well as to the dimer interface, suggesting that dimerisation of Grb7 is impacted on by peptide binding. Conclusion Together the data allow us to propose a model of the Grb7 SH2 domain/G7-18NATE interaction and to rationalize the basis for the observed binding specificity and affinity. We propose that the current study will assist with the development of second generation Grb7 SH2 domain inhibitors, potentially leading to novel inhibitors of

  1. The scavenger receptor SSc5D physically interacts with bacteria through the SRCR-containing N-terminal domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Bessa-Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP of bacteria, fungi or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Towards establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSC5D (N-SSc5D, thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein-bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to E. coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively, and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR-based assay, and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5 and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that the N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and L. monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3. Our work thus advocates the

  2. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, Werner, E-mail: werner.verbakel@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Carmeliet, Geert, E-mail: geert.carmeliet@med.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, Bus 902, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Engelborghs, Yves, E-mail: yves.engelborghs@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. {yields} This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. {yields} NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. {yields} The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase Nu

  3. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbakel, Werner; Carmeliet, Geert; Engelborghs, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. → This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. → NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. → The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP-chromatin interaction

  4. The transmembrane region is responsible for targeting of adaptor protein LAX into "heavy rafts''

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Otáhal, Pavel; Hořejší, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2012), e36330 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : LAX * transmembrane domain * DRM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  5. Modeling the structure of SARS 3a transmembrane protein using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. 3a is an accessory protein from SARS coronavirus that is known to play a significant role in the proliferation of the virus by forming tetrameric ion channels. Although the monomeric units are known to consist of three transmembrane (TM) domains, there are no solved structures available for the complete monomer.

  6. Solution structure of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 SAM domain and identification of two distinct homotypic interaction sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Smalla, M.; Schmieder, P.; Kelly, M.; Ter Laak, A.; Krause, G.; Ball, L.; Wahl, M.; Bork, P.; Oschkinat, H.

    1999-01-01

    The sterile alpha motif (SAM) is a protein interaction domain of around 70 amino acids present predominantly in the N- and C-termini of more than 60 diverse proteins that participate in signal transduction and transcriptional repression. SAM domains have been shown to homo- and hetero-oligomerize and to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. A highly conserved subclass of SAM domains is present at the intracellular C-terminus of more than 40 Eph receptor tyrosine kinases that are invo...

  7. The BAR Domain Protein PICK1 Regulates Cell Recognition and Morphogenesis by Interacting with Neph Proteins ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Höhne, Martin; Lorscheider, Johannes; von Bardeleben, Anna; Dufner, Matthias; Scharf, M. Antonia; Gödel, Markus; Helmstädter, Martin; Schurek, Eva-Maria; Zank, Sibylle; Gerke, Peter; Kurschat, Christine; Sivritas, Sema Hayriye; Neumann-Haefelin, Elke; Huber, Tobias B.; Reinhardt, H. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Neph proteins are evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily that control the formation of specific intercellular contacts. Cell recognition through these proteins is essential in diverse cellular contexts such as patterning of the compound eye in Drosophila melanogaster, neuronal connectivity in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the formation of the kidney filtration barrier in mammals. Here we identify the PDZ and BAR domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting wit...

  8. Functional interactions of the AF-2 activation domain core region of the human androgen receptor with the amino-terminal domain and with the transcriptional coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); P. Doesburg (Paul); K. Steketee (Karine); J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies in yeast and mammalian cells showed a functional interaction between the amino-terminal domain and the carboxy-terminal, ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR). In the present study, the AR subdomains involved in

  9. RIM proteins tether Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones via a direct PDZ-domain interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S.; Deng, Lunbin; Wang, Yun; Dulubova, Irina; Liu, Xinran; Rizo, Josep; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY At a synapse, fast synchronous neurotransmitter release requires localization of Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones. How Ca2+-channels are recruited to active zones, however, remains unknown. Using unbiased yeast two-hybrid screens, we here identify a direct interaction of the central PDZ-domain of the active-zone protein RIM with the C-termini of presynaptic N- and P/Q-type Ca2+-channels, but not L-type Ca2+-channels. To test the physiological significance of this interaction, we generated conditional knockout mice lacking all presynaptic RIM isoforms. Deletion of all RIMs ablated most neurotransmitter release by simultaneously impairing the priming of synaptic vesicles and by decreasing the presynaptic localization of Ca2+-channels. Strikingly, rescue of the decreased Ca2+-channel localization required the RIM PDZ-domain, whereas rescue of vesicle priming required the RIM N-terminus. We propose that RIMs tether N- and P/Q-type Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones via a direct PDZ-domain mediated interaction, thereby enabling fast, synchronous triggering of neurotransmitter release at a synapse. PMID:21241895

  10. Self-interacting domains in the C terminus of a cation-Cl- cotransporter described for the first time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Charles F; Brunet, Geneviève M; Daigle, Nikolas D; Montminy, Valérie; Caron, Luc; Isenring, Paul

    2004-09-24

    The first isoform of the Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1), a widely distributed member of the cation-Cl- cotransporter superfamily, plays key roles in many physiological processes by regulating the ion and water content of animal cells and by sustaining electrolyte secretion across various epithelia. Indirect studies have led to the prediction that NKCC1 operates as a dimer assembled through binding domains that are distal to the amino portion of the carrier. In this study, evidence is presented that NKCC1 possesses self-interacting properties that result in the formation of a large complex between the proximal and the distal segment of the cytosolic C terminus. Elaborate mapping studies of these segments showed that the contact sites are dispersed along the entire C terminus, and they also led to the identification of a critical interacting residue that belongs to a putative forkhead-associated binding domain. In conjunction with previous findings, our results indicate that the uncovered interacting domains are probably a major determinant of the NKCC1 conformational landscape and assembly into a high order structure. A model is proposed in which the carrier could alternate between monomeric and homo-oligomeric units via chemical- or ligand-dependent changes in conformational dynamics. Copyright 2004 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Nuclear Localization of the Autism Candidate Gene Neurobeachin and Functional Interaction with the NOTCH1 Intracellular Domain Indicate a Role in Regulating Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuand, Krizia; Stijnen, Pieter; Volders, Karolien; Declercq, Jeroen; Nuytens, Kim; Meulemans, Sandra; Creemers, John

    2016-01-01

    Neurobeachin (NBEA) is an autism spectrum disorders (ASD) candidate gene. NBEA deficiency affects regulated secretion, receptor trafficking, synaptic architecture and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation. NBEA is a large multidomain scaffolding protein. From N- to C-terminus, NBEA has a concanavalin A-like lectin domain flanked by armadillo repeats (ACA), an A-kinase anchoring protein domain that can bind to PKA, a domain of unknown function (DUF1088) and a BEACH domain, preceded by a pleckstrin homology-like domain and followed by WD40 repeats (PBW). Although most of these domains mediate protein-protein interactions, no interaction screen has yet been performed. Yeast two-hybrid screens with the ACA and PBW domain modules of NBEA gave a list of interaction partners, which were analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment. Neuro-2a cells were used for confocal microscopy and nuclear extraction analysis. NOTCH-mediated transcription was studied with luciferase reporter assays and qRT-PCR, combined with NBEA knockdown or overexpression. Both domain modules showed a GO enrichment for the nucleus. PBW almost exclusively interacted with transcription regulators, while ACA interacted with a number of PKA substrates. NBEA was partially localized in the nucleus of Neuro-2a cells, albeit much less than in the cytoplasm. A nuclear localization signal was found in the DUF1088 domain, which was shown to contribute to the nuclear localization of an EGFP-DPBW fusion protein. Yeast two-hybrid identified the Notch1 intracellular domain as a physical interactor of the PBW domain and a role for NBEA as a negative regulator in Notch-mediated transcription was demonstrated. Defining novel interaction partners of conserved NBEA domain modules identified a role for NBEA as transcriptional regulator in the nucleus. The physical interaction of NBEA with NOTCH1 is most relevant for ASD pathogenesis because NOTCH signaling is essential for neural development.

  12. An Alphavirus E2 Membrane-Proximal Domain Promotes Envelope Protein Lateral Interactions and Virus Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Byrd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses are members of a group of small enveloped RNA viruses that includes important human pathogens such as Chikungunya virus and the equine encephalitis viruses. The virus membrane is covered by a lattice composed of 80 spikes, each a trimer of heterodimers of the E2 and E1 transmembrane proteins. During virus endocytic entry, the E1 glycoprotein mediates the low-pH-dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the endosome membrane, thus initiating virus infection. While much is known about E1 structural rearrangements during membrane fusion, it is unclear how the E1/E2 dimer dissociates, a step required for the fusion reaction. A recent Alphavirus cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction revealed a previously unidentified D subdomain in the E2 ectodomain, close to the virus membrane. A loop within this region, here referred to as the D-loop, contains two highly conserved histidines, H348 and H352, which were hypothesized to play a role in dimer dissociation. We generated Semliki Forest virus mutants containing the single and double alanine substitutions H348A, H352A, and H348/352A. The three D-loop mutations caused a reduction in virus growth ranging from 1.6 to 2 log but did not significantly affect structural protein biosynthesis or transport, dimer stability, virus fusion, or specific infectivity. Instead, growth reduction was due to inhibition of a late stage of virus assembly at the plasma membrane. The virus particles that are produced show reduced thermostability compared to the wild type. We propose the E2 D-loop as a key region in establishing the E1-E2 contacts that drive glycoprotein lattice formation and promote Alphavirus budding from the plasma membrane.

  13. Prevalence, specificity and determinants of lipid-interacting PDZ domains from an in-cell screen and in vitro binding experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylva Ivarsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PDZ domains are highly abundant protein-protein interaction modules involved in the wiring of protein networks. Emerging evidence indicates that some PDZ domains also interact with phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs, important regulators of cell polarization and signaling. Yet our knowledge on the prevalence, specificity, affinity, and molecular determinants of PDZ-PtdInsPs interactions and on their impact on PDZ-protein interactions is very limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the human proteome for PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains by a combination of in vivo cell-localization studies and in vitro dot blot and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR experiments using synthetic lipids and recombinant proteins. We found that PtdInsPs interactions contribute to the cellular distribution of some PDZ domains, intriguingly also in nuclear organelles, and that a significant subgroup of PDZ domains interacts with PtdInsPs with affinities in the low-to-mid micromolar range. In vitro specificity for the head group is low, but with a trend of higher affinities for more phosphorylated PtdInsPs species. Other membrane lipids can assist PtdInsPs-interactions. PtdInsPs-interacting PDZ domains have generally high pI values and contain characteristic clusters of basic residues, hallmarks that may be used to predict additional PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains. In tripartite binding experiments we established that peptide binding can either compete or cooperate with PtdInsPs binding depending on the combination of ligands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our screen substantially expands the set of PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains, and shows that a full understanding of the biology of PDZ proteins will require a comprehensive insight into the intricate relationships between PDZ domains and their peptide and lipid ligands.

  14. An Amphiphysin-Like Domain in Fus2p Is Required for Rvs161p Interaction and Cortical Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Stein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell–cell fusion fulfils essential roles in fertilization, development and tissue repair. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fusion between two haploid cells of opposite mating type generates the diploid zygote. Fus2p is a pheromone-induced protein that regulates cell wall removal during mating. Fus2p shuttles from the nucleus to localize at the shmoo tip, bound to Rvs161p, an amphiphysin. However, Rvs161p independently binds a second amphiphysin, Rvs167p, playing an essential role in endocytosis. To understand the basis of the Fus2p–Rvs161p interaction, we analyzed Fus2p structural domains. A previously described N-terminal domain (NTD is necessary and sufficient to regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking of Fus2p. The Dbl homology domain (DBH binds GTP-bound Cdc42p; binding is required for cell fusion, but not localization. We identified an approximately 200 amino acid region of Fus2p that is both necessary and sufficient for Rvs161p binding. The Rvs161p binding domain (RBD contains three predicted alpha-helices; structural modeling suggests that the RBD adopts an amphiphysin-like structure. The RBD contains a 13-amino-acid region, conserved with Rvs161p and other amphiphysins, which is essential for binding. Mutations in the RBD, predicted to affect membrane binding, abolish cell fusion without affecting Rvs161p binding. We propose that Fus2p/Rvs161p form a novel heterodimeric amphiphysin required for cell fusion. Rvs161p binding is required but not sufficient for Fus2p localization. Mutations in the C-terminal domain (CTD of Fus2p block localization, but not Rvs161p binding, causing a significant defect in cell fusion. We conclude that the Fus2p CTD mediates an additional, Rvs161p-independent interaction at the shmoo tip.

  15. E2A-PBX1 interacts directly with the KIX domain of CBP/p300 in the induction of proliferation in primary hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, Richard; Chuen, Luan; Currie, Richard A; Hyndman, Brandy D; Casselman, Richard; Blobel, Gerd A; LeBrun, David P

    2004-12-31

    The E2A gene encodes DNA-binding transcription factors, called E12 and E47, involved in cell specification and maturation. E2A is also involved in a chromosomal translocation that leads to the expression of an oncogenic transcription factor called E2A-PBX1 in cases of acute leukemia. In the work described here, we elucidate the interaction between E2A-PBX1 and transcriptional co-activators. We confirm that the E2A portion can interact with CBP and PCAF and map required elements on E2A and CBP. On CBP, the interaction involves the KIX domain, a well characterized domain that mediates interactions with several other oncogenic transcription factors. On E2A, the interaction with CBP requires conserved alpha-helical domains that reside within activation domains 1 and 2 (AD1 and AD2, respectively). Using purified, recombinant proteins, we show that the E2A-CBP interaction is direct. Notwithstanding the previously demonstrated ability of AD1 and AD2 to function independently, some of our findings suggest functional cooperativity between these two domains. Finally, we show that the CBP/p300-interactive helical domains of E2A are important in the induction of proliferation in cultured primary bone marrow cells retrovirally transduced with E2A-PBX1. Our findings suggest that some aspects of E2A-PBX1 oncogenesis involve a direct interaction with the KIX domain of CBP/p300.

  16. Faculty Social Networking Interactions: Using Social Domain Theory to Assess Student Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemetz, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    As educators consider using social networking sites, like Facebook, for educational innovations, they must be aware of possible vulnerabilities associated with the blurring of social and professional boundaries. This research uses social domain theory to examine how students rate the appropriateness of various faculty postings, behaviors, and…

  17. The crystal structure of the Dachshund domain of human SnoN reveals flexibility in the putative protein interaction surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Nyman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human SnoN is an oncoprotein that interacts with several transcription-regulatory proteins such as the histone-deacetylase, N-CoR containing co-repressor complex and Smad proteins. This study presents the crystal structure of the Dachshund homology domain of human SnoN. The structure reveals a groove composed of conserved residues with characteristic properties of a protein-interaction surface. A comparison of the 12 monomers in the asymmetric unit reveals the presence of two major conformations: an open conformation with a well accessible groove and a tight conformation with a less accessible groove. The variability in the backbone between the open and the tight conformations matches the differences seen in previously determined structures of individual Dachshund homology domains, suggesting a general plasticity within this fold family. The flexibility observed in the putative protein binding groove may enable SnoN to recognize multiple interaction partners.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  18. Crystal structures of a CTXphi pIII domain unbound and in complex with a Vibrio cholerae TolA domain reveal novel interaction interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher G; Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Phan, Hanh T H; Waldor, Matthew K; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Craig, Lisa

    2012-10-19

    Vibrio cholerae colonize the small intestine where they secrete cholera toxin, an ADP-ribosylating enzyme that is responsible for the voluminous diarrhea characteristic of cholera disease. The genes encoding cholera toxin are located on the genome of the filamentous bacteriophage, CTXϕ, that integrates as a prophage into the V. cholerae chromosome. CTXϕ infection of V. cholerae requires the toxin-coregulated pilus and the periplasmic protein TolA. This infection process parallels that of Escherichia coli infection by the Ff family of filamentous coliphage. Here we demonstrate a direct interaction between the N-terminal domain of the CTXϕ minor coat protein pIII (pIII-N1) and the C-terminal domain of TolA (TolA-C) and present x-ray crystal structures of pIII-N1 alone and in complex with TolA-C. The structures of CTXϕ pIII-N1 and V. cholerae TolA-C are similar to coliphage pIII-N1 and E. coli TolA-C, respectively, yet these proteins bind via a distinct interface that in E. coli TolA corresponds to a colicin binding site. Our data suggest that the TolA binding site on pIII-N1 of CTXϕ is accessible in the native pIII protein. This contrasts with the Ff family phage, where the TolA binding site on pIII is blocked and requires a pilus-induced unfolding event to become exposed. We propose that CTXϕ pIII accesses the periplasmic TolA through retraction of toxin-coregulated pilus, which brings the phage through the outer membrane pilus secretin channel. These data help to explain the process by which CTXϕ converts a harmless marine microbe into a deadly human pathogen.

  19. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  20. Triatoma infestans Calreticulin: Gene Cloning and Expression of a Main Domain That Interacts with the Host Complement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Katherine; Collazo, Norberto; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Molina, María Carmen; Rosas, Carlos; Peña, Jaime; Pizarro, Javier; Maldonado, Ismael; Cattan, Pedro E.; Apt, Werner; Ferreira, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1. In previous studies, we have detected CRT in salivary gland extracts from T. infestans. We have called this molecule TiCRT. Given that the S domain is responsible for C1 binding, we have tested its role in the classical pathway of complement activation in vertebrate blood. We have cloned and characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of CRT from T. infestans, and expressed its S domain. As expected, this S domain binds to human C1 and, as a consequence, it inhibits the classical pathway of complement, at its earliest stage of activation, namely the generation of C4b. Possibly, the presence of TiCRT in the salivary gland represents an evolutionary adaptation in hematophagous insects to control a potential activation of complement proteins, present in the massive blood meal that they ingest, with deleterious consequences at least on the anterior digestive tract of these insects. PMID:27895277

  1. Triatoma infestans Calreticulin: Gene Cloning and Expression of a Main Domain That Interacts with the Host Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Katherine; Collazo, Norberto; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Molina, María Carmen; Rosas, Carlos; Peña, Jaime; Pizarro, Javier; Maldonado, Ismael; Cattan, Pedro E; Apt, Werner; Ferreira, Arturo

    2017-02-08

    Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1. In previous studies, we have detected CRT in salivary gland extracts from T. infestans We have called this molecule TiCRT. Given that the S domain is responsible for C1 binding, we have tested its role in the classical pathway of complement activation in vertebrate blood. We have cloned and characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of CRT from T. infestans , and expressed its S domain. As expected, this S domain binds to human C1 and, as a consequence, it inhibits the classical pathway of complement, at its earliest stage of activation, namely the generation of C4b. Possibly, the presence of TiCRT in the salivary gland represents an evolutionary adaptation in hematophagous insects to control a potential activation of complement proteins, present in the massive blood meal that they ingest, with deleterious consequences at least on the anterior digestive tract of these insects. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Accurate computational design of multipass transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peilong; Min, Duyoung; DiMaio, Frank; Wei, Kathy Y; Vahey, Michael D; Boyken, Scott E; Chen, Zibo; Fallas, Jorge A; Ueda, George; Sheffler, William; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Xu, Wenqing; Bowie, James U; Baker, David

    2018-03-02

    The computational design of transmembrane proteins with more than one membrane-spanning region remains a major challenge. We report the design of transmembrane monomers, homodimers, trimers, and tetramers with 76 to 215 residue subunits containing two to four membrane-spanning regions and up to 860 total residues that adopt the target oligomerization state in detergent solution. The designed proteins localize to the plasma membrane in bacteria and in mammalian cells, and magnetic tweezer unfolding experiments in the membrane indicate that they are very stable. Crystal structures of the designed dimer and tetramer-a rocket-shaped structure with a wide cytoplasmic base that funnels into eight transmembrane helices-are very close to the design models. Our results pave the way for the design of multispan membrane proteins with new functions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Identifying interactions in the time and frequency domains in local and global networks - A Granger Causality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Shuixia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse-engineering approaches such as Bayesian network inference, ordinary differential equations (ODEs and information theory are widely applied to deriving causal relationships among different elements such as genes, proteins, metabolites, neurons, brain areas and so on, based upon multi-dimensional spatial and temporal data. There are several well-established reverse-engineering approaches to explore causal relationships in a dynamic network, such as ordinary differential equations (ODE, Bayesian networks, information theory and Granger Causality. Results Here we focused on Granger causality both in the time and frequency domain and in local and global networks, and applied our approach to experimental data (genes and proteins. For a small gene network, Granger causality outperformed all the other three approaches mentioned above. A global protein network of 812 proteins was reconstructed, using a novel approach. The obtained results fitted well with known experimental findings and predicted many experimentally testable results. In addition to interactions in the time domain, interactions in the frequency domain were also recovered. Conclusions The results on the proteomic data and gene data confirm that Granger causality is a simple and accurate approach to recover the network structure. Our approach is general and can be easily applied to other types of temporal data.

  4. Interactions of a Pop5/Rpp1 heterodimer with the catalytic domain of RNase MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perederina, Anna; Khanova, Elena; Quan, Chao; Berezin, Igor; Esakova, Olga; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2011-10-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a multicomponent ribonucleoprotein complex closely related to RNase P. RNase MRP and eukaryotic RNase P share most of their protein components, as well as multiple features of their catalytic RNA moieties, but have distinct substrate specificities. While RNase P is practically universally found in all three domains of life, RNase MRP is essential in eukaryotes. The structural organizations of eukaryotic RNase P and RNase MRP are poorly understood. Here, we show that Pop5 and Rpp1, protein components found in both RNase P and RNase MRP, form a heterodimer that binds directly to the conserved area of the putative catalytic domain of RNase MRP RNA. The Pop5/Rpp1 binding site corresponds to the protein binding site in bacterial RNase P RNA. Structural and evolutionary roles of the Pop5/Rpp1 heterodimer in RNases P and MRP are discussed.

  5. Suramin blocks interaction between human FGF1 and FGFR2 D2 domain and reduces downstream signaling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zong-Sian, E-mail: gary810426@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Che Fu, E-mail: s9823002@m98.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Fu, Brian, E-mail: brianfu9@gmail.com [Northwood High School, Irvine, CA (United States); Chou, Ruey-Hwang, E-mail: rhchou@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology and Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University, No.91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chin, E-mail: cyu.nthu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-02

    The extracellular portion of the human fibroblast growth factor receptor2 D2 domain (FGFR2 D2) interacts with human fibroblast growth factor 1 (hFGF1) to activate a downstream signaling cascade that ultimately affects mitosis and differentiation. Suramin is an antiparasiticdrug and a potent inhibitor of FGF-induced angiogenesis. Suramin has been shown to bind to hFGF1, and might block the interaction between hFGF1 and FGFR2 D2. Here, we titrated hFGF1 with FGFR2 D2 and suramin to elucidate their interactions using the detection of NMR. The docking results of both hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 domain and hFGF1-suramin complex were superimposed. The results indicate that suramin blocks the interaction between hFGF1 and FGFR2 D2. We used the PyMOL software to show the hydrophobic interaction of hFGF1-suramin. In addition, we used a Water-soluble Tetrazolium salts assay (WST1) to assess hFGF1 bioactivity. The results will be useful for the development of new antimitogenic activity drugs. - Highlights: • The interfacial residues on hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 and hFGF1-Suramin contact surface were mapped by {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC experiments. • hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 and hFGF1-Suramin complex models were generated from NMR restraints by using HADDOCK program. • We analyzed hFGF1-Suramin complex models and found the interaction between hFGF1-Suramin is hydrophobic. • The bioactivity of the hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 and hFGF1-Suramin complex was studied by using WST1 assay.

  6. Interaction of an anticancer peptide fragment of azurin with p53 and its isolated domains studied by atomic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Santini, Simona; Coppari, Emilia; Bucciantini, Monica; Di Agostino, Silvia; Yamada, Tohru; Beattie, Craig W; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    p28 is a 28-amino acid peptide fragment of the cupredoxin azurin derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that preferentially penetrates cancerous cells and arrests their proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Its antitumor activity reportedly arises from post-translational stabilization of the tumor suppressor p53 normally downregulated by the binding of several ubiquitin ligases. This would require p28 to specifically bind to p53 to inhibit specific ligases from initiating proteosome-mediated degradation. In this study, atomic force spectroscopy, a nanotechnological approach, was used to investigate the interaction of p28 with full-length p53 and its isolated domains at the single molecule level. Analysis of the unbinding forces and the dissociation rate constant suggest that p28 forms a stable complex with the DNA-binding domain of p53, inhibiting the binding of ubiquitin ligases other than Mdm2 to reduce proteasomal degradation of p53.

  7. The N-terminus of FILIA forms an atypical KH domain with a unique extension involved in interaction with RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juke Wang

    Full Text Available FILIA is a member of the recently identified oocyte/embryo expressed gene family in eutherian mammals, which is characterized by containing an N-terminal atypical KH domain. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal fragment of FILIA (FILIA-N, which represents the first reported three-dimensional structure of a KH domain in the oocyte/embryo expressed gene family of proteins. The structure of FILIA-N revealed a unique N-terminal extension beyond the canonical KH region, which plays important roles in interaction with RNA. By co-incubation with the lysates of mice ovaries, FILIA and FILIA-N could sequester specific RNA components, supporting the critical roles of FILIA in regulation of RNA transcripts during mouse oogenesis and early embryogenesis.

  8. Transmembrane topology of FRO2, a ferric chelate reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagerlöf, Ulrika; Wilson, Greer; Hebert, Hans; Al-Karadaghi, Salam; Hägerhäll, Cecilia

    2006-09-01

    Iron uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by ferric chelate reductase FRO2, a transmembrane protein belonging to the flavocytochrome b family. There is no high resolution structural information available for any member of this family. We have determined the transmembrane topology of FRO2 experimentally using the alkaline phosphatase fusion method. The resulting topology is different from that obtained by theoretical predictions and contains 8 transmembrane helices, 4 of which build up the highly conserved core of the protein. This core is present in the entire flavocytochrome b family. The large water soluble domain of FRO2, which contains NADPH, FAD and oxidoreductase sequence motifs, was located on the inside of the membrane.

  9. Electrostatic interactions between the Bni1p Formin FH2 domain and actin influence actin filament nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph L; Courtemanche, Naomi; Parton, Daniel L; McCullagh, Martin; Pollard, Thomas D; Voth, Gregory A

    2015-01-06

    Formins catalyze nucleation and growth of actin filaments. Here, we study the structure and interactions of actin with the FH2 domain of budding yeast formin Bni1p. We built an all-atom model of the formin dimer on an Oda actin filament 7-mer and studied structural relaxation and interprotein interactions by molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations produced a refined model for the FH2 dimer associated with the barbed end of the filament and showed electrostatic interactions between the formin knob and actin target-binding cleft. Mutations of two formin residues contributing to these interactions (R1423N, K1467L, or both) reduced the interaction energies between the proteins, and in coarse-grained simulations, the formin lost more interprotein contacts with an actin dimer than with an actin 7-mer. Biochemical experiments confirmed a strong influence of these mutations on Bni1p-mediated actin filament nucleation, but not elongation, suggesting that different interactions contribute to these two functions of formins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor ligand interactions: structural cross talk between ligands and the extracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham M West

    Full Text Available Activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R in pancreatic β-cells potentiates insulin production and is a current therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Like other class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, the GLP-1R contains an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. N-terminal truncations on the peptide agonist generate antagonists capable of binding to the extracellular domain, but not capable of activating full length receptor. The main objective of this study was to use Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX to identify how the amide hydrogen bonding network of peptide ligands and the extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R were altered by binding interactions and to then use this platform to validate direct binding events for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. The HDX studies presented here for two glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R peptide ligands indicates that the antagonist exendin-4[9-39] is significantly destabilized in the presence of nonionic detergents as compared to the agonist exendin-4. Furthermore, HDX can detect stabilization of exendin-4 and exendin-4[9-39] hydrogen bonding networks at the N-terminal helix [Val19 to Lys27] upon binding to the N-terminal extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R. In addition we show hydrogen bonding network stabilization on nGLP-1R in response to ligand binding, and validate direct binding events with the extracellular domain of the receptor for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands.

  11. Domain interaction in rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase. II. Small angle neutron scattering and computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consler, T G; Uberbacher, E C; Bunick, G J; Liebman, M N; Lee, J C

    1988-02-25

    The effects of ligands on the structure of rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase were studied by small angle neutron scattering. The radius of gyration, RG, decreases by about 1 A in the presence of the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate, but increases by about the same magnitude in the presence of the allosteric inhibitor phenylalanine. With increasing pH or in the absence of Mg2+ and K+, the RG of pyruvate kinase increases. Hence, there is a 2-A difference in RG between two alternative conformations. Length distribution analysis indicates that, under all experimental conditions which increase the radius of gyration, there is a pronounced increase observed in the probability for interatomic distance between 80 and 110 A. These small angle neutron scattering results indicate a "contraction" and "expansion" of the enzyme when it transforms between its active and inactive forms. Using the alpha-carbon coordinates of crystalline cat muscle pyruvate kinase, a length distribution profile was calculated, and it matches the scattering profile of the inactive form. These observations are expected since the crystals were grown in the absence of divalent cations (Stuart, D. I., Levine, M., Muirhead, H., and Stammers, D. K. (1979) J. Mol. Biol. 134, 109-142). Hence, results from neutron scattering, x-ray crystallographic, and sedimentation studies (Oberfelder, R. W., Lee, L. L.-Y., and Lee, J.C. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 3813-3821) are totally consistent with each other. With the aid of computer modeling, the crystal structure has been manipulated in order to effect changes that are consistent with the conformational change described by the solution scattering data. The structural manipulation involves the rotation of the B domain relative to the A domain, leading to the closure of the cleft between these domains. These manipulations resulted in the generation of new sets of atomic (C-alpha) coordinates, which were utilized in calculations, the result of which compared favorably with the

  12. Macrolide-ketolide inhibition of MLS-resistant ribosomes is improved by alternative drug interaction with domain II of 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Hansen, L H; Mauvais, P

    2000-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotic erythromycin and its 6-O-methyl derivative (clarithromycin) bind to bacterial ribosomes primarily through interactions with nucleotides in domains II and V of 23S rRNA. The domain II interaction occurs between nucleotide A752 and the macrolide 3-cladinose moiety. Removal...... cause of drug resistance in some clinical pathogens. The 2058G mutation disrupts the drug-domain V contact and leads to a further > 25 000-fold decrease in the binding of RU 56006. Drug binding to resistant ribosomes can be improved over 3000-fold by forming an alternative and more effective contact...... to A752 via alkyl-aryl groups linked to a carbamate at the drug 11/12 position (in the ketolide antibiotics HMR 3647 and HMR 3004). The data indicate that simultaneous drug interactions with domains II and V strengthen binding and that the domain II contact is of particular importance to achieve...

  13. In Vivo Role of Complement-Interacting Domains of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein Gc

    OpenAIRE

    Lubinski, John; Wang, Liyang; Mastellos, Dimitri; Sahu, Arvind; Lambris, John D.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    1999-01-01

    Immune evasion is critical for survival of viruses that establish persistent or recurrent infections. However, at the molecular level, little is known about how viruses evade immune attack in vivo. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 glycoprotein gC has two domains that are involved in modulating complement activation; one binds C3, and the other is required for blocking C5 and properdin (P) binding to C3. To evaluate the importance of these regions in vivo, HSV-1 gC mutant viruses were constructed ...

  14. Interaction domains in permanent-magnetic rare-earth transition-metal compounds; Wechselwirkungsdomaenen in permanentmagnetischen Seltenerd-Uebergangsmetall-Verbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielsch, Juliane

    2015-02-05

    In the framework of this dissertation the phenomenon of the interaction domains was studied both experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulation. Object of the study were one-phase NdFeB magnets, which were fabricated from commercial MQU-F powders of the Magnequench Inc. company by hot pressing and subsequent warm deformation in the IWF Dresden. Additionally via the same fabrication way also composite samples of NdFeB and Fe with different original particle sizes ere obtained and studied. Supported wer the experimental works by simulations with the FEMME software package, which is based on a hybrid finite-element method/boundary-element method.

  15. Characterization of the NTPR and BD1 interacting domains of the human PICH-BEND3 complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchai, Ganesha P; Hickson, Ian D; Streicher, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome integrity depends on DNA structure-specific processing complexes that resolve DNA entanglement between sister chromatids. If left unresolved, these entanglements can generate either chromatin bridging or ultrafine DNA bridging in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures...... are defined by the presence of the PICH protein, which interacts with the BEND3 protein in mitosis. To obtain structural insights into PICH-BEND3 complex formation at the atomic level, their respective NTPR and BD1 domains were cloned, overexpressed and crystallized using 1.56 M ammonium sulfate...

  16. Structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1, a putative interaction platform within a DEAD-box protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Julian N.; Meinhart, Anton, E-mail: anton.meinhart@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-08-25

    The structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1 was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The SPRY domain provides a putative protein–protein interaction platform within DDX1 that differs from other SPRY domains in its structure and conserved regions. The human RNA helicase DDX1 in the DEAD-box family plays an important role in RNA processing and has been associated with HIV-1 replication and tumour progression. Whereas previously described DEAD-box proteins have a structurally conserved core, DDX1 shows a unique structural feature: a large SPRY-domain insertion in its RecA-like consensus fold. SPRY domains are known to function as protein–protein interaction platforms. Here, the crystal structure of the SPRY domain of human DDX1 (hDSPRY) is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure reveals two layers of concave, antiparallel β-sheets that stack onto each other and a third β-sheet beneath the β-sandwich. A comparison with SPRY-domain structures from other eukaryotic proteins showed that the general β-sandwich fold is conserved; however, differences were detected in the loop regions, which were identified in other SPRY domains to be essential for interaction with cognate partners. In contrast, in hDSPRY these loop regions are not strictly conserved across species. Interestingly, though, a conserved patch of positive surface charge is found that may replace the connecting loops as a protein–protein interaction surface. The data presented here comprise the first structural information on DDX1 and provide insights into the unique domain architecture of this DEAD-box protein. By providing the structure of a putative interaction domain of DDX1, this work will serve as a basis for further studies of the interaction network within the hetero-oligomeric complexes of DDX1 and of its recruitment to the HIV-1 Rev protein as a viral replication factor.

  17. Mining IP to Domain Name Interactions to Detect DNS Flood Attacks on Recursive DNS Servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Monroy, Raúl; Trejo, Luis A

    2016-08-17

    The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical infrastructure of any network, and, not surprisingly a common target of cybercrime. There are numerous works that analyse higher level DNS traffic to detect anomalies in the DNS or any other network service. By contrast, few efforts have been made to study and protect the recursive DNS level. In this paper, we introduce a novel abstraction of the recursive DNS traffic to detect a flooding attack, a kind of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS). The crux of our abstraction lies on a simple observation: Recursive DNS queries, from IP addresses to domain names, form social groups; hence, a DDoS attack should result in drastic changes on DNS social structure. We have built an anomaly-based detection mechanism, which, given a time window of DNS usage, makes use of features that attempt to capture the DNS social structure, including a heuristic that estimates group composition. Our detection mechanism has been successfully validated (in a simulated and controlled setting) and with it the suitability of our abstraction to detect flooding attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that work is successful in using this abstraction to detect these kinds of attacks at the recursive level. Before concluding the paper, we motivate further research directions considering this new abstraction, so we have designed and tested two additional experiments which exhibit promising results to detect other types of anomalies in recursive DNS servers.

  18. Mining IP to Domain Name Interactions to Detect DNS Flood Attacks on Recursive DNS Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alonso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name System (DNS is a critical infrastructure of any network, and, not surprisingly a common target of cybercrime. There are numerous works that analyse higher level DNS traffic to detect anomalies in the DNS or any other network service. By contrast, few efforts have been made to study and protect the recursive DNS level. In this paper, we introduce a novel abstraction of the recursive DNS traffic to detect a flooding attack, a kind of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS. The crux of our abstraction lies on a simple observation: Recursive DNS queries, from IP addresses to domain names, form social groups; hence, a DDoS attack should result in drastic changes on DNS social structure. We have built an anomaly-based detection mechanism, which, given a time window of DNS usage, makes use of features that attempt to capture the DNS social structure, including a heuristic that estimates group composition. Our detection mechanism has been successfully validated (in a simulated and controlled setting and with it the suitability of our abstraction to detect flooding attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that work is successful in using this abstraction to detect these kinds of attacks at the recursive level. Before concluding the paper, we motivate further research directions considering this new abstraction, so we have designed and tested two additional experiments which exhibit promising results to detect other types of anomalies in recursive DNS servers.

  19. Interactive domains in the molecular chaperone human alphaB crystallin modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy G Ghosh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins regulate microtubule assembly during cell proliferation and in response to stress through interactions that are poorly understood.Novel functions for five interactive sequences in the small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone, human alphaB crystallin, were investigated in the assembly/disassembly of microtubules and aggregation of tubulin using synthetic peptides and mutants of human alphaB crystallin.The interactive sequence (113FISREFHR(120 exposed on the surface of alphaB crystallin decreased microtubule assembly by approximately 45%. In contrast, the interactive sequences, (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, corresponding to the beta8 strand and the C-terminal extension respectively, which are involved in complex formation, increased microtubule assembly by approximately 34-45%. The alphaB crystallin peptides, (113FISREFHR(120 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, inhibited microtubule disassembly by approximately 26-36%, and the peptides (113FISREFHR(120 and (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 decreased the thermal aggregation of tubulin by approximately 42-44%. The (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164 peptides were more effective than the widely used anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, in modulating tubulinmicrotubule dynamics. Mutagenesis of these interactive sequences in wt human alphaB crystallin confirmed the effects of the alphaB crystallin peptides on microtubule assembly/disassembly and tubulin aggregation. The regulation of microtubule assembly by alphaB crystallin varied over a narrow range of concentrations. The assembly of microtubules was maximal at alphaB crystallin to tubulin molar ratios between 1:4 and 2:1, while molar ratios >2:1 inhibited microtubule assembly.Interactive sequences on the surface of human alphaB crystallin collectively modulate microtubule assembly through a dynamic subunit exchange mechanism that depends on the concentration and ratio of alphaB crystallin to tubulin. These are the first

  20. Modelling and analysis of nonlinear guided waves interaction at a breathing crack using time-domain spectral finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Ng, Ching Tai

    2017-08-01

    This study proposes a time-domain spectral finite element (SFE) model and investigates nonlinear guided wave interaction at a breathing crack. An extended time-domain SFE method based on the Mindlin-Hermann rod and Timoshenko beam theory is proposed to predict the nonlinear guided wave generation at the breathing crack. An SFE crack element is proposed to simulate the mode-conversion effect, in which a bilinear crack mechanism is implemented to take into account the contact nonlinearity at the breathing crack. There is good agreement between the results calculated using the proposed time-domain SFE method and three-dimensional finite element simulation. This demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed SFE method in simulating contact nonlinearity at the breathing crack. Parametric studies using the fundamental symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) modes of guided waves are also carried out to provide physical insights into the higher harmonics generated due to the contact nonlinearity at the breathing crack. The magnitude of the higher harmonics generated as a function of the crack depth is investigated in detail. The results show that the mode-converted higher harmonic guided waves provide valuable information for damage detection.

  1. Intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of two cytokine receptors mediate conserved interactions with membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxholm, Gitte Wolfsberg; Nikolajsen, Louise Fletcher; Olsen, Johan Gotthardt

    2015-01-01

    Class 1 cytokine receptors regulate essential biological processes through complex intracellular signaling networks. However, the structural platform for understanding their functions is currently incomplete as structure-function studies of the intracellular domains (ICDs) are critically lacking...... of the inner plasma membrane leaflet through conserved motifs resembling immuno T-cell receptor activation motifs(ITAMs). However, contrary to the observations made for ITAMs, lipid association of the prolactin and growth hormone receptor ICDs was shown to be unaccompanied by changes in transient secondary...... structure and independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. The data presented here provides a new structural platform for studying class 1 cytokine receptors and may implicate the membrane as an active component regulating intracellular signaling....

  2. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Phase-field simulation of the effect of interaction among ordered domains on interdiffusion in Ni-Al-Cr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Jin-Cheng; Yang, Yu-Juan; Yang, Gen-Cang; Zhou, Yao-He

    2009-10-01

    The effect of interaction among γ' ordered domains on the interdiffusion process in γ + γ'/γ and γ + γ'/γ + γ' diffusion couples is investigated by using the phase-field method, in which bulk free energy and mobility are linked with thermodynamic and kinetic databases. Simulated results show that the interaction among γ' ordered domains has great influence on the microstructure, the interdiffusion velocity and the volume fraction of γ' phase on both sides of the diffusion couples.

  3. Measuring Single-Domain Antibody Interactions with Epitopes in Jet Fuel Using Microscale Thermophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    marker troponin I (Zhang et al. 2014) and the explosive trinitrotoluene (Charles et al. 2014), as well as use in lateral-flow and cellulose paper...M. Orson . 2012. Probing cocaine-antibody interactions in buffer and human serum. PLoS One. 7(7): e40518. Song, K.-M., S. Lee, and C. Ban. 2012

  4. Concept-Driven Interaction Design Research in the domain of attractive aging: the example of Walky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena; Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Nagargoje, Arun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we answer the call for “designing for an attractive ageing” by designing for social interaction of senior citizens within their local community. In this vein, we present Walky, a design exploration through which we explored if, and how, augmenting the rollator that senior citizens u...

  5. Essential domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta) for interaction with Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Wada, Akihiro; Yamasaki, Eiki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces a potent exotoxin, VacA, which causes progressive vacuolation as well as gastric injury. Although VacA was able to interact with two receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, RPTPbeta and RPTPalpha, RPTPbeta was found to be responsible for gastric damage caused...

  6. Subunit interaction and regulation of activity through terminal domains of the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Tang, X-F; Matsui, E; Matsui, I

    2004-04-01

    Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) has recently been found in the Euryarchaeota subdomain of Archaea. Its genes are adjacent to several other genes related to DNA replication, repair and recombination in the genome, suggesting that this enzyme may be the major DNA replicase in Euryarchaeota. We successfully cloned, expressed, and purified the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PolDPho). By site-directed mutagenesis, we identified amino acid residues Asp-1122 and Asp-1124 of a large subunit as the essential residues responsible for DNA-polymerizing activity. We analysed the domain structure using proteins truncated at the N- and C-termini of both small and large subunits (DP1Pho and DP2Pho), and identified putative regions responsible for subunit interaction, oligomerization and regulation of the 3'-5' exonuclease activity in PolDPho. It was also found that the internal region of the putative zinc finger motif (cysteine cluster II) at the C-terminal of DP2Pho is involved in the 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Using gel filtration analysis, we determined the molecular masses of the recombinant PolDPho and the N-terminal putative dimerization domain of the large subunit, and proposed that PolD from P. horikoshii probably forms a heterotetrameric structure in solution. Based on these results, a model regarding the subunit interaction and regulation of activity of PolDPho is proposed.

  7. Structure and Function of Interacting IcmR-IcmQ Domains from a Type IVb Secretion System in Legionella pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raychaudhury, S.; Farelli, J; Montminy, T; Matthews, M; Menetret, J; Dumenil, G; Roy, C; Head, J; Isberg, R; Akey, C

    2009-01-01

    During infection, Legionella pneumophila creates a replication vacuole within eukaryotic cells and this requires a Type IVb secretion system (T4bSS). IcmQ plays a critical role in the translocase and associates with IcmR. In this paper, we show that the N-terminal domain of IcmQ (Qn) mediates self-dimerization, whereas the C-terminal domain with a basic linker promotes membrane association. In addition, the binding of IcmR to IcmQ prevents self-dimerization and also blocks membrane permeabilization. However, IcmR does not completely block membrane binding by IcmQ. We then determined crystal structures of Qn with the interacting region of IcmR. In this complex, each protein forms an ?-helical hairpin within a parallel four-helix bundle. The amphipathic nature of helices in Qn suggests two possible models for membrane permeabilization by IcmQ. The Rm-Qn structure also suggests how IcmR-like proteins in other L. pneumophila species may interact with their IcmQ partners.

  8. Structure and function of interacting IcmR-IcmQ domains from a type IVb secretion system in Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhury, Suchismita; Farelli, Jeremiah D; Montminy, Timothy P; Matthews, Miguelina; Ménétret, Jean-François; Duménil, Guillaume; Roy, Craig R; Head, James F; Isberg, Ralph R; Akey, Christopher W

    2009-04-15

    During infection, Legionella pneumophila creates a replication vacuole within eukaryotic cells and this requires a Type IVb secretion system (T4bSS). IcmQ plays a critical role in the translocase and associates with IcmR. In this paper, we show that the N-terminal domain of IcmQ (Qn) mediates self-dimerization, whereas the C-terminal domain with a basic linker promotes membrane association. In addition, the binding of IcmR to IcmQ prevents self-dimerization and also blocks membrane permeabilization. However, IcmR does not completely block membrane binding by IcmQ. We then determined crystal structures of Qn with the interacting region of IcmR. In this complex, each protein forms an alpha-helical hairpin within a parallel four-helix bundle. The amphipathic nature of helices in Qn suggests two possible models for membrane permeabilization by IcmQ. The Rm-Qn structure also suggests how IcmR-like proteins in other L. pneumophila species may interact with their IcmQ partners.

  9. DNA binding by FOXP3 domain-swapped dimer suggests mechanisms of long-range chromosomal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongheng; Chen, Chunxia; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Chun-Chi; Johnson, Matthew E.; Espinoza, Celso A.; Edsall, Lee E.; Ren, Bing; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Grant, Struan F.A.; Wells, Andrew D.; Chen, Lin (LICR); (UPENN); (USC)

    2015-01-07

    FOXP3 is a lineage-specific transcription factor that is required for regulatory T cell development and function. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the FOXP3 forkhead domain bound to DNA. The structure reveals that FOXP3 can form a stable domain-swapped dimer to bridge DNA in the absence of cofactors, suggesting that FOXP3 may play a role in long-range gene interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used circular chromosome conformation capture coupled with high throughput sequencing (4C-seq) to analyze FOXP3-dependent genomic contacts around a known FOXP3-bound locus, Ptpn22. Our studies reveal that FOXP3 induces significant changes in the chromatin contacts between the Ptpn22 locus and other Foxp3-regulated genes, reflecting a mechanism by which FOXP3 reorganizes the genome architecture to coordinate the expression of its target genes. Our results suggest that FOXP3 mediates long-range chromatin interactions as part of its mechanisms to regulate specific gene expression in regulatory T cells.

  10. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kozma, D?niel; Simon, Istv?n; Tusn?dy, G?bor E.

    2012-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the la...

  11. Huntingtin interacts with the cue domain of gp78 and inhibits gp78 binding to ubiquitin and p97/VCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is caused by polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (htt protein, but the exact mechanism of HD pathogenesis remains uncertain. Recent evidence suggests that htt proteins with expanded polyglutamine tracts induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, probably by interfering with ER-associated degradation (ERAD. Here we report that mutant htt interacts and interferes with the function of gp78, an ER membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase (E3 involved in ERAD. Mapping studies showed that the HEAT repeats 2&3 of htt interact with the cue domain of gp78. The interaction competitively reduces polyubiquitinated protein binding to gp78 and also sterically blocks gp78 interaction of p97/VCP, a molecular chaperone that is essential for ERAD. These effects of htt negatively regulate the function of gp78 in ERAD and are aggravated by polyglutamine expansion. Paradoxically, gp78 is still able to ubiquitinate and facilitate degradation of htt proteins with expanded polyglutamine. The impairment of ERAD by mutant htt proteins is associated with induction of ER stress. Our studies provide a novel molecular mechanism that supports the involvement of ER stress in HD pathogenesis.

  12. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kevin Y; Kim, Philip M; McDermott, Drew; Gerstein, Mark

    2009-08-05

    Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1) Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2) Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3) Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up opportunities for further research. The software

  13. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Drew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. Results To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1 Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2 Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3 Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up

  14. Individual Differences in Verbal and Spatial Stroop Tasks: Interactive Role of Handedness and Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Ambrosini, Ettore; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding debate in psychology concerns the relation between handedness and cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to contribute to this debate by comparing performance of right- and non-right-handers on verbal and spatial Stroop tasks. Previous studies have shown that non-right-handers have better inter-hemispheric interaction and greater access to right hemisphere processes. On this ground, we expected performance of right- and non-right-handers to differ on verbal and spatial Stroop tasks. Specifically, relative to right-handers, non-right-handers should have greater Stroop effect in the color-word Stroop task, for which inter-hemispheric interaction does not seem to be advantageous to performance. By contrast, non-right-handers should be better able to overcome interference in the spatial Stroop task. This is for their preferential access to the right hemisphere dealing with spatial material and their greater inter-hemispheric interaction with the left hemisphere hosting Stroop task processes. Our results confirmed these predictions, showing that handedness and the underlying brain asymmetries may be a useful variable to partly explain individual differences in executive functions. PMID:29176946

  15. Individual Differences in Verbal and Spatial Stroop Tasks: Interactive Role of Handedness and Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Ambrosini, Ettore; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding debate in psychology concerns the relation between handedness and cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to contribute to this debate by comparing performance of right- and non-right-handers on verbal and spatial Stroop tasks. Previous studies have shown that non-right-handers have better inter-hemispheric interaction and greater access to right hemisphere processes. On this ground, we expected performance of right- and non-right-handers to differ on verbal and spatial Stroop tasks. Specifically, relative to right-handers, non-right-handers should have greater Stroop effect in the color-word Stroop task, for which inter-hemispheric interaction does not seem to be advantageous to performance. By contrast, non-right-handers should be better able to overcome interference in the spatial Stroop task. This is for their preferential access to the right hemisphere dealing with spatial material and their greater inter-hemispheric interaction with the left hemisphere hosting Stroop task processes. Our results confirmed these predictions, showing that handedness and the underlying brain asymmetries may be a useful variable to partly explain individual differences in executive functions.

  16. Towards Interactive Visual Exploration of Parallel Programs using a Domain-Specific Language

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Tobias

    2016-04-19

    The use of GPUs and the massively parallel computing paradigm have become wide-spread. We describe a framework for the interactive visualization and visual analysis of the run-time behavior of massively parallel programs, especially OpenCL kernels. This facilitates understanding a program\\'s function and structure, finding the causes of possible slowdowns, locating program bugs, and interactively exploring and visually comparing different code variants in order to improve performance and correctness. Our approach enables very specific, user-centered analysis, both in terms of the recording of the run-time behavior and the visualization itself. Instead of having to manually write instrumented code to record data, simple code annotations tell the source-to-source compiler which code instrumentation to generate automatically. The visualization part of our framework then enables the interactive analysis of kernel run-time behavior in a way that can be very specific to a particular problem or optimization goal, such as analyzing the causes of memory bank conflicts or understanding an entire parallel algorithm.

  17. Emotional pictures and sounds: A review of multimodal interactions of emotion cues in multiple domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, multiple sensory channels jointly trigger emotional experiences and one channel may alter processing in another channel. For example, seeing an emotional facial expression and hearing the voice’s emotional tone will jointly create the emotional experience. This example, where auditory and visual input is related to social communication, has gained considerable attention by researchers. However, interactions of visual and auditory emotional information are not limited to social communication but can extend to much broader contexts including human, animal, and environmental cues. In this article, we review current research on audiovisual emotion processing beyond face-voice stimuli to develop a broader perspective on multimodal interactions in emotion processing. We argue that current concepts of multimodality should be extended in considering an ecologically valid variety of stimuli in audiovisual emotion processing. Therefore, we provide an overview of studies in which emotional sounds and interactions with complex pictures of scenes were investigated. In addition to behavioral studies, we focus on neuroimaging, electro- and peripher-physiological findings. Furthermore, we integrate these findings and identify similarities or differences. We conclude with suggestions for future research.

  18. The PCNA interaction protein box sequence in Rad54 is an integral part of its ATPase domain and is required for efficient DNA repair and recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Sebesta, Marek; Sisakova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    was defective in primer extension at the MAT locus as well as in vitro, but additional biochemical analysis revealed that this mutant also had diminished ATPase activity and an inability to promote D-loop formation. Further mutational analysis of the putative PIP-box uncovered that other phenotypically relevant...... mutants in this domain also resulted in a loss of ATPase activity. Therefore, we have found that although Rad54 interacts with PCNA, the PIP-box motif likely plays only a minor role in stabilizing the PCNA interaction, and rather, this conserved domain is probably an extension of the ATPase domain III....

  19. Mapping of interaction domains of putative telomere-binding proteins AtTRB1 and AtPOT1b from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpfová, Petra Procházková; Kuchar, Milan; Palecek, Jan; Fajkus, Jirí

    2008-04-30

    We previously searched for interactions between plant telomere-binding proteins and found that AtTRB1, from the single-myb-histone (Smh) family, interacts with the Arabidopsis POT1-like-protein, AtPOT1b, involved in telomere capping. Here we identify domains responsible for that interaction. We also map domains in AtTRB1 responsible for interactions with other Smh-family-members. Our results show that the N-terminal OB-fold-domain of AtPOT1b mediates the interaction with AtTRB1. This domain is characteristic for POT1- proteins and is involved with binding the G-rich-strand of telomeric DNA. AtPOT1b also interacts with AtTRB2 and AtTRB3. The central histone-globular-domain of AtTRB1 is involved with binding to AtTRB2 and 3, as well as to AtPOT1b. AtTRB1-heterodimers with other Smh-family-members are more stable than AtTRB1-homodimers. Our results reveal interaction networks of plant telomeres.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of acetylcholine receptor-lipid interactions: from model membranes to human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenziger, John E; daCosta, Corrie J B

    2013-03-01

    Lipids are potent modulators of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Lipids influence nicotinic receptor function by allosteric mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of pre-existing resting, open, desensitized, and uncoupled conformations. Recent structures reveal that lipids could alter function by modulating transmembrane α-helix/α-helix packing, which in turn could alter the conformation of the allosteric interface that links the agonist-binding and transmembrane pore domains-this interface is essential in the coupling of agonist binding to channel gating. We discuss potential mechanisms by which lipids stabilize different conformational states in the context of the hypothesis that lipid-nicotinic receptor interactions modulate receptor function at biological synapses.

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans SMA-10/LRIG is a conserved transmembrane protein that enhances bone morphogenetic protein signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L Gumienny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways control an array of developmental and homeostatic events, and must themselves be exquisitely controlled. Here, we identify Caenorhabditis elegans SMA-10 as a positive extracellular regulator of BMP-like receptor signaling. SMA-10 acts genetically in a BMP-like (Sma/Mab pathway between the ligand DBL-1 and its receptors SMA-6 and DAF-4. We cloned sma-10 and show that it has fifteen leucine-rich repeats and three immunoglobulin-like domains, hallmarks of an LRIG subfamily of transmembrane proteins. SMA-10 is required in the hypodermis, where the core Sma/Mab signaling components function. We demonstrate functional conservation of LRIGs by rescuing sma-10(lf animals with the Drosophila ortholog lambik, showing that SMA-10 physically binds the DBL-1 receptors SMA-6 and DAF-4 and enhances signaling in vitro. This interaction is evolutionarily conserved, evidenced by LRIG1 binding to vertebrate receptors. We propose a new role for LRIG family members: the positive regulation of BMP signaling by binding both Type I and Type II receptors.

  2. N-terminal Gly(224-Gly(411 domain in Listeria adhesion protein interacts with host receptor Hsp60.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Jagadeesan

    Full Text Available Listeria adhesion protein (LAP is a housekeeping bifunctional enzyme consisting of N-terminal acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and C-terminal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH. It aids Listeria monocytogenes in crossing the epithelial barrier through a paracellular route by interacting with its host receptor, heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60. To gain insight into the binding interaction between LAP and Hsp60, LAP subdomain(s participating in the Hsp60 interaction were investigated.Using a ModBase structural model, LAP was divided into 4 putative subdomains: the ALDH region contains N1 (Met(1-Pro(223 and N2 (Gly(224-Gly(411, and the ADH region contains C1 (Gly(412-Val(648 and C2 (Pro(649-Val(866. Each subdomain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Purified subdomains were used in ligand overlay, immunofluorescence, and bead-based epithelial cell adhesion assays to analyze each domain's affinity toward Hsp60 protein or human ileocecal epithelial HCT-8 cells.The N2 subdomain exhibited the greatest affinity for Hsp60 with a K(D of 9.50±2.6 nM. The K(D of full-length LAP (7.2±0.5 nM to Hsp60 was comparable to the N2 value. Microspheres (1 µm diameter coated with N2 subdomain showed significantly (P<0.05 higher binding to HCT-8 cells than beads coated with other subdomains and this binding was inhibited when HCT-8 cells were pretreated with anti-Hsp60 antibody to specifically block epithelial Hsp60. Furthermore, HCT-8 cells pretreated with purified N2 subdomain also reduced L. monocytogenes adhesion by about 4 log confirming its involvement in interaction with epithelial cells.These data indicate that the N2 subdomain in the LAP ALDH domain is critical in initiating interaction with mammalian cell receptor Hsp60 providing insight into the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis for the development of potential anti-listerial control strategies.

  3. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  4. Finite difference time domain modeling of light matter interaction in light-propelled microtools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Aabo, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Direct laser writing and other recent fabrication techniques offer a wide variety in the design of microdevices. Hence, modeling such devices requires analysis methods capable of handling arbitrary geometries. Recently, we have demonstrated the potential of microtools, optically actuated microstr......Direct laser writing and other recent fabrication techniques offer a wide variety in the design of microdevices. Hence, modeling such devices requires analysis methods capable of handling arbitrary geometries. Recently, we have demonstrated the potential of microtools, optically actuated...... microstructures with functionalities geared towards biophotonics applications. Compared to dynamic beam shaping alone, microtools allow more complex interactions between the shaped light and the biological samples at the receiving end. For example, strongly focused light coming from a tapered tip of a microtool...... demonstrate novel methods of optical micromanipulation which primarily result from the particle's geometry as opposed to the directly moving the light distributions as in conventional trapping....

  5. How Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Tetracycline Interact with the Josephin Domain of Ataxin-3 and Alter Its Aggregation Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Marcella; Visentin, Cristina; Natalello, Antonino; Spinelli, Michela; Vanoni, Marco; Airoldi, Cristina; Regonesi, Maria E; Tortora, Paolo

    2015-12-07

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and tetracycline are two known inhibitors of amyloid aggregation able to counteract the fibrillation of most of the proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases. We have recently investigated their effect on ataxin-3 (AT3), the polyglutamine-containing protein responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. We previously showed that EGCG and tetracycline can contrast the aggregation process and toxicity of expanded AT3, although by different mechanisms. Here, we have performed further experiments by using the sole Josephin domain (JD) to further elucidate the mechanism of action of the two compounds. By protein solubility assays and FTIR spectroscopy we have first observed that EGCG and tetracycline affect the JD aggregation essentially in the same way displayed when acting on the full-length expanded AT3. Then, by saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments, we have shown that EGCG binds both the monomeric and the oligomeric JD form, whereas tetracycline can only interact with the oligomeric one. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis has confirmed the capability of the sole EGCG to bind monomeric JD, although with a KD value suggestive for a non-specific interaction. Our investigations provide new details on the JD interaction with EGCG and tetracycline, which could explain the different mechanisms by which the two compounds reduce the toxicity of AT3. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Control of transmembrane protein diffusion within the postsynaptic density assessed by simultaneous single-molecule tracking and localization microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Blanpied

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Postsynaptic transmembrane proteins are critical elements of synapses, mediating trans-cellular contact, sensitivity to neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules, and flux of Ca and other ions. Positioning and mobility of each member of this large class of proteins is critical to their individual function at the synapse. One critical example is that the position of glutamate receptors within the postsynaptic density (PSD strongly modulates their function by aligning or misaligning them with sites of presynaptic vesicle fusion. In addition, the regulated ability of receptors to move in or out of the synapse is critical for activity-dependent plasticity. However, factors that control receptor mobility within the boundaries of the synapse are not well understood. Notably, PSD scaffold molecules accumulate in domains much smaller than the synapse. Within these nanodomains, the density of proteins is considerably higher than that of the synapse as a whole, so high that steric hindrance is expected to reduce receptor mobility substantially. However, while numerical modeling has demonstrated several features of how the varying protein density across the face of a single PSD may modulate receptor motion, there is little experimental information about the extent of this influence. To address this critical aspect of synaptic organizational dynamics, we performed single-molecule tracking of transmembrane proteins using uPAINT over PSDs whose internal structure was simultaneously resolved using PALM. The results provide important experimental confirmation that PSD scaffold density protein strongly influences the mobility of transmembrane proteins. Tracking a protein with a cytosolic domain that does not bind PSD-95 still was slowed in regions of high PSD-95 density, suggesting that crowding by scaffold molecules and perhaps other proteins is sufficient to stabilize receptors even in the absence of binding. Because numerous proteins thought to be

  7. The PEST sequence does not contribute to the stability of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Eva Y; Clarke, David M

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Endoplasmic reticulum retention of misfolded cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutants and their rapid degradation is the major cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). An important goal is to understand the mechanism of how the misfolded proteins are recognized, retained, and targeted for degradation. Results Using a web-based algorithm, PESTFind, we found a PEST sequence in the regulatory (R) domain of CFTR. The PEST sequence is found in many short-lived e...

  8. Competitive binding at a nicotinic receptor transmembrane site of two α7-selective positive allosteric modulators with differing effects on agonist-evoked desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Toby; Young, Gareth T; Millar, Neil S

    2011-12-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have attracted considerable interest as a novel area of therapeutic drug discovery. Two types of α7-selective PAMs have been identified (type I and type II). Whilst both potentiate peak agonist-induced responses, they have different effects on the rate of agonist-induced receptor desensitization. Type I PAMs have little or no effect on the rapid rate of desensitization that is characteristic of α7 nAChRs, whereas type II PAMs cause dramatic slowing of receptor desensitization. Previously, we have obtained evidence indicating that PNU-120596, a type II PAM, causes potentiation by interacting with an allosteric transmembrane site. In contrast, other studies have demonstrated the importance of the 'M2-M3 segment' in modulating the effects of the type I PAM NS1738 and have led to the proposal that NS1738 may interact with the extracellular N-terminal domain. Here, our aim has been to compare the mechanism of allosteric potentiation of α7 nAChRs by NS1738 and PNU-120596. Functional characterization of a series of mutated α7 nAChRs indicates that mutation of amino acids within a proposed intrasubunit transmembrane cavity have a broadly similar effect on these two PAMs. In addition, we have employed a functional assay designed to examine the ability of ligands to act competitively at either the orthosteric or allosteric binding site of α7 nAChRs. These data, together with computer docking simulations, lead us to conclude that both the type I PAM NS1738 and the type II PAM PNU-120596 bind competitively at a mutually exclusive intrasubunit transmembrane site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hsp70 oligomerization is mediated by an interaction between the interdomain linker and the substrate-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco A Aprile

    Full Text Available Oligomerization in the heat shock protein (Hsp 70 family has been extensively documented both in vitro and in vivo, although the mechanism, the identity of the specific protein regions involved and the physiological relevance of this process are still unclear. We have studied the oligomeric properties of a series of human Hsp70 variants by means of nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy and quantitative size exclusion chromatography. Our results show that Hsp70 oligomerization takes place through a specific interaction between the interdomain linker of one molecule and the substrate-binding domain of a different molecule, generating dimers and higher-order oligomers. We have found that substrate binding shifts the oligomerization equilibrium towards the accumulation of functional monomeric protein, probably by sequestering the helical lid sub-domain needed to stabilize the chaperone: substrate complex. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role of chaperone oligomerization as a mechanism for regulating the availability of the active monomeric form of the chaperone and for the control of substrate binding and release.

  10. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the memb......Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain...... of the membrane protein band 3, which liberates glycolytic enzymes from this site. This study aims to investigate the role of fetal HbF (that has lower anion-binding capacity than HbA) in fetal red cells (that are subjected to low O2 tensions), and to elucidate possible linkage (e.g. via the major red cell...... membrane organising centre, band 3) between the individual oxygenation-linked reactions encountered in red cells. Methods: The interaction between band 3 and Hb is analysed in terms of the effects, measured under different conditions, of a 10-mer peptide that corresponds to the N-terminus of human band 3...

  11. Structure and Interactions of the TPR Domain of Sgt2 with Yeast Chaperones and Ybr137wp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina M. Krysztofinska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein 2 (Sgt2 is a multi-module co-chaperone involved in several protein quality control pathways. The TPR domain of Sgt2 and several other proteins, including SGTA, Hop, and CHIP, is a highly conserved motif known to form transient complexes with molecular chaperones such as Hsp70 and Hsp90. In this work, we present the first high resolution crystal structures of Sgt2_TPR alone and in complex with a C-terminal peptide PTVEEVD from heat shock protein, Ssa1. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, we demonstrate that Sgt2_TPR interacts with peptides corresponding to the C-termini of Ssa1, Hsc82, and Ybr137wp with similar binding modes and affinities.

  12. The finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflove, A.; Umashankar, K. R.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation and recent applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for the numerical modeling of electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems are considered. It is shown that improvements in FD-TD modeling concepts and software implementation often make it a preferable choice for structures which cannot be easily treated by conventional integral equations and asymptotic approaches. Recent FD-TD modeling validations in research areas including coupling to wires and wire bundles in free space and cavities, scattering from surfaces in relativistic motion, inverse scattering, and radiation condition theory, are reviewed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of FD-TD, and guidelines concerning when FD-TD should and should not be used in high-frequency electromagnetic modeling problems, are summarized.

  13. The FF domains of yeast U1 snRNP protein Prp40 mediate interactions with Luc7 and Snu71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Claudia; Uetz, Peter

    2008-11-11

    The FF domain is conserved across all eukaryotes and usually acts as an adaptor module in RNA metabolism and transcription. Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes two FF domain proteins, Prp40, a component of the U1 snRNP, and Ypr152c, a protein of unknown function. The structure of Prp40, its relationship to other proteins within the U1 snRNP, and its precise function remain little understood. Here we have investigated the essentiality and interaction properties of the FF domains of yeast Prp40. We show that the C-terminal two FF domains of Prp40 are dispensable. Deletion of additional FF domains is lethal. The first FF domain of Prp40 binds to U1 protein Luc7 in yeast two-hybrid and GST pulldown experiments. FF domains 2 and 3 bind to Snu71, another known U1 protein. Peptide array screens identified binding sites for FF1-2 within Snu71 (NDVHY) and for FF1 within Luc7 (phi[FHL] x [KR] x [GHL] with phi being a hydrophobic amino acid). Prp40, Luc7, and Snu71 appear to form a subcomplex within the yeast U1snRNP. Our data suggests that the N-terminal FF domains are critical for these interactions. Crystallization of Prp40, Luc7, and Snu71 have failed so far but co-crystallization of pairs or the whole tri-complex may facilitate crystallographic and further functional analysis.

  14. Human mitochondrial Hsp70 (mortalin): shedding light on ATPase activity, interaction with adenosine nucleotides, solution structure and domain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Ramos, Carlos H I; Borges, Júlio C

    2015-01-01

    The human mitochondrial Hsp70, also called mortalin, is of considerable importance for mitochondria biogenesis and the correct functioning of the cell machinery. In the mitochondrial matrix, mortalin acts in the importing and folding process of nucleus-encoded proteins. The in vivo deregulation of mortalin expression and/or function has been correlated with age-related diseases and certain cancers due to its interaction with the p53 protein. In spite of its critical biological roles, structural and functional studies on mortalin are limited by its insoluble recombinant production. This study provides the first report of the production of folded and soluble recombinant mortalin when co-expressed with the human Hsp70-escort protein 1, but it is still likely prone to self-association. The monomeric fraction of mortalin presented a slightly elongated shape and basal ATPase activity that is higher than that of its cytoplasmic counterpart Hsp70-1A, suggesting that it was obtained in the functional state. Through small angle X-ray scattering, we assessed the low-resolution structural model of monomeric mortalin that is characterized by an elongated shape. This model adequately accommodated high resolution structures of Hsp70 domains indicating its quality. We also observed that mortalin interacts with adenosine nucleotides with high affinity. Thermally induced unfolding experiments indicated that mortalin is formed by at least two domains and that the transition is sensitive to the presence of adenosine nucleotides and that this process is dependent on the presence of Mg2+ ions. Interestingly, the thermal-induced unfolding assays of mortalin suggested the presence of an aggregation/association event, which was not observed for human Hsp70-1A, and this finding may explain its natural tendency for in vivo aggregation. Our study may contribute to the structural understanding of mortalin as well as to contribute for its recombinant production for antitumor compound screenings.

  15. NMR determines transient structure and dynamics in the disordered C-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Noam Y; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H

    2013-07-16

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIP(C), a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407-503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIP(C) and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR(13)C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, (15)N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446-456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468-478. The (13)C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIP(C) polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIP(C). Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIP(C) fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intramolecular interactions stabilizing compact conformations of the intrinsically disordered kinase-inhibitor domain of Sic1: a molecular dynamics investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLambrughi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs are key regulatory proteins of the eukaryotic cell cycle, which modulate cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk activity. CKIs perform their inhibitory effect by the formation of ternary complexes with a target kinase and its cognate cyclin. These regulators generally belong to the class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs, which lack a well-defined and organized three-dimensional structure in their free state, undergoing folding upon binding to specific partners. Unbound IDPs are not merely random-coil structures, but can present intrinsically folded structural units (IFSUs and collapsed conformations. These structural features can be relevant to protein function in vivo.The yeast CKI Sic1 is a 284-amino acid IDP that binds to Cdk1 in complex with the Clb5,6 cyclins, preventing phosphorylation of G1 substrates and, therefore, entrance to the S phase. Sic1 degradation, triggered by multiple phosphorylation events, promotes cell-cycle progression. Previous experimental studies pointed out a propensity of Sic1 and its isolated domains to populate both extended and compact conformations. The present contribution provides models of the compact conformations of the Sic1 kinase-inhibitory domain (KID by all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent and in the absence of interactors. The results are integrated by spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Helical IFSUs are identified, along with networks of intramolecular interactions. The results identify a group of hub residues and electrostatic interactions which are likely to be involved in the stabilization of globular states.

  17. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  18. Attenuation of Phosphorylation-dependent Activation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by Disease-causing Mutations at the Transmission Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephanie; Yang, Donghe; Miles, Andrew J; Eckford, Paul D W; Molinski, Steven; Wallace, B A; Bear, Christine E

    2017-02-03

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multidomain membrane protein that functions as a phosphorylation-regulated anion channel. The interface between its two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains and coupling helices conferred by intracellular loops extending from the channel pore domains has been referred to as a transmission interface and is thought to be critical for the regulated channel activity of CFTR. Phosphorylation of the regulatory domain of CFTR by protein kinase A (PKA) is required for its channel activity. However, it was unclear if phosphorylation modifies the transmission interface. Here, we studied purified full-length CFTR protein using spectroscopic techniques to determine the consequences of PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that purified full-length wild-type CFTR is folded and structurally responsive to phosphorylation. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies of CFTR showed that phosphorylation reduced iodide-mediated quenching, consistent with an effect of phosphorylation in burying tryptophans at the transmission interface. Importantly, the rate of phosphorylation-dependent channel activation was compromised by the introduction of disease-causing mutations in either of the two coupling helices predicted to interact with nucleotide binding domain 1 at the interface. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation modifies the interface between the catalytic and pore domains of CFTR and that this modification facilitates CFTR channel activation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Kyohei; Kimoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10 mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH 2–11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100 μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are dominant factor for forming hydrogels. • Hydrogel properties were tuned by changing in graft length and macromonomer content in feed. • The resulting graft gel could encapsulate and retain organic dye in the hydrogel. • Poly(trimethylene carbonate) segment in the hydrogel was dominant unit for hydrogel.

  20. Chitin-binding domains of Escherichia coli ChiA mediate interactions with intestinal epithelial cells in mice with colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daren; Tran, Hoa T; Lee, In-Ah; Dreux, Nicolas; Kamba, Alan; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Barnich, Nicolas; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2013-09-01

    Inducible chitinase 3-like-1 is expressed by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adheres to bacteria under conditions of inflammation. We performed a structure-function analysis of the chitin-binding domains encoded by the chiA gene, which mediates the pathogenic effects of adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC). We created AIEC (strain LF82) with deletion of chiA (LF82-ΔchiA) or that expressed chiA with specific mutations. We investigated the effects of infecting different IEC lines with these bacteria compared with nonpathogenic E coli; chitinase activities were measured using the colloidal chitin-azure method. Colitis was induced in C57/Bl6 mice by administration of dextran sodium sulfate, and mice were given 10(8) bacteria for 15 consecutive days by gavage. Stool/tissue samples were collected and analyzed. LF82-ΔchiA had significantly less adhesion to IEC lines than LF82. Complementation of LF82-ΔchiA with the LF82 chiA gene, but not chiA from nonpathogenic (K12) E coli, increased adhesion. We identified 5 specific polymorphisms in the chitin-binding domain of LF82 chiA (at amino acids 362, 370, 378, 388, and 548) that differ from chiA of K12 and were required for LF82 to interact directly with IECs. This interaction was mediated by an N-glycosylated asparagine in chitinase 3-like-1 (amino acid 68) on IECs. Mice infected with LF82, or LF82-ΔchiA complemented with LF82 chiA, developed more severe colitis after administration of dextran sodium sulfate than mice infected with LF82-ΔchiA or LF82 that expressed mutant forms of chiA. AIEC adheres to an N-glycosylated chitinase 3-like-1 on IECs via the chitin-binding domain of chiA. This mechanism promotes the pathogenic effects of AIEC in mice with colitis. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  2. A calcium-sensing receptor mutation causing hypocalcemia disrupts a transmembrane salt bridge to activate β-arrestin-biased signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorvin, Caroline M.; Babinsky, Valerie N.; Malinauskas, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    SR mutation selectively enhanced β-arrestin signaling by disrupting a salt bridge formed between Arg680 and Glu767, which are located in CaSR transmembrane domain 3 and extracellular loop 2, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate CaSR signaling through β-arrestin and the importance of the Arg680-Glu767...... salt bridge in mediating signaling bias....

  3. A 3D time domain numerical model based on half-space Green's function for soil-structure interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvín, P.; Romero, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a numerical method based on a three dimensional boundary element-finite element (BEM-FEM) coupled formulation in the time domain. The proposed model allows studying soil-structure interaction problems. The soil is modelled with the BEM, where the radiation condition is implicitly satisfied in the fundamental solution. Half-space Green's function including internal soil damping is considered as the fundamental solution. An effective treatment based on the integration into a complex Jordan path is proposed to avoid the singularities at the arrival time of the Rayleigh waves. The efficiency of the BEM is improved taking into account the spatial symmetry and the invariance of the fundamental solution when it is expressed in a dimensionless form. The FEM is used to represent the structure. The proposed method is validated by comparison with analytical solutions and numerical results presented in the literature. Finally, a soil-structure interaction problem concerning with a building subjected to different incident wave fields is studied.

  4. Structure of the TPR domain of AIP: lack of client protein interaction with the C-terminal α-7 helix of the TPR domain of AIP is sufficient for pituitary adenoma predisposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodri M L Morgan

    Full Text Available Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation, R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE of TOMM20.

  5. The transmembrane channel-like protein family and human papillomaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jaime S; Stokes, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by increased sensitivity to infection by the β-subtype of human papillomaviruses (β-HPVs), causing persistent, tinea versicolor-like dermal lesions. In a majority of affected individuals, these macular lesions progress to invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in sun-exposed areas. While mutations in transmembrane channel-like 6 (TMC6 / EVER1) and 8 (TMC8 / EVER2) have been causally linked to EV, their molecular functions are unclear. It is likely that their protective effects involve regulation of the β-HPV life cycle, host keratinocyte apoptosis vs. survival balance and/or T-cell interaction with infected host cells. PMID:24800179

  6. Interaction of Arabidopsis Trihelix-Domain Transcription Factors VFP3 and VFP5 with Agrobacterium Virulence Protein VirF

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cano, Elena; Magori, Shimpei; Sun, Qi; Ding, Zehong; Lazarowitz, Sondra G.; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium is a natural genetic engineer of plants that exports several virulence proteins into host cells in order to take advantage of the cell machinery to facilitate transformation and support bacterial growth. One of these effectors is the F-box protein VirF, which presumably uses the host ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) to uncoat the packaging proteins from the invading bacterial T-DNA. By analogy to several other bacterial effectors, VirF most likely has several functions in the host cell and, therefore, several interacting partners among host proteins. Here we identify one such interactor, an Arabidopsis trihelix-domain transcription factor VFP3, and further show that its very close homolog VFP5 also interacted with VirF. Interestingly, interactions of VirF with either VFP3 or VFP5 did not activate the host UPS, suggesting that VirF might play other UPS-independent roles in bacterial infection. To better understand the potential scope of VFP3 function, we used RNAi to reduce expression of the VFP3 gene. Transcriptome profiling of these VFP3-silenced plants using high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that VFP3 substantially affected plant gene expression; specifically, 1,118 genes representing approximately 5% of all expressed genes were significantly either up- or down-regulated in the VFP3 RNAi line compared to wild-type Col-0 plants. Among the 507 up-regulated genes were genes implicated in the regulation of transcription, protein degradation, calcium signaling, and hormone metabolism, whereas the 611 down-regulated genes included those involved in redox regulation, light reactions of photosynthesis, and metabolism of lipids, amino acids, and cell wall. Overall, this pattern of changes in gene expression is characteristic of plants under stress. Thus, VFP3 likely plays an important role in controlling plant homeostasis. PMID:26571494

  7. Viscosity Analysis of Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin Protein Solutions: Role of Size, Electroviscous Effect and Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2016-01-01

    Increased solution viscosity results in difficulties in manufacturing and delivery of therapeutic protein formulations, increasing both the time and production costs, and leading to patient inconvenience. The solution viscosity is affected by the molecular properties of both the solute and the solvent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of size, charge and protein-protein interactions on the viscosity of Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig(TM)) protein solutions. The effect of size of the protein molecule on solution viscosity was investigated by measuring intrinsic viscosity and excluded volume calculations for monoclonal antibody (mAb) and DVD-Ig(TM) protein solutions. The role of the electrostatic charge resulting in electroviscous effects for DVD-Ig(TM) protein was assessed by measuring zeta potential. Light scattering measurements were performed to detect protein-protein interactions affecting solution viscosity. DVD-Ig(TM) protein exhibited significantly higher viscosity compared to mAb. Intrinsic viscosity and excluded volume calculations indicated that the size of the molecule affects viscosity significantly at higher concentrations, while the effect was minimal at intermediate concentrations. Electroviscous contribution to the viscosity of DVD-Ig(TM) protein varied depending on the presence or absence of ions in the solution. In buffered solutions, negative k D and B 2 values indicated the presence of attractive interactions which resulted in high viscosity for DVD-Ig(TM) protein at certain pH and ionic strength conditions. Results show that more than one factor contributes to the increased viscosity of DVD-Ig(TM) protein and interplay of these factors modulates the overall viscosity behavior of the solution, especially at higher concentrations.

  8. Molecular characterization of the 30-AA N-terminal mineral interaction domain of the biomineralization protein AP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Won; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-12-21

    The AP7 protein is one of several mollusk shell proteins which are responsible for aragonite polymorph formation and stabilization within the nacre layer of the Pacific red abalone, H. rufescens. Previously, we demonstrated that the 30-AA N-terminal domain of AP7, denoted as AP7-1, exists as an unfolded sequence and possesses the capability of inhibiting calcium carbonate crystal growth in vitro via growth step frustration or interruption. However, very little is known with regard to the interactive capabilities of this sequence with Ca(II) and with calcium carbonates. Using multidisciplinary techniques, we determine that the AP7-1 polypeptide interacts with Ca(II) ions at the -DD- sequence clusters, yet retains its unfolded, conformationally labile structure in the presence of Ca(II) ions. Further, NMR experiments reveal that the extended structured sequence blocks, -GNGM-, -SVRTQG-, and -ISYL, exhibit motional, chemical exchange, and/or backbone geometry perturbations in response to Ca(II) interactions with AP7-1. Solid-state NMR magic angle spinning studies verify that during the course of in vitro calcium carbonate crystal growth, AP7-1 becomes bound to calcite fragments and cannot be entirely displaced from the mineral fragments using competitive Ca(II) washing. Finally, using a scrambled sequence version of the AP7-1 polypeptide, we observe that sequence scrambling does not adversely affect the crystal growth inhibitory activity of AP7-1, suggesting that the amino acid composition of AP7-1 may be more critical to growth step inhibition than the linear ordering of amino acids.

  9. Investigation of interactive effects on water flow and solute transport in sandy loam soil using time domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdun, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Surface-applied chemicals move through the unsaturated zone with complex flow and transport processes due to soil heterogeneity and reach the saturated zone, resulting in groundwater contamination. Such complex processes need to be studied by advanced measurement and modeling techniques to protect soil and water resources from contamination. In this study, the interactive effects of factors like soil structure, initial soil water content (SWC), and application rate on preferential flow and transport were studied in a sandy loam field soil using measurement (by time domain reflectometry (TDR)) and modeling (by MACRO and VS2DTI) techniques. In addition, statistical analyses were performed to compare the means of the measured and modeled SWC and EC, and solute transport parameters (pore water velocity and dispersion coefficient) in 12 treatments. Research results showed that even though the effects of soil structural conditions on water and solute transport were not so clear, the applied solution moved lower depths in the profiles of wet versus dry initial SWC and high application rate versus low application rates. The effects of soil structure and initial SWC on water and solute movement could be differentiated under the interactive conditions, but the effects of the application rates were difficult to differentiate under different soil structural and initial SWC conditions. Modeling results showed that MACRO had somewhat better performance than VS2DTI in the estimation of SWC and EC with space and time, but overall both models had relatively low performances. The means of SWC, EC, and solute transport parameters of the 12 treatments were divided into some groups based on the statistical analyses, indicating different flow and transport characteristics or a certain degree nonuniform or preferential flow and transport in the soil. Conducting field experiments with more interactive factors and applying the models with different approaches may allow better understanding

  10. Identification of hemagglutinin structural domain and polymorphisms which may modulate swine H1N1 interactions with human receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perovic Vladimir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel A/H1N1 influenza virus, which recently emerged in North America is most closely related to North American H1N1/N2 swine viruses. Until the beginning of 2009, North American swine H1N1/N2 viruses have only sporadically infected humans as dead-end hosts. In 2009 the A/H1N1 virus acquired the capacity to spread efficiently by human to human transmission. The novel A/H1N1 influenza virus has struck thousands of people in more than 70 countries and killed more than 140, representing a public health emergency of international concern. Here we have studied properties of hemagglutinin of A/H1N1 which may modulate virus/receptor interaction. Results Analyses by ISM bioinformatics platform of the HA1 protein of North American swine H1N1/N2 viruses and the new A/H1N1 showed that both groups of viruses differed in conserved characteristics that reflect a distinct propensity of these viruses to undergo a specific interaction with swine or human host proteins or receptors. Swine H1N1/N2 viruses that sporadically infected humans featured both the swine and the human interaction pattern. Substitutions F71S, T128S, E302K, M314L in HA1 of swine H1N1 viruses from North America are identified as critical for the human interaction pattern of A/H1N1 and residues D94, D196 and D274 are predicted to be "hot-spots" for polymorphisms which could increase infectivity of A/H1N1 virus. At least one of these residues has already emerged in the A/H1N1 isolates from Spain, Italy and USA. The domain 286-326 was identified to be involved in virus/receptor interaction. Conclusion Our results (i contribute to better understanding of the origin of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus, (ii provide a tool for monitoring its molecular evolution (iii predicts hotspots associated with enhanced infectivity in humans and (iv identify therapeutic and diagnostic targets for prevention and treatment of A/H1N1 infection.

  11. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomaior, P; Araújo, L M; Nishikawa, C Y; Huergo, L F; Monteiro, R A; Pedrosa, F O; Chubatsu, L S; Souza, E M

    2012-12-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate.

  12. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. PMID:25657007

  14. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomaior, P.; Araújo, L.M.; Nishikawa, C.Y.; Huergo, L.F.; Monteiro, R.A.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Souza, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate. PMID:22983183

  15. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotomaior, P.; Araújo, L.M.; Nishikawa, C.Y.; Huergo, L.F.; Monteiro, R.A.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Souza, E.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate.

  16. Phosphorylation Regulates Interaction of 210-kDa Myosin Light Chain Kinase N-terminal Domain with Actin Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitkevich, E L; Khapchaev, A Y; Kudryashov, D S; Nikashin, A V; Schavocky, J P; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Shirinsky, V P

    2015-10-01

    High molecular weight myosin light chain kinase (MLCK210) is a multifunctional protein involved in myosin II activation and integration of cytoskeletal components in cells. MLCK210 possesses actin-binding regions both in the central part of the molecule and in its N-terminal tail domain. In HeLa cells, mitotic protein kinase Aurora B was suggested to phosphorylate MLCK210 N-terminal tail at serine residues (Dulyaninova, N. G., and Bresnick, A. R. (2004) Exp. Cell Res., 299, 303-314), but the functional significance of the phosphorylation was not established. We report here that in vitro, the N-terminal actin-binding domain of MLCK210 is located within residues 27-157 (N27-157, avian MLCK210 sequence) and is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Aurora B at serine residues 140/149 leading to a decrease in N27-157 binding to actin. The same residues are phosphorylated in a PKA-dependent manner in transfected HeLa cells. Further, in transfected cells, phosphomimetic mutants of N27-157 showed reduced association with the detergent-stable cytoskeleton, whereas in vitro, the single S149D mutation reduced N27-157 association with F-actin to a similar extent as that achieved by N27-157 phosphorylation. Altogether, our results indicate that phosphorylation of MLCK210 at distinct serine residues, mainly at S149, attenuates the interaction of MLCK210 N-terminus with the actin cytoskeleton and might serve to regulate MLCK210 microfilament cross-linking activity in cells.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Detergent Resistant Membrane Domains during Early Interaction of Macrophages with Rough and Smooth Brucella melitensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Sabine A.; Iyer, Srinivas; Sanchez, Timothy; Forst, Christian V.; Bowden, Brent; Carlson, Kay; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains discrete nanometer-sized domains that are resistant to non-ionic detergents, and which are called detergent resistant membrane domains (DRMDs) or lipid rafts. Exposure of host cells to pathogenic bacteria has been shown to induce the re-distribution of specific host proteins between DRMDs and detergent soluble membranes, which leads to the initiation of cell signaling that enable pathogens to access host cells. DRMDs have been shown to play a role in the invasion of Brucella into host macrophages and the formation of replicative phagosomes called Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs). In this study we sought to characterize changes to the protein expression profiles in DRMDs and to respective cellular pathways and networks of Mono Mac 6 cells in response to the adherence of rough VTRM1 and smooth 16 M B. melitensis strains. DRMDs were extracted from Mono Mac 6 cells exposed for 2 minutes at 4°C to Brucella (no infection occurs) and from unexposed control cells. Protein expression was determined using the non-gel based quantitative iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) mass spectrometry technique. Using the identified iTRAQ proteins we performed enrichment analyses and probed constructed human biochemical networks for interactions and metabolic reactions. We identified 149 proteins, which either became enriched, depleted or whose amounts did not change in DRMDs upon Brucella exposure. Several of these proteins were distinctly enriched or depleted in DRMDs upon exposure to rough and smooth B. melitensis strains which results in the differential engagement of cellular pathways and networks immediately upon Brucella encounter. For some of the proteins such as myosin 9, small G protein signaling modulator 3, lysine-specific demethylase 5D, erlin-2, and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2, we observed extreme differential depletion or enrichment in DRMDs. The identified proteins and pathways could provide

  18. Interaction of the protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT with heparan sulfate: binding mechanism and thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, André; Seelig, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    titration calorimetry. The thermodynamic parameters are K0 = (6.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(5) M(-1) and kcal/mol for heparin and K0 = (2.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(5) M(-1) and kcal/mol for chondroitin sulfate B at 28 degrees C. The close thermodynamic similarity of the three binding molecules also implies a close structural relationship. The ubiquitous occurrence of glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface together with their tight and rapid interaction with the TAT protein transduction domain makes complex formation a strong candidate as the primary step of protein translocation.

  19. Molecular Insights into the Coding Region Determinant-binding Protein-RNA Interaction through Site-directed Mutagenesis in the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein-K-homology Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mark; van Rensburg, Gerrit; Li, Wai-Ming; Mehmood, Kashif; Mackedenski, Sebastian; Chan, Ching-Man; King, Dustin T.; Miller, Andrew L.; Lee, Chow H.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of its four heterogeneous nuclear RNP-K-homology (KH) domains to physically associate with oncogenic mRNAs is a major criterion for the function of the coding region determinant-binding protein (CRD-BP). However, the particular RNA-binding role of each of the KH domains remains largely unresolved. Here, we mutated the first glycine to an aspartate in the universally conserved GXXG motif of the KH domain as an approach to investigate their role. Our results show that mutation of a single GXXG motif generally had no effect on binding, but the mutation in any two KH domains, with the exception of the combination of KH3 and KH4 domains, completely abrogated RNA binding in vitro and significantly retarded granule formation in zebrafish embryos, suggesting that any combination of at least two KH domains cooperate in tandem to bind RNA efficiently. Interestingly, we found that any single point mutation in one of the four KH domains significantly impacted CRD-BP binding to mRNAs in HeLa cells, suggesting that the dynamics of the CRD-BP-mRNA interaction vary over time in vivo. Furthermore, our results suggest that different mRNAs bind preferentially to distinct CRD-BP KH domains. The novel insights revealed in this study have important implications on the understanding of the oncogenic mechanism of CRD-BP as well as in the future design of inhibitors against CRD-BP function. PMID:25389298

  20. Cloning and characterization of SCART1, a novel scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type I transmembrane molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Grønlund, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a novel murine transmembrane molecule, mSCART1 belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide chain of 989 amino acids, organized as a type I transmembrane protein that contains eight extracellular SRCR domains followed...... family of the SRCR superfamily. Finally, a novel human scavenger receptor cysteine-rich molecule with high homology to mSCART1 was identified by searching in the human genomic databases using the mSCART1 cDNA sequence....

  1. Understanding the specificity of human Galectin-8C domain interactions with its glycan ligands based on molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sonu; Frank, Martin; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Human Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of the galectin family which shares an affinity for β-galactosides. The tandem-repeat Gal-8 consists of a N- and a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (N- and C-CRD) joined by a linker peptide of various length. Despite their structural similarity both CRDs recognize different oligosaccharides. While the molecular requirements of the N-CRD for high binding affinity to sulfated and sialylated glycans have recently been elucidated by crystallographic studies of complexes with several oligosaccharides, the binding specificities of the C-CRD for a different set of oligosaccharides, as derived from experimental data, has only been explained in terms of the three-dimensional structure for the complex C-CRD with lactose. In this study we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the recently released crystal structure of the Gal-8C-CRD to analyse the three-dimensional conditions for its specific binding to a variety of oligosaccharides as previously defined by glycan-microarray analysis. The terminal β-galactose of disaccharides (LacNAc, lacto-N-biose and lactose) and the internal β-galactose moiety of blood group antigens A and B (BGA, BGB) as well as of longer linear oligosaccharide chains (di-LacNAc and lacto-N-neotetraose) are interacting favorably with conserved amino acids (H53, R57, N66, W73, E76). Lacto-N-neotetraose and di-LacNAc as well as BGA and BGB are well accommodated. BGA and BGB showed higher affinity than LacNAc and lactose due to generally stronger hydrogen bond interactions and water mediated hydrogen bonds with α1-2 fucose respectively. Our results derived from molecular dynamics simulations are able to explain the glycan binding specificities of the Gal-8C-CRD in comparison to those of the Gal-8N -CRD.

  2. Understanding the specificity of human Galectin-8C domain interactions with its glycan ligands based on molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Kumar

    Full Text Available Human Galectin-8 (Gal-8 is a member of the galectin family which shares an affinity for β-galactosides. The tandem-repeat Gal-8 consists of a N- and a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (N- and C-CRD joined by a linker peptide of various length. Despite their structural similarity both CRDs recognize different oligosaccharides. While the molecular requirements of the N-CRD for high binding affinity to sulfated and sialylated glycans have recently been elucidated by crystallographic studies of complexes with several oligosaccharides, the binding specificities of the C-CRD for a different set of oligosaccharides, as derived from experimental data, has only been explained in terms of the three-dimensional structure for the complex C-CRD with lactose. In this study we performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations using the recently released crystal structure of the Gal-8C-CRD to analyse the three-dimensional conditions for its specific binding to a variety of oligosaccharides as previously defined by glycan-microarray analysis. The terminal β-galactose of disaccharides (LacNAc, lacto-N-biose and lactose and the internal β-galactose moiety of blood group antigens A and B (BGA, BGB as well as of longer linear oligosaccharide chains (di-LacNAc and lacto-N-neotetraose are interacting favorably with conserved amino acids (H53, R57, N66, W73, E76. Lacto-N-neotetraose and di-LacNAc as well as BGA and BGB are well accommodated. BGA and BGB showed higher affinity than LacNAc and lactose due to generally stronger hydrogen bond interactions and water mediated hydrogen bonds with α1-2 fucose respectively. Our results derived from molecular dynamics simulations are able to explain the glycan binding specificities of the Gal-8C-CRD in comparison to those of the Gal-8N -CRD.

  3. Solution structure of the cytohesin-1 (B2–1) Sec7 domain and its interaction with the GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Stephen F.; Schnuchel, Arndt; Wang, Hong; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Lipsky, Brian P.; Harris, Edith A. S.; Staunton, Donald E.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    1998-01-01

    Cytohesin-1 (B2–1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for human ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases, which are important for vesicular protein trafficking and coatamer assembly in the cell. Cytohesin-1 also has been reported to promote cellular adhesion via binding to the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The solution structure of the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-1, which is responsible for both the protein’s guanine nucleotide exchange factor function and β2 integrin binding, was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of 10 α-helices that form a unique tertiary fold. The binding between the Sec7 domain and a soluble, truncated version of human Arf-1 was investigated by examining 1H-15N and 1H-13C chemical shift changes between the native protein and the Sec7/Arf-1 complex. We show that the binding to Arf-1 occurs through a large surface on the C-terminal subdomain that is composed of both hydrophobic and polar residues. Structure-based mutational analysis of the cytohesin-1 Sec7 domain has been used to identify residues important for binding to Arf and for mediating nucleotide exchange. Investigations into the interaction between the Sec7 domain and the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain suggest that the two proteins do not interact in the solution phase. PMID:9653114

  4. The GYF domain protein PSIG1 dampens the induction of cell death during plant-pathogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hidenori; Nomura, Yuko; Egusa, Mayumi; Hamada, Takahiro; Hyon, Gang-Su; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ueda, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The induction of rapid cell death is an effective strategy for plants to restrict biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens at the infection site. However, activation of cell death comes at a high cost, as dead cells will no longer be available for defense responses nor general metabolic processes. In addition, necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead tissue, take advantage of cell death-triggering mechanisms. Mechanisms by which plants solve this conundrum remain described. Here, we identify PLANT SMY2-TYPE ILE-GYF DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN 1 (PSIG1) and show that PSIG1 helps to restrict cell death induction during pathogen infection. Inactivation of PSIG1 does not result in spontaneous lesions, and enhanced cell death in psig1 mutants is independent of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, PSIG1 interacts with SMG7, which plays a role in nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD), and the smg7-4 mutant allele mimics the cell death phenotype of the psig1 mutants. Intriguingly, the psig1 mutants display enhanced susceptibility to the hemi-biotrophic bacterial pathogen. These findings point to the existence and importance of the SA- and ROS-independent cell death constraining mechanism as a part of the plant immune system. PMID:29073135

  5. Molecular interactions of prodiginines with the BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseini

    Full Text Available Prodigiosin and obatoclax, members of the prodiginines family, are small molecules with anti-cancer properties that are currently under preclinical and clinical trials. The molecular target(s of these agents, however, is an open question. Combining experimental and computational techniques we find that prodigiosin binds to the BH3 domain in some BCL-2 protein families, which play an important role in the apoptotic programmed cell death. In particular, our results indicate a large affinity of prodigiosin for MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family. In melanoma cells, we demonstrate that prodigiosin activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by disrupting MCL-1/BAK complexes. Computer simulations with the PELE software allow the description of the induced fit process, obtaining a detailed atomic view of the molecular interactions. These results provide new data to understand the mechanism of action of these molecules, and assist in the development of more specific inhibitors of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins.

  6. Domain–domain interactions determine the gating, permeation, pharmacology, and subunit modulation of the IKs ion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydman, Mark A; Kasimova, Marina A; McFarland, Kelli; Beller, Zachary; Hou, Panpan; Kinser, Holly E; Liang, Hongwu; Zhang, Guohui; Shi, Jingyi; Tarek, Mounir; Cui, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels generate electrical currents that control muscle contraction, encode neuronal information, and trigger hormonal release. Tissue-specific expression of accessory (β) subunits causes these channels to generate currents with distinct properties. In the heart, KCNQ1 voltage-gated potassium channels coassemble with KCNE1 β-subunits to generate the IKs current (Barhanin et al., 1996; Sanguinetti et al., 1996), an important current for maintenance of stable heart rhythms. KCNE1 significantly modulates the gating, permeation, and pharmacology of KCNQ1 (Wrobel et al., 2012; Sun et al., 2012; Abbott, 2014). These changes are essential for the physiological role of IKs (Silva and Rudy, 2005); however, after 18 years of study, no coherent mechanism explaining how KCNE1 affects KCNQ1 has emerged. Here we provide evidence of such a mechanism, whereby, KCNE1 alters the state-dependent interactions that functionally couple the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) to the pore. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03606.001 PMID:25535795

  7. The GYF domain protein PSIG1 dampens the induction of cell death during plant-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hidenori; Nomura, Yuko; Egusa, Mayumi; Hamada, Takahiro; Hyon, Gang-Su; Kaminaka, Hironori; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Ueda, Takashi; Trujillo, Marco; Shirasu, Ken; Nakagami, Hirofumi

    2017-10-01

    The induction of rapid cell death is an effective strategy for plants to restrict biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens at the infection site. However, activation of cell death comes at a high cost, as dead cells will no longer be available for defense responses nor general metabolic processes. In addition, necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead tissue, take advantage of cell death-triggering mechanisms. Mechanisms by which plants solve this conundrum remain described. Here, we identify PLANT SMY2-TYPE ILE-GYF DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN 1 (PSIG1) and show that PSIG1 helps to restrict cell death induction during pathogen infection. Inactivation of PSIG1 does not result in spontaneous lesions, and enhanced cell death in psig1 mutants is independent of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, PSIG1 interacts with SMG7, which plays a role in nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD), and the smg7-4 mutant allele mimics the cell death phenotype of the psig1 mutants. Intriguingly, the psig1 mutants display enhanced susceptibility to the hemi-biotrophic bacterial pathogen. These findings point to the existence and importance of the SA- and ROS-independent cell death constraining mechanism as a part of the plant immune system.

  8. Bivalent Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments against Tumor Necrosis Factor Have Picomolar Potencies due to Intramolecular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Beirnaert

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a cytokine involved in inflammatory pathologies, can be inhibited by antibodies or trap molecules. Herein, llama-derived variable heavy-chain domains of heavy-chain antibody (VHH, also called Nanobodies™ were generated for the engineering of bivalent constructs, which antagonize the binding of TNF to its receptors with picomolar potencies. Three monomeric VHHs (VHH#1, VHH#2, and VHH#3 were characterized in detail and found to bind TNF with sub-nanomolar affinities. The crystal structures of the TNF–VHH complexes demonstrate that VHH#1 and VHH#2 share the same epitope, at the center of the interaction area of TNF with its TNFRs, while VHH#3 binds to a different, but partially overlapping epitope. These structures rationalize our results obtained with bivalent constructs in which two VHHs were coupled via linkers of different lengths. Contrary to conventional antibodies, these bivalent Nanobody™ constructs can bind to a single trimeric TNF, thus binding with avidity and blocking two of the three receptor binding sites in the cytokine. The different mode of binding to antigen and the engineering into bivalent constructs supports the design of highly potent VHH-based therapeutic entities.

  9. Enhanced Binding Affinity via Destabilization of the Unbound State: A Millisecond Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Study of the Interaction between p53 and a Pleckstrin Homology Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaolong; Khatun, Rahima; Lento, Cristina; Sheng, Yi; Wilson, Derek J

    2017-08-15

    The incorporation of intrinsically disordered domains enables proteins to engage a wide variety of targets, with phosphorylation often modulating target specificity and affinity. Although phosphorylation can clearly act as a chemical driver of complexation in structured proteins, e.g., by abrogating or permitting new charge-charge interactions, the basis for enhancement of the hydrophobically driven interactions that are typical of disordered protein-target complexation is less cle