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Sample records for translocation complex tap

  1. BCR translocation to derivative chromosome 2, a new case of chronic myeloid leukemia with complex variant translocation and Philadelphia chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Achkar, W.; Wafa, A.; Al-Medani, S.

    2011-01-01

    The well-known typical fusion gene BCR/ABL can be observed in connection with a complex translocation event in only 5-8% of cases with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Herein we report an exceptional CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not observed before, translocated BCR to the derivative chromosome 2 [der(2)], additional to involving a four chromosomes translocation implying chromosomal regions such as 1p32 and 2q21 besides 9q34 and 22q11.2. Which were characterized by molecular cytogenetics. (author)

  2. Synaptonemal complex analysis of X-7 translocations in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, T. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville); Russell, L.B.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The synaptonemal complexes of surface-spread spermatocytes of mice heterozygous for one of two reciprocal translations (R3 and R5) between the X and chromosome 7 have been examined by light and electron microscopy (EM). The break points of R3 were determined to be at 70% of chromosome 7, as measured from the centromere, and at 22% of the X. Translocation quadrivalents were formed almost exclusively. The break points of R5 were at 21% of chromosome 7 as measured from the centromere, and at 83% of the X. There was little indication that the break in the X interfered with sex-chromosome synapis between the 7X and Y. Univalent Y's were not observed in R3, and only seldom observed (8-14%) in R5. However, in contrast to R3, R5 formed quadrivalents relatively rarely (20% in the EM study of 100 nuclei), and hetermorphic bivalents of 7X-Y and X7-7 quite frequently (72%). Possible causes of this high bivalent frequency are discussed. Light-microsope (LM) analysis alone was found to be inadequate for interpreting synaptic configurations (quadrivalents vs. bivalents) in R5. The LM analysis was further complicated by the occurrence of nonhomologous synapsis in the heteromorphic bivalents of R5, a phenomonon easily recognized and interpreted in the EM portion of the study.

  3. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao; Gasulla, Ivana; Yvind, Kresten; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-06-20

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints of exploiting the optical phase transfer function of a microring resonator aiming at implementing complex-valued multi-tap filtering schemes are also reported. The trade-off between the degree of tunability without changing the free spectral range and the number of taps is studied in-depth. Different window based scenarios are evaluated for improving the filter performance in terms of the side-lobe level.

  4. SSFSE sequence functional MRI of the human cervical spinal cord with complex finger tapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuhai; Kong Kangmei; Guan Jitian; Chen Yexi; He Jiankang; Qi Weili; Wang Xinjia; Shen Zhiwei; Wu Renhua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Functional MR imaging of the human cervical spinal cord was carried out on volunteers during alternated rest and a complex finger tapping task, in order to detect image intensity changes arising from neuronal activity. Methods: Functional MR imaging data using single-shot fast spin-echo sequence (SSFSE) with echo time 42.4 ms on a 1.5 T GE Clinical System were acquired in eight subjects performing a complex finger tapping task. Cervical spinal cord activation was measured both in the sagittal and transverse imaging planes. Postprocessing was performed by AFNI (Analysis of Functional Neuroimages) software system. Results: Intensity changes (5.5-7.6%) were correlated with the time course of stimulation and were consistently detected in both sagittal and transverse imaging planes of the cervical spinal cord. The activated regions localized to the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord in agreement with the neural anatomy. Conclusion: Functional MR imaging signals can be reliably detected with finger tapping activity in the human cervical spinal cord using a SSFSE sequence with 42.4 ms echo time. The anatomic location of neural activity correlates with the muscles used in the finger tapping task.

  5. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-oninsulator microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao

    2011-01-01

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints of exploit...

  6. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

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    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  7. Vaccination and the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Johnstone, Carolina; Mir, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte-mediated cellular response is important for the elimination of virus-infected cells and requires the prior recognition of short viral peptide antigens previously translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or infected cells with TAP molecules blocked by specific viral proteins, such as the cowpoxvirus, a component of the first source of early empirical vaccination against smallpox, are still able to present several HLA class I ligands generated by the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways to specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Currently, bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases have renewed interest in poxviruses. Recent works that have identified HLA class I ligands and epitopes in virus-infected TAP-deficient cells have implications for the study of both the effectiveness of early empirical vaccination and the analysis of HLA class I antigen processing in TAP-deficient subjects.

  8. Active remodelling of the TIM23 complex during translocation of preproteins into mitochondria.

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    Popov-Celeketić, Dusan; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2008-05-21

    The TIM23 (translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane) complex mediates translocation of preproteins across and their insertion into the mitochondrial inner membrane. How the translocase mediates sorting of preproteins into the two different subcompartments is poorly understood. In particular, it is not clear whether association of two operationally defined parts of the translocase, the membrane-integrated part and the import motor, depends on the activity state of the translocase. We established conditions to in vivo trap the TIM23 complex in different translocation modes. Membrane-integrated part of the complex and import motor were always found in one complex irrespective of whether an arrested preprotein was present or not. Instead, we detected different conformations of the complex in response to the presence and, importantly, the type of preprotein being translocated. Two non-essential subunits of the complex, Tim21 and Pam17, modulate its activity in an antagonistic manner. Our data demonstrate that the TIM23 complex acts as a single structural and functional entity that is actively remodelled to sort preproteins into different mitochondrial subcompartments.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEXATION IN THE COPPER UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

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    SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The actual knowledge about food and the environment underlines the fact that agricultural and environmental sciences must solve various problems regarding copper uptake from soil to plants and its bioaccumulation, being important issues for copper concentration in crops and also for phytoremediation of polluted soils. We studied the relation between the form in which copper is applied to soil and the consequential copper bioavailability, uptake and translocation, using as examples simple and complex copper compounds. The copper concentration in basil plants harvested from soils treated with copper compounds and the calculated values of transfer coefficient, translocation factor, bioaccumulation factor, and uptake coefficient demonstrated that the ionic copper (from simple salts is not necessarily easier to uptake than complex ions, but is easier translocated in plants, while the copper given as complex ions is most likely to be retained by roots. The results indicated that the involvement of copper complexes in agricultural treatments is a solution for soils phytoremediation, concerning the phytostabilization technology.

  10. Translocation of differently sized and charged polystyrene nanoparticles in in vitro intestinal cell models of increasing complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walczak, A.P.; Kramer, E.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Tromp, P.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Zande, M. van der; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal translocation is a key factor for determining bioavailability of nanoparticles (NPs) after oral uptake. Therefore, we evaluated three in vitro intestinal cell models of increasing complexity which might affect the translocation of NPs: a mono-culture (Caco-2 cells), a co-culture with

  11. Cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes during translocation of proteins into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegemann, Karin; Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-03-13

    Translocation of the majority of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria requires the cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cooperation remain largely unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that at least two contacts from the side of the TIM23 complex play an important role in TOM-TIM23 cooperation in vivo. Tim50, likely through its very C-terminal segment, interacts with Tom22. This interaction is stimulated by translocating proteins and is independent of any other TOM-TIM23 contact known so far. Furthermore, the exposure of Tim23 on the mitochondrial surface depends not only on its interaction with Tim50 but also on the dynamics of the TOM complex. Destabilization of the individual contacts reduces the efficiency of import of proteins into mitochondria and destabilization of both contacts simultaneously is not tolerated by yeast cells. We conclude that an intricate and coordinated network of protein-protein interactions involving primarily Tim50 and also Tim23 is required for efficient translocation of proteins across both mitochondrial membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of translocation and substrate binding in individual complexes formed with active site mutants of {phi}29 DNA polymerase.

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    Dahl, Joseph M; Wang, Hongyun; Lázaro, José M; Salas, Margarita; Lieberman, Kate R

    2014-03-07

    The Φ29 DNA polymerase (DNAP) is a processive B-family replicative DNAP. Fluctuations between the pre-translocation and post-translocation states can be quantified from ionic current traces, when individual Φ29 DNAP-DNA complexes are held atop a nanopore in an electric field. Based upon crystal structures of the Φ29 DNAP-DNA binary complex and the Φ29 DNAP-DNA-dNTP ternary complex, residues Tyr-226 and Tyr-390 in the polymerase active site were implicated in the structural basis of translocation. Here, we have examined the dynamics of translocation and substrate binding in complexes formed with the Y226F and Y390F mutants. The Y226F mutation diminished the forward and reverse rates of translocation, increased the affinity for dNTP in the post-translocation state by decreasing the dNTP dissociation rate, and increased the affinity for pyrophosphate in the pre-translocation state. The Y390F mutation significantly decreased the affinity for dNTP in the post-translocation state by decreasing the association rate ∼2-fold and increasing the dissociation rate ∼10-fold, implicating this as a mechanism by which this mutation impedes DNA synthesis. The Y390F dissociation rate increase is suppressed when complexes are examined in the presence of Mn(2+) rather than Mg(2+). The same effects of the Y226F or Y390F mutations were observed in the background of the D12A/D66A mutations, located in the exonuclease active site, ∼30 Å from the polymerase active site. Although translocation rates were unaffected in the D12A/D66A mutant, these exonuclease site mutations caused a decrease in the dNTP dissociation rate, suggesting that they perturb Φ29 DNAP interdomain architecture.

  13. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

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    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  14. A Proteome Translocation Response to Complex Desert Stress Environments in Perennial Phragmites Sympatric Ecotypes with Contrasting Water Availability.

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    Li, Li; Chen, Xiaodan; Shi, Lu; Wang, Chuanjing; Fu, Bing; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia

    2017-01-01

    After a long-term adaptation to desert environment, the perennial aquatic plant Phragmites communis has evolved a desert-dune ecotype. The desert-dune ecotype (DR) of Phragmites communis showed significant differences in water activity and protein distribution compared to its sympatric swamp ecotype (SR). Many proteins that were located in the soluble fraction of SR translocated to the insoluble fraction of DR, suggesting that membrane-associated proteins were greatly reinforced in DR. The unknown phenomenon in plant stress physiology was defined as a proteome translocation response. Quantitative 2D-DIGE technology highlighted these 'bound' proteins in DR. Fifty-eight kinds of proteins were identified as candidates of the translocated proteome in Phragmites . The majority were chloroplast proteins. Unexpectedly, Rubisco was the most abundant protein sequestered by DR. Rubisco activase, various chaperons and 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin were major components in the translocation response. Conformational change was assumed to be the main reason for the Rubisco translocation due to no primary sequence difference between DR and SR. The addition of reductant in extraction process partially reversed the translocation response, implying that intracellular redox status plays a role in the translocation response of the proteome. The finding emphasizes the realistic significance of the membrane-association of biomolecule for plant long-term adaptation to complex stress conditions.

  15. Reconstituted TOM core complex and Tim9/Tim10 complex of mitochondria are sufficient for translocation of the ADP/ATP carrier across membranes.

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    Vasiljev, Andreja; Ahting, Uwe; Nargang, Frank E; Go, Nancy E; Habib, Shukry J; Kozany, Christian; Panneels, Valérie; Sinning, Irmgard; Prokisch, Holger; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan; Rapaport, Doron

    2004-03-01

    Precursor proteins of the solute carrier family and of channel forming Tim components are imported into mitochondria in two main steps. First, they are translocated through the TOM complex in the outer membrane, a process assisted by the Tim9/Tim10 complex. They are passed on to the TIM22 complex, which facilitates their insertion into the inner membrane. In the present study, we have analyzed the function of the Tim9/Tim10 complex in the translocation of substrates across the outer membrane of mitochondria. The purified TOM core complex was reconstituted into lipid vesicles in which purified Tim9/Tim10 complex was entrapped. The precursor of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) was found to be translocated across the membrane of such lipid vesicles. Thus, these components are sufficient for translocation of AAC precursor across the outer membrane. Peptide libraries covering various substrate proteins were used to identify segments that are bound by Tim9/Tim10 complex upon translocation through the TOM complex. The patterns of binding sites on the substrate proteins suggest a mechanism by which portions of membrane-spanning segments together with flanking hydrophilic segments are recognized and bound by the Tim9/Tim10 complex as they emerge from the TOM complex into the intermembrane space.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the ATPase domain of human TAP in nucleotide-free and ADP-, vanadate- and azide-complexed forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Sita R.; Gangwar, Shanti P.; Saxena, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    The ATPase domain of human TAP in nucleotide free, ADP, vanadate and azide complexed forms were purified and crystallized. The X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for all crystals in the resolution range of 2.8–3.0 Å. The human transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) protein belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and is formed by the heterodimerization of TAP1 and TAP2 subunits. TAP selectively pumps cytosolic peptides into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum in an ATP-dependent manner. The catalytic cycle of the ATPase domain of TAP is not understood at the molecular level. The structures of catalytic intermediates of the ATPase domain of TAP will contribute to the understanding of the chemical mechanism of ATP hydrolysis. In order to understand this mechanism, the ATPase domain of human TAP1 (NBD1) was expressed and purified, crystallized in nucleotide-free and transition-state complex forms and X-ray crystallographic studies were performed. The NBD1 protein was crystallized (i) in the nucleotide-free apo form; (ii) in complex with ADP–Mg 2+ , mimicking the product-bound state; (iii) in complex with vanadate–ADP–Mg 2+ , mimicking the ATP-bound state; and (iv) in complex with azide–ADP–Mg 2+ , also mimicking the ATP-bound state. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for apo and complexed NBD1 using an in-house X-ray diffraction facility at a wavelength of 1.5418 Å. The apo and complexed NBD1 crystals belonged to the primitive hexagonal space group P6 2 , with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. Here, the crystallization, data collection and preliminary crystallographic analysis of apo and complexed NBD1 are reported

  17. Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering.

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    Sagues, Mikel; García Olcina, Raimundo; Loayssa, Alayn; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2008-01-07

    We propose a novel scheme to implement tunable multi-tap complex coefficient filters based on optical single sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering. A four tap filter is experimentally demonstrated to highlight the enhanced tuning performance provided by complex coefficients. Optical processing is performed by the use of a cascade of four phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings specifically fabricated for this purpose.

  18. New Complex Chromosomal Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11

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    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML case with a new complex t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11 of a 29-year-old man is being reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by karyotype complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In CML, the complex and standard translocations have the same prognosis. The patient was treated with standard initial therapy based on hydroxyurea before he died due to heart failure four months later. Our finding indicates the importance of combined cytogenetic analysis for diagnosis and guidance of treatment in clinical diagnosis of CML.

  19. Three tapasin docking sites in TAP cooperate to facilitate transporter stabilization and heterodimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Abrahimi, Parwiz; Mitchell, Susan M.; Cresswell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates peptide antigens into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for loading onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. MHC class I acquires its peptide cargo in the peptide loading complex (PLC), an oligomeric complex that the chaperone tapasin organizes by bridging TAP to MHC class I and recruiting accessory molecules such as ERp57 and calreticulin. Three tapasin binding sites on TAP have been described, two of which are located in the N-terminal domains (N domains) of TAP1 and TAP2. The third binding site is present in the core transmembrane domain (coreTMD) of TAP1 and is only used by the unassembled subunits. Tapasin is required to promote TAP stability, but through which binding site(s) it is acting is unknown. In particular the role of tapasin binding to the coreTMD of TAP1 single chains is mysterious as this interaction is lost upon TAP2 association. In this study, we map the respective binding site in TAP1 to the polar face of the amphipathic transmembrane helix TM9 and identify key residues that are essential to establish the interaction. We find that this interaction is dispensable for the peptide transport function but essential to achieve full stability of human TAP1. The interaction is also required for proper heterodimerization of the transporter. Based on similar results obtained using TAP mutants lacking tapasin binding to either N domain, we conclude that all three tapasin-binding sites in TAP cooperate to achieve high transporter stability and efficient heterodimerization. PMID:24501197

  20. Target of rapamycin complex 1 and Tap42-associated phosphatases are required for sensing changes in nitrogen conditions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinmei; Yan, Gonghong; Liu, Sichi; Jiang, Tong; Zhong, Mingming; Yuan, Wenjie; Chen, Shaoxian; Zheng, Yin; Jiang, Yong; Jiang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    In yeast target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) and Tap42-associated phosphatases regulate expression of genes involved in nitrogen limitation response and the nitrogen discrimination pathway. However, it remains unclear whether TORC1 and the phosphatases are required for sensing nitrogen conditions. Utilizing temperature sensitive mutants of tor2 and tap42, we examined the role of TORC1 and Tap42 in nuclear entry of Gln3, a key transcription factor in yeast nitrogen metabolism, in response to changes in nitrogen conditions. Our data show that TORC1 is essential for Gln3 nuclear entry upon nitrogen limitation and downshift in nitrogen quality. However, Tap42-associated phosphatases are required only under nitrogen limitation condition. In cells grown in poor nitrogen medium, the nitrogen permease reactivator kinase (Npr1) inhibits TORC1 activity and alters its association with Tap42, rendering Tap42-associated phosphatases unresponsive to nitrogen limitation. These findings demonstrate a direct role for TORC1 and Tap42-associated phosphatases in sensing nitrogen conditions and unveil an Npr1-dependent mechanism that controls TORC1 and the phosphatases in response to changes in nitrogen quality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Two alternative binding mechanisms connect the protein translocation Sec71-Sec72 complex with heat shock proteins

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    Tripathi, Arati; Mandon, Elisabet C.; Gilmore, Reid; Rapoport, Tom A. (UMASS, MED); (Harvard-Med)

    2017-03-12

    The biosynthesis of many eukaryotic proteins requires accurate targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Post-translational protein translocation in yeast requires both the Sec61 translocation channel, and a complex of four additional proteins: Sec63, Sec62, Sec71, and Sec72. The structure and function of these proteins are largely unknown. This pathway also requires the cytosolic Hsp70 protein Ssa1, but whether Ssa1 associates with the translocation machinery to target protein substrates to the membrane is unclear. Here, we use a combined structural and biochemical approach to explore the role of Sec71-Sec72 subcomplex in post-translational protein translocation. To this end, we report a crystal structure of the Sec71-Sec72 complex, which revealed that Sec72 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by Sec71. We also determined the crystal structure of this TPR domain with a C-terminal peptide derived from Ssa1, which suggests how Sec72 interacts with full-length Ssa1. Surprisingly, Ssb1, a cytoplasmic Hsp70 that binds ribosome-associated nascent polypeptide chains, also binds to the TPR domain of Sec72, even though it lacks the TPR-binding C-terminal residues of Ssa1. We demonstrate that Ssb1 binds through its ATPase domain to the TPR domain, an interaction that leads to inhibition of nucleotide exchange. Taken together, our results suggest that translocation substrates can be recruited to the Sec71-Sec72 complex either post-translationally through Ssa1 or co-translationally through Ssb1.

  2. Translocation of the papillomavirus L2/vDNA complex across the limiting membrane requires the onset of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calton, Christine M; Bronnimann, Matthew P; Manson, Ariana R; Li, Shuaizhi; Chapman, Janice A; Suarez-Berumen, Marcela; Williamson, Tatum R; Molugu, Sudheer K; Bernal, Ricardo A; Campos, Samuel K

    2017-05-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L2 protein acts as a chaperone to ensure that the viral genome (vDNA) traffics from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and eventually the nucleus, where HPV replication occurs. En route to the nucleus, the L2/vDNA complex must translocate across limiting intracellular membranes. The details of this critical process remain poorly characterized. We have developed a system based on subcellular compartmentalization of the enzyme BirA and its cognate substrate to detect membrane translocation of L2-BirA from incoming virions. We find that L2 translocation requires transport to the TGN and is strictly dependent on entry into mitosis, coinciding with mitotic entry in synchronized cells. Cell cycle arrest causes retention of L2/vDNA at the TGN; only release and progression past G2/M enables translocation across the limiting membrane and subsequent infection. Microscopy of EdU-labeled vDNA reveals a rapid and dramatic shift in vDNA localization during early mitosis. At late G2/early prophase vDNA egresses from the TGN to a pericentriolar location, accumulating there through prometaphase where it begins to associate with condensed chromosomes. By metaphase and throughout anaphase the vDNA is seen bound to the mitotic chromosomes, ensuring distribution into both daughter nuclei. Mutations in a newly defined chromatin binding region of L2 potently blocked translocation, suggesting that translocation is dependent on chromatin binding during prometaphase. This represents the first time a virus has been shown to functionally couple the penetration of limiting membranes to cellular mitosis, explaining in part the tropism of HPV for mitotic basal keratinocytes.

  3. Constraining the Lateral Helix of Respiratory Complex I by Cross-linking Does Not Impair Enzyme Activity or Proton Translocation.

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    Zhu, Shaotong; Vik, Steven B

    2015-08-21

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a multisubunit, membrane-bound enzyme of the respiratory chain. The energy from NADH oxidation in the peripheral region of the enzyme is used to drive proton translocation across the membrane. One of the integral membrane subunits, nuoL in Escherichia coli, has an unusual lateral helix of ∼75 residues that lies parallel to the membrane surface and has been proposed to play a mechanical role as a piston during proton translocation (Efremov, R. G., Baradaran, R., and Sazanov, L. A. (2010) Nature 465, 441-445). To test this hypothesis we have introduced 11 pairs of cysteine residues into Complex I; in each pair one is in the lateral helix, and the other is in a nearby region of subunit N, M, or L. The double mutants were treated with Cu(2+) ions or with bi-functional methanethiosulfonate reagents to catalyze cross-link formation in membrane vesicles. The yields of cross-linked products were typically 50-90%, as judged by immunoblotting, but in no case did the activity of Complex I decrease by >10-20%, as indicated by deamino-NADH oxidase activity or rates of proton translocation. In contrast, several pairs of cysteine residues introduced at other interfaces of N:M and M:L subunits led to significant loss of activity, in particular, in the region of residue Glu-144 of subunit M. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lateral helix of subunit L functions like a piston, but rather, they suggest that conformational changes might be transmitted more directly through the functional residues of the proton translocation apparatus. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sischka, Andy; Spiering, Andre; Anselmetti, Dario; Khaksar, Maryam; Laxa, Miriam; Koenig, Janine; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the threading and controlled translocation of individual lambda-DNA (λ-DNA) molecules through solid-state nanopores with piconewton force sensitivity, millisecond time resolution and picoampere ionic current sensitivity with a set-up combining quantitative 3D optical tweezers (OT) with electrophysiology. With our virtually interference-free OT set-up the binding of RecA and single peroxiredoxin protein molecules to λ-DNA was quantitatively investigated during dynamic translocation experiments where effective forces and respective ionic currents of the threaded DNA molecule through the nanopore were measured during inward and outward sliding. Membrane voltage-dependent experiments of reversible single protein/DNA translocation scans yield hysteresis-free, asymmetric single-molecule fingerprints in the measured force and conductance signals that can be attributed to the interplay of optical trap and electrostatic nanopore potentials. These experiments allow an exact localization of the bound protein along the DNA strand and open fascinating applications for label-free detection of DNA-binding ligands, where structural and positional binding phenomena can be investigated at a single-molecule level.

  5. Importin α-importin β complex mediated nuclear translocation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Long, Juan; Yi, Yuxin; Xia, Wei

    2017-10-28

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 is a secreted protein that binds to IGFs and modulates IGF actions, as well as regulates cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis independent of IGF. Proper cellular localization is critical for the effective function of most signaling molecules. In previous studies, we have shown that the nuclear IGFBP-5 comes from ER-cytosol retro-translocation. In this study, we further investigated the pathway mediating IGFBP-5 nuclear import after it retro-translocation. Importin-α5 was identified as an IGFBP-5-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybrid system, and its interaction with IGFBP-5 was further confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Binding affinity of IGFBP-5 and importins were determined by surface plasmon resonance (IGFBP-5/importin-β: K D =2.44e-7, IGFBP-5/importin-α5: K D =3.4e-7). Blocking the importin-α5/importin-β nuclear import pathway using SiRNA or dominant negative impotin-β dramatically inhibited IGFBP-5-EGFP nuclear import, though importin-α5 overexpress does not affect IGFBP-5 nuclear import. Furthermore, nuclear IGFBP-5 was quantified using luciferase report assay. When deleted the IGFBP-5 nuclear localization sequence (NLS), IGFBP-5 ΔNLS loss the ability to translocate into the nucleus and accumulation of IGFBP-5 ΔNLS was visualized in the cytosol. Altogether, our findings provide a substantially evidence showed that the IGFBP-5 nuclear import is mediated by importin-α/importin-β complex, and NLS is critical domain in IGFBP-5 nuclear translocation.

  6. Tapping to a slow tempo in the presence of simple and complex meters reveals experience-specific biases for processing music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Ullal-Gupta

    Full Text Available Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians. A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase. When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

  7. Tapping to a slow tempo in the presence of simple and complex meters reveals experience-specific biases for processing music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullal-Gupta, Sangeeta; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians) or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians). A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase). When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after) the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

  8. CRTC1 Nuclear Translocation Following Learning Modulates Memory Strength via Exchange of Chromatin Remodeling Complexes on the Fgf1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shusaku; Teubner, Brett J W; Hevi, Charles; Hara, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Dave, Rutu M; Shintaku, Tatsushi; Jaikhan, Pattaporn; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Zakharenko, Stanislav S; Shumyatsky, Gleb P

    2017-01-10

    Memory is formed by synapse-to-nucleus communication that leads to regulation of gene transcription, but the identity and organizational logic of signaling pathways involved in this communication remain unclear. Here we find that the transcription cofactor CRTC1 is a critical determinant of sustained gene transcription and memory strength in the hippocampus. Following associative learning, synaptically localized CRTC1 is translocated to the nucleus and regulates Fgf1b transcription in an activity-dependent manner. After both weak and strong training, the HDAC3-N-CoR corepressor complex leaves the Fgf1b promoter and a complex involving the translocated CRTC1, phosphorylated CREB, and histone acetyltransferase CBP induces transient transcription. Strong training later substitutes KAT5 for CBP, a process that is dependent on CRTC1, but not on CREB phosphorylation. This in turn leads to long-lasting Fgf1b transcription and memory enhancement. Thus, memory strength relies on activity-dependent changes in chromatin and temporal regulation of gene transcription on specific CREB/CRTC1 gene targets. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tap and trill clusters in typical and protracted phonological development: Challenging segments in complex phonological environments. Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemberger, Joseph Paul; Bernhardt, Barbara May

    2018-01-01

    The papers in this crosslinguistic issue address children's acquisition of word-initial rhotic clusters in languages with taps/trills, that is, the acquisition of challenging segments in complex environments. Several papers also include comparisons with singleton rhotics and/or /l/ as a singleton or in clusters. The studies are part of a larger investigation that uses similar methodologies across languages in order to enhance crosslinguistic comparability (Bernhardt and Stemberger, 2012, 2015). Participants for the current studies were monolingual preschoolers with typical or protracted phonological development who speak one of the following languages: Germanic (Icelandic/Swedish); Romance (Portuguese/Spanish); Slavic (Bulgarian/Slovenian) and Finno-Ugric (Hungarian). This introductory paper describes characteristics of taps/trills and general methodology across the studies, concluding with predicted patterns of acquisition. The seven papers that follow are in a sense the 'results' for this introduction. A concluding paper discusses major findings and their implications for theory, research and clinical practice.

  10. CRTC1 Nuclear Translocation Following Learning Modulates Memory Strength via Exchange of Chromatin Remodeling Complexes on the Fgf1 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusaku Uchida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Memory is formed by synapse-to-nucleus communication that leads to regulation of gene transcription, but the identity and organizational logic of signaling pathways involved in this communication remain unclear. Here we find that the transcription cofactor CRTC1 is a critical determinant of sustained gene transcription and memory strength in the hippocampus. Following associative learning, synaptically localized CRTC1 is translocated to the nucleus and regulates Fgf1b transcription in an activity-dependent manner. After both weak and strong training, the HDAC3-N-CoR corepressor complex leaves the Fgf1b promoter and a complex involving the translocated CRTC1, phosphorylated CREB, and histone acetyltransferase CBP induces transient transcription. Strong training later substitutes KAT5 for CBP, a process that is dependent on CRTC1, but not on CREB phosphorylation. This in turn leads to long-lasting Fgf1b transcription and memory enhancement. Thus, memory strength relies on activity-dependent changes in chromatin and temporal regulation of gene transcription on specific CREB/CRTC1 gene targets. : Uchida et al. link CRTC1 synapse-to-nucleus shuttling in memory. Weak and strong training induce CRTC1 nuclear transport and transient Fgf1b transcription by a complex including CRTC1, CREB, and histone acetyltransferase CBP, whereas strong training alone maintains Fgf1b transcription through CRTC1-dependent substitution of KAT5 for CBP, leading to memory enhancement. Keywords: memory enhancement, long-term potentiation, hippocampus, nuclear transport, epigenetics, FGF1, CRTC1, KAT5/Tip60, HDAC3, CREB

  11. XY pair associates with the synaptonemal complex of autosomal male-sterile translocations in pachytene spermatocytes of the mouse (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejt, J; Gregorová, S; Goetz, P

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the chromosome behaviour at pachytene has been performed by means of the silver staining technique visualizing the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in male mice heterozygous for the male-sterile translocations T(5;12)31Hm T(16;17)43H and T(7;19)145H, respectively. the T(9;17)138Ca male heterozygotes and T43H/T43H homozygous males were used as fertile controls. The sterile mice displayed a high frequency (about 60%) of pachytene spermatocytes with autosomal translocation configuration located in close vicinity of the XY pair. The dense round body (XAB), normally located near the X-chromosome axis in fertile males, exhibited abnormal affinity to translocation configuration in the sterile translocation heterozygotes. The incomplete synapsis of autosomes involved in translocation configuration was observed in more than 70% of the pachytene spermatocytes with the male-sterile translocations but less than 20% of the cells from T138Ca fertile male.s. A hypothesis relating the spermatogenic arrest of carriers of male-sterile rearrangements to the presumed interference with X chromosome inactivation in male meiosis is discussed.

  12. 10 years with TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehneer, H.

    1997-01-01

    During the IV TAPS (two arm photon spectrometer) workshop held at Mont Saint Odile near Strasbourg the third of September, the TAPS collaboration celebrated its 10. anniversary. At this occasion a compilation entitled 'The first 10 years with TAPS' was issued. The foreword of the spokesperson of the TAPS collaboration is presented. (K.A.)

  13. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  14. High-Risk Microgranular Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with a Five-Way Complex Translocation Involving PML-RARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Powers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is classically characterized by chromosomal translocation (15;17, resulting in the PML-RARA fusion protein leading to disease. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with signs and symptoms of acute leukemia with concern for APL. Therapy was immediately initiated with all-trans retinoic acid. The morphology of his leukemic blasts was consistent with the hypogranular variant of APL. Subsequent FISH and cytogenetic analysis revealed a unique translocation involving five chromosomal regions: 9q34, 17q21, 15q24, 12q13, and 15q26.1. Molecular testing demonstrated PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Treatment with conventional chemotherapy was added and he went into a complete remission. Given his elevated white blood cell count at presentation, intrathecal chemotherapy for central nervous system prophylaxis was also given. The patient remains on maintenance therapy and remains in remission. This is the first such report of a 5-way chromosomal translocation leading to APL. Similar to APL with chromosomal translocations other than classical t(15;17 which result in the typical PML-RARA fusion, our patient responded promptly to an ATRA-containing regimen and remains in complete remission.

  15. Ribosomal proteins S12 and S13 function as control elements for translocation of the mRNA:tRNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Anthony R; Southworth, Daniel R; Brunelle, Julie L; Culver, Gloria M; Green, Rachel

    2003-08-01

    Translocation of the mRNA:tRNA complex through the ribosome is promoted by elongation factor G (EF-G) during the translation cycle. Previous studies established that modification of ribosomal proteins with thiol-specific reagents promotes this event in the absence of EF-G. Here we identify two small subunit interface proteins S12 and S13 that are essential for maintenance of a pretranslocation state. Omission of these proteins using in vitro reconstitution procedures yields ribosomal particles that translate in the absence of enzymatic factors. Conversely, replacement of cysteine residues in these two proteins yields ribosomal particles that are refractive to stimulation with thiol-modifying reagents. These data support a model where S12 and S13 function as control elements for the more ancient rRNA- and tRNA-driven movements of translocation.

  16. Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Inhibits Nuclear Translocation of Apoptosis Inducing Factor and Cell Death Caused by Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haining Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to explore the mechanism of rotenone-induced cell damage and to examine the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 on the toxic effects of rotenone. Murine hippocampal HT22 cells were cultured with mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Water-soluble CoQ10 was added to the culture media 3 h prior to the rotenone incubation. Cell viability was determined by alamar blue, reactive oxygen species (ROS production by dihydroethidine (DHE and mitochondrial membrane potential by tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM. Cytochrome c, caspase-9 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF were measured using Western blotting after 24 h rotenone incubation. Rotenone caused more than 50% of cell death, increased ROS production, AIF nuclear translocation and reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, but failed to cause mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Pretreatment with water-soluble CoQ10 enhanced cell viability, decreased ROS production, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented AIF nuclear translocation. The results suggest that rotenone activates a mitochondria-initiated, caspase-independent cell death pathway. Water-soluble CoQ10 reduces ROS accumulation, prevents the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibits AIF translocation and subsequent cell death.

  17. The basic route of the nuclear translocation porcine growth hormone (GH)-growth hormone receptor (GHR) complex (pGH/GHR) in porcine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainan, Lan; Huilin, Liu; Khan, Mahamad; Xin, Zheng; YuJiang, Yang; Hui, Zhang; Naiquan, Yao

    2018-06-08

    Traditional views suggest that growth hormone and the growth hormone receptor (GH/GHR complex) exert their functions only on the plasma membrane. This paradigm, however, has been challenged by recent new findings that the GH/GHR complex could translocate into cell nuclei where they could still exhibit important physiological functions. We also reported the nuclear localization of porcine GH/GHR and their potential functions in porcine hepatocytes. However, the basic path of pGH/GHR's nuclear translocation remains unclear. Combining previous research results and our current findings, we proposed two basic routes of pGH/GHR's nuclear transportation as follows: 1) after pGH binding to GHR, pGH/GHR enters into the cytoplasm though clathrin- or caveolin-mediated endocytosis, then the pGH/GHR complex enters into early endosomes (Rab5-positive), and the endosome carries the GH/GHR complex to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). After endosome docking on the ER, the endosome starts fission, and the pGH/GHR complex enters into the ER lumen. Then the pGH/GHR complex transports into the cytoplasm, possibly by the ERAD pathway. Subsequently, the pGH/GHR complex interacts with IMPα/β, which, in turn, mediates GH/GHR nuclear localization; 2) pGH binds with the GHR on the cell membrane and, subsequently, pGH/GHR internalizes into the cell and enters into the endosome (this endosome may belong to a class of endosomes called envelope-associated endosomes (NAE)). Then, the endosome carries the pGH/GHR to the nuclear membrane. After docking on the nuclear membrane, the pGH/GHR complex fuses with the nuclear membrane and then enters into the cell nucleus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reversible blockade of complex I or inhibition of PKCβ reduces activation and mitochondria translocation of p66Shc to preserve cardiac function after ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Yang

    Full Text Available Excess mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS play a vital role in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR injury. P66Shc, a splice variant of the ShcA adaptor protein family, enhances mROS production by oxidizing reduced cytochrome c to yield H2O2. Ablation of p66Shc protects against IR injury, but it is unknown if and when p66Shc is activated during cardiac ischemia and/or reperfusion and if attenuating complex I electron transfer or deactivating PKCβ alters p66Shc activation during IR is associated with cardioprotection.Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused and subjected to increasing periods of ischemia and reperfusion with or without amobarbital, a complex I blocker, or hispidin, a PKCβ inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p66Shc at serine 36 and levels of p66Shc in mitochondria and cytosol were measured. Cardiac functional variables and redox states were monitored online before, during and after ischemia. Infarct size was assessed in some hearts after 120 min reperfusion.Phosphorylation of p66Shc and its translocation into mitochondria increased during reperfusion after 20 and 30 min ischemia, but not during ischemia only, or during 5 or 10 min ischemia followed by 20 min reperfusion. Correspondingly, cytosolic p66Shc levels decreased during these ischemia and reperfusion periods. Amobarbital or hispidin reduced phosphorylation of p66Shc and its mitochondrial translocation induced by 30 min ischemia and 20 min reperfusion. Decreased phosphorylation of p66Shc by amobarbital or hispidin led to better functional recovery and less infarction during reperfusion.Our results show that IR activates p66Shc and that reversible blockade of electron transfer from complex I, or inhibition of PKCβ activation, decreases p66Shc activation and translocation and reduces IR damage. These observations support a novel potential therapeutic intervention against cardiac IR injury.

  19. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  20. The complex translocation (9;14;14) involving IGH and CEBPE genes suggests a new subgroup in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrouki, Rachid; Benhassine, Traki; Bensaada, Mustapha; Lauzon, Patricia; Trabzi, Anissa

    2016-03-01

    Many subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with specific chromosomal rearrangements. The complex translocation t(9;14;14), a variant of the translocation (14;14)(q11;q32), is a rare but recurrent chromosomal abnormality involving the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (CEBPE) genes in B-lineage ALL (B-ALL) and may represent a new B-ALL subgroup. We report here the case of a 5-year-old girl with B-ALL, positive for CD19, CD38 and HLA-DR. A direct technique and G-banding were used for chromosomal analysis and fluorescentin situ hybridization (FISH) with BAC probes was used to investigate a possible rearrangement of the IGH andCEBPE genes. The karyotype exhibit the chromosomal aberration 46,XX,del(9)(p21),t(14;14)(q11;q32). FISH with dual-color break-apartIGH-specific and CEPBE-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes showed a complex t(9;14;14) associated with a deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and paired box gene 5 (PAX5) at 9p21-13 and duplication of the fusion gene IGH-CEBPE.

  1. The complex translocation (9;14;14 involving IGH and CEBPE genes suggests a new subgroup in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Zerrouki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL are associated with specific chromosomal rearrangements. The complex translocation t(9;14;14, a variant of the translocation (14;14(q11;q32, is a rare but recurrent chromosomal abnormality involving the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (CEBPE genes in B-lineage ALL (B-ALL and may represent a new B-ALL subgroup. We report here the case of a 5-year-old girl with B-ALL, positive for CD19, CD38 and HLA-DR. A direct technique and G-banding were used for chromosomal analysis and fluorescentin situ hybridization (FISH with BAC probes was used to investigate a possible rearrangement of the IGH andCEBPE genes. The karyotype exhibit the chromosomal aberration 46,XX,del(9(p21,t(14;14(q11;q32. FISH with dual-color break-apartIGH-specific and CEPBE-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC probes showed a complex t(9;14;14 associated with a deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A and paired box gene 5 (PAX5 at 9p21-13 and duplication of the fusion gene IGH-CEBPE.

  2. Tapping with intentional drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, A.N.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    When tapping a desired frequency, subjects tend to drift away from this target frequency. This compromises the estimate of the correlation between inter-tap intervals (ITIs) as predicted by the two-level model of Wing and Kristofferson which consists of an internal timer ('clock') and motor delays.

  3. TAPS for Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    By placing the Focused Assessment approach within the TAPS pyramid framework, schools are beginning to find a number of ways in which learning in science can be enhanced for pupils. The quotations in this article provide examples of the ways in which science subject leaders (SSL) describe the impact of TAPS on their pupils.

  4. Heteroplasmy and ancient translocation of mitochondrial DNA to the nucleus in the Chinese Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus sinicus complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuguang Mao

    Full Text Available The utility and reliability of mitochondrial DNA sequences in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies may be compromised by widespread and undetected nuclear mitochondrial copies (numts as well as heteroplasmy within individuals. Both numts and heteroplasmy are likely to be common across diverse taxa yet few studies have characterised their frequencies and variation at the intra-specific level. Here we report the presence of both numts and heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial control region of the Chinese horseshoe bat Rhinolophus sinicus. In total we generated 123 sequences from 18 bats, which contained two different numt clades (i.e. Numt-1 and Numt-2 and one mtDNA clade. The sequence divergence between Numt-1 and Numt-2 was 16.8% and each numt type was found in all four R. sinicus taxa, suggesting either two ancient translocations of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus from the same source taxon, or a single translocation from different source taxa that occurred before the split of R. sinicus into different lineages. Within the mtDNA clade, phylogenetic relationships among the four taxa of R. sinicus were similar to those seen in previous results. Based on PCR comparisons, heteroplasmy was inferred between almost all individuals of R. sinicus with respect to sequence variation. Consistent with introgression of mtDNA between Central sinicus and septentrionalis, individuals from these two taxa exhibited similar signatures of repeated sequences in the control region. Our study highlights the importance of testing for the presence of numts and heteroplasmy when applying mtDNA markers to phylogenetic studies.

  5. Inhibitory function of adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit in the process of nuclear translocation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yukiko; Kameoka, Masanori; Shoji-Kawata, Sanae; Iwabu, Yukie; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Fujino, Masato; Natori, Yukikazu; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The transfection of human cells with siRNA against adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit (AP2α) was revealed to significantly up-regulate the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This effect was confirmed by cell infection with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1 as well as CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Viral adsorption, viral entry and reverse transcription processes were not affected by cell transfection with siRNA against AP2α. In contrast, viral nuclear translocation as well as the integration process was significantly up-regulated in cells transfected with siRNA against AP2α. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that a subpopulation of AP2α was not only localized in the cytoplasm but was also partly co-localized with lamin B, importin β and Nup153, implying that AP2α negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in the process of nuclear translocation of viral DNA in the cytoplasm or the perinuclear region. We propose that AP2α may be a novel target for disrupting HIV-1 replication in the early stage of the viral life cycle

  6. Lower extremity kinetics in tap dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Lester; Bronner, Shaw; Agraharasamakulam, Sujani; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2010-01-01

    Tap dance is a unique performing art utilizing the lower extremities as percussion instruments. In a previous study these authors reported decreased injury prevalence among tap dancers compared to other dance and sports participants. No biomechanical analyses of tap dance exist to explain this finding. The purpose of the current pilot study was to provide a preliminary overview of normative peak kinetic and kinematic data, based on the hypothesis that tap dance generates relatively low ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments. Six professional tap dancers performed four common tap dance sequences that produced data captured by the use of a force platform and a five-camera motion analysis system. The mean vertical ground reaction force for all sequences was found to be 2.06+/-0.55 BW. Mean peak sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane joint moments (hip, knee, and ankle) ranged from 0.07 to 2.62 N.m/kg. These small ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments support our hypothesis, and may explain the relatively low injury incidence in tap dancers. Nevertheless, the analysis is highly complex, and other factors remain to be studied and clarified.

  7. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  8. A paternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18 includes eight breakpoints and five insertional translocations (ITs) through three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Kessler, Ketty; Gourdier, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are uncommon and mainly occur de novo. We report here on a familial CCR involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18. The propositus is a boy first referred because of growth delays, hypotonia, and facial anomalies, suggestive of deletion 18q syndrome. However, a cytogenetic family study disclosed a balanced CCR in three generations, which was detailed by FISH using BAC clones, and consisted of eight breakpoints with five insertional translocations (ITs). The propositus had a cryptic 18q deletion and a 6p duplication. Paternal transmission of this CCR was observed through three generations without meiotic recombination. Our investigation allowed us to provide porosities counseling and management of prenatal diagnosis for propositus cousin who carries this particular CCR.

  9. The TIC complex uncovered: The alternative view on the molecular mechanism of protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Masato

    2015-09-01

    Chloroplasts must import thousands of nuclear-encoded preproteins synthesized in the cytosol through two successive protein translocons at the outer and inner envelope membranes, termed TOC and TIC, respectively, to fulfill their complex physiological roles. The molecular identity of the TIC translocon had long remained controversial; two proteins, namely Tic20 and Tic110, had been proposed to be central to protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane. Tic40 also had long been considered to be another central player in this process. However, recently, a novel 1-megadalton complex consisting of Tic20, Tic56, Tic100, and Tic214 was identified at the chloroplast inner membrane of Arabidopsis and was demonstrated to constitute a general TIC translocon which functions in concert with the well-characterized TOC translocon. On the other hand, direct interaction between this novel TIC transport system and Tic110 or Tic40 was hardly observed. Consequently, the molecular model for protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts might need to be extensively revised. In this review article, I intend to propose such alternative view regarding the TIC transport system in contradistinction to the classical view. I also would emphasize importance of reevaluation of previous works in terms of with what methods these classical Tic proteins such as Tic110 or Tic40 were picked up as TIC constituents at the very beginning as well as what actual evidence there were to support their direct and specific involvement in chloroplast protein import. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, C.; Parcej, D.; Ejsing, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    and structural analysis of this ATP-binding cassette complex, we established the overexpression of TAP in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Screening of optimal solubilization and purification conditions allowed the isolation of the heterodimeric transport complex, yielding 30 mg of TAP/liter of culture....... Detailed analysis of TAP function in the membrane, solubilized, purified, and reconstituted states revealed a direct influence of the native lipid environment on activity. TAP-associated phospholipids, essential for function, were profiled by liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry...

  11. Advanced analysis of finger-tapping performance: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-06-01

    The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Cross sectional study. Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the equation reflects both the variations in and the general

  12. Systematic re-examination of carriers of balanced reciprocal translocations: a strategy to search for candidate regions for common and complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Iben; Hjorth, Mads; Bugge, Merete

    2006-01-01

    linkage data and/or the translocation co-segregated with the reported phenotype, for example, we found a significant linkage (lod score=2.1) of dyslexia and a co-segregating translocation with a breakpoint in a previously confirmed locus for dyslexia. Furthermore, we identified 441 instances of at least...

  13. Interaction of Tim23 with Tim50 Is essential for protein translocation by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan-Airapetov, Lada; Zohary, Keren; Popov-Celeketic, Dusan; Mapa, Koyeli; Hell, Kai; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2009-02-20

    The TIM23 complex is the major translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane responsible for the import of essentially all matrix proteins and a number of inner membrane proteins. Tim23 and Tim50, two essential proteins of the complex, expose conserved domains into the intermembrane space that interact with each other. Here, we describe in vitro reconstitution of this interaction using recombinantly expressed and purified intermembrane space domains of Tim50 and Tim23. We established two independent methods, chemical cross-linking and surface plasmon resonance, to track their interaction. In addition, we identified mutations in Tim23 that abolish its interaction with Tim50 in vitro. These mutations also destabilized the interaction between the two proteins in vivo, leading to defective import of preproteins via the TIM23 complex and to cell death at higher temperatures. This is the first study to describe the reconstitution of the Tim50-Tim23 interaction in vitro and to identify specific residues of Tim23 that are vital for the interaction with Tim50.

  14. Propeller TAP flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  15. The first record of translocated white-clawed crayfish from the Austropotamobius pallipes complex in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Amouret

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex is native to Europe, being present in 18 European countries, Italy included. However, the number and abundance of its populations are today restricted and it has been recently classified as “endangered” by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we report the first record of this freshwater crayfish in Sardinia Island (Italy. Using a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene, we identified three haplotypes that correspond to the A. italicus meridionalis subclade. We provide information about the sampling area, population density and finally discuss hypotheses about the occurrence of this population in Sardinia, comparing it with other Mediterranean populations. Our results improve the existing knowledge about the phylogeography of the taxon across Italy, confirming its complex pattern of distribution. In addition to the non-native status of the Sardinian A. i. meridionalis crayfish, we showed that the most proximal Mediterranean population of white-clawed crayfish existing in Corsica belongs to A. pallipes from Southern France.

  16. Defective pairing and synaptonemal complex formation in a Sordaria mutant (spo44) with a translocated segment of the nucleolar organizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, D; de Lares, L; Moreau, P J; Leblon, G

    1985-01-01

    The recessive meiotic mutant spo44 of Sordaria macrospora, with 90% ascospore abortion, exhibits striking effects on recombination (67% decrease), irregular segregation of the almost unpaired homologues, and a decrease in chiasma frequency in the few cases where bivalents are formed. Three-dimensional reconstructions of ten prophase nuclei indicate that pairing, as judged by the absence of fully formed synaptonemal complexes (SC), is not achieved although lateral elements (LE) assemble. The pairing failure is attributable to defects in the alignment of homologous chromosomes. The leptotene alignment seen in the wild type before SC formation was not observed in the spo44 nuclei. Dense material, considered to be precursor of SC central elements, was found scattered among the LE in two nuclei. The behaviour of spo44 substantiates the hypothesis that chromosome matching and SC formation are separable events. - The total length of the LE in the mutant is the same as in the wild type, but due to variable numbers and length of the individual LE, homologues cannot be lined up. Light microscopic observations indicate that the irregular length and number of LE is due to extensive chromosome breakage. The wild-type function corresponding to spo44 is required for both LE integrity and chromosome matching. Reconstructions of heterozygous nuclei reveal the presence of a supernumerary nucleolar organizer in one arm of chromosome 7. It is suggested that rDNA has been inserted into a gene whose function is involved in pairing or into a controlling sequence that interacts with the pairing process.

  17. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DiegovonBM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  18. Real time kernel performance monitoring with SystemTap

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    SystemTap is a dynamic method of monitoring and tracing the operation of a running Linux kernel. In this talk I will present a few practical use cases where SystemTap allowed me to turn otherwise complex userland monitoring tasks in simple kernel probes.

  19. Physics of Beer Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez , Javier; Casado-Chacón , Almudena; Fuster , Daniel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liq...

  20. Finger-tapping motion analysis in cervical myelopathy by magnetic-sensor tapping device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Toshitada; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Makino, Takahiro; Kandori, Akihiko; Fuji, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Case-control study. The purpose of this study is to determine finger motion of patients with cervical myelopathy during finger-tapping cycles. A major symptom of patients with compressive cervical myelopathy is finger clumsiness. Therefore, understanding finger motion is prerequisite in assessing the severity of myelopathy. The popular grip-and-release test evaluates only the number of motion cycles, which is insufficient to fully describe complex finger motion. Forty-three patients with cervical myelopathy and 41 healthy controls tapped their index fingers against their thumbs as rapidly as possible for 30 seconds and the motion was recorded by a magnetic-sensor coil attached to the nail surface. Output signals were stored in a computer, which automatically calculated tapping frequency, distance moved, ratio of opening/closing velocity and the SD of the tapping interval. The SD of the tapping interval was significantly greater and all other measures were significantly smaller in patients with cervical myelopathy, than in healthy controls. All indices significantly improved after surgical decompression of the cervical spine. Distance moved (Pearson correlation coefficient: r=0.590, Ptapping interval (r=-0.451; P=0.002) were significantly correlated with the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (neurological scale). The quantitative evaluation of finger paralysis was performed by this tapping device. Speed and regularity in repetitive motion of fingers were correlated with the severity of cervical myelopathy.

  1. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.L. Anawe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas. Keywords: Zn-SnO2-SiO2, Nanocomposite, Electrodeposition, Coatings and corrosion resistance

  2. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Ayoola, A. A.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas.

  3. Translocation heterozygosity in southern African species of Viscum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wiens

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated and floating translocation complexes are characteristic of dioecious species of  Viscum,  but are virtually absent in monoecious species. The majority of dioecious species has fixed sex-associated translocation complexes with the male being the heterozygous sex. The sex-associated multivalent is usually O4 (ring-of-four or O6 , rarely O8 . Dioecious species without sex-associated translocations are much less common. Most of the dioecious species are also polymorphic for floating translocations, producing one or more additional multivalents ranging from O4 to O12. Floating translocations may be more frequent in species that do not have sex-associated translocations. Supernumerary chromosomes are also present in several species. Sex ratios are at unity in most dioecious species, but female-biased ratios may occur in some species. The high correlation between dioecy and translocation heterozygosity suggests that translocations are primarily associated with the origin and establishment of dioecy. Any róle in the maintenance of biased sex ratios through meiotic drive is probably secondary. Sex-associated translocations may serve to stabilize dioecy by bringing the sex factors into close linkage. Subsequent structural rearrangements within a sex-associated translocation complex may bring the sex factors together in one chromosome pair, releasing floating translocations. The high frequencies of floating translocation heterozygosity in some species indicate that such heterozygosity also has adaptive value.

  4. Organic complexation and translocation of ferric iron in podzols of the Negro River watershed. Separation of secondary Fe species from Al species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, E.; Allard, Th.; Benedetti, M. F.; Bardy, M.; do Nascimento, N. R.; Li, Y.; Calas, G.

    2009-04-01

    The development of podzols in lateritic landscapes of the upper Amazon basin contributes to the exportation of organic carbon and associated metals in the black waters of the Negro River watershed. We have investigated the distribution of Fe III in the clay-size fraction of eight organic-rich horizons of waterlogged plateau podzols, to unravel the weathering conditions and mechanisms that control its transfer to the rivers. The speciation and amount of Fe III stored in residual mineral phases of laterites, or bound to organic compounds of weakly and well-expressed podzols, were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with chemical analyses. Reducing conditions restrict the production of organo-Fe complexes in the subsoil B-horizons of waterlogged podzols and most of the Fe 2+ released from the dissolution of Fe-oxides is exported to the rivers via the perched groundwater. However, significant amounts of diluted Fe III bound to organic ligands (Fe IIIOM) and nano Fe-oxides are produced at the margin of the depression in the topsoil A horizons of weakly expressed podzols due to shorter periods of anoxia. The downward translocation of organically bound metals from topsoil A to subsoil B-horizons of podzols occurs in shorter distances for Fe than it does for Al. This separation of secondary Fe species from Al species is attributed to the physical fractionation of their organic carriers in texture contrasted B-horizons of podzols, as well as to the effect of pH on metal speciation in soil solutions and metal binding onto soil organic ligands (mostly for Al). This leads us to consider the topsoil A horizons of weakly expressed podzols, as well as the subsoil Bh horizon of better-expressed ones, as the main sources for the transfer of Fe IIIOM to the rivers. The concentration of Fe IIIOM rises from soil sources to river colloids, suggesting drastic biogeochemical changes in more oxygenated black waters of the Negro River watershed. The

  5. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  6. The bio-complex "reaction pattern in vertebrate cells" reduces cytokine-induced cellular adhesion molecule mRNA expression in human endothelial cells by attenuation of NF-kappaB translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnau, Cindy; Liebermann, Herbert E H; Helbig, Franz; Staudt, Alexander; Felix, Stephan B; Ewert, Ralf; Landsberger, Martin

    2009-02-28

    The bio-complex "reaction pattern in vertebrate cells" (RiV) is mainly represented by characteristic exosome-like particles--probably as reaction products of cells to specific stress. The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a central role in inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that RiV particle preparations (RiV-PP) reduce cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) expression (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) by the attenuation of NF-kappaB translocation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). After 4 hours, pre-incubation of HUVEC with RiV-PP before stimulation with TNF-alpha significantly reduced ICAM-1 (65.5+/-10.3%) and VCAM-1 (71.1+/-12.3%) mRNA expression compared to TNF-alpha-treated cells (100%, n=7). ICAM-1 surface expression was significantly albeit marginally reduced in RiV/TNF-alpha- treated cells (92.0+/-5.6%, n=4). No significant effect was observed on VCAM-1 surface expression. In RiV/TNF-alpha-treated cells (n=4), NF-kappaB subunits p50 (85.7+/-4.1%) and p65 (85.0+/-1.8%) nuclear translocation was significantly reduced. RiV-PP may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in HUVEC by reducing CAM mRNA expression via attenuation of p50 and p65 translocation.

  7. A leukemic double-hit follicular lymphoma associated with a complex variant translocation, t(8;14;18)(q24;q32;q21), involving BCL2, MYC, and IGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Sato, Kazuya; Ikeda, Takashi; Toda, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Umino, Kento; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Morita, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Oh, Iekuni; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ohmine, Ken; Kawata, Hirotoshi; Muroi, Kazuo; Miura, Ikuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-01-01

    Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is defined as lymphoma with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations. While the most common histological subtype of DHL is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the present patient had leukemic follicular lymphoma (FL). A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to general fatigue and cervical and inguinal lymph node swelling. The patient was leukemic and the pathological diagnosis of the inguinal lymph node was FL grade 1. Chromosomal analysis revealed a complex karyotype including a rare three-way translocation t(8;14;18)(q24;q32;q21) involving the BCL2, MYC, and IGH genes. Based on a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using BCL2, MYC and IGH, and spectral karyotyping (SKY), the karyotype was interpreted as being the result of a multistep mechanism in which the precursor B-cell gained t(14;18) in the bone marrow and acquired a translocation between der(14)t(14;18) and chromosome 8 in the germinal center, resulting in t(8;14;18). The pathological diagnosis was consistently FL, not only at presentation but even after a second relapse. The patient responded well to standard chemotherapies but relapsed after a short remission. This patient is a unique case of leukemic DH-FL with t(8;14;18) that remained in FL even at a second relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physics of Beer Tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  9. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Peng, H.; Cui, Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Shen, Z. X.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately

  10. Anticancer ruthenium(III) complex KP1019 interferes with ATP-dependent Ca2+ translocation by sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadafi, Fabrizio-Zagros; Massai, Lara; Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Messori, Luigi; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), a P-type ATPase that sustains Ca2+ transport and plays a major role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, represents a therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Here, we investigated whether ruthenium-based anticancer drugs, namely KP1019 (indazolium [trans-tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)]), NAMI-A (imidazolium [trans-tetrachloro(1H-imidazole)(S-dimethylsulfoxide)ruthenate(III)]) and RAPTA-C ([Ru(η6-p-cymene)dichloro(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane)]), and cisplatin (cis-diammineplatinum(II) dichloride) might act as inhibitors of SERCA. Charge displacement by SERCA adsorbed on a solid-supported membrane was measured after ATP or Ca2+ concentration jumps. Our results show that KP1019, in contrast to the other metal compounds, is able to interfere with ATP-dependent translocation of Ca2+ ions. An IC50 value of 1 μM was determined for inhibition of calcium translocation by KP1019. Conversely, it appears that KP1019 does not significantly affect Ca2+ binding to the ATPase from the cytoplasmic side. Inhibition of SERCA at pharmacologically relevant concentrations may represent a crucial aspect in the overall pharmacological and toxicological profile of KP1019. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  13. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  14. Simulations of polymer translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocks, H.

    2008-01-01

    Transport of molecules across membranes is an essential mechanism for life processes. These molecules are often long, and the pores in the membranes are too narrow for the molecules to pass through as a single unit. In such circumstances, the molecules have to squeeze --- i.e., translocate ---

  15. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  16. Tapping into Industry and Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, Arjan; Rosenkopf, Lori

    This paper studies how different boundary-spanning mechanisms concurrently impact firm innovation. We specifically examine how inbound mobility and R&D collaboration interact when firms use these mechanisms to tap into two distinct knowledge domains: industry and academia. To examine the impacts...

  17. Introducing the TAPS Pyramid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) project is a three-year project based at Bath Spa University and funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT). It aims to develop support for a valid, reliable and manageable system of science assessment that will have a positive impact on children's learning. In this article, the author…

  18. Association of TAP Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Natter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP is responsible for peptide loading onto class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I molecules. TAP seems to facilitate the detection of HPV by MHC-I molecules and contributes to successful eradication of HPV. TAP polymorphisms could have an important impact on the course of HPV infection. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between five TAP gene polymorphisms and the risk of CIN. Methods. This case-control study investigated five common TAP polymorphisms in TAP1 (1341 and 2254 and TAP2 (1135, 1693, and 1993 in 616 women with CIN and 206 controls. Associations between gene polymorphisms and risk of CIN were analysed by univariate and multivariable models. The combined effect of the five TAP gene polymorphisms on the risk for CIN was investigated by haplotype analysis. Results. No significant difference in genotype distribution of the five TAP polymorphisms was observed in women with CIN and controls. Haplotype analysis revealed that women with haplotype mut-wt-wt-wt-wt (TAP polymorphisms t1135-t1341-t1693-t1993-t2254 had a significantly lower risk for CIN, compared to women with the haplotype wt-wt-wt-wt-wt (; OR 0.5 []. Conclusion. Identification of this haplotype combination could be used to identify women, less susceptible for development of CIN following HPV infection.

  19. Tap-length optimization of adaptive filters used in stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kar, Asutosh; Swamy, M.N.S.

    2017-01-01

    An adaptive filter with a large number of weights or taps is necessary for stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation (SAEC), depending on the room impulse response and acoustic path where the cancellation is performed. However, a large tap-length results in slow convergence and increases...... the complexity of the tapped delay line structure for FIR adaptive filters. To overcome this problem, there is a need for an optimum tap-length-estimation algorithm that provides better convergence for the adaptive filters used in SAEC. This paper presents a solution to the problem of balancing convergence...... and steady-state performance of long length adaptive filters used for SAEC by proposing a new tap-length-optimization algorithm. The optimum tap length and step size of the adaptive filter are derived considering an impulse response with an exponentially-decaying envelope, which models a wide range...

  20. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping. 192.151 Section 192.151 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.151 Tapping. (a) Each mechanical fitting used to make a hot tap must be designed for at least the operating pressure of...

  1. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  2. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2013-01-01

    The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks.The aim of this d...... of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter....

  3. Minimizing the cost of translocation failure with decision-tree models that predict species' behavioral response in translocation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Bull, C Michael

    2015-08-01

    The high number of failures is one reason why translocation is often not recommended. Considering how behavior changes during translocations may improve translocation success. To derive decision-tree models for species' translocation, we used data on the short-term responses of an endangered Australian skink in 5 simulated translocations with different release conditions. We used 4 different decision-tree algorithms (decision tree, decision-tree parallel, decision stump, and random forest) with 4 different criteria (gain ratio, information gain, gini index, and accuracy) to investigate how environmental and behavioral parameters may affect the success of a translocation. We assumed behavioral changes that increased dispersal away from a release site would reduce translocation success. The trees became more complex when we included all behavioral parameters as attributes, but these trees yielded more detailed information about why and how dispersal occurred. According to these complex trees, there were positive associations between some behavioral parameters, such as fight and dispersal, that showed there was a higher chance, for example, of dispersal among lizards that fought than among those that did not fight. Decision trees based on parameters related to release conditions were easier to understand and could be used by managers to make translocation decisions under different circumstances. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. The physics of Beer Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being nown for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacked scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bub...

  5. Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Ferreira Cerdán, Antonio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor κB in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of each of the components of the CBM complex to human immunity. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. INDUSTRIAL APPROBATION OF COMBINED COUNTERSINK-TAP TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulla M. Vagabov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Based on a critical analysis of the results of complex studies, we set out to demonstrate the advantages, as compared with existing technologies, of a developed technology that uses a new cutting scheme with a combined countersink-tap tool. Methods One way to improve the processing capacity, tool life and quality of a cut thread is to reduce the torque and strain hardening of the processed material by employing a new cutting approach to completely eliminate the friction of the lateral sides of the tooth on the surface of the cut thread. It was necessary for this technology to be checked in real production conditions. Results The conducted production tests of a combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme developed by the inventors have shown that, as a result of a significant reduction in the torque and a decrease in the strain hardening of the processed material, it is possible to increase the cutting speed and increase labour productivity by more than 2 times as compared with the thread cutting processes using taps with staggered teeth, 1.2 times as compared to taps with a corrected structure, and more than 6 times as compared to standard taps. At the same time, the stability of the tool is increased 3-5 times and the number of breakages is also sharply reduced. Conclusion It has been established that the accuracy of the geometric parameters as well as the strength and quality of the thread surface cut by the combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme in hard-to-work materials is much higher than the same thread parameters obtained by processing with standard and other known taps. The studies also indicated its high reliability, operability and expediency of application for processing the above-mentioned materials. The advantages of the combined tool also include a reduction in thread cutting time as compared to a separate machining of the threaded hole (countersinking with a standard

  7. Electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad

    2011-01-01

    This reference collects all relevant aspects electronic tap-changer and presents them in a comprehensive and orderly manner. It explains logically and systematically the design and optimization of a full electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers. The book provides a fully new insight to all possible structures of power section design and categorizes them comprehensively, including cost factors of the design. In the control section design, the authors review mechanical tap-changer control systems and they present the modeling of a full electronic tap-changer as well as a closed-loop

  8. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We show that standard silicon nitride cantilevers can be used for tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air, provided that the energy of the oscillating cantilever is sufficiently high to overcome the adhesion of the water layer. The same cantilevers are successfully used for tapping mode

  9. Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    in the development, management oversight, and strategic planning of TAP. TAP Counseling Requirements Over time, Congress has increased the...training, and placement services provided under qualified job training programs of the DOL* Veterans small business ownership and entrepreneurship ...Accessing Higher Education (DOD) Career Technical Training (VA) Entrepreneurship (SBA) Capstone Verifies that servicemembers have met Career

  10. Electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, Jawad [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering; Siahkolah, Behzad [Kavandish Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    This reference collects all relevant aspects electronic tap-changer and presents them in a comprehensive and orderly manner. It explains logically and systematically the design and optimization of a full electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers. The book provides a fully new insight to all possible structures of power section design and categorizes them comprehensively, including cost factors of the design. In the control section design, the authors review mechanical tap-changer control systems and they present the modeling of a full electronic tap-changer as well as a closed-loop control of the full-electronic tap-changer. The book is written for electrical engineers in industry and academia but should be useful also to postgraduate students of electrical engineering. (orig.)

  11. Freely Chosen Index Finger Tapping Frequency Is Increased in Repeated Bouts of Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Ebbesen, Brian Duborg; Dalsgaard, Ane; Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Rasmussen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Healthy individuals (n = 40) performed index finger tapping at freely chosen frequency during repeated bouts and before and after near-maximal muscle action consisting of 3 intense flexions of the index finger metacarpal phalangeal joint. One experiment showed, unexpectedly, that a bout of tapping increased the tapping frequency in the subsequent bout. Thus, a cumulating increase of 8.2 ± 5.4% (p tapping frequency was still increased in consecutive bouts when rest periods were extended to 20 min. Besides, near-maximal muscle activation, followed by 5 min rest, did not affect the tapping frequency. In conclusion, freely chosen tapping frequency was increased in repeated bouts of tapping, which were separated by 10-20 min rest periods. The observed phenomenon is suggested to be termed repeated bout rate enhancement.

  12. HIGH PERFORMANCE TAPS FOR CUTTING THREADS IN DIFFICULT TO MACHINE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Akhmedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This article explores in detail questions of instrument operation function of tapping internal threads in hard materials. The existing relationship between vibration system amplitude and tool durability is indicated; on this basis, it is determined that the best course for improving the durability performance is increasing vibratory resistance. Based on a critical analysis of existing designs with consideration of their flaws, the development of new technological designs of taps is tasked with ensuring stable operation when handling hard materials. Methods. It is noteworthy that one of the main vibration resistance improvement methods of the tool is to reduce the contact area of the tool with the work piece in the cutting zone. Methods are proposed for improving the vibration resistance of taps, considering the correlation adjustment of tap teeth in order to completely eliminate friction at the sides of the thread cutting surface and uneven implementation flute cutting steps. Results. The idea of increasing vibration resistance has seen the new development of vibration-proof tap designs, heralded as innovations due to the accuracy of thread cutting and durability achieved by reducing the thread contact area with the work piece in the cutting zone. Increased vibration resistance is achieved in the modified taps through high correction by means of thread side downgrading of the coarse tap cone by an additional angle of 30º. In another design, the stylus provided with uneven angular spacing. Test results of designed taps machined in corrosion-resistant 1Kh18N9T steel. A manifold increase in tool durability was achieved due to its high vibration resistance. Conclusions. The redesigned taps have a number of advantages, characterised by a high resistance when processing difficult materials and an insignificant increase in the complexity of their manufacture compared with standard taps. Therefore they can be recommended for large

  13. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  14. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  15. Tapping a new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sable Offshore Energy Project is one of Canada's largest construction projects which is bringing a new industry to Nova Scotia. A five-party consortium comprised of Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil, Nova Scotia Resources and Mosbacher, has formed an enterprise called Sable Offshore Energy Inc. The consortium plans to bring natural gas to markets in Canada and the United States before the end of 1999. The Santa Fe Galaxy II is one of the world's most modern marine all-weather drilling rigs that will soon begin the drilling of wells. Once in production, the project will produce half a billion cubic feet of natural gas daily from three production platforms that will tap three separate undersea natural gas fields. The gas will then be transported 200 km to shore near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, through an undersea pipeline. There, it will be treated to remove any remaining water and to separate liquid natural gas from the gas proper. The natural gas liquids will then be carried by an onshore pipeline to a new facility at Point Tupper where they will be processed into propane, butane and condensate. There will be enough gas to meet the potential demand in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Large urban centres such as Halifax and Saint John will be served by secondary lines that branch off the main pipeline, but developing smaller markets will take time because the necessary infrastructure does not yet exist. The project has already created thousands of jobs in the province. 5 figs

  16. Complex three-way translocation involving MLL, ELL, RREB1, and CMAHP genes in an infant with acute myeloid leukemia and t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuborgh, A; Meyer, C; Marschalek, R

    2013-01-01

    until progression to acute myeloid leukemia, AML-M5. The leukemic cells harbored a novel apparent 3-way translocation t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3). We utilized advanced molecular cytogenetic methods including 24-color karyotyping, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and DNA...... in the initial stages of disease before clear morphological signs of bone marrow involvement. The patient responded well to therapy and remains in remission>6 years from diagnosis. This apparent 3-way translocation is remarkable because of its rarity and presentation with myeloid sarcoma, and may, as more cases...

  17. The influence of TAP1 and TAP2 gene polymorphisms on TAP function and its inhibition by viral immune evasion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praest, P; Luteijn, R D; Brak-Boer, I G J; Lanfermeijer, J; Hoelen, H; Ijgosse, L; Costa, A I; Gorham, R D; Lebbink, R J; Wiertz, E J H J

    2018-06-04

    Herpesviruses encode numerous immune evasion molecules that interfere with the immune system, particularly with certain stages in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. In this pathway, the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a frequent target of viral immune evasion strategies. This ER-resident transporter is composed of the proteins TAP1 and TAP2, and plays a crucial role in the loading of viral peptides onto MHC class I molecules. Several variants of TAP1 and TAP2 occur in the human population, some of which are linked to autoimmune disorders and susceptibility to infections. Here, we assessed the influence of naturally occurring TAP variants on peptide transport and MHC class I expression. In addition, we tested the inhibitory capacity of three viral immune evasion proteins, the TAP inhibitors US6 from human cytomegalovirus, ICP47 from herpes simplex virus type 1 and BNLF2a from Epstein-Barr virus, for a series of TAP1 and TAP2 variants. Our results suggest that these TAP polymorphisms have no or limited effect on peptide transport or MHC class I expression. Furthermore, our study indicates that the herpesvirus-encoded TAP inhibitors target a broad spectrum of TAP variants; inhibition of TAP is not affected by the naturally occurring polymorphisms of TAP tested in this study. Our findings suggest that the long-term coevolution of herpesviruses and their host did not result in selection of inhibitor-resistant TAP variants in the human population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Energy-Saving RAM-Power Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Alan Roy

    1987-01-01

    Reverse-flow HEXFET(R) minimizes voltage drop and power dissipation. HEXFET(R) scheme reduces voltage drop by approximately 80 percent. Design for power tap for random-access memory (RAM) has potential application in digital systems.

  19. Sinusitis from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Wellington S. Tichenor. Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College and in private practice in Manhattan, New York, discusses his investigation of sinusitis from nontuberculous mycobacteria in tap water.

  20. The Unexplored Mechanisms and Regulatory Functions of Ribosomal Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose Luis

    In every cell, protein synthesis is carried out by the ribosome, a complex macromolecular RNA-protein assembly. Decades of structural and kinetic studies have increased our understanding of ribosome initiation, decoding, translocation and termination. Yet, the underlying mechanism of these fundamental processes has yet to be fully delineated. Hence, the molecular basis of regulation remains obscure. Here, single-molecule fluorescence methods are applied to decipher the mechanism and regulatory roles of the multi-step process of directional substrate translocation on the ribosome that accompanies every round of protein synthesis. In Chapter 1, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is introduced as a tool for studying bacterial ribosome translocation. Chapter 2 details the experimental methods. In Chapter 3, the elongation factor G(EF-G)-catalyzed movement of substrates through the ribosome is examined from several perspectives or signals reporting on various degrees of freedom of ribosome dynamics. Two ribosomal states interconvert in the presence of EF-G(GDP), displaying novel head domain motions, until relocking takes place. In Chapter 4, in order to test if the mentioned fluctuations leading to relocking are correlated to the engagement of the P-site by the peptidyl-tRNA, the translocation of miscoded tRNAs is studied. Severe defects in the relocking stages of translocation reveal the correlation between this new stage of translocation and P-site tRNA engagement.

  1. Ormen Lange hot tap - a world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apeland, Kjell Edvard

    2010-07-01

    For the last 10 years Statoil have been developing a new concept for performing subsea Hot Tap operations remotely controlled. The system was first used offshore in 2008 during a partly diver assisted operation, connecting the Tampen Link pipeline to the Statfjord Intrafield pipeline. In July 2009, the Hot Tap System successfully performed two remotely controlled Hot Taps, on a world record depth of 860 meters on the Ormen Lange field operated by Shell. The Hot Tap technology enables existing pipeline architecture to be modified, without interfering with the current production. Most of the technology is depth independent and the system is currently qualified to 1000 meter depth. Phase II of this project which involves development and construction of a retrofit Tee, thus enabling installation and welding of a Tee on an unprepared pipeline is well underway. This presentation will describe experiences from the development of the Remote Hot Tap system and give an overview of the offshore operations leading to the conclusion of the world's deepest Hot Taps. (Author)

  2. Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Strumillo, Joanna; Zimmer, Jochen

    2013-01-10

    Cellulose, the most abundant biological macromolecule, is an extracellular, linear polymer of glucose molecules. It represents an essential component of plant cell walls but is also found in algae and bacteria. In bacteria, cellulose production frequently correlates with the formation of biofilms, a sessile, multicellular growth form. Cellulose synthesis and transport across the inner bacterial membrane is mediated by a complex of the membrane-integrated catalytic BcsA subunit and the membrane-anchored, periplasmic BcsB protein. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of BcsA and BcsB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing a translocating polysaccharide. The structure of the BcsA-BcsB translocation intermediate reveals the architecture of the cellulose synthase, demonstrates how BcsA forms a cellulose-conducting channel, and suggests a model for the coupling of cellulose synthesis and translocation in which the nascent polysaccharide is extended by one glucose molecule at a time.

  3. Efficient multichannel acoustic echo cancellation using constrained tap selection schemes in the subband domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiraju, Naveen Kumar; Doclo, Simon; Wolff, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) is a key speech enhancement technology in speech communication and voice-enabled devices. AEC systems employ adaptive filters to estimate the acoustic echo paths between the loudspeakers and the microphone(s). In applications involving surround sound, the computational complexity of an AEC system may become demanding due to the multiple loudspeaker channels and the necessity of using long filters in reverberant environments. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the approach of partially updating the AEC filters is considered in this paper. In particular, we investigate tap selection schemes which exploit the sparsity present in the loudspeaker channels for partially updating subband AEC filters. The potential for exploiting signal sparsity across three dimensions, namely time, frequency, and channels, is analyzed. A thorough analysis of different state-of-the-art tap selection schemes is performed and insights about their limitations are gained. A novel tap selection scheme is proposed which overcomes these limitations by exploiting signal sparsity while not ignoring any filters for update in the different subbands and channels. Extensive simulation results using both artificial as well as real-world multichannel signals show that the proposed tap selection scheme outperforms state-of-the-art tap selection schemes in terms of echo cancellation performance. In addition, it yields almost identical echo cancellation performance as compared to updating all filter taps at a significantly reduced computational cost.

  4. Translocation of {sup 3}H-DNA, {sup 131}I-ribonuclease and {sup 3}H-DNA {sup 131}I-ribonuclease complexes in germinated barley grains; Translocation des ADN{sup 3}H, RNase{sup 131}I et complexes ADN{sup 3}H - RNase {sup 131}I dans les orges en germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshitenge, G. [Centre nucléaire TRICO, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Ledoux, L. [Centre d’étude de l' énergie nucléaire Mol (Belgium)

    1970-01-15

    Barley grains, after germinating for 11 hours in the presence of water, were cut into sections at the end opposite the embryo. They were incubated in solutions of {sup 3}H-DNA, {sup 13I}I-ribonuclease, and {sup 3}H-DNA {sup 131}I-ribonuclease complex for three hours. They were then placed in a water-saturated atmosphere for 24 hours. At this stage the different organs of the seedlings were separated and homogenized in a solution containing 0.15M sodium chloride and 0.1 M sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate at pH 7. By measuring the radioactivity found in the homogenates one can estimate the penetration of the macromolecules under study. The results show that the quantity found varies from one case to the other and depends both on the nature of the macromolecule and of the organ studied. (author) [French] Des orges qui ont germé pendant 11 h en présence d’eau sont sectionnées au bout opposé à l’embryon. Elles sont incubées avec des solutions d’ADN{sup 3}H, de RNase{sup 131}1 et de complexe ADN{sup 3}H - RNase {sup 131}I, pendant 3 h. Elles sont ensuite placées dans une atmosphère saturée d'eau pendant 24 h. A ce moment, les différents organes des plantules sont séparés et homogénéisés en présence d'une solution 0,15M en NaCl et 0,1M en éthylènediamine-tétracétate de Na à pH 7. La mesure de la radioactivité retrouvée dans les homogénats permet d'évaluer la pénétration des macromolécules considérées. Les résultats montrent que la quantité retrouvée varie d'un cas â l'autre et dépend à la fois de la nature de la macromolécule et de l'organe considéré. (author)

  5. Manual asymmetries in bimanual isochronous tapping tasks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Inês; Diniz, Ana; Barreiros, João

    2017-01-01

    Tapping tasks have been investigated throughout the years, with variations in features such as the complexity of the task, the use of one or both hands, the employ of auditory or visual stimuli, and the characteristics of the subjects. The evaluation of lateral asymmetries in tapping tasks in children offers an insight into the structure of rhythmic movements and handedness at early stages of development. The current study aims to investigate the ability of children (aged six and seven years-old) to maintain a rhythm, in a bimanual tapping task at two different target frequencies, as well as the manual asymmetries displayed while doing so. The analyzed data in this work are the series of the time intervals between successive taps. We suggest several profiles of behavior, regarding the overall performance of children in both tempo conditions. We also propose a new method of quantifying the variability of the performance and the asymmetry of the hands, based on ellipses placed on scatter plots of the non-dominant-dominant series versus the dominant-non-dominant series. We then use running correlations to identify changes of coordination tendencies over time. The main results show that variability is larger in the task with the longer target interval. Furthermore, most children evidence lateral asymmetries, but in general they show the capacity to maintain the mean of consecutive intertap intervals of both hands close to the target interval. Finally, we try to interpret our findings in the light of existing models and timing modes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous bimanual independence during parallel tapping and sawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The performance of complex polyrhythms—rhythms where the left and right hand move at different rates—is usually the province of highly trained individuals. However, studies in which hand movement is guided haptically show that even novices can perform polyrhythms with no or only brief training. In this study, we investigated whether novices are able to tap with one hand by matching different rates of a metronome while sawing with the other hand. This experiment was based on the assumption that saw movement is controlled consistently at a predictable rate without the need for paying primary attention to it. It would follow that consciously matching different stipulated metronome rates with the other hand would result in the spontaneous performance of polyrhythms. Six experimental conditions were randomised: single handed tapping and sawing as well as four bimanual conditions with expected ratios of 1:1 (performed with and without matching a metronome) as well as 3:4 and 4:3 (performed matching a metronome). Results showed that participants executed the saw movement at a consistent cycle duration of 0.44 [0.20] s to 0.51 [0.19] s across single and bimanual conditions, with no significant effect of the condition on the cycle duration (p = 0.315). Similarly, free tapping was executed at a cycle duration of 0.48 [0.22] s. In the bimanual conditions, we found that for a ratio of 4:3 (4 taps against 3 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio of 0.75 were not significantly different (p = 0.369), supporting our hypothesis of the spontaneous adoption of polyrhythms. However, for a ratio of 3:4 (3 taps against 4 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio differed (p = 0.016), with a trend towards synchronisation. Our findings show that bimanual independence when performing complex polyrhythms can in principle be achieved if the movement of one hand can be performed without paying much—if any—attention to it. In this paradigm

  7. Biomechanical loading on the upper extremity increases from single key tapping to directional tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Trudeau, Matthieu; Katz, Jeffrey N; Buchholz, Bryan; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders associated with computer use span the joints of the upper extremity. Computing typically involves tapping in multiple directions. Thus, we sought to describe the loading on the finger, wrist, elbow and shoulder joints in terms of kinematic and kinetic difference across single key switch tapping to directional tapping on multiple keys. An experiment with repeated measures design was conducted. Six subjects tapped with their right index finger on a stand-alone number keypad placed horizontally in three conditions: (1) on single key switch (the number key 5); (2) left and right on number key 4 and 6; (3) top and bottom on number key 8 and 2. A force-torque transducer underneath the keypad measured the fingertip force. An active-marker infrared motion analysis system measured the kinematics of the fingertip, hand, forearm, upper arm and torso. Joint moments for the metacarpophalangeal, wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints were estimated using inverse dynamics. Tapping in the top-bottom orientation introduced the largest biomechanical loading on the upper extremity especially for the proximal joint, followed by tapping in the left-right orientation, and the lowest loading was observed during single key switch tapping. Directional tapping on average increased the fingertip force, joint excursion, and peak-to-peak joint torque by 45%, 190% and 55%, respectively. Identifying the biomechanical loading patterns associated with these fundamental movements of keying improves the understanding of the risks of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders for computer keyboard users. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  9. More than just tapping: index finger-tapping measures procedural learning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Felipe N; Irani, Farzin; Richard, Jan; Brensinger, Colleen M; Bilker, Warren B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-05-01

    Finger-tapping has been widely studied using behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms. Evidence supports the use of finger-tapping as an endophenotype in schizophrenia, but its relationship with motor procedural learning remains unexplored. To our knowledge, this study presents the first use of index finger-tapping to study procedural learning in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SZA) as compared to healthy controls. A computerized index finger-tapping test was administered to 1169 SCZ/SZA patients (62% male, 88% right-handed), and 689 healthy controls (40% male, 93% right-handed). Number of taps per trial and learning slopes across trials for the dominant and non-dominant hands were examined for motor speed and procedural learning, respectively. Both healthy controls and SCZ/SZA patients demonstrated procedural learning for their dominant hand but not for their non-dominant hand. In addition, patients showed a greater capacity for procedural learning even though they demonstrated more variability in procedural learning compared to healthy controls. Left-handers of both groups performed better than right-handers and had less variability in mean number of taps between non-dominant and dominant hands. Males also had less variability in mean tap count between dominant and non-dominant hands than females. As expected, patients had a lower mean number of taps than healthy controls, males outperformed females and dominant-hand trials had more mean taps than non-dominant hand trials in both groups. The index finger-tapping test can measure both motor speed and procedural learning, and motor procedural learning may be intact in SCZ/SZA patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Steady state of tapped granular polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaro, Carlos M; Pugnaloni, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The steady state packing fraction of a tapped granular bed is studied for different grain shapes via a discrete element method. Grains are monosized regular polygons, from triangles to icosagons. Comparisons with disc packings show that the steady state packing fraction as a function of the tapping intensity presents the same general trends in polygon packings. However, better packing fractions are obtained, as expected, for shapes that can tessellate the plane (triangles, squares and hexagons). In addition, we find a sharp transition for packings of polygons with more than 13 vertices signaled by a discontinuity in the packing fraction at a particular tapping intensity. Density fluctuations for most shapes are consistent with recent experimental findings in disc packing; however, a peculiar behavior is found for triangles and squares

  11. A comparison of damage profiling of automated tap testers on aircraft CFRP panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Aris, K. D.; Shariff, M. F.; Abd Latif, B. R.; Mohd Haris, M. Y.; Baidzawi, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    The use of composite materials nevertheless is getting more prominent. The combination of reinforcing fibers and matrices will produce the desired strength orientation, tailorability and not to mention the complex shape that is hard to form on metallic structure. The weight percentage of composite materials used in aerospace, civil, marine etc. has increased tremendously. Since composite are stacked together, the possibility of delamination and/disbond defects are highly present either in the monolithic or sandwich structures. Tap test is the cheapest form of nondestructive test to identify the presence of this damage. However, its inconsistency and wide area of coverage can reduce its effectivity since it is carried out manually. The indigenous automated tap tester known as KETOK was used to detect the damage due to trapped voids and air pockets. The mechanism of detection is through controlling the tapping on the surface automatically at a constant rate. Another manual tap tester RD-3 from Wichitech Industries Inc. was used as reference. The acquired data was translated into damage profiling and both results were compared. The results have shown that the indigenous automated tester can profile the damage better when compared with the existing tap tester. As a conclusion, the indigenous automated tap tester has a potential to be used as an IN-SITU damage detection tool to detect delamination and disbond damage on composite panel. However, more conclusive tests need to be done in order to make the unit available to conventional users.

  12. Fluctuation of biological rhythm in finger tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, H.; Miyazima, S.; Mitake, S.

    2000-06-01

    By analyzing biological rhythms obtained from finger tapping, we have investigated the differences of two biological rhythms between healthy and handicapped persons caused by Parkinson, brain infraction, car accident and so on. In this study, we have observed the motion of handedness of all subjects and obtained a slope a which characterizes a power-law relation between frequency and amplitude of finger-tapping rhythm. From our results, we have estimated that the slope a=0.06 is a rough criterion in order to distinguish healthy and handicapped persons.

  13. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  14. Inserting the tap values of the tap changer transformers into the Jacobian matrix as control variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Yalçın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Series and shunt admittance values of under load tap changer transformers are changed according to tap changing. As this situation changes the structure of bus admittance matrix, it causes the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case in power flow studies. In this paper, a new approach that includes the tap changing effects into the Jacobian matrix. By this approach, the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case during power flow study is prevented. So, fast convergence is achieved for the power flow algorithm. Although there are similar studies for this aim in the literature, apart from these studies, including the tap changing effects to the Jacobian matrix when more than one under load tap changer transformers are connected to the same bus with different connection combinations is provided by the proposed approach. For this aim, new power equations and new Jacobian matrix component calculation equations are obtained. The proposed approach is tested on IEEE 57-bus test system and its accuracy is proved.

  15. A voltage-gated pore for translocation of tRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley, Sandip; Adhya, Samit, E-mail: nilugrandson@gmail.com

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •A tRNA translocating complex was assembled from purified proteins. •The complex translocates tRNA at a membrane potential of ∼60 mV. •Translocation requires Cys and His residues in the Fe–S center of RIC6 subunit. -- Abstract: Very little is known about how nucleic acids are translocated across membranes. The multi-subunit RNA Import Complex (RIC) from mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania tropica induces translocation of tRNAs across artificial or natural membranes, but the nature of the translocation pore remains unknown. We show that subunits RIC6 and RIC9 assemble on the membrane in presence of subunit RIC4A to form complex R3. Atomic Force Microscopy of R3 revealed particles with an asymmetric surface groove of ∼20 nm rim diameter and ∼1 nm depth. R3 induced translocation of tRNA into liposomes when the pH of the medium was lowered to ∼6 in the absence of ATP. R3-mediated tRNA translocation could also be induced at neutral pH by a K{sup +} diffusion potential with an optimum of 60–70 mV. Point mutations in the Cys{sub 2}–His{sub 2} Fe-binding motif of RIC6, which is homologous to the respiratory Complex III Fe–S protein, abrogated import induced by low pH but not by K{sup +} diffusion potential. These results indicate that the R3 complex forms a pore that is gated by a proton-generated membrane potential and that the Fe–S binding region of RIC6 has a role in proton translocation. The tRNA import complex of L. tropica thus contains a novel macromolecular channel distinct from the mitochondrial protein import pore that is apparently involved in tRNA import in some species.

  16. On the formal equivalence of the TAP and thermodynamic methods in the SK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Parisi, Giorgio; Mezard, Marc

    2003-01-01

    We revisit two classic Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) studies of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model (Bray A J and Moore M A 1980 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 13 L469; De Dominicis C and Young A P 1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 2063). By using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) supersymmetry, we prove the general equivalence of TAP and replica partition functions, and show that the annealed calculation of the TAP complexity is formally identical to the quenched thermodynamic calculation of the free energy at one step level of replica symmetry breaking. The complexity we obtain by means of the BRST symmetry turns out to be considerably smaller than the previous non-symmetric value

  17. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  18. Workshop on physics related to TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, W.; Loehner, H.

    1991-06-01

    Since December 1989 there exist two accepted proposals for TAPS experiments at SIS: 'η production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Experiments' (S 025) and 'π 0 Excitation Function and π 0 -π 0 Correlations Combined with Charged Particle Flow Analysis' (S 042). A third proposal 'Electromagnetic Excitations' (S 046) was submitted and is accepted by now. Before the new phase with data taking and detailed analysis of relativistic heavy ion data was about to begin, it was feld that there should be a few days set aside to take breath and to consider in a relaxed atmosphere the physics goals for which TAPS was constructed. The large number of undergraduate and graduate students in the collaboration was additional good reason to plan a meeting in a workshop-like atmosphere in order to communicate recent experimental and theoretical results touching the goals of TAPS and to discuss the aims of the submitted proposals and methods of the respective data analysis. Moreover, new ideas for future proposals and advanced technical developments should also be discussed. The aim was to broaden the view for applications of TAPS for photon and neutral meson measurements at the different accelerators at GANIL(Caen), SIS(GSI), MAMI(Mainz) and AGOR(KVI). See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  19. Sinusitis from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-21

    Dr. Wellington S. Tichenor. Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College and in private practice in Manhattan, New York, discusses his investigation of sinusitis from nontuberculous mycobacteria in tap water.  Created: 12/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/31/2012.

  20. Ideomotor effects of pitch on continuation tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirante, Paolo; Thompson, William F; Russo, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    The ideomotor principle predicts that perception will modulate action where overlap exists between perceptual and motor representations of action. This effect is demonstrated with auditory stimuli. Previous perceptual evidence suggests that pitch contour and pitch distance in tone sequences may elicit tonal motion effects consistent with listeners' implicit awareness of the lawful dynamics of locomotive bodies. To examine modulating effects of perception on action, participants in a continuation tapping task produced a steady tempo. Auditory tones were triggered by each tap. Pitch contour randomly and persistently varied within trials. Pitch distance between successive tones varied between trials. Although participants were instructed to ignore them, tones systematically affected finger dynamics and timing. Where pitch contour implied positive acceleration, the following tap and the intertap interval (ITI) that it completed were faster. Where pitch contour implied negative acceleration, the following tap and the ITI that it completed were slower. Tempo was faster with greater pitch distance. Musical training did not predict the magnitude of these effects. There were no generalized effects on timing variability. Pitch contour findings demonstrate how tonal motion may elicit the spontaneous production of accents found in expressive music performance.

  1. The TAPS Pyramid: Where, Who and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood-Stephens, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    The TAPS pyramid was developed in late 2014 and has been available as a download on the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT) website since August 2015. But where has it gone since then? Who is using it? And how is it being used in schools to change primary science assessment practice? This article attempts to answer these questions with data from…

  2. Monitoring chlorination practices during operation at TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, A.K.; Wani, B.N.; Gokhale, A.S.; Yuvaraju, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters is aimed at the condenser surfaces to minimize the biogrowth, while the residual oxidants in the effluents are negligible. This paper describes the fulfillment of the above criteria, as observed during the monitoring of chlorination practices at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) during 1990. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Study of heavy ion collisions with TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.

    The photon spectrometer TAPS is a versatile instrument to measure nuclear bremsstrahlung and neutral mesons via their gamma decay. The formation and evolution of compressed nuclear matter is studied in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies by analyzing the yield and spectral distribution of

  4. Bacterial translocation: impact of probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Adawi, Diya; Molin, Göran

    2004-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of data in humans showing that patients who cannot take in nutrients enterally have more organ failure in the intensive care unit, a less favourable prognosis, and a higher frequency of septicaemia, in particular involving bacterial species from the intestinal tract. However, there is little evidence that this is connected with translocation of bacterial species in humans. Animal data more uniformly imply the existence of such a connection. The main focus of thi...

  5. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  6. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Felipe; Moriconi, L.

    2012-01-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  7. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, UnED Angra dos Reis, Angra dos Reis, 23953-030, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-10-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  8. Most Uv-Induced Reciprocal Translocations in SORDARIA MACROSPORA Occur in or near Centromere Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblon, G; Zickler, D; Lebilcot, S

    1986-02-01

    In fungi, translocations can be identified and classified by the patterns of ascospore abortion in asci from crosses of rearrangement x normal sequence. Previous studies of UV-induced rearrangements in Sordaria macrospora revealed that a major class (called type III) appeared to be reciprocal translocations that were anomalous in producing an unexpected class of asci with four aborted ascospores in bbbbaaaa linear sequence (b = black; a = abortive). The present study shows that the anomalous type III rearrangements are, in fact, reciprocal translocations having both breakpoints within or adjacent to centromeres and that bbbbaaaa asci result from 3:1 disjunction from the translocation quadrivalent.-Electron microscopic observations of synaptonemal complexes enable centromeres to be visualized. Lengths of synaptonemal complexes lateral elements in translocation quadrivalents accurately reflect chromosome arm lengths, enabling breakpoints to be located reliably in centromere regions. All genetic data are consistent with the behavior expected of translocations with breakpoints at centromeres.-Two-thirds of the UV-induced reciprocal translocations are of this type. Certain centromere regions are involved preferentially. Among 73 type-III translocations, there were but 13 of the 21 possible chromosome combinations and 20 of the 42 possible combinations of chromosome arms.

  9. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  10. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  11. Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in unsterilized tap water.

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, R B; Wadowsky, R M

    1982-01-01

    Naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila, an environmental isolate which had not been grown on artificial medium, was tested for the ability to multiply in tap water. A showerhead containing L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria was immersed in nonsterile tap water supplying this fixture. Also L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria were sedimented from tap water from a surgical intensive care unit. This bacterial suspension was inoculated into tap water from our laboratory....

  12. Protein translocation channel of mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix-exposed import motor communicate via two-domain coupling protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupa; Gladkova, Christina; Mapa, Koyeli; Witte, Gregor; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-12-29

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are targeted to mitochondria by N-terminal presequences and use the TIM23 complex for their translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. During import, translocation through the channel in the inner membrane is coupled to the ATP-dependent action of an Hsp70-based import motor at the matrix face. How these two processes are coordinated remained unclear. We show here that the two domain structure of Tim44 plays a central role in this process. The N-terminal domain of Tim44 interacts with the components of the import motor, whereas its C-terminal domain interacts with the translocation channel and is in contact with translocating proteins. Our data suggest that the translocation channel and the import motor of the TIM23 complex communicate through rearrangements of the two domains of Tim44 that are stimulated by translocating proteins.

  13. Landmine detection using two-tapped joint orthogonal matching pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sean; Glenn, Taylor; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul D.

    2012-06-01

    Joint Orthogonal Matching Pursuits (JOMP) is used here in the context of landmine detection using data obtained from an electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor. The response from an object containing metal can be decomposed into a discrete spectrum of relaxation frequencies (DSRF) from which we construct a dictionary. A greedy iterative algorithm is proposed for computing successive residuals of a signal by subtracting away the highest matching dictionary element at each step. The nal condence of a particular signal is a combination of the reciprocal of this residual and the mean of the complex component. A two-tap approach comparing signals on opposite sides of the geometric location of the sensor is examined and found to produce better classication. It is found that using only a single pursuit does a comparable job, reducing complexity and allowing for real-time implementation in automated target recognition systems. JOMP is particularly highlighted in comparison with a previous EMI detection algorithm known as String Match.

  14. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.627 Tapping pipelines under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to make...

  15. Preheating of tap water with solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granum, H; Raaen, H

    1992-05-05

    In 1991 SINTEF Architecture and Building Technology won the second prize in 'The Nordic Competition for Low Energy Buildings' with a project proposal named 'LOWe'. The paper gives a description of the energy-saving features of this project, particularly the use of a solar collector for preheating of tap water. Compared with the economic profitability of other saving efforts in the project, such as good thermal insulation and efficient heat recovering system, the system for solar preheating of tap water does not seem very attractive for the time being. Loose estimates indicate a cost of close of NOK 1.00 per kWh for the produced energy in the solar collector, while the present price for electricity in Norway is about NOK 0.50 per kWh. Compared with a heat pump solution however the energy cost is not unreasonable.

  16. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    OpenAIRE

    Mantic-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P-T; Gallaire, F.

    2015-01-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong exp...

  17. Single quadrature duplication and transparent taps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ajung

    2004-01-01

    The concept of single quadrature duplication, which is the process of producing two outputs with the same homodyne detecting statistics as an input, is addressed. This device has important potential application to optical communications as a transparent optical tap in a local area network environment. The characteristics of the device are examined, and a realization scheme employing a coupler and phase-sensitive amplifiers is proposed

  18. Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter

    KAUST Repository

    Jazzar, Saleh

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage and reduce the required transmitted signal power. One problem that faces relays communications is the leaked signal from the relay\\'s output to its input. This will cause an SI problem where the new received signal at the relay\\'s input will be added with the unwanted leaked signal from the relay\\'s output. A Solution is proposed in this paper to estimate and minimise this SI which is based upon using a tapped filter at the destination. To get the optimum weights for this tapped filter, some channel parameters must be estimated first. This is performed blindly at the destination without the need of any training. This channel parameter estimation method is named the blind-self-interference-channel-estimation (BSICE) method. The next step in the proposed solution is to estimate the tapped filter\\'s weights. This is performed by minimising the mean squared error (MSE) at the destination. This proposed method is named the MSE-Optimum Weight (MSE-OW) method. Simulation results are provided in this paper to verify the performance of BSICE and MSE-OW methods. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Interactional synchrony in chimpanzees: Examination through a finger-tapping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2015-05-11

    Humans often unconsciously coordinate behaviour with that of others in daily life. This interpersonal coordination, including mimicry and interactional synchrony, has been suggested to play a fundamental role in social interaction. If this coordinative behavior is socially adaptive, it may be shared with other highly social animal species. The current study targeted chimpanzees, which phylogenetically are the closest living relatives of humans and live in complex social groups, and examined whether interactional synchrony would emerge in pairs of chimpanzees when auditory information about a partner's movement was provided. A finger-tapping task was introduced via touch panels to elicit repetitive and rhythmic movement from each chimpanzee. We found that one of four chimpanzees produced significant changes in both tapping tempo and timing of the tapping relative to its partner's tap when auditory sounds were provided. Although the current results may have limitations in generalizing to chimpanzees as a species, we suggest that a finger-tapping task is one potential method to investigate interactional synchrony in chimpanzees under a laboratory setup.

  20. Spontaneous eye blinks are entrained by finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, D-K; Sharikadze, M; Staude, G; Deubel, H; Wolf, W

    2010-02-01

    We studied the mutual cross-talk between spontaneous eye blinks and continuous, self-paced unimanual and bimanual tapping. Both types of motor activities were analyzed with regard to their time-structure in synchronization-continuation tapping tasks which involved different task instructions, namely "standard" finger tapping (Experiment 1), "strong" tapping (Experiment 2) requiring more forceful finger movements, and "impulse-like" tapping (Experiment 3) where upward-downward finger movements had to be very fast. In a further control condition (Experiment 4), tapping was omitted altogether. The results revealed a prominent entrainment of spontaneous blink behavior by the manual tapping, with bimanual tapping being more effective than unimanual tapping, and with the "strong" and "impulse-like" tapping showing the largest effects on blink timing. Conversely, we found no significant effects of the tapping on the timing of the eye blinks across all experiments. The findings suggest a functional overlap of the motor control structures responsible for voluntary, rhythmic finger movements and eye blinking behavior.

  1. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  2. Importance of No. 21 chromosome in translocation t(8:21) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) to the genesis of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T; Minamihisamatsu, M

    1986-05-01

    The results are reported of the chromosome analysis of 17 cases of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), mostly belonging to M2 of the FAB classification, especially on the translocation t(8:21) and its variant translocations. The presence of two cases with simple variant translocation not involving No. 8 chromosome seems to suggest that No. 21 chromosome is more important to the genesis of AML than the No. 8 chromosome. This assumption appears to be supported by findings on cases with complex translocation: In two cases with complex translocation, the portion translocated from No. 21 chromosome onto No. 8 was firmly maintained in the specific site (q21) on No. 8 whereas the portion translocated from No. 8 chromosome onto No. 21 was involved in further translocation with another chromosome, onto which it was re-translocated. The results of the present cytogenetic study indicate that the analysis of variant translocations in various specific chromosome translocations in leukemia and other malignant disorders is very useful to elucidate the problem as to whether the genesis of such disorders lies in either one or both of the pair of chromosomes involved in the specific translocations of the respective diseases.

  3. Translocality in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Krishna, S.

    2017-01-01

    . We explored how agile processes in global outsourcing impacts work conditions of the Indian IT developers, and were surprised to find that agile methodologies, even after 3 years of implementation, created a stressful and inflexible work environment negatively impacting their personal lives. Many......What happens when agile methods are introduced in global outsourcing set-ups? Agile methods are designed to empower IT developers in decision-making through self-managing collocated teams. We studied how agile methods were introduced into global outsourcing from the Indian IT vendor’s perspective...... of the negative aspects of work, which agile methodologies were developed to reduce, were evident in the global agile outsourcing set-up. We propose translocality to repudiate the dichotomy of global/local reminding us that methodologies and technologies must be understood as immediately localized and situated...

  4. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Fabian, Lindsey E A; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M

    2007-07-01

    Underage youth often obtain alcohol from adults who illegally provide the alcohol. One method for obtaining alcohol from adults is shoulder tapping, where youth approach an adult outside an alcohol establishment and ask the adult to purchase alcohol for them. The goal of this study was to assess what percentage of the general and youth-targeted adult population approached outside of a convenience/liquor store will agree to purchase and then provide alcohol to individuals who appear under age 21. We conducted 2 waves of pseudo-underage shoulder tap request attempts, using requesters who were age 21 or older but appeared 18 to 20 years old. In both waves, requests were conducted at randomly selected liquor and convenience stores, requesters explained that the reason they were asking the adult was because they did not have their identification with them, and requesters asked the adults to purchase a 6-pack of beer. During wave 1, we conducted 102 attempts, with the requester approaching the first adult entering the store alone. During wave 2, we conducted 102 attempts where the requester approached the first casually dressed male entering the store alone who appeared to be 21 to 30 years old. During wave 1, 8% of the general sample of approached adults provided alcohol to the pseudo-underage requesters. The odds of adults providing alcohol in urban areas were 9.4 times greater than in suburban areas. During wave 2, 19% of the approached young men provided alcohol to the requesters. No requester, request attempt, establishment, or community characteristics were associated with request attempt outcomes during wave 2. A small percentage of the general population of adults will agree to provide alcohol to underage youth when approached outside an alcohol establishment. The likelihood of underage youth obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping increases substantially if the youth approach young men.

  5. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation

  6. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  7. Variant Philadelphia translocations with different breakpoints in six chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan Kuru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation, is observed in ~90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Variant Ph translocations are observed in 5%-10% of CML patients. In variant translocations 3 and possibly more chromosomes are involved. Herein we report 6 CML patients with variant Ph translocations.Materials and Methods: Bone marrow samples were examined using conventional cytogenetic meth ods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with whole-chromosome paints and BCR-ABL 1D probes were used to confirm and/or complement the findings, and identify rearrangements beyond the resolution of conventional cytogenetic methods. Results: Variant Ph translocations in the 6 patients were as follows: t(7;22(p22;q11, t(9;22;15(q34;q11;q22, t(15;22(p11;q11, t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21, t(12;22(p13;q11, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11.Conclusion: Among the patients, 3 had simple and 3 had complex variant Ph translocations. Two of the presented cases had variant Ph chromosomes not previously described, 1 of which had a new complex Ph translocation involving chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 22, and t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21 apart from a clone with a classical Ph, and the other case had variant Ph translocation with chromosomes 4, 8, 9, and 22, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11 full complex translocation. Number of studies reported that some patients with variant Ph translocation were poor responders to imatinib. All of our patients with variant Ph translocations had suboptimal responses to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis also. Variant Ph translocations may be important as they are associated with prognosis and therapy for CML patients.

  8. Tapping polyrhythms in music activates language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel; Mouridsen, Kim; Ostergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-02

    Music is experienced and understood on the basis of foreground/background relationships and tension created between actual music and the underlying meter. Polyrhythms create tension between a counter meter and the main meter. Previously, we have shown that Brodmann area 47 (BA47), a brain area associated with processing of language, is activated bilaterally when musicians tap the main meter in a polymetric context emphasizing a counter meter, suggesting that processing of metric elements in music relies on brain areas also involved in language processing. In that study, the tension was created entirely by changes in the stimulus while participants were tapping the main meter. Here we find left-hemispheric BA47 activation in response to a self-produced counter meter on top of a main meter provided by an ecological music excerpt. This data indicates that the activation is linked to polyrhythmic tension, regardless of whether it arises from the stimulus or the task. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of Neuronal Protein Trafficking and Translocation by SUMOylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M. Henley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications of proteins are essential for cell function. Covalent modification by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier plays a role in multiple cell processes, including transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, protein localization and trafficking. Factors affecting protein localization and trafficking are particularly crucial in neurons because of their polarization, morphological complexity and functional specialization. SUMOylation has emerged as a major mediator of intranuclear and nucleo-cytoplasmic translocations of proteins involved in critical pathways such as circadian rhythm, apoptosis and protein degradation. In addition, SUMO-regulated re-localization of extranuclear proteins is required to sustain neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Thus, SUMOylation is a key arbiter of neuronal viability and function. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in our understanding of regulation of neuronal protein localization and translocation by SUMO and highlight exciting areas of ongoing research.

  10. Dynamical TAP equations for non-equilibrium Ising spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Hertz, John

    2011-01-01

    We derive and study dynamical TAP equations for Ising spin glasses obeying both synchronous and asynchronous dynamics using a generating functional approach. The system can have an asymmetric coupling matrix, and the external fields can be time-dependent. In the synchronously updated model, the TAP...... equations take the form of self consistent equations for magnetizations at time t+1, given the magnetizations at time t. In the asynchronously updated model, the TAP equations determine the time derivatives of the magnetizations at each time, again via self consistent equations, given the current values...... of the magnetizations. Numerical simulations suggest that the TAP equations become exact for large systems....

  11. Uncovering beat deafness: detecting rhythm disorders with synchronized finger tapping and perceptual timing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-03-16

    A set of behavioral tasks for assessing perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) is presented here with the goal of uncovering rhythm disorders, such as beat deafness. Beat deafness is characterized by poor performance in perceiving durations in auditory rhythmic patterns or poor synchronization of movement with auditory rhythms (e.g., with musical beats). These tasks include the synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of simple and complex auditory stimuli and the detection of rhythmic irregularities (anisochrony detection task) embedded in the same stimuli. These tests, which are easy to administer, include an assessment of both perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities under different conditions (e.g., beat rates and types of auditory material) and are based on the same auditory stimuli, ranging from a simple metronome to a complex musical excerpt. The analysis of synchronized tapping data is performed with circular statistics, which provide reliable measures of synchronization accuracy (e.g., the difference between the timing of the taps and the timing of the pacing stimuli) and consistency. Circular statistics on tapping data are particularly well-suited for detecting individual differences in the general population. Synchronized tapping and anisochrony detection are sensitive measures for identifying profiles of rhythm disorders and have been used with success to uncover cases of poor synchronization with spared perceptual timing. This systematic assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing can be extended to populations of patients with brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease), and developmental disorders (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder).

  12. The distribution and tapping tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tidal power along tidal shores has been used for centuries to run small tidal mills. Generating electricity by tapping tidal power proved to be very successful only in the last century through the tidal power plant constructed in 1967 in La Rance, France. This used a large barrier to generate the sea level head necessary for driving turbines. Construction of such plants evolved very slowly because of prohibitive costs and concerns about the environmental impact. Developments in the construction of small, efficient and inexpensive underwater turbines admit the possibility of small scale operations that will use local tidal currents to bring electricity to remote locations. Since the generation of such electricity is concerned with the tidal energy in local water bodies, it is important to understand the site-specific energy balance, i.e., the energy flowing in through open boundaries, and the energy generated and dissipated within the local domain. The question is how to tap the tidal energy while keeping possible changes in the present tidal regimes to a minimum. The older approach of constructing barrages may still be quite useful in some locations. The basics of such tidal power plants constructed in a small bay are analyzed in order to understand the principal parameter for tidal plant evaluation, i.e., the power produced.     The new approach is to place turbines - devices similar to windmills - in the pathway of tidal currents. Theoretically, the amount of power available by such turbines for electricity generation is proportional to the water density and velocity cubed of the tidal flow. The naturally dissipated tidal power due to bottom friction forces is also proportional to the cube of the velocity. Because of this similarity, the exploitation of tidal energy can be directed to reinvesting the naturally dissipated power into tidal power for the generation of electricity. This approach to tidal power exploitation is better tuned

  13. Assessment of leg muscle activity using toe tapping in patients with Parkinson's disease: comparison of two types of toe tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Seira; Peper, Ferdinand; Shimokawa, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates two types of toe tapping, i.e., "closed," with both feet on the floor, and "open," in which the foot does not touch the ground, and evaluates their usefulness in combination with monitoring of muscle activity during toe tapping. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 9 controls (Controls). The tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GS) muscle activity during toe tapping was measured using surface electromyography. [Results] In closed tapping, the minima in GS activation with the first tap was significantly higher in patients with PD than in Controls. In open tapping, the coefficient of variation (CV) of local maxima in TA activation was significantly higher in patients with PD than in Controls. In both types of tapping, the CV of extrema in GS activities increased with disease duration, but this may be due to the long-term administration of Levodopa, which itself tends to cause excessive GS activities. [Conclusion] Closed tapping is suitable for the assessment of GS activity and can detect excessive activities, which is observed as visible movement. Open tapping, on the other hand, is suitable for assessment of TA activity.

  14. Variants forms of Philadelphia translocation in two patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, A.; Zamecnikova, A.; Krizan, P.; Karlic, H.; Nowotny, H.

    1996-01-01

    During a 4-year period (December 1990-December 1994), among other diagnoses hundred cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were analyzed in our departments. We focused our attention on two cases with a variant form of Philadelphia translocation. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies were performed to resolve the status of BCR and ABL in the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of the two CML patients with complex translocations involving chromosomes, 3, 9, 22 and 9, 12, 22 respectively. In the first case the presence of Ph chromosome was detected cytogenetically, BCR-ABL translocation was detected by Southern hybridization. In the second phase, only the PCR method showed BCR-ABL rearrangement. The second case, with a random variant form of Ph translocation, could be detected using different methods of clinical molecular genetics. (author)

  15. Tapping generalized essentialism to predict outgroup prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Skorska, Malvina N

    2015-06-01

    Psychological essentialism, the perception that groups possess inherent properties binding them and differentiating them from others, is theoretically relevant to predicting prejudice. Recent developments isolate two key dimensions: essentialistic entitativity (EE; groups as unitary, whole, entity-like) and essentialistic naturalness (EN; groups as fixed and immutable). We introduce a novel question: does tapping the covariance between EE and EN, rather than pitting them against each other, boost prejudice prediction? In Study 1 (re-analysis of Roets & Van Hiel, 2011b, Samples 1-3, in Belgium) and Study 2 (new Canadian data) their common/shared variance, modelled as generalized essentialism, doubles the predictive power relative to regression-based approaches with regard to racism (but not anti-gay or -schizophrenic prejudices). Theoretical implications are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Creep collapse of TAPS fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, S.M.; Anand, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Densification of UO 2 can cause axial gaps between fuel pelets and cladding in unsupported (internally) at these regions. An analysis is carried out regarding the possibility of creep collapse in these regions. The analysis is based on Timoshenko's theory of collapse. At various times during the residence of fuel in reactor following parameters are calculated : (1) inelastic collapse of perfectly circular tubes (2) plastic instability in oval tubes (3) effect of creep on ovality. Creep is considered to be a non-linear combination of the following : (a) thermal creep (b) intresenic creep (c) stress aided radiation enhanced (d) stress free growth (4) Critical pressure ratio. The results obtained are compared with G.E. predictions. The results do not predict collapse of TAPS fuel cladding for five year residence time. (author)

  17. The Expanding Universe of Astronomy on Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Morris, Brett; Narayan, Gautham; Morrison, Sarah J.; Schneider, Evan; Bozek, Brandon; Rice, Emily L.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Garofali, Kristen; Martinez, Raquel; Li, Yuan; Green, Joel D.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Silvia, Devin W.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Arcavi, Iair; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT) is a constellation of free public outreach presentations held in bars. AoT events aim to engage audiences who might not choose to attend public lectures in a university setting by creating an informal atmosphere and combining scientific talks with music, games, and prizes. The events have a flexible format, typically consisting of between one and three astronomy-related presentations, sometimes with additional games and trivia, and some locations also produce merchandise. The flexible structure means that the format can be adapted to the resources available in the location and the time commitment the local organizers are willing to make. Some events are broadcast online through live streaming, with some others being posted to YouTube. In conjunction with an active social media presence, this ensures engagement beyond those able to attend events in person. Astronomy on Tap events have now been held in 20 cities around the world and are typically organised by postdocs and graduate students, with some involvement from faculty and outreach or education staff. Holding these events under the global AoT constellation facilitates knowledge transfer, sharing of resources, and networking opportunities for scientists interested in outreach/communication. The events have been highly successful, with some locations regularly attracting more than 200 people per month. In this poster we describe the goals and characteristics of AoT events, the different adaptations by various locations, the resources we have developed, and provide information for those interested in starting a new event in their location.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen translocation between seagrass ramets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Mateo, M.A.; Duarte, C.M.; Maas, Y.E.M.; Terrados, J.; Gacia, E.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial scale and the magnitude of carbon and nitrogen translocation was examined in 5 tropical (Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Thalassia hemprichii) and 3 temperate (Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica, Zostera noltii) seagrass species

  19. Dudleya Variegata Translocation - San Diego [ds654

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — At Mission Trails Regional Park, a translocation project of Dudleya variegata was conducted in efforts to save the population from a private property undergoing...

  20. Tap Testing Hammer using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, JaMein DeShon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ayorinde, Emmanuel Temiloluwa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mascarenas, David Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moreu, Fernando [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    This is the final poster for a Student Symposium at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research describes the development, validation, and testing of a remote concrete tapping mechanism enabled by UAS. The conclusion is the following: The results quantify for the first time concrete tapping data collected remotely with UAS, enabling cost-effective, safer and sustainable upgrade prioritization of railroad bridges inventories.

  1. Sequential and Biomechanical Factors Constrain Timing and Motion in Tapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how timing accuracy in tapping sequences is influenced by sequential effects of preceding finger movements and biomechanical interdependencies among fingers. Skilled pianists tapped Sequences at 3 rates; in each sequence, a finger whose motion was more or less independent of

  2. Local Identification of Voltage Instability from Load Tap Changer Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Papangelis, Lampros; Vournas, Costas D.

    2017-01-01

    . The new method is not bound to assessing system response over a predefined LTC tapping period. This allows handling LTCs with variable delays, as well as events taking place during the tapping sequence impacting the distribution voltages. For that purpose, eLIVES applies recursive least square fitting...

  3. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  4. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  5. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction...

  6. Abstract: Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch through tapping to relieve anxiety symptoms. TTT is a nonverbal process that can be delivered at minimal cost with the potential for easy dissemination. This technique can be applied in urban or rural communities and in medical or mental health environments.

  7. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Tefera; Sterck, Frank J; Fetene, Masresha; Bongers, Frans

    2013-06-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentrations in stem-wood, bark and root tissues of the frankincense tree (Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst) in two natural woodlands of Ethiopia. Two tapping treatments, one without tapping (control) and the other with tapping at 12 incisions, are applied on experimental trees. Trees are tapped in the leafless dry period, diminishing their carbon storage pools. If storage pools are not refilled by assimilation during the wet season, when crowns are in full leaf, tapping may deplete the carbon pool and weaken Boswellia trees. The highest soluble sugar concentrations were in the bark and the highest starch concentrations in the stem-wood. The stem-wood contains 12 times higher starch than soluble sugar concentrations. Hence, the highest TNC concentrations occurred in the stem-wood. Moreover, wood volume was larger than root or bark volumes and, as a result, more TNC was stored in the stem-wood. As predicted, tapping reduced the TNC concentrations and pool sizes in frankincense trees during the dry season. During the wet season, these carbon pools were gradually filled in tapped trees, but never to the size of non-tapped trees. We conclude that TNC is dynamic on a seasonal time scale and offers resilience against stress, highlighting its importance for tree carbon balance. But current resin tapping practices are intensive and may weaken Boswellia populations, jeopardizing future frankincense production.

  8. Performance monitoring of zircaloy-4 square fuel channels at TAPS-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Ramu, A.; Anilkumar, K.R.; Sharma, B.L.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Ramamurty, U.; Srivastava, S.P.; Prasad, P.N.; Anantharaman, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactors. The initial rated capacity of each unit was 210 MWe. Subsequently due to Secondary Steam Generator tube leak problem, the units were de-rated to 160 MWe in the year 1984-85. The station has completed 36 years of successful commercial operation. TAPS reactor fuel channels are made of Zircaloy-4, material. These are used along with 6x6 array nuclear fuel assemblies. The fuel channels need to be discharged once it reaches an optimum exposure limit and based on the surveillance programme, which monitors the channels performance. NFC has indigenously developed fuel channels for TAPS and these are at various stages of exposure in both the reactor cores. The performance review of these channels was carried out by the experts from TAPS-Site, NPCIL-ED and RED, BARC. The two major factors, which affect fuel channels performance, are (a) Bulge and (b) Bow. The phenomenon of longitudinal bow occurs due to the neutron flux gradient across the channels faces. Studies made on this subject by General Electric (GE) indicated that this channel deflection occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, fuel channels surveillance programme is essential to check the irradiated fuel channels performance in order to replace the fuel channels once it reaches the optimum exposure limit. To estimate the useful life of irradiated fuel channels, channel deflection/bulge measurement inspection system and methodology was developed jointly by TAPS and Centre for Design and manufacture (CDM), BARC. This system was successfully deployed at TAPS. This paper briefly describes the developmental efforts made by Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad, NPCIL-Fuel Group, Engg.Directorate, RED/BARC, CDM/BARC. (author)

  9. Miscoding-induced stalling of substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose L; Blanchard, Scott C

    2017-10-10

    Directional transit of the ribosome along the messenger RNA (mRNA) template is a key determinant of the rate and processivity of protein synthesis. Imaging of the multistep translocation mechanism using single-molecule FRET has led to the hypothesis that substrate movements relative to the ribosome resolve through relatively long-lived late intermediates wherein peptidyl-tRNA enters the P site of the small ribosomal subunit via reversible, swivel-like motions of the small subunit head domain within the elongation factor G (GDP)-bound ribosome complex. Consistent with translocation being rate-limited by recognition and productive engagement of peptidyl-tRNA within the P site, we now show that base-pairing mismatches between the peptidyl-tRNA anticodon and the mRNA codon dramatically delay this rate-limiting, intramolecular process. This unexpected relationship between aminoacyl-tRNA decoding and translocation suggests that miscoding antibiotics may impact protein synthesis by impairing the recognition of peptidyl-tRNA in the small subunit P site during EF-G-catalyzed translocation. Strikingly, we show that elongation factor P (EF-P), traditionally known to alleviate ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs, can efficiently rescue translocation defects arising from miscoding. These findings help reveal the nature and origin of the rate-limiting steps in substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome and indicate that EF-P can aid in resuming translation elongation stalled by miscoding errors.

  10. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  11. Neural correlates of cerebellar-mediated timing during finger tapping in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindie du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The four cerebellar areas activated by the controls more during rhythmic than non-rhythmic tapping have been implicated in the production of timed responses in several previous studies. These data provide evidence linking binge-like drinking during pregnancy to poorer function in cerebellar regions involved in timing and somatosensory processing needed for complex tasks requiring precise timing.

  12. The neural substrates of impaired finger tapping regularity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calautti, Cinzia; Jones, P Simon; Guincestre, Jean-Yves; Naccarato, Marcello; Sharma, Nikhil; Day, Diana J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2010-03-01

    Not only finger tapping speed, but also tapping regularity can be impaired after stroke, contributing to reduced dexterity. The neural substrates of impaired tapping regularity after stroke are unknown. Previous work suggests damage to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and prefrontal cortex (PFCx) affects externally-cued hand movement. We tested the hypothesis that these two areas are involved in impaired post-stroke tapping regularity. In 19 right-handed patients (15 men/4 women; age 45-80 years; purely subcortical in 16) partially to fully recovered from hemiparetic stroke, tri-axial accelerometric quantitative assessment of tapping regularity and BOLD fMRI were obtained during fixed-rate auditory-cued index-thumb tapping, in a single session 10-230 days after stroke. A strong random-effect correlation between tapping regularity index and fMRI signal was found in contralesional PMd such that the worse the regularity the stronger the activation. A significant correlation in the opposite direction was also present within contralesional PFCx. Both correlations were maintained if maximal index tapping speed, degree of paresis and time since stroke were added as potential confounds. Thus, the contralesional PMd and PFCx appear to be involved in the impaired ability of stroke patients to fingertap in pace with external cues. The findings for PMd are consistent with repetitive TMS investigations in stroke suggesting a role for this area in affected-hand movement timing. The inverse relationship with tapping regularity observed for the PFCx and the PMd suggests these two anatomically-connected areas negatively co-operate. These findings have implications for understanding the disruption and reorganization of the motor systems after stroke. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  14. Analgesic effect of bilateral subcostal tap block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, K.; Khan, B.I.

    2018-01-01

    Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mild to moderate in intensity. Several modalities are employed for achieving safe and effective postoperative analgesia, the benefits of which adds to the early recovery of the patients. As a part of multimodal analgesia, various approaches of Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for management of parietal and incisional components of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different approaches of ultrasound guided TAP block, i.e., Subcostal-TAP block technique with ultrasound guided Posterior-TAP block for post-operative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. Methods: In this double blinded randomized controlled study, consecutive nonprobability sampling was done and a total of 126 patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomized through draw method and received either ultrasound guided posterior TAP block with 0.375% bupivacaine (20ml volume) on each side of the abdomen or subcostal TAP block bilaterally with the same. Up to 24 hours postoperatively, static and dynamic numeric rating pain scores were assessed. Results: We found statistically significant difference in mean static pain scores over 24 hours postoperatively in subcostal TAP group, suggesting improved analgesia. However, mean dynamic postoperative pain scores were comparable between the two groups. Whereas, patients in both groups were satisfied with pain management. Conclusions: Ultrasound guided subcostal TAP block provides better postoperative analgesia as compared to the Posterior TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Otherwise both of the approaches improve patient outcomes towards early recovery and discharge from hospital. (author)

  15. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  16. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  17. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  18. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  19. A two-step recognition of signal sequences determines the translocation efficiency of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, D; Bost, S; Vassalli, J D; Strub, K

    1996-02-01

    The cytosolic and secreted, N-glycosylated, forms of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) are generated by facultative translocation. To study the molecular events that result in the bi-topological distribution of proteins, we determined in vitro the capacities of several signal sequences to bind the signal recognition particle (SRP) during targeting, and to promote vectorial transport of murine PAI-2 (mPAI-2). Interestingly, the six signal sequences we compared (mPAI-2 and three mutated derivatives thereof, ovalbumin and preprolactin) were found to have the differential activities in the two events. For example, the mPAI-2 signal sequence first binds SRP with moderate efficiency and secondly promotes the vectorial transport of only a fraction of the SRP-bound nascent chains. Our results provide evidence that the translocation efficiency of proteins can be controlled by the recognition of their signal sequences at two steps: during SRP-mediated targeting and during formation of a committed translocation complex. This second recognition may occur at several time points during the insertion/translocation step. In conclusion, signal sequences have a more complex structure than previously anticipated, allowing for multiple and independent interactions with the translocation machinery.

  20. Astronomy on Tap: science engagement in the pub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy on Tap is a series of free lectures by astronomers in the pub, aimed at disseminating the latest research to the public in an informal setting. Started in New York City in 2013, Astronomy on Tap has now expanded to seven cities across North and South America. Organized by local astronomers, each event features talks by astronomers from local institutions or visitors, or others whose professions or hobbies intersect with astronomy, along with games and opportunities for the public to interact with professional astronomers. The largest Astronomy on Tap events are in Austin, Texas, attracting over 150 people each month, which consists of populations outside of the self-selected groups that might be reached by more formal EPO activities. The organisers of Astronomy on Tap in Austin (AoTATX) will discuss the impact of and feedback from all of the locations, and present information on setting up new satellite locations.

  1. Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a lifetime ... include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidant behavior for the memories of ... Methods. Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch ...

  2. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  3. Finger and foot tapping sensor system for objective motor assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jovičić Milica

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Finger tapping test is commonly used in neurological examinations as a test of motor performance. The new system comprising inertial and force sensors and custom proprietary software was developed for quantitative estimation and assessment of finger and foot tapping tests. The aim of this system was to provide diagnosis support and objective assessment of motor function. Methods. Miniature inertial sensors were placed on fingertips and used for measuring finger movements. A force sensor was placed on the fingertip of one finger, in order to measure the force during tapping. For foot tapping assessment, an inertial sensor was mounted on the subject’s foot, which was placed above a force platform. By using this system, various parameters such as a number of taps, tapping duration, rhythm, open and close speed, the applied force and tapping angle, can be extracted for detailed analysis of a patient’s motor performance. The system was tested on 13 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 14 healthy controls. Results. The system allowed easy measurement of listed parameters, and additional graphical representation showed quantitative differences in these parameters between neurological patient and healthy subjects. Conclusion. The novel system for finger and foot tapping test is compact, simple to use and efficiently collects patient data. Parameters measured in patients can be compared to those measured in healthy subjects, or among groups of patients, or used to monitor progress of the disease, or therapy effects. Created data and scores could be used together with the scores from clinical tests, providing the possibility for better insight into the diagnosis. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175090 and Grant no. 175016

  4. [The method to remove nitrite from tap water by tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M; Chen, L; Xian, H

    1997-03-01

    Drinking water (tap water) is polluted in pipelines by bacteria after long distance transportation. The water contains nitrite (NO2-) which is potentially harmful to human health. The nitrite concentrations range from 0.10 to 2.0 mg/L. Our experiment proved that NO2- could not be removed by boiling, but could be removed by tea. As a natural antioxidant, tea contains several antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid and catechins, which removed NO2- from tap water effectively.

  5. [Bacterial Translocation from Intestine: Microbiological, Immunological and Pathophysiological Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoprigora, G I; Kafarskaya, L I; Bainov, N A; Shkoporov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is both pathology and physiology phenomenon. In healthy newborns it accompanies the process of establishing the autochthonous intestinal microbiota and the host microbiome. In immunodeficiency it can be an aethio-pathogenetic link and a manifestation of infection or septic complications. The host colonization resistance to exogenous microbic colonizers is provided by gastrointestinal microbiota in concert with complex constitutional and adaptive defense mechanisms. BT may be result of barrier dysfunction and self-purification mechanisms involving the host myeloid cell phagocytic system and opsonins. Dynamic cell humoral response to microbial molecular patterns that occurs on the mucous membranes initiates receptorsignalingpathways and cascade ofreactions. Their vector and results are largely determined by cross-reactivity between microbiome and the host genome. Enterocyte barriers interacting with microbiota play leading role in providing adaptive, homeostatic and stress host reactivity. Microcirculatory ischemic tissue alterations and inflammatory reactions increase the intestinal barrier permeability and BT These processes a well as mechanisms for apoptotic cells and bacteria clearance are justified to be of prospective research interest. The inflammatory and related diseases caused by alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal barrier are reasonably considered as diseases of single origin. Maternal microbiota affects theformation of the innate immune system and the microbiota of the newborn, including intestinal commensal translocation during lactation. Deeper understanding of intestinal barrier mechanisms needs complex microbiological, immunological, pathophysiological, etc. investigations using adequate biomodels, including gnotobiotic animals.

  6. Quantification of Finger-Tapping Angle Based on Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurić-Jovičić, Milica; Jovičić, Nenad S; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Popović, Mirjana B; Kostić, Vladimir S; Djordjević, Antonije R

    2017-01-25

    We propose a novel simple method for quantitative and qualitative finger-tapping assessment based on miniature inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes) placed on the thumb and index-finger. We propose a simplified description of the finger tapping by using a single angle, describing rotation around a dominant axis. The method was verified on twelve subjects, who performed various tapping tasks, mimicking impaired patterns. The obtained tapping angles were compared with results of a motion capture camera system, demonstrating excellent accuracy. The root-mean-square (RMS) error between the two sets of data is, on average, below 4°, and the intraclass correlation coefficient is, on average, greater than 0.972. Data obtained by the proposed method may be used together with scores from clinical tests to enable a better diagnostic. Along with hardware simplicity, this makes the proposed method a promising candidate for use in clinical practice. Furthermore, our definition of the tapping angle can be applied to all tapping assessment systems.

  7. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a duplication (Dp) of the translocated segment and four inviable (white, W) ascospores with .... of this work, namely, the definition of breakpoint junction sequences of 12 ..... then our results would place supercontig 10.9 in distal. LG VIR. A third ...

  8. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M. [ECU School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  9. Nitrogen uptake and translocation by Chara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, C.P.; Escher, M.; Portielje, R.; Klein, de J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for above-ground and below-ground uptake and subsequent internal translocation of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) by the macroalga Chara spp. was investigated. In a two compartment experimental set-up separating above-ground and below-ground algal parts, the charophytes were exposed

  10. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  11. Evaluation of primary stability of self-tapping and non-self-tapping dental implants. A 12-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Aleksa; Calvo-Guirado, José Luís; Lazić, Zoran; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Ćalasan, Dejan; Guardia, Javier; Čolic, Snježana; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Gačić, Bojan; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Janjić, Bojan; Mišić, Tijana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between surgical techniques and implant macro-design (self-tapping/non-self-tapping) for the optimization of implant stability in the low-density bone present in the posterior maxilla using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). A total of 102 implants were studied. Fifty-six self-tapping BlueSkyBredent® (Bredent GmbH&Co.Kg®, Senden, Germany) and 56 non-self-tapping Standard Plus Straumann® (Institut Straumann AG®, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were placed in the posterior segment of the maxilla. Implants of both types were placed in sites prepared with either lateral bone-condensing or with bone-drilling techniques. Implant stability measurements were performed using RFA immediately after implant placement and weekly during a 12-week follow-up period. Both types of implants placed after bone condensing achieved significantly higher stability immediately after surgery, as well as during the entire 12-week observation period compared with those placed following bone drilling. After bone condensation, there were no significant differences in primary stability or in implant stability after the first week between both implant types. From 2 to 12 postoperative weeks, significantly higher stability was shown by self-tapping implants. After bone drilling, self-tapping implants achieved significantly higher stability than non-self-tapping implants during the entire follow-up period. The outcomes of the present study indicate that bone drilling is not an effective technique for improving implant stability and, following this technique, the use of self-tapping implants is highly recommended. Implant stability optimization in the soft bone can be achieved by lateral bone-condensing technique, regardless of implant macro-design. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Probing and Tapping: Are We Inserting Pedicle Screws Correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vishal; Mesfin, Addisu; Lee, Robert; Reigrut, Julie; Schmidt, John

    2016-11-01

    Although there are a significant number of research publications on the topic of bone morphology and the strength of bone, the clinical significance of a failed pedicle screw is often revision surgery and the potential for further postoperative complications; especially in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this report is to quantify the mechanical strength of the foam-screw interface by assessing probe/pilot hole diameter and tap sizes using statistically relevant sample sizes under highly controlled test conditions. The study consisted of two experiments and used up to three different densities of reference-grade polyurethane foam (ASTM 1839), including 0.16, 0.24, and 0.32 g/cm 3 . All screws and rods were provided by K2M Inc. and screws were inserted to a depth of 25 mm. A series of pilot holes, 1.5, 2.2, 2.7, 3.2, 3.7, 4.2, 5.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter were drilled through the entire depth of the material. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 720). A 3.0-mm pilot hole was drilled and tapped with: no tap, 3.5-, 4.5-, 5.5-, and 6.5-mm taps. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 300). The size of the probe/pilot hole had a nonlinear, parabolic effect on pullout strength. This shape suggests an optimum-sized probe hole for a given size pedicle screw. Too large or too small of a probe hole causes a rapid falloff in pullout strength. The tap data demonstrated that not tapping and undertapping by two or three sizes did not significantly alter the pullout strength of the screws. The data showed an exponential falloff of pullout strength when as tap size increased to the diameter of the screw. In the current study, the data show that an ideal pilot hole size half the diameter of the screw is a starting point. Also, that if tapping was necessary, to use a tap two sizes smaller than the screw being implanted. A similar optimum pilot hole or tap size may be

  13. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Raveton, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.raveton@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► This study compares uptake/translocation of organochlorine congeners in macrophytes. ► First, root OC uptake was strongly linked with the partitioning/diffusion process. ► With time exposure, bioconcentration increased with OC solubility and volatility. ► Translocation was linked to the combination of water flow and vapor flux transfers. ► The most volatile OCs might be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces. -- Abstract: Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γHCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK{sub ow}). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, γHCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK{sub ow}. Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. {sup 14}C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p = 0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility.

  14. Differing Dynamics of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Coordination: Two-finger and Four-Finger Tapping Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kodama

    Full Text Available Finger-tapping experiments were conducted to examine whether the dynamics of intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems can be described equally by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model, which describes inter-limb coordination dynamics. This article reports the results of finger-tapping experiments conducted in both systems. Two within-subject factors were investigated: the phase mode and the number of fingers. In the intrapersonal experiment (Experiment 1, the participants were asked to tap, paced by a gradually hastening auditory metronome, looking at their fingers moving, using the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. In the interpersonal experiment (Experiment 2, pairs of participants performed the task while each participant used the outside hand, tapping with the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. Some results did not agree with the HKB model predictions. First, from Experiment 1, no significant difference was observed in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase modes in the two finger condition. Second, from Experiment 2, no significant difference was found in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase mode in the four-finger condition. From these findings, different coordination dynamics were inferred between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems against prediction from the previous studies. Results were discussed according to differences between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems in the availability of perceptual information and the complexity in the interaction between limbs derived from a nested structure.

  15. Beam polarimetry in the CBELSA/TAPS experiment; Strahlpolarimetrie am CBELSA/TAPS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, Susanne

    2010-02-19

    In the identification of nucleon resonances polarization observables play an important role. For the photoproduction experiments of the CBELAS/TAPS assembly at the accelerator facility ELSA in the framework of this thesis linearly and circularly polarized were realized and prepared. Linearly polarized photons were produced on a diamond crystal under usage of the coherent bremsstrahlung. By alignment of the crystal in the bremsstrahlung coherent intensity increasements in form of pronounced edges could be generated. The number of the polarized photons lying in the increasement determines in comparison to the incoherently produced background the degree of polarization. The position of the coherent edge could be tuned by means of control distributions to an arbitrary position in the measured energy spectrum as well as the degree of polarization of the photons optimized. For the production of circularly polarized photons longitudinally polarized electrons on the bremsstrahlung target are required. The polarization transfer of the bremsstrahlung process is uniquely given by the QED, so that the degree of polarization of the photons can be determined via a measurement of the electron-beam polarization. With this goal a for the first time in the CBELSA/TAPS applied momentum-selecting Moeller polarimeter was developed and integrated in the photon-tagging facility. Via a change of the beam helicity the counting-rate asymmetry for parallely and antiparallely beam and target electrons was measured and the degree of polarization of the electrons at beam energies of 2350 MeV determined to typically above 60%. By means of dedicated test measurements and simulations the functionality of the Moeller polarimeter was checked and the relative systematic uncertainty determined to 1%. Since 2007 the Moeller polarimeter essential for the double-polarization experiments is in current operation. Finally a method was sketched, in which via the known cross-section asymmetry of the

  16. Computerized measures of finger tapping: reliability, malingering and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Kerry A; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed computerized finger tapping metrics in four experiments. Experiment 1 showed tapping-rate differences associated with hand dominance, digits, sex, and fatigue that replicated those seen in a previous, large-scale community sample. Experiment 2 revealed test-retest correlations (r = .91) that exceeded those reported in previous tapping studies. Experiment 3 investigated subjects simulating symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI); 62% of malingering subjects produced abnormally slow tapping rates. A tapping-rate malingering index, based on rate-independent tapping patterns, provided confirmatory evidence of malingering in 48% of the subjects with abnormal tapping rates. Experiment 4 compared tapping in 24 patients with mild TBI (mTBI) and a matched control group; mTBI patients showed slowed tapping without evidence of malingering. Computerized finger tapping measures are reliable measures of motor speed, useful in detecting subjects performing with suboptimal effort, and are sensitive to motor abnormalities following mTBI.

  17. Monitoring translocations by M-FISH and three-color FISH painting techniques. A study of two radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, AL.

    2007-01-01

    To compare translocation rate using either M-FISH or FISH-3 in two patients treated for head and neck cancer, with a view to retrospective dosimetry. Translocation analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from blood samples taken at different times during the radiotherapy (0 Gy, 12 Gy and 50 Gy) and a few months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). Estimated translocation yield varied according to the FISH technique used. At 50 Gy and follow-up points, the translocation yields were higher with FISH-3 than with M-FISH. This difference can be attributed to three events. First, an increase in complex aberrations was observed for 50 Gy and follow-up points compared with 0 Gy and 12 Gy points. Second, at the end of treatment for patient A, involvement of chromosomes 2, 4, 12 in translocations was less than expected according to the Lucas formula. Third, a clone bearing a translocation involving a FISH-3 painted chromosome was detected. More translocations were detected with M-FISH than with FISH-3, and so M-FISH is expected to improve the accuracy of chromosome aberration analyses in some situations. (author)

  18. Neural correlates of cerebellar-mediated timing during finger tapping in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Lindie; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Robertson, Frances C; Peterson, Bradley S; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2015-01-01

    Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC), an elemental form of learning, is among the most sensitive indicators of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The cerebellum plays a key role in maintaining timed movements with millisecond accuracy required for EBC. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to identify cerebellar regions that mediate timing in healthy controls and the degree to which these areas are also recruited in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. fMRI data were acquired during an auditory rhythmic/non-rhythmic finger tapping task. We present results for 17 children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS, 17 heavily exposed (HE) nonsyndromal children and 16 non- or minimally exposed controls. Controls showed greater cerebellar blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation in right crus I, vermis IV-VI, and right lobule VI during rhythmic than non-rhythmic finger tapping. The alcohol-exposed children showed smaller activation increases during rhythmic tapping in right crus I than the control children and the most severely affected children with either FAS or PFAS showed smaller increases in vermis IV-V. Higher levels of maternal alcohol intake per occasion during pregnancy were associated with reduced activation increases during rhythmic tapping in all four regions associated with rhythmic tapping in controls. The four cerebellar areas activated by the controls more during rhythmic than non-rhythmic tapping have been implicated in the production of timed responses in several previous studies. These data provide evidence linking binge-like drinking during pregnancy to poorer function in cerebellar regions involved in timing and somatosensory processing needed for complex tasks requiring precise timing.

  19. Multi-perspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael R.; Alejo, Jose L.; Altman, Roger B.; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the messenger RNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of transfer and messenger RNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we have tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations reveal direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct, late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution is rate-determining to the translocation mechanism. These steps involve intra-molecular events within the EFG(GDP)-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA’s movement into its final post-translocation position. PMID:26926435

  20. Multiperspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael R; Alejo, Jose L; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C

    2016-04-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the mRNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of tRNA and mRNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations revealed direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution determines the rate of translocation. These steps involve intramolecular events within the EF-G-GDP-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small-subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA's movement into its final post-translocation position.

  1. Insulin-induced translocation of IR to the nucleus in insulin responsive cells requires a nuclear translocation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Dov; Horovitz-Fried, Miriam; Brutman-Barazani, Tamar; Sampson, Sanford R

    2018-04-01

    Insulin binding to its cell surface receptor (IR) activates a cascade of events leading to its biological effects. The Insulin-IR complex is rapidly internalized and then is either recycled back to the plasma membrane or sent to lysosomes for degradation. Although most of the receptor is recycled or degraded, a small amount may escape this pathway and migrate to the nucleus of the cell where it might be important in promulgation of receptor signals. In this study we explored the mechanism by which insulin induces IR translocation to the cell nucleus. Experiments were performed cultured L6 myoblasts, AML liver cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin treatment induced a rapid increase in nuclear IR protein levels within 2 to 5 min. Treatment with WGA, an inhibitor of nuclear import, reduced insulin-induced increases nuclear IR protein; IR was, however, translocated to a perinuclear location. Bioinformatics tools predicted a potential nuclear localization sequence (NLS) on IR. Immunofluorescence staining showed that a point mutation on the predicted NLS blocked insulin-induced IR nuclear translocation. In addition, blockade of nuclear IR activation in isolated nuclei by an IR blocking antibody abrogated insulin-induced increases in IR tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear PKCδ levels. Furthermore, over expression of mutated IR reduced insulin-induced glucose uptake and PKB phosphorylation. When added to isolated nuclei, insulin induced IR phosphorylation but had no effect on nuclear IR protein levels. These results raise questions regarding the possible role of nuclear IR in IR signaling and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Girl with a De Novo X;19 Balanced Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffi, Marcelo Razera; de Souza, Deise Helena; Bicudo da Silva, Rosana Aparecida; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    Balanced X-autosome translocations are rare, and female carriers are a clinically heterogeneous group of patients, with phenotypically normal women, history of recurrent miscarriage, gonadal dysfunction, X-linked disorders or congenital abnormalities, and/or developmental delay. We investigated a patient with a de novo X;19 translocation. The six-year-old girl has been evaluated due to hyperactivity, social interaction impairment, stereotypic and repetitive use of language with echolalia, failure to follow parents/caretakers orders, inconsolable outbursts, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. The girl has normal cognitive function. Her measurements are within normal range, and no other abnormalities were found during physical, neurological, or dysmorphological examinations. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation, with the karyotype 46,X,t(X;19)(p21.2;q13.4). Replication banding showed a clear preference for inactivation of the normal X chromosome. The translocation was confirmed by FISH and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY). Although abnormal phenotypes associated with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements may be the result of disruption of a gene at one of the breakpoints, submicroscopic deletion or duplication, or a position effect, X; autosomal translocations are associated with additional unique risk factors including X-linked disorders, functional autosomal monosomy, or functional X chromosome disomy resulting from the complex X-inactivation process. PMID:23074688

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Girl with a De Novo X;19 Balanced Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Razera Baruffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanced X-autosome translocations are rare, and female carriers are a clinically heterogeneous group of patients, with phenotypically normal women, history of recurrent miscarriage, gonadal dysfunction, X-linked disorders or congenital abnormalities, and/or developmental delay. We investigated a patient with a de novo X;19 translocation. The six-year-old girl has been evaluated due to hyperactivity, social interaction impairment, stereotypic and repetitive use of language with echolalia, failure to follow parents/caretakers orders, inconsolable outbursts, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. The girl has normal cognitive function. Her measurements are within normal range, and no other abnormalities were found during physical, neurological, or dysmorphological examinations. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation, with the karyotype 46,X,t(X;19(p21.2;q13.4. Replication banding showed a clear preference for inactivation of the normal X chromosome. The translocation was confirmed by FISH and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY. Although abnormal phenotypes associated with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements may be the result of disruption of a gene at one of the breakpoints, submicroscopic deletion or duplication, or a position effect, X; autosomal translocations are associated with additional unique risk factors including X-linked disorders, functional autosomal monosomy, or functional X chromosome disomy resulting from the complex X-inactivation process.

  4. Preimplantation genetic haplotyping a new application for diagnosis of translocation carrier's embryos- preliminary observations of two robertsonian translocation carrier families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamash, Jana; Rienstein, Shlomit; Wolf-Reznik, Haike; Pras, Elon; Dekel, Michal; Litmanovitch, Talia; Brengauz, Masha; Goldman, Boleslav; Yonath, Hagith; Dor, Jehoshua; Levron, Jacob; Aviram-Goldring, Ayala

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (PGD-FISH) is currently the most common reproductive solution for translocation carriers. However, this technique usually does not differentiate between embryos carrying the balanced form of the translocation and those carrying the homologous normal chromosomes. We developed a new application of preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) that can identify and distinguish between all forms of the translocation status in cleavage stage embryos prior to implantation. Polymorphic markers were used to identify and differentiate between the alleles that carry the translocation and those that are the normal homologous chromosomes. Embryos from two families of robertsonian translocation carriers were successfully analyzed using polymorphic markers haplotyping. Our preliminary results indicate that the PGH is capable of distinguishing between normal, balanced and unbalanced translocation carrier embryos. This method will improve PGD and will enable translocation carriers to avoid transmission of the translocation and the associated medical complications to offspring.

  5. Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in unsterilized tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, R B; Wadowsky, R M

    1982-06-01

    Naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila, an environmental isolate which had not been grown on artificial medium, was tested for the ability to multiply in tap water. A showerhead containing L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria was immersed in nonsterile tap water supplying this fixture. Also L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria were sedimented from tap water from a surgical intensive care unit. This bacterial suspension was inoculated into tap water from our laboratory. The legionellae in both suspensions multiplied in the tap water at 32, 37, and 42 degrees C. The non-Legionellaceae bacteria multiplied at 25, 32, and 37 degrees C. A water sample which was collected from the bottom of a hot water tank was found to contain L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria. These legionellae also multiplied when the water sample was incubated at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that L. pneumophila may multiply in warm water environments such as hot water plumbing fixtures, hot water tanks, and cooling towers.

  7. Removal of Fe(II) from tap water by electrocoagulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Solanki, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Purkait, M.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)], E-mail: mihir@iitg.ernet.in

    2008-06-30

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical technique for water treatment. In this work electrocoagulation (with aluminum as electrodes) was studied for iron Fe(II) removal from aqueous medium. Different concentration of Fe(II) solution in tap water was considered for the experiment. During EC process, various amorphous aluminum hydroxides complexes with high sorption capacity were formed. The removal of Fe(II) was consisted of two principal steps; (a) oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and (b) subsequent removal of Fe(III) by the freshly formed aluminum hydroxides complexes by adsorption/surface complexation followed by precipitation. Experiments were carried out with different current densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 A/m{sup 2}. It was observed that the removal of Fe(II) increases with current densities. Inter electrode distance was varied from 0.005 to 0.02 m and was found that least inter electrode distance is suitable in order to achieve higher Fe(II) removal. Other parameters such as conductivity, pH and salt concentration were kept constant as per tap water quality. Satisfactory iron removal of around 99.2% was obtained at the end of 35 min of operation from the initial concentration of 25 mg/L Fe(II). Iron concentration in the solution was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. By products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed by SEM image and corresponding elemental analysis (EDAX). Cost estimation for the electrocoagulation was adopted and explained well. Up to 15 mg/L of initial Fe(II) concentration, the optimum total cost was 6.05 US$/m{sup 3}. The EC process for removing Fe(II) from tap water is expected to be adaptable for household use.

  8. Removal of Fe(II) from tap water by electrocoagulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.; Solanki, H.; Purkait, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical technique for water treatment. In this work electrocoagulation (with aluminum as electrodes) was studied for iron Fe(II) removal from aqueous medium. Different concentration of Fe(II) solution in tap water was considered for the experiment. During EC process, various amorphous aluminum hydroxides complexes with high sorption capacity were formed. The removal of Fe(II) was consisted of two principal steps; (a) oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and (b) subsequent removal of Fe(III) by the freshly formed aluminum hydroxides complexes by adsorption/surface complexation followed by precipitation. Experiments were carried out with different current densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 A/m 2 . It was observed that the removal of Fe(II) increases with current densities. Inter electrode distance was varied from 0.005 to 0.02 m and was found that least inter electrode distance is suitable in order to achieve higher Fe(II) removal. Other parameters such as conductivity, pH and salt concentration were kept constant as per tap water quality. Satisfactory iron removal of around 99.2% was obtained at the end of 35 min of operation from the initial concentration of 25 mg/L Fe(II). Iron concentration in the solution was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. By products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed by SEM image and corresponding elemental analysis (EDAX). Cost estimation for the electrocoagulation was adopted and explained well. Up to 15 mg/L of initial Fe(II) concentration, the optimum total cost was 6.05 US$/m 3 . The EC process for removing Fe(II) from tap water is expected to be adaptable for household use

  9. Accurate Breakpoint Mapping in Apparently Balanced Translocation Families with Discordant Phenotypes Using Whole Genome Mate-Pair Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristidou, Constantia; Koufaris, Costas; Theodosiou, Athina

    2017-01-01

    Familial apparently balanced translocations (ABTs) segregating with discordant phenotypes are extremely challenging for interpretation and counseling due to the scarcity of publications and lack of routine techniques for quick investigation. Recently, next generation sequencing has emerged...... and non-affected members carrying the same translocations. PTCD1, ATP5J2-PTCD1, CADPS2, and STPG1 were disrupted by the translocations in three families, rendering them initially as possible disease candidate genes. However, subsequent mutation screening and structural variant analysis did not reveal any...... can also be used in routine clinical investigation of ABT cases. Unlike de novo translocations, no associations were determined here between familial two-way ABTs and the phenotype of the affected members, in which the presence of cryptic imbalances and complex chromosomal rearrangements has been...

  10. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  11. Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, M A; Kale, I T; Cöl, C; Tekeli, A; Tanik, A; Köksoy, C

    1999-01-01

    Significant bacterial translocation was demonstrated following experimental biliary obstruction, however very little is known about the importance and the prevalence of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundice patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the concept of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundiced patients and its clinical importance. Twenty-one patients requiring laparotomy for obstructive jaundice (group I) and thirty patients operated on electively mainly for chronic cholecystitis (group II) were studied. Peritoneal swab, mesenteric lymph node, portal venous blood, liver wedge biopsy and bile were sampled for culture immediately after opening the peritoneum. Additionally, peripheral blood samples were taken pre- and post-operatively from all patients. Post-operatively, patients were monitored for infectious complications. The mean serum bilirubin concentration, gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in jaundiced patients before therapeutic intervention were significantly higher than in control patients. Five patients demonstrated bacterial translocation in group I (24%), whereas only one did so in group II (3.5%, p jaundice significantly promotes bacterial translocation in humans, however, its clinical importance has yet to be defined.

  12. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-03-09

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners' tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing.

  13. A viral, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent, high affinity ligand with alternative interactions endogenously presented by the nonclassical human leukocyte antigen E class I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; Infantes, Susana; Abia, David; Barnea, Eilon; Beer, Ilan; García, Ruth; Lasala, Fátima; Jiménez, Mercedes; Mir, Carmen; Morreale, Antonio; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) enables the flow of viral peptides generated in the cytosol by the proteasome and other proteases to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Later, these peptide-HLA class I complexes can be recognized by CD8(+) lymphocytes. Cancerous cells and infected cells in which TAP is blocked, as well as individuals with unusable TAP complexes, are able to present peptides on HLA class I by generating them through TAP-independent processing pathways. Here, we identify a physiologically processed HLA-E ligand derived from the D8L protein in TAP-deficient vaccinia virus-infected cells. This natural high affinity HLA-E class I ligand uses alternative interactions to the anchor motifs previously described to be presented on nonclassical HLA class I molecules. This octameric peptide was also presented on HLA-Cw1 with similar binding affinity on both classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In addition, this viral peptide inhibits HLA-E-mediated cytolysis by natural killer cells. Comparison between the amino acid sequences of the presenting HLA-E and HLA-Cw1 alleles revealed a shared structural motif in both HLA class molecules, which could be related to their observed similar cross-reactivity affinities. This motif consists of several residues located on the floor of the peptide-binding site. These data expand the role of HLA-E as an antigen-presenting molecule.

  14. TAP II Beamforming System Software Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    recommended. Ten averages may be sufficient for some wave studies . 2.3.1.4 (U) The TYPE OF WEIGHTING WINDOW is selected according to the characteristics...and FIFF1T), the AP s ource code assembler (APAL), the AP Simulator ( APSIM ), and the AP software Debug program (IIWDBUG). UNCLASSIFiED...PROCESSING. Thia is a moderately complex pro gram uhich utilizes the AP-120B array processor. For detailed descrip- "tion of the process, study of the

  15. Radiation induced reciprocal translocations and inversions in anopheles albimanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, P.E.; Seawright, J.A.; Benedict, M.Q.; Narang, S.

    1982-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations and inversions were induced in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann by irradiation of males with X rays. A total of 1669 sperm were assayed, and 175 new aberrations were identified as follows: 102 reciprocal translocations (67 autosomal and 35 sex-linked), 45 pericentric inversions, and 28 paracentric inversions. Eleven of the translocations were nearly whole-arm interchanges, and these were selected for the construction of 'capture systems' for compound chromosomes. Two double-heterozygous translocation strains and four homozygous translocation strains were established. Anopheles albimanus females were irradiated, and a pseudolinkage scheme involving mutant markers was employed to identify reciprocal translocations. The irradiation of females was very inefficient; only one translocation was recovered from 1080 ova tested

  16. Extended topologies of tapped-inductor Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Miao; Li, Ding; Gao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two distinct types of tapped-inductor Z-source impedance networks are proposed for implementing high performance voltage-type inverters topologies with strong voltage boost inversion abilities and less components' stresses. All proposed topologies can in principle be unified...... into a generic network entity, which is termed hybrid-source tapped-inductor impedance network. The resulting novel Z-source inverters would have a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages that currently have not yet been investigated. Theoretical analysis for explaining these operating features...

  17. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Physical insights into the blood-brain barrier translocation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Müller, Erich A.; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-08-01

    The number of individuals suffering from diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) is growing with an aging population. While candidate drugs for many of these diseases are available, most of these pharmaceutical agents cannot reach the brain rendering most of the drug therapies that target the CNS inefficient. The reason is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a complex and dynamic interface that controls the influx and efflux of substances through a number of different translocation mechanisms. Here, we present these mechanisms providing, also, the necessary background related to the morphology and various characteristics of the BBB. Moreover, we discuss various numerical and simulation approaches used to study the BBB, and possible future directions based on multi-scale methods. We anticipate that this review will motivate multi-disciplinary research on the BBB aiming at the design of effective drug therapies.

  20. Chromosomal Translocations in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae-Facilitators of Adaptive Radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available A macrogenomic investigation of a Holarctic clade of black flies-the Simulium cholodkovskii lineage-provided a platform to explore the implications of a unique, synapomorphic whole-arm interchange in the evolution of black flies. Nearly 60 structural rearrangements were discovered in the polytene complement of the lineage, including 15 common to all 138 analyzed individuals, relative to the central sequence for the entire subgenus Simulium. Three species were represented, of which two Palearctic entities (Simulium cholodkovskii and S. decimatum were sympatric; an absence of hybrids confirmed their reproductive isolation. A third (Nearctic entity had nonhomologous sex chromosomes, relative to the other species, and is considered a separate species, for which the name Simulium nigricoxum is revalidated. A cytophylogeny is inferred and indicates that the two Palearctic taxa are sister species and these, in turn, are the sister group of the Nearctic species. The rise of the S. cholodkovskii lineage encompassed complex chromosomal and genomic restructuring phenomena associated with speciation in black flies, viz. expression of one and the same rearrangement as polymorphic, fixed, or sex linked in different species; taxon-specific differentiation of sex chromosomes; and reciprocal translocation of chromosome arms. The translocation is hypothesized to have occurred early in male spermatogonia, with the translocated chromosomal complement being transmitted to the X- and Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, resulting in alternate disjunction of viable F1 translocation heterozygotes and the eventual formation of more viable and selectable F2 translocation homozygous progeny. Of 11 or 12 independently derived whole-arm interchanges known in the family Simuliidae, at least six are associated with subsequent speciation events, suggesting a facilitating role of translocations in adaptive radiations. The findings are discussed in the context of potential

  1. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    Introduction: Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of

  2. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar

  3. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen QualityLaura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan51California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  4. Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of Gum Producing Acacia Species in the Somali Region, Southeastern Ethiopia. ... Therefore, promotion of gum extraction in the Somali Region both for economic benefit of the community and sustainable management of the fragile ecosystem is recommended.

  5. Economic benefits flow from taps | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... Villagers were unhappy about the time that women and children spent hauling ... Sun Qiu believes the end result is a better quality of life. ... tap water show the wisdom of communities managing their natural resources based ...

  6. Improving tapping mode atomic force microscopy with piezoelectric cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Manning, L.; Sulchek, T.; Adams, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes improvements to the speed, simplicity and versatility of tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Improvements are enabled by a piezoelectric microcantilever with a sharp silicon tip and a thin, low-stress zinc oxide (ZnO) film to both actuate and sense deflection. First, we demonstrate self-sensing tapping mode without laser detection. Similar previous work has been limited by unoptimized probe tips, cantilever thicknesses, and stress in the piezoelectric films. Tests indicate self-sensing amplitude resolution is as good or better than optical detection, with double the sensitivity, using the same type of cantilever. Second, we demonstrate self-oscillating tapping mode AFM. The cantilever's integrated piezoelectric film serves as the frequency-determining component of an oscillator circuit. The circuit oscillates the cantilever near its resonant frequency by applying positive feedback to the film. We present images and force-distance curves using both self-sensing and self-oscillating techniques. Finally, high-speed tapping mode imaging in liquid, where electric components of the cantilever require insulation, is demonstrated. Three cantilever coating schemes are tested. The insulated microactuator is used to simultaneously vibrate and actuate the cantilever over topographical features. Preliminary images in water and saline are presented, including one taken at 75.5 μm/s - a threefold improvement in bandwidth versus conventional piezotube actuators

  7. Hydrogen isotopes identification with the electromagnetic calorimeter TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulewicz, T.; Aphecetche, L.; Charbonnier, Y.; Delagrange, H.; Martinez, G.; Schutz, Y.; Marques, F.M.; Diaz, J.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    A new method has been developed to identify protons and more generally charged massive particles, like charged pions, hydrogen isotopes and heavier particles reaching the TAPS detector. The method was tested on events from the reaction Ar+Ca at 180 A.MeV. (K.A.)

  8. Capillary forces in tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitzler, L.; Herminghaus, S.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the relative humidity on amplitude and phase of the cantilever oscillation while operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) in the tapping mode. If the free oscillation amplitude A0 exceeds a certain critical amplitude Ac, the amplitude- and phase-distance curves

  9. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  10. Assessment of Working Scientifically--The TAPS Focused Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kendra

    2018-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) Focused Assessment approach embeds assessment within normal classroom science activities. Essentially, a Focused Assessment is a lesson plan for a science inquiry, with an identified focus for assessment and guidance on how to interpret the children's responses in relation to expectations for that…

  11. Media Leader Tapped to Head New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    When Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg sought a leader for the New York City schools in 2002, his outside-the-box choice was Joel I. Klein, a former assistant U.S. attorney general who had no experience as a school administrator. Eight years later, in seeking a replacement for Mr. Klein, Mr. Bloomberg has tapped yet another person from outside education:…

  12. Gulf digs in to tap a major uranium orebody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The progress and future plans of Gulf Mineral Resources Co. for tapping and developing a major uranium orebody via two concrete-lined shafts in the Grants uranium mineral belt in New Mexico are discussed. The mineralogy of the Grants belt is discussed as it relates to the Gulf development project. Numerous pictures of the operation are included

  13. CORE Organic II - Tapping into Europe's organic Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,

    2012-01-01

    Organic food production has continued to grow in popularity, partly because it taps into a number ofcontemporary consumer concerns such as animal welfare and healthy eating. A new project aims tocapitalise on this demand by ensuring better research coordination across Europe.

  14. Multiplication of Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Wilson, T M; Kapp, N J; West, A J; Kuchta, J M; States, S J; Dowling, J N; Yee, R B

    1991-07-01

    A model was developed to study the multiplication of various Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis. Tap water cultures prepared with the following components were suitable for the multiplication studies: Legionella spp., 10(3) CFU/ml; H. vermiformis, 10(4.4) cysts per ml; and killed Pseudomonas paucimobilis, 10(9) cells per ml. Cocultures were incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 1 week. The following legionellae multiplied in tap water cocultures in each replicate experiment: L. bozemanii (WIGA strain), L. dumoffii (NY-23 and TX-KL strains), L. micdadei (two environmental strains), and L. pneumophila (six environmental strains and one clinical isolate). Growth yield values for these strains were 0.6 to 3.5 log CFU/ml. Legionellae which did not multiply in replicate cocultures included L. anisa (one strain), L. bozemanii (MI-15 strain), L. micdadei (a clinical isolate), L. longbeachae, (one strain), and L. pneumophila (Philadelphia 1 strain). L. gormanii and an environmental isolate of L. pneumophila multiplied in only one of three experiments. None of the legionellae multiplied in tap water containing only killed P. paucimobilis. The mean growth yield (+/- standard deviation) of H. vermiformis in the cocultures was 1.2 +/- 0.1 log units/ml. H. vermiformis supports multiplication of only particular strains of legionellae, some of which are from diverse origins.

  15. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  16. Eliciting Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials by Bone-Conducted Vibration via Various Tapping Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Chen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) via tapping at various skull sites in healthy subjects and patients with vestibular migraine (VM) to optimize stimulation conditions. Twenty healthy subjects underwent a series of cVEMP tests by BCV tapping via a minishaker at the Fz (forehead), Cz (vertex), and inion (occiput) sites in a randomized order of tapping sites. Another 20 VM patients were also enrolled in this study for comparison. All 20 healthy subjects had clear BCV cVEMPs when tapping at the inion (100%) or Cz (100%), but not at the Fz (75%). Mean p13 and n23 latencies from the Cz tapping were significantly longer than those from the Fz tapping, but not longer than those from the inion tapping. Unlike healthy subjects, tapping at the Cz (95%) elicited a significantly higher response rate of present cVEMPs than tapping at the inion (78%) in 20 VM patients (40 ears), because seven of nine VM ears with absent cVEMPs by inion tapping turned out to be present cVEMPs by Cz tapping. While both inion and Cz tapping elicited 100% response rate of cVEMPs for healthy individuals, Cz tapping had a higher response rate of cVEMPs than inion tapping for the VM group. In cases of total loss of saccular function, cVEMPs could not be activated by either inion or Cz tapping. However, if residual saccular function remains, Cz tapping may activate saccular afferents more efficiently than inion tapping.

  17. BIOMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF CERVICAL SCREWS TAPPING AND DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia; Rosa, Rodrigo César; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Albuquerque de Paula, Francisco José; Volpon, José Batista; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2009-01-01

    To assess if the screw design (self-drilling/self-tapping) and the pilot hole tapping could affect the insertion torque and screw pullout strength of the screw used in anterior fixation of the cervical spine. Forty self-tapping screws and 20 self-drilling screws were inserted into 10 models of artificial bone and 10 cervical vertebrae of sheep. The studied parameters were the insertion torque and pullout strength. The following groups were created: Group I-self-tapping screw insertion after pilot hole drilling and tapping; Group II-self-tapping screw insertion after pilot hole drilling without tapping; Group III-self-drilling screw insertion without drilling and tapping. In Groups I and II, the pilot hole had 14.0 mm in depth and was made with a 3mmn drill, while tapping was made with a 4mm tap. The insertion torque was measured and the pullout test was performed. The comparison between groups was made considering the mean insertion torque and the maximum mean pullout strength with the variance analysis (ANOVA; p≤ 0.05). Previous drilling and tapping of pilot hole significantly decreased the insertion torque and the pullout strength. The insertion torque and pullout strength of self-drilling screws were significantly higher when compared to self-tapping screws inserted after pilot hole tapping.

  18. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Spurgin, Lewis G; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-05-01

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity, and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall, have received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity over a 23-year period in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We found low and stable microsatellite and MHC diversity in the source population and evidence for only a limited loss of either type of diversity in the four new populations. However, we found evidence of significant, but low to moderate, genetic differentiation between populations, with those populations established with fewer founders clustering separately. Stochastic genetic capture (as opposed to subsequent drift) was the main determinant of translocated population diversity. Furthermore, a strong correlation between microsatellite and MHC differentiation suggested that neutral processes outweighed selection in shaping MHC diversity in the new populations. These data provide important insights into how to optimize the use of translocation as a conservation tool. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of age, task, and frequency on variability of finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommervoll, Yngve; Ettema, Gertjan; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2011-10-01

    The goal was to assess whether prior studies might have overestimated performance variability in older adults in dual task conditions by relying on primary motor tasks that are not constant with aging. 30 younger and 31 older adults performed a bimanual tapping task at four different frequencies in isolation or concurrently with a secondary task. Results showed that performance of younger and older adults was not significantly different in performing the tapping task at all frequencies and with either secondary task, as indicated by mean tapping performance and low number of errors in the secondary tasks. Both groups showed increased variability as tapping frequency increased and with the presence of a secondary task. Tapping concurrently while reading words increased tapping variability more than tapping concurrently while naming colours. Although older participants' performances were overall more variable, no interaction effects with age were found and at the highest frequencies of tapping, younger and older participants did not differ in performance.

  20. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  1. Longing Itineraries: Building the Translocal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López Angel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration has reshaped social practices, the sense of belonging has been rethought, and the membership is renegotiated and contended; this is why strategies for their sustainability have been generated. The translocal community operates through multilocated relationships that reveal the ways in which migrants are adapting to the new demands of the community. We emphasize the emotional impulse of nostalgia as one of the vehicles of sustainability for the community. The community is redefined and understood in a set of socio-cultural relationships its members generate, and where the locality is not central, but the connection. A new dimension of the social community space is not just the community gathered in a specific place, but also that agreements, commitments, and acknowledgments are exhibited and settled in the cyberspace; this cyberspace gives cohesion and brings a dynamic element to preserve the community, despite the fact that it is even less concrete than the spatial notion of territory. Facebook, YouTube and a blog are the web platforms of the virtual space where "neighbors, compatriots and citizens" (categories of ascription from the migration get together, where there is a reproduction of social practices (even the most ancient and fundamental ones, to give a new dimension to a translocal, multilocated and ciberlocated community.

  2. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  3. Arsenic Uptake and Translocation in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nannan; Wang, Jingchao; Song, Won-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic metalloid that is classified as a non-threshold class-1 carcinogen. Millions of people worldwide suffer from As toxicity due to the intake of As-contaminated drinking water and food. Reducing the As concentration in drinking water and food is thus of critical importance. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with As and the reduction of As contamination in food depend on a detailed understanding of As uptake and transport in plants. As transporters play essential roles in As uptake, translocation and accumulation in plant cells. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of As transport in plants, with an emphasis on As uptake, mechanisms of As resistance and the long-distance translocation of As, especially the accumulation of As in grains through phloem-mediated transport. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Interferon Alpha Signalling and Its Relevance for the Upregulatory Effect of Transporter Proteins Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP in Patients with Malignant Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Heise

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFNα is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1 is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling.We could show that IFNα upregulates TAP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with malignant melanoma receiving adjuvant high-dose immunotherapy. IFNα also induced expression of TAP1 in mouse blood and tumor tissue and suppressed the formation of melanoma metastasis in an in vivo B16 tumor model. Besides its expression, TAP binding affinity and transport activity is induced by IFNα in human monocytic THP1 cells. Furthermore, our data revealed that IFNα clearly activates phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 in THP1 and A375 melanoma cells. Inhibition of Janus kinases abrogates the IFNα-induced TAP1 expression. These results suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is a crucial mediator for TAP1 expression elicited by IFNα treatment.We suppose that silencing of TAP1 expression provides tumor cells with a mechanism to escape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. The observed benefit of IFNα treatment could be mediated by the shown dual effect of TAP1 upregulation in antigen presenting cells on the one hand, and of TAP1 upregulation in 'silent' metastatic melanoma cells on the other hand. In conclusion, this work contributes to a better understanding of the mode of action of IFNα which is essential to identify markers to predict, assess and monitor therapeutic

  5. Interferon Alpha Signalling and Its Relevance for the Upregulatory Effect of Transporter Proteins Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP) in Patients with Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensslen, Silke; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Joussen, Sylvia; Beer, Daniel; Abele, Rupert; Plewnia, Gabriele; Tampé, Robert; Merk, Hans F.; Hermanns, Heike M.; Baron, Jens M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interferon alpha (IFNα) is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1) is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling. Results We could show that IFNα upregulates TAP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with malignant melanoma receiving adjuvant high-dose immunotherapy. IFNα also induced expression of TAP1 in mouse blood and tumor tissue and suppressed the formation of melanoma metastasis in an in vivo B16 tumor model. Besides its expression, TAP binding affinity and transport activity is induced by IFNα in human monocytic THP1 cells. Furthermore, our data revealed that IFNα clearly activates phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 in THP1 and A375 melanoma cells. Inhibition of Janus kinases abrogates the IFNα-induced TAP1 expression. These results suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is a crucial mediator for TAP1 expression elicited by IFNα treatment. Conclusion We suppose that silencing of TAP1 expression provides tumor cells with a mechanism to escape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. The observed benefit of IFNα treatment could be mediated by the shown dual effect of TAP1 upregulation in antigen presenting cells on the one hand, and of TAP1 upregulation in ‘silent’ metastatic melanoma cells on the other hand. In conclusion, this work contributes to a better understanding of the mode of action of IFNα which is essential to identify markers to predict, assess and

  6. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  7. An estimation of finger-tapping rates and load capacities and the effects of various factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut; İşeri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the finger-tapping rates and finger load capacities of eight fingers (excluding thumbs) for a healthy adult population and investigate the effects of various factors on tapping rate. Finger-tapping rate, the total number of finger taps per unit of time, can be used as a design parameter of various products and also as a psychomotor test for evaluating patients with neurologic problems. A 1-min tapping task was performed by 148 participants with maximum volitional tempo for each of eight fingers. For each of the tapping tasks, the participant with the corresponding finger tapped the associated key in the standard position on the home row of a conventional keyboard for touch typing. The index and middle fingers were the fastest fingers for both hands, and little fingers the slowest. All dominant-hand fingers, except little finger, had higher tapping rates than the fastest finger of the nondominant hand. Tapping rate decreased with age and smokers tapped faster than nonsmokers. Tapping duration and exercise had also significant effect on tapping rate. Normative data of tapping rates and load capacities of eight fingers were estimated for the adult population. In designs of psychomotor tests that require the use of tapping rate or finger load capacity data, the effects of finger, age, smoking, and tapping duration need to be taken into account. The findings can be used for ergonomic designs requiring finger-tapping capacity and also as a reference in psychomotor tests. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  9. TAPS - An automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  10. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  11. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore......HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method...

  12. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

  13. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

  14. Effects of aging on control of timing and force of finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Masumoto, Junya; Inui, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined whether the elderly produced a hastened or delayed tap with a negative or positive constant intertap interval error more frequently in self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping for the 2 N target force at 2 or 4 Hz frequency. The analysis showed that, at both frequencies, the percentage of the delayed tap was larger in the self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping, whereas the hastened tap showed the opposite result. At the 4 Hz frequency, all age groups had more variable intertap intervals during the self-paced tapping than during the stimulus-synchronized tapping, and the variability of the intertap intervals increased with age. Thus, although the increase in the frequency of delayed taps and variable intertap intervals in the self-paced tapping perhaps resulted from a dysfunction of movement timing in the basal ganglia with age, the decline in timing accuracy was somewhat improved by an auditory cue. The force variability of tapping at 4 Hz further increased with age, indicating an effect of aging on the control of force.

  15. 40 CFR 141.86 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copper in tap water. 141.86 Section 141.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 141.86 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water. (a) Sample site location. (1) By the... the water system can collect the number of lead and copper tap samples required in paragraph (c) of...

  16. The Ability to Tap to a Beat Relates to Cognitive, Linguistic, and Perceptual Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship…

  17. Oropharyngeal Tularemia Outbreak Associated with Drinking Contaminated Tap Water, Turkey, July-September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Dilber; Celebi, Bekir; Isik, Mehmet Emirhan; Tutus, Celal; Ozturk, Huseyin; Temel, Fehminaz; Kizilaslan, Mecit; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Turkey affected 55 persons. Drinking tap water during the likely exposure period was significantly associated with illness (attack rate 27% vs. 11% among non-tap water drinkers). Findings showed the tap water source had been contaminated by surface water, and the chlorination device malfunctioned.

  18. TAp63 suppress metastasis via miR-133b in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C W; Li, X R; Zhang, Y; Hu, G; Guo, Y H; Zhou, J Y; Du, J; Lv, L; Gao, K; Zhang, Y; Deng, H

    2014-04-29

    TAp63 is a tumour-suppressor protein that is often underexpressed in various types of cancer. It has been shown to activate gene transcription depending on the transcription domain and to be closely related with metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that TAp63 suppresses metastasis in colon cancer cells through microRNA-133b. We evaluated the correlation of TAp63 and miR-133b with HT-29 and SW-620 cells and investigated the roles of TAp63 in the expression of RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. We further investigated the roles of TAp63-mediated invasion and migration of colon cancer cells. TAp63 expression is downregulated in colon cancer, and microRNA-133b is a transcriptional target of TAp63. Furthermore, microRNA-133b is essential for the inhibitory effects of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. Moreover, TAp63 inhibits cell migration and invasion through microRNA-133b. Correspondingly, the inhibitory effect of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin, vimentin, migration and invasion can be blocked by the microRNA-133b inhibitor. TAp63 and microRNA-133b were able to suppress the metastasis of colon cancer. Both TAp63 and microRNA-133b may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis in colon cancer metastasis and may provide unique therapeutic targets for this common malignancy.

  19. Differential effects of the new glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34517 and RU486 (mifepristone) on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation in the AtT20 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, B W M M; Ruigt, G S F; Craighead, M; Kitchener, P

    2008-12-01

    Glucocorticoid agonists bind to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and subsequently translocate as an agonist-GR complex into the nucleus. In the nucleus the complex regulates the transcription of target genes. A number of GR antagonists (RU486, progesterone, RU40555) have also been shown to induce receptor translocation. These compounds should be regarded as partial agonists. For the nonselective progesterone receptor antagonists, RTI3021-012 and RTI3021-022, it was shown that GR antagonism is possible without the induction of GR translocation. In the present studies, the new GR antagonist, ORG 34517, was investigated for its potential to induce GR translocation and to antagonize corticosterone-induced GR translocation in the AtT20 (mouse pituitary) cell line. ORG 34517 was compared to RU486. In contrast to RU486, ORG 34517 (at doses up to 3 x 10(-7) M) did not induce GR translocation, but was able to block corticosterone (3 x 10(-8) M) induced GR translocation. ORG 34517 can be regarded as a true competitive GR antagonist without partial agonistic activities.

  20. Recent Results from the CBELSA/TAPS Experiment at ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A.

    To determine the excitation spectrum of the nucleon, measurements of different observables in meson photoproduction are necessary. Many of these observables can be measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment, located at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The calorimeter system is ideally suited to measure reactions containing photons, giving an opportunity to measure final states comprising neutral mesons like π0 or η. A linearly or circularly polarized photon beam was used in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized butanol target. This allows the measurement of different (double) polarization observables like P, T E, G, and H. This contribution reports on the measurement of polarization observables in single or double meson photoproduction off the proton, measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment.

  1. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  2. Radioactivity of tap water in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, D.; Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Kovac, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to establish the difference between radioactivity level measured in tap water in relation to maximum permissible concentrations determined by law in the Republic of Croatia. Tables 1 and 2 give percentages of total beta activity in tap water of several cities in Croatia and Table 3 of 137 Cs, 3 H and 90 Sr specific activities, in relation to permissible levels. On basis of these data it could be concluded that total beta activity has exponentially decreased over the past 30 years and radioactivity in tape water of Croatia has never exceeded permissible levels. Taking in account possible hazards to human health that might be caused by the presence of radioactivity in water, this kind of investigation should be continued also in the future

  3. A General Approach for Orthogonal 4-Tap Integer Multiwavelet Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Jing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for orthogonal 4-tap integer multiwavelet transforms is proposed. We compute the singular value decomposition (SVD of block recursive matrices of transform matrix, and then transform matrix can be rewritten in a product of two block diagonal matrices and a permutation matrix. Furthermore, we factorize the block matrix of block diagonal matrices into triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs, which map integers to integers by rounding arithmetic. The cost of factorizing block matrix into TERMs does not increase with the increase of the dimension of transform matrix, and the proposed algorithm is in-place calculation and without allocating auxiliary memory. Examples of integer multiwavelet transform using DGHM and CL are given, which verify that the proposed algorithm is an executable algorithm and outperforms the existing algorithm for orthogonal 4-tap integer multiwavelet transform.

  4. Lithium in Tap Water and Suicide Mortality in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Terao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been used as a mood-stabilizing drug in people with mood disorders. Previous studies have shown that natural levels of lithium in drinking water may protect against suicide. This study evaluated the association between lithium levels in tap water and the suicide standardized mortality ratio (SMR in 40 municipalities of Aomori prefecture, which has the highest levels of suicide mortality rate in Japan. Lithium levels in the tap water supplies of each municipality were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. After adjusting for confounders, a statistical trend toward significance was found for the relationship between lithium levels and the average SMR among females. These findings indicate that natural levels of lithium in drinking water might have a protective effect on the risk of suicide among females. Future research is warranted to confirm this association.

  5. Recent results from the CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the excitation spectrum of the nucleon, measurements of different observables in meson photoproduction are necessary. Many of these observables can be measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment, located at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The calorimeter system is ideally suited to measure reactions containing photons, giving an opportunity to measure final states comprising neutral mesons like π"0 or η. A linearly or circularly polarized photon beam was used in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized butanol target. This allows the measurement of different (double) polarization observables like P, T E, G, and H. This contribution reports on the measurement of polarization observables in single or double meson photoproduction off the proton, measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. (author)

  6. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides into Candida fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zifan; Karlsson, Amy J

    2017-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation. Seven of these peptides (cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, MAP, SynB, (KFF) 3 K, and MPG) exhibited substantial translocation (>80% of cells) into both species in a concentration-dependent manner, and an additional peptide (TP-10) exhibiting strong translocation into only C. glabrata. Vacuoles were involved in translocation and intracellular trafficking of the peptides in the fungal cells and, for some peptides, escape from the vacuoles and localization in the cytosol were correlated to toxicity toward the fungal cells. Endocytosis was involved in the translocation of cecropin B, MAP, SynB, MPG, (KFF) 3 K, and TP-10, and cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, and MAP caused membrane permeabilization during translocation. These results indicate the involvement of multiple translocation mechanisms for some CPPs. Although high levels of translocation were typically associated with toxicity of the peptides toward the fungal cells, SynB was translocated efficiently into Candida cells at concentrations that led to minimal toxicity. Our work highlights the potential of CPPs in delivering antifungal molecules and other bioactive cargo to Candida pathogens. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  7. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  8. Mechanical characteristics of connection for GFRP plates using tapping screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuya; Duong, Nguyen Ngoc; Satake, Chito; Matsumoto, Yukihiro

    2017-10-01

    FRP material has good characteristics such as light-weight, high-strength and high-corrosion resistance. Light-weight structure possesses some advantages over the rational constructing procedure such as self-building structures. In recent years, mechanical characteristics of FRP joints using bolts and/or rivet are investigated in detail, and they are used in many FRP structures. However, the bolts lack bearing strength compared with material strength and the joint needs the prepared bolt hole. In this paper, an alternative joint system for FRP structures using tapping screw is proposed and mechanical characteristics are investigated through experiment. Tapping screw has some advantages; easy-to-use, light-weight and high bearing strength. Then, the results of double-lapped tensile shear tests having one, four and eight tapping screws along longitudinal direction are shown. Moreover, it is shown that longitudinal stress distribution is approximately corresponding to the theoretical stress distribution of double-lapped adhesively bonded joints. Based on these, it is proposed that joint strength can be estimated by using the present calculation method.

  9. Stroking and tapping the skin: behavioral and electrodermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzi, Roberta; Carta, Carlotta; Gallace, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Being caressed represents one of the most typical expressions of affection conveyed by touch. Converging evidence suggests that the pleasant perception of gentle and slow stroking delivered to the hairy skin is mediated by C-Tactile afferents (CTs). While behavioral and neural responses to CT-optimal touch have been moderately explored so far, less is known about the autonomic reaction to different kinds of touch (both CT-optimal and not). Here, we investigated whether physiological arousal varies as a function of the specific tactile stimulation provided. Stroking (slow: 3 cm/s 'CT-optimal'; or fast: 30 cm/s) and tapping (random or fixed spatial order) stimulations were delivered to the participants' forearm with a brush, for durations of 9 or 60 s. Participants' skin conductance response (SCR) and level (SCL), as well as subjective evaluations, were recorded. The results revealed that being stroked (at both the velocities) induced higher SCR and SCL than being tapped. Moreover, while higher SCR was elicited by CT-suboptimal stroking compared to CT-optimal stroking, SCL was not affected differently by CT-optimal touch. No differences were found between the effects of 9 and 60 s stimulations. Slow stroking was evaluated as the most pleasant, relaxing and 'social' type of touch compared to the other tactile stimulations. Taken together, these findings shed light on the psychophysiological responses to stroking (including CT-optimal touch) and tapping, and contribute to elucidate the mechanisms underlying hedonic tactile perception.

  10. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, A W G; Broersma, M; van der Stouwe, A M M; van Wingen, G A; Groot, P F C; Speelman, J D; Maurits, N M; van Rootselaar, A F

    2015-04-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar output in essential tremor during rhythmic finger tapping employing functional MRI. Thirty-one propranolol-sensitive essential tremor patients with upper limb tremor and 29 healthy controls were measured. T2*-weighted EPI sequences were acquired. The task consisted of alternating rest and finger tapping blocks. A whole-brain and region-of-interest analysis was performed, the latter focusing on the cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus and inferior olive nucleus. Activations were also related to tremor severity. In patients, dentate activation correlated positively with tremor severity as measured by the tremor rating scale part A. Patients had reduced activation in widespread cerebellar cortical regions, and additionally in the inferior olive nucleus, and parietal and frontal cortex, compared to controls. The increase in dentate activation with tremor severity supports involvement of the dentate nucleus in essential tremor. Cortical and cerebellar changes during a motor timing task in essential tremor might point to widespread changes in cerebellar output in essential tremor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Updated View of Translocator Protein (TSPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Denora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decades of study on the role of mitochondria in living cells have evidenced the importance of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO, first discovered in the 1977 as an alternative binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam in the kidneys. This protein participates in a variety of cellular functions, including cholesterol transport, steroid hormone synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition pore opening, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Thus, TSPO has become an extremely attractive subcellular target for the early detection of disease states that involve the overexpression of this protein and the selective mitochondrial drug delivery. This special issue was programmed with the aim of summarizing the latest findings about the role of TSPO in eukaryotic cells and as a potential subcellular target of diagnostics or therapeutics. A total of 9 papers have been accepted for publication in this issue, in particular, 2 reviews and 7 primary data manuscripts, overall describing the main advances in this field.

  12. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Ekblom, Robert; Völker, Martin; Westerdahl, Helena; Godinez, Ricardo; Kotkiewicz, Holly; Burt, David W; Graves, Tina; Griffin, Darren K; Warren, Wesley C; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-04-01

    Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the

  13. Delayed reproduction of translocated red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Brent Burt

    2001-01-01

    Twelve pairs of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers were translocated to the Angelina National Forest from 21 October 1998 to 17 December 1998. Five breeding pairs (consisting of at least one trnnslocated bird) produced eggs/nestlings within the first breeding season after translocation. Clutch initiation dates for all five pairs were later than those of resident breeders. The...

  14. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is

  15. Inactivation of protein translocation by cold-sensitive mutations in the yajC-secDF operon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwen, N; Driessen, AJM

    2005-01-01

    Most mutations in the yajC-secDF operon identified via genetic screens confer a cold-sensitive growth phenotype. Here we report that two of these mutations confer this cold-sensitive phenotype by inactivating the SecDF-YajC complex in protein translocation.

  16. Quantitative assessment of finger tapping characteristics in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Rupert, Petra; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Brennan, Laura; Duda, John E; Weintraub, Daniel; Trojanowski, John Q; Wolk, David; Moberg, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Fine motor impairments are common in neurodegenerative disorders, yet standardized, quantitative measurements of motor abilities are uncommonly used in neurological practice. Thus, understanding and comparing fine motor abilities across disorders have been limited. The current study compared differences in finger tapping, inter-tap interval, and variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy older adults (HOA). Finger tapping was measured using a highly sensitive light-diode finger tapper. Total number of finger taps, inter-tap interval, and intra-individual variability (IIV) of finger tapping was measured and compared in AD (n = 131), PD (n = 63), MCI (n = 46), and HOA (n = 62), controlling for age and sex. All patient groups had fine motor impairments relative to HOA. AD and MCI groups produced fewer taps with longer inter-tap interval and higher IIV compared to HOA. The PD group, however, produced more taps with shorter inter-tap interval and higher IIV compared to HOA. Disease-specific changes in fine motor function occur in the most common neurodegenerative diseases. The findings suggest that alterations in finger tapping patterns are common in AD, MCI, and PD. In addition, the present results underscore the importance of motor dysfunction even in neurodegenerative disorders without primary motor symptoms.

  17. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasim, Vivi; Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia; Yang, Li; Miyagishi, Makoto; Wu, Shourong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73

  18. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Li [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Miyagishi, Makoto [Molecular Composite Medicine Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Wu, Shourong, E-mail: shourongwu@hotmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.

  19. Computationally efficient implementation of sarse-tap FIR adaptive filters with tap-position control on intel IA-32 processors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Akihiro; Nakayama, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an computationally ef cient implementation of sparse-tap FIR adaptive lters with tapposition control on Intel IA-32 processors with single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) capability. In order to overcome randomorder memory access which prevents a ectorization, a blockbased processing and a re-ordering buffer are introduced. A dynamic register allocation and the use of memory-to-register operations help the maximization of the loop-unrolling level. Up to 66percent speedup ...

  20. An investigation of fMRI time series stationarity during motor sequence learning foot tapping tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhei-aldin, Othman; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Karim, Helmet; Huppert, Theodore; Sparto, Patrick J; Erickson, Kirk I; Sejdić, Ervin

    2014-04-30

    Understanding complex brain networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of great interest to clinical and scientific communities. To utilize advanced analysis methods such as graph theory for these investigations, the stationarity of fMRI time series needs to be understood as it has important implications on the choice of appropriate approaches for the analysis of complex brain networks. In this paper, we investigated the stationarity of fMRI time series acquired from twelve healthy participants while they performed a motor (foot tapping sequence) learning task. Since prior studies have documented that learning is associated with systematic changes in brain activation, a sequence learning task is an optimal paradigm to assess the degree of non-stationarity in fMRI time-series in clinically relevant brain areas. We predicted that brain regions involved in a "learning network" would demonstrate non-stationarity and may violate assumptions associated with some advanced analysis approaches. Six blocks of learning, and six control blocks of a foot tapping sequence were performed in a fixed order. The reverse arrangement test was utilized to investigate the time series stationarity. Our analysis showed some non-stationary signals with a time varying first moment as a major source of non-stationarity. We also demonstrated a decreased number of non-stationarities in the third block as a result of priming and repetition. Most of the current literature does not examine stationarity prior to processing. The implication of our findings is that future investigations analyzing complex brain networks should utilize approaches robust to non-stationarities, as graph-theoretical approaches can be sensitive to non-stationarities present in data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia

    2015-05-07

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In nanopore sensing experiments, the properties of molecules are probed by the variation of ionic currents flowing through the nanopore. In this context, the electronic properties and the single-layer thickness of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods with a bioinformatic structural analysis. To obtain a qualitative picture of the translocation process and to identify salient features we performed unsupervised structural clustering on translocation conformations. This allowed us to identify some specific and robust translocation intermediates, characterized by significantly different ionic current flows. We found that the ion current strictly anticorrelates with the amount of pore occupancy by thioredoxin residues, providing a putative explanation of the multilevel current scenario observed in recently published translocation experiments.

  2. Computerized measures of finger tapping: effects of hand dominance, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Kerry A; Reed, Bruce; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-06-01

    Computerized measures of digit tapping rate were obtained over 3 successive, 10-sec. periods in the right and left index fingers, from a community sample of 1,519 participants (ages 18 to 65 years; 607 men, 912 women). Differences between the dominant and non-dominant hands were found for tapping rate, movement initiation, and button down times, and the decline in tapping rate over the successive, 10-sec. periods. Declines were found in tapping rate in older participants in association with increased intertap variability. Men had higher tapping rates than women in all age ranges. The computerized finger tapping test is an efficient and precise measure of tapping speed and kinetics of potential utility in research and clinical studies of motor performance.

  3. Mechanisms underlying stage-1 TRPL channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Ha Lieu

    Full Text Available TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere, TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels.We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content.Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a light-dependent anchor in the rhabdomere.

  4. The mechanism of coupling between oxido-reduction and proton translocation in respiratory chain enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Sergio; Capitanio, Giuseppe; Papa, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The respiratory chain of mitochondria and bacteria is made up of a set of membrane-associated enzyme complexes which catalyse sequential, stepwise transfer of reducing equivalents from substrates to oxygen and convert redox energy into a transmembrane protonmotive force (PMF) by proton translocation from a negative (N) to a positive (P) aqueous phase separated by the coupling membrane. There are three basic mechanisms by which a membrane-associated redox enzyme can generate a PMF. These are membrane anisotropic arrangement of the primary redox catalysis with: (i) vectorial electron transfer by redox metal centres from the P to the N side of the membrane; (ii) hydrogen transfer by movement of quinones across the membrane, from a reduction site at the N side to an oxidation site at the P side; (iii) a different type of mechanism based on co-operative allosteric linkage between electron transfer at the metal redox centres and transmembrane electrogenic proton translocation by apoproteins. The results of advanced experimental and theoretical analyses and in particular X-ray crystallography show that these three mechanisms contribute differently to the protonmotive activity of cytochrome c oxidase, ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the respiratory chain. This review considers the main features, recent experimental advances and still unresolved problems in the molecular/atomic mechanism of coupling between the transfer of reducing equivalents and proton translocation in these three protonmotive redox complexes. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. MMB-GUI: a fast morphing method demonstrates a possible ribosomal tRNA translocation trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, Alex; Korostelev, Andrei A; Flores, Samuel Coulbourn

    2016-01-08

    Easy-to-use macromolecular viewers, such as UCSF Chimera, are a standard tool in structural biology. They allow rendering and performing geometric operations on large complexes, such as viruses and ribosomes. Dynamical simulation codes enable modeling of conformational changes, but may require considerable time and many CPUs. There is an unmet demand from structural and molecular biologists for software in the middle ground, which would allow visualization combined with quick and interactive modeling of conformational changes, even of large complexes. This motivates MMB-GUI. MMB uses an internal-coordinate, multiscale approach, yielding as much as a 2000-fold speedup over conventional simulation methods. We use Chimera as an interactive graphical interface to control MMB. We show how this can be used for morphing of macromolecules that can be heterogeneous in biopolymer type, sequence, and chain count, accurately recapitulating structural intermediates. We use MMB-GUI to create a possible trajectory of EF-G mediated gate-passing translocation in the ribosome, with all-atom structures. This shows that the GUI makes modeling of large macromolecules accessible to a wide audience. The morph highlights similarities in tRNA conformational changes as tRNA translocates from A to P and from P to E sites and suggests that tRNA flexibility is critical for translocation completion. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Characterization of Type Three Secretion System Translocator Interactions with Phospholipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Philip R; Barta, Michael L; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2017-01-01

    In vitro characterization of type III secretion system (T3SS) translocator proteins has proven challenging due to complex purification schemes and their hydrophobic nature that often requires detergents to provide protein solubility and stability. Here, we provide experimental details for several techniques that overcome these hurdles, allowing for the direct characterization of the Shigella translocator protein IpaB with respect to phospholipid membrane interaction. The techniques specifically discussed in this chapter include membrane interaction/liposome flotation, liposome sensitive fluorescence quenching, and protein-mediated liposome disruption assays. These assays have provided valuable insight into the role of IpaB in T3SS-mediated phospholipid membrane interactions by Shigella and should readily extend to other members of this important class of proteins.

  7. G-protein signaling leverages subunit-dependent membrane affinity to differentially control βγ translocation to intracellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick R; Karunarathne, W K Ajith; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Silvius, John R; Gautam, N

    2012-12-18

    Activation of G-protein heterotrimers by receptors at the plasma membrane stimulates βγ-complex dissociation from the α-subunit and translocation to internal membranes. This intermembrane movement of lipid-modified proteins is a fundamental but poorly understood feature of cell signaling. The differential translocation of G-protein βγ-subunit types provides a valuable experimental model to examine the movement of signaling proteins between membranes in a living cell. We used live cell imaging, mathematical modeling, and in vitro measurements of lipidated fluorescent peptide dissociation from vesicles to determine the mechanistic basis of the intermembrane movement and identify the interactions responsible for differential translocation kinetics in this family of evolutionarily conserved proteins. We found that the reversible translocation is mediated by the limited affinity of the βγ-subunits for membranes. The differential kinetics of the βγ-subunit types are determined by variations among a set of basic and hydrophobic residues in the γ-subunit types. G-protein signaling thus leverages the wide variation in membrane dissociation rates among different γ-subunit types to differentially control βγ-translocation kinetics in response to receptor activation. The conservation of primary structures of γ-subunits across mammalian species suggests that there can be evolutionary selection for primary structures that confer specific membrane-binding affinities and consequent rates of intermembrane movement.

  8. Effects of a Finger Tapping Fatiguing Task on M1-Intracortical Inhibition and Central Drive to the Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Antonio; Madinabeitia-Mancebo, Elena; Cudeiro, Javier; Arias, Pablo

    2018-06-19

    The central drive to the muscle reduces when muscle force wanes during sustained MVC, and this is generally considered the neurophysiological footprint of central fatigue. The question is if force loss and the failure of central drive to the muscle are responsible mechanisms of fatigue induced by un-resisted repetitive movements. In various experimental blocks, we validated a 3D-printed hand-fixation system permitting the execution of finger-tapping and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Subsequently, we checked the suitability of the system to test the level of central drive to the muscle and developed an algorithm to test it at the MVC force plateau. Our main results show that the maximum rate of finger-tapping dropped at 30 s, while the excitability of inhibitory M1-intracortical circuits and corticospinal excitability increased (all by approximately 15%). Furthermore, values obtained immediately after finger-tapping showed that MVC force and the level of central drive to the muscle remained unchanged. Our data suggest that force and central drive to the muscle are not determinants of fatigue induced by short-lasting un-resisted repetitive finger movements, even in the presence of increased inhibition of the motor cortex. According to literature, this profile might be different in longer-lasting, more complex and/or resisted repetitive movements.

  9. FTAP: a Linux-based program for tapping and music experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, S A

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes FTAP, a flexible data collection system for tapping and music experiments. FTAP runs on standard PC hardware with the Linux operating system and can process input keystrokes and auditory output with reliable millisecond resolution. It uses standard MIDI devices for input and output and is particularly flexible in the area of auditory feedback manipulation. FTAP can run a wide variety of experiments, including synchronization/continuation tasks (Wing & Kristofferson, 1973), synchronization tasks combined with delayed auditory feedback (Aschersleben & Prinz, 1997), continuation tasks with isolated feedback perturbations (Wing, 1977), and complex alterations of feedback in music performance (Finney, 1997). Such experiments have often been implemented with custom hardware and software systems, but with FTAP they can be specified by a simple ASCII text parameter file. FTAP is available at no cost in source-code form.

  10. Forced Translocation of Polymer through Nanopore: Deterministic Model and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqian; Panyukov, Sergey; Liao, Qi; Rubinstein, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new theoretical model of forced translocation of a polymer chain through a nanopore. We assume that DNA translocation at high fields proceeds too fast for the chain to relax, and thus the chain unravels loop by loop in an almost deterministic way. So the distribution of translocation times of a given monomer is controlled by the initial conformation of the chain (the distribution of its loops). Our model predicts the translocation time of each monomer as an explicit function of initial polymer conformation. We refer to this concept as ``fingerprinting''. The width of the translocation time distribution is determined by the loop distribution in initial conformation as well as by the thermal fluctuations of the polymer chain during the translocation process. We show that the conformational broadening δt of translocation times of m-th monomer δtm^1.5 is stronger than the thermal broadening δtm^1.25 The predictions of our deterministic model were verified by extensive molecular dynamics simulations

  11. [Clinical characteristics and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for male Robertsonian translocations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Lian, Ying; Qiao, Jie; Liu, Ping

    2012-08-18

    To explore the clinical characteristics and the preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for male Robertsonian translocations. From Jan 2005 to Oct 2011, 96 PGD cycles of 80 male Robertsonian translocations were performed at the Center of Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing. All the couples were involved in assisted reproductive therapy because of oligozoospermia or repeated abortions. Pregnancy results and clinical characteristics were analyzed in this study. Of all the 80 Robertsonian translocation couples, 62 (77.50%, 62/80) couples suffered from primary infertility due to severe oligoospermia and 8 (10%, 8/80) couples suffered from secondary infertility due to oligoospermia. Moreover, 10 (12.50%, 10/80) couples had recurrent spontaneous abortion. Of all the 80 male Robertsonian translocations, 50 were (13; 14) translocations and 15 (14; 21) translocations. The study showed that 79 PGD cycles had the balanced embryos to transfer and 25 cycles resulted in clinical pregnancies. The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer cycle was 31.65% (25 of 79). Now, 18 couples had 21 viable infants and 3 were ongoing pregnant. Oligozoospermia is the main factor for the infertility of the male Robertsonian translocations. Artificial reproductive techniques can solve their reproductive problems. Moreover, PGD will decrease the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion and the malformations.

  12. Genetic outcomes from the translocations of the critically endangered woylie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo PACIONI, Adrian F.WAYNE, Peter B.S.SPENCER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Translocations are an important conservation strategy for many species. However simply observing demographic growth of a translocated population is not sufficient to infer species recovery. Adequate genetic representation of the source population(s and their long-term viability should also be considered. The woylie Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi has been subject to more formal translocations for conservation than any other marsupial that, up until recently, has resulted in one of the most successful species recoveries in Australia. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to assess the genetic outcomes of translocated woylie populations. These populations have lost genetic variability, differentiated from their source population and the supplementation program on two island populations appears to have failed. We discuss the conservation implications that our results have for managing threatened species, outline some general recommendations for the management of present and future translocations and discuss the appropriate sampling design for the establishment of new populations or captive breeding programs that may mitigate the genetic ‘erosion’ seen in our study species. This research provides some practical outcomes and a pragmatic understanding of translocation biology. The findings are directly applicable to other translocation programs [Current Zoology 59 (3: 294-310, 2013].

  13. PeakForce Tapping resolves individual microvilli on living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillers, Hermann; Medalsy, Izhar; Hu, Shuiqing; Slade, Andrea L; Shaw, James E

    2016-02-01

    Microvilli are a common structure found on epithelial cells that increase the apical surface thus enhancing the transmembrane transport capacity and also serve as one of the cell's mechanosensors. These structures are composed of microfilaments and cytoplasm, covered by plasma membrane. Epithelial cell function is usually coupled to the density of microvilli and its individual size illustrated by diseases, in which microvilli degradation causes malabsorption and diarrhea. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to study the topography and morphology of living cells. Visualizing soft and flexible structures such as microvilli on the apical surface of a live cell has been very challenging because the native microvilli structures are displaced and deformed by the interaction with the probe. PeakForce Tapping® is an AFM imaging mode, which allows reducing tip-sample interactions in time (microseconds) and controlling force in the low pico-Newton range. Data acquisition of this mode was optimized by using a newly developed PeakForce QNM-Live Cell probe, having a short cantilever with a 17-µm-long tip that minimizes hydrodynamic effects between the cantilever and the sample surface. In this paper, we have demonstrated for the first time the visualization of the microvilli on living kidney cells with AFM using PeakForce Tapping. The structures observed display a force dependence representing either the whole microvilli or just the tips of the microvilli layer. Together, PeakForce Tapping allows force control in the low pico-Newton range and enables the visualization of very soft and flexible structures on living cells under physiological conditions. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Molecular Recognition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. What is the risk of infecting a cerebrospinal fluid-diverting shunt with percutaneous tapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, Lindsey; Asija, Richa; Da Silva, Stephanie L; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Most CSF-diverting shunt systems have an access port that can be percutaneously tapped. Tapping the shunt can yield valuable information as to its function and whether an infection is present. The fear of causing a shunt infection by tapping may limit the physician's willingness to do so. The authors of this study investigate the risk of infecting a shunt secondary to percutaneous tapping. Following institutional review board approval, CSF specimens obtained from tapping an indwelling CSF-diverting shunt during the 2011 and 2012 calendar years were identified and matched with clinical information. A culture-positive CSF sample was defined as an infection. If results were equivocal, such as a broth-only-positive culture, a repeat CSF specimen was examined. The CSF was obtained by tapping the shunt access port with a 25-gauge butterfly needle after prepping the unshaven skin with chlorhexidine. During the study period, 266 children underwent 542 shunt taps. With 541 taps, no clinical evidence of a subsequent shunt infection was found. One child's CSF went from sterile to infected 11 days later; however, this patient had redness along the shunt tract at the time of the initial sterile tap. The risk of infection from tapping a shunt is remote if the procedure is done correctly.

  15. Vertical Finger Displacement Is Reduced in Index Finger Tapping During Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2017-10-01

    The present study analyzed (a) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e., a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in the form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated and (b) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n = 24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10-min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8 ± 18.7 taps/min, corresponding to 6.0 ± 11.0%, p = .033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6 ± 2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3 ± 14.9%, p = .012) of the fingertip. Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping.

  16. Bimanual tapping of a syncopated rhythm reveals hemispheric preferences for relative movement frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Anja; Gompf, Florian; Kell, Christian Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In bimanual multifrequency tapping, right-handers commonly use the right hand to tap the relatively higher rate and the left hand to tap the relatively lower rate. This could be due to hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative frequencies. An extension of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory to motor control proposes a left hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively high and a right hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively low tapping rates. We investigated timing variability and rhythmic accentuation in right handers tapping mono- and multifrequent bimanual rhythms to test the predictions of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory. Yet, hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative tapping rates could be masked by a left hemispheric dominance for the control of known sequences. Tapping was thus either performed in an overlearned quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the first auditory beat) or in a syncopated quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the fourth auditory beat). Independent of syncopation, the right hand outperformed the left hand in timing accuracy for fast tapping. A left hand timing benefit for slow tapping rates as predicted by the double-filtering-by-frequency theory was only found in the syncopated tapping group. This suggests a right hemisphere preference for the control of slow tapping rates when rhythms are not overlearned. Error rates indicate that overlearned rhythms represent hierarchically structured meters that are controlled by a single timer that could potentially reside in the left hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Variants in TAP Are Associated with High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H.; Leanza, Suzanne; Chiu, Lydia G.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Steinberg, Bettie M.; Burk, Robert D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is essential in assembling MHC-I proteins. Human papillomavirus (HPV) evades immune recognition by decreasing class I MHC cell surface expression through down-regulation of TAP1 levels. Consistent with heterogeneity in MHC expression is the individual variability in clearing detectable HPV infections. Genetic polymorphisms in TAP genes may affect protein structure, function, and the ability to clear HPV infection. Experimental Design Case-control study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or III (n = 114) and women without high-grade CIN (n = 366). Five nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TAP1 and TAP2 were genotyped using DNA collected in cervicovaginal lavage samples using microsphere array technology (Luminex ×MAP). HPV typing was done using a PCR-based system with MY09/MY11 primers. TAP1 and TAP2 SNPs were validated by direct sequencing. Results Differences in allele distribution between women with high-grade cervical neoplasia and women without was seen for TAP1 I333V (P = 0.02) and TAP1 D637G (p = 0.01).The odds ratios (OR) for CIN III were significantly lower among carriers of the TAP1 I333V polymorphism (OR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8), and TAP1 D637G polymorphism (OR, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.7). These associations remained significant even after restricting the evaluation to women who were positive for high-risk HPV types. Conclusions In addition to the down-regulation of MHC-1 by oncogenic HPV, HPV pathogenesis might be facilitated by polymorphisms in the TAP proteins. Identifying TAP polymorphisms may potentially be used to identify women less susceptible to progression to high-grade CIN and cervical cancer. PMID:19188174

  18. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  19. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  20. Plano de social media marketing para a TAP Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Andreia Cristina Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing O social media marketing adquire cada vez maior relevo para as empresas e exige, tal como noutras áreas de marketing, a delineação de um plano estratégico por forma a potenciar o seu sucesso. Tomando como objecto de estudo a companhia aérea TAP Portugal, foi elaborado um Plano de Social Media Marketing, com base no modelo conceptual de Barker et al. (2013), designado de "Social Media Planning Cycle". Para a elaboração do Plano, foram recolhidos dados primários, seguin...

  1. Tapping the zero-point energy as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the hypothesis for tapping the zero-point energy (ZPE) arises by combining the theories of the ZPE with the theories of system self-organization. The vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow their synchronous motion to activate a ZPE coherence. Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as inventions utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting evidence. The suggested experiment of rapidly circulating a charged plasma in a vortex ring might induce a sufficient zero-point energy interaction to manifest a gravitational anomaly. An invention utilizing abrupt E field rotation to create virtual charge exhibits excessive energy output

  2. Micro-Evolution in Grasshoppers Mediated by Polymorphic Robertsonian Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Pablo C.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on grasshoppers that are polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations because in these organisms the clarity of meiotic figures allows the study of both chiasma distribution and the orientation of trivalents and multivalents in metaphase I. Only five species of such grasshoppers were found in the literature, and all of them were from the New World: Oedaleonotus enigma (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Leptysma argentina Bruner, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Sinipta dalmani Stål, and Cornops aquaticum Bruner. A general feature of these species (except O. enigma) is that fusion carriers suffer a marked reduction of proximal and interstitial (with respect to the centromere) chiasma frequency; this fact, along with the reduction in the number of linkage groups with the consequent loss of independent segregation, produces a marked decrease of recombination in fusion carriers. This reduction in recombination has led to the conclusion that Robertsonian polymorphic grasshopper species share some properties with inversion polymorphic species of Drosophila, such as the central-marginal pattern (marginal populations are monomorphic, central populations are highly polymorphic). This pattern might be present in D. pratensis, which is certainly the most complex Robertsonian polymorphism system in the present study. However, L. argentina and C. aquaticum do not display this pattern. This issue is open to further research. Since C. aquaticum is soon to be released in South Africa as a biological control, the latitudinal pattern found in South America may repeat there. This experiment's outcome is open and deserves to be followed. PMID:23909914

  3. Ready Experimental Translocation of Mycobacterium canettii Yields Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Lepidi, Hubert; Donoghue, Helen D; Minnikin, David E; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium canettii , which has a smooth colony morphology, is the tuberculous organism retaining the most genetic traits from the putative last common ancestor of the rough-morphology Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. To explore whether M. canettii can infect individuals by the oral route, mice were fed phosphate-buffered saline or 10 6 M. canettii mycobacteria and sacrificed over a 28-day experiment. While no M. canettii was detected in negative controls, M. canettii -infected mice yielded granuloma-like lesions for 4/4 lungs at days 14 and 28 postinoculation (p.i.) and positive PCR detection of M. canettii for 5/8 mesenteric lymph nodes at days 1 and 3 p.i. and 5/6 pooled stools collected from day 1 to day 28 p.i. Smooth M. canettii colonies grew from 68% of lungs and 36% of spleens and cervical lymph nodes but fewer than 20% of axillary lymph nodes, livers, brown fat samples, kidneys, or blood samples throughout the 28-day experiment. Ready translocation in mice after digestive tract challenge demonstrates the potential of ingested M. canettii organisms to relocate to distant organs and lungs. The demonstration of this relocation supports the possibility that populations may be infected by environmental M. canettii . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Mechanical design of translocating motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Lang, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Translocating motors generate force and move along a biofilament track to achieve diverse functions including gene transcription, translation, intracellular cargo transport, protein degradation, and muscle contraction. Advances in single molecule manipulation experiments, structural biology, and computational analysis are making it possible to consider common mechanical design principles of these diverse families of motors. Here, we propose a mechanical parts list that include track, energy conversion machinery, and moving parts. Energy is supplied not just by burning of a fuel molecule, but there are other sources or sinks of free energy, by binding and release of a fuel or products, or similarly between the motor and the track. Dynamic conformational changes of the motor domain can be regarded as controlling the flow of free energy to and from the surrounding heat reservoir. Multiple motor domains are organized in distinct ways to achieve motility under imposed physical constraints. Transcending amino acid sequence and structure, physically and functionally similar mechanical parts may have evolved as nature's design strategy for these molecular engines.

  5. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Structural assessment of TAPS core shroud under accident loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, Vivek; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-09-01

    Over the last few years, the Core Shroud of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) operating in foreign countries, have developed cracks at weld locations. As a first step for assessment of structural safety of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) core shroud, its detailed stress analysis was done for postulated accident loads. This report is concerned with structural assessment of core shroud, of BWR at TAPS, subjected to loads resulting from main steam line break (MSLB), recirculation line break (RLB) and safe shut down earthquake. The stress analysis was done for core shroud in healthy condition and without any crack since, visual examination conducted till now, do not indicate presence of any flaw. Dynamic structural analysis for MSLB and RLB events was done using dynamic load factor (DLF) method. The complete core shroud and its associated components were modelled and analysed using 3D plate/shell elements. Since, the components of core shroud are submerged in water, hence, hydrodynamic added mass was also considered for evaluation of natural frequencies. It was concluded that from structural point of view, adequate safety margin is available under all the accident loads. Nonlinear analysis was done to evaluate buckling/collapse load. The collapse/buckling load have sufficient margin against the allowable limits. The displacements are low hence, the insertion of control rod may not be affected. (author)

  7. Tapping and listening: a new approach to bolt looseness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Zhu, Junxiao; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Song, Gangbing

    2018-07-01

    Bolted joints are among the most common building blocks used across different types of structures, and are often the key components that sew all other structural parts together. Monitoring and assessment of looseness in bolted structures is one of the most attractive topics in mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering. This paper presents a new percussion-based non-destructive approach to determine the health condition of bolted joints with the help of machine learning. The proposed method is very similar to the percussive diagnostic techniques used in clinical examinations to diagnose the health of patients. Due to the different interfacial properties among the bolts, nuts and the host structure, bolted joints can generate unique sounds when it is excited by impacts, such as from tapping. Power spectrum density, as a signal feature, was used to recognize and classify recorded tapping data. A machine learning model using the decision tree method was employed to identify the bolt looseness level. Experiments demonstrated that the newly proposed method for bolt looseness detection is very easy to implement by ‘listening to tapping’ and the monitoring accuracy is very high. With the rapid in robotics, the proposed approach has great potential to be implemented with intimately weaving robotics and machine learning to produce a cyber-physical system that can automatically inspect and determine the health of a structure.

  8. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked

  9. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  10. Guidelines for Effective TAP (Translation for Academic Purposes Tutorial Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Yazdanmehr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing need is felt by the university students, especially at Master’s or PhD level, to get a satisfactory command of English so as to manage great amounts of technical materials and articles published internationally. Public and private language institutions, however, have not responded to this need properly specially in non-English speaking countries including Iran. Therefore, the only way left for the students is to demand tutorial sessions which are rare, and if existing, of diverse questionable quality. There seems to be a dearth of base-line or criteria released in any form to define and guide the tutors’ approach and techniques which can be in accordance with university students’ needs and purposes. Aiming to fill this gap, the present paper attempts to be a pioneering research in the realm of TAP (Translation for Academic Purposes tutorial courses and intends to provide guidelines on text selection, role allocation, timing, rate, assignments and other relevant issues in this area. The guidelines are provided based on a post facto case study carried out by one of the authors which created the motive for this research and may further clarify the significance of the issues discussed. The recommended guidelines consist of 5 basic elements and 3 principles. It was discovered, and is expected for others as well, that following these guidelines helps to manage a TAP course in the best and most fruitful way with the least time wasted and with satisfactory result.

  11. Zinc sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperatures in sodium chloride and tap water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Othman Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Zinc sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tested in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified for this study. This was partly due to the high resistivity of the medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in water tap medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. In tap water environment the anode weight loss was negligible. The zinc anode suffered intergranular corrosion in sodium chloride environment and this was noticed starting at 40 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the zinc anode demonstrated interesting behavior beyond 60 degree centigrade, that could be attributed to the phenomenon of reversal of potential at elevated temperatures. It also showed shallow pitting spots in tap water environment without any sign of intergranular corrosion. Zinc anodes would suffer intergranular corrosion at high temperatures. (author)

  12. Solid-state tap-changer of transformers: Design, control and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, Jawad; Siahkolah, Behzad [Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype electronic tap-changer of transformer. Mechanical tap-changer has many problems such as low operating speed, short lifetime and heavy size. In order to solve these problems a fully solid-state tap-changer with a new control strategy and optimal configuration is proposed. The design of tap-changer is discussed and bi-directional solid-state power electronics switches are implemented. Following the realization of the tap-changer controller, developed software for such precise control is introduced. To verify the design procedure and optimal configuration and apply the developed software, a prototype low-power tap-changer has been built and tested. (author)

  13. Characterization of a Proteasome and TAP-independent Presentation of Intracellular Epitopes by HLA-B27 Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Magnacca, A.

    2012-07-17

    Nascent HLA-class I molecules are stabilized by proteasome-derived peptides in the ER and the new complexes proceed to the cell surface through the post-ER vesicles. It has been shown, however, that less stable complexes can exchange peptides in the Trans Golgi Network (TGN). HLA-B27 are the most studied HLA-class I molecules due to their association with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Chimeric proteins driven by TAT of HIV have been exploited by us to deliver viral epitopes, whose cross-presentation by the HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome and TAP-independent and not restricted to Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC). Here, using these chimeric proteins as epitope suppliers, we compared with each other and with the HLA-A2 molecules, the two HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 alleles differing at residue 116 (D116H) and differentially associated with AS. We found that the antigen presentation by the two HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome-, TAP-, and APC-independent whereas the presentation by the HLA-A2 molecules required proteasome, TAP and professional APC. Assuming that such difference could be due to the unpaired, highly reactive Cys-67 distinguishing the HLA-B27 molecules, C67S mutants in HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 and V67C mutant in HLA-A*0201 were also analyzed. The results showed that this mutation did not influence the HLA-A2-restricted antigen presentation while it drastically affected the HLA-B27-restricted presentation with, however, remarkable differences between B*2705 and B*2709. The data, together with the occurrence on the cell surface of unfolded molecules in the case of C67S-B*2705 mutant but not in that of C67S-B*2709 mutant, indicates that Cys-67 has a more critical role in stabilizing the B*2705 rather than the B*2709 complexes.

  14. A case of posttraumatic splenic translocation into the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, P.; Sikorski, L.; Ziemianski, A.

    1993-01-01

    A case of the left diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma is presented. Characteristic radiological signs of splenic translocation into the thorax contributed to quick diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  15. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia; Lepore, Rosalba; Raimondo, Domenico; Cecconi, Fabio; Tramontano, Anna; Chinappi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

  16. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K

    2014-01-01

    of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis. Future studies should investigate whether associations between microbial...

  17. Carbon translocation in zooanthaellae-coelenterate symbioses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    When host and algal triglycerides synthesized in the symbiotic sea anemone Condylactis gigantea during light and dark incubations in 14 C-bicarbonate and 14 C-acetate were deacylated, more then 80% of the radioactivity was found in the fatty acid moiety. In contrast, triglycerides isolated from zooxanthellae and host incubated in 14 C-glycerol in the dark were found to have more then 95% of their radioactivity in the glycerol moiety. During 14 C-glycerol incubations in the light, radioactivity in the fatty acid moiety of zooxanthellae triglyceride fatty acid moiety stayed below 5% during 14 C-glycerol incubations in the light. These results show neither the zooxanthellae nor host can rapidly convert glycerol to fatty acid. Radioactivity from 14 C-glycerol that does eventually appear in host lipid may have been respired to 14 CO 2 then photosynthetically fixed by the zooxanthellae and synthesized into lipid fatty acid. The isolated zooxanthellae of C. gigantea contained 3.62 +/- 0.33 mM glycerol, which was 26x the 0.141 +/- 0.02 mM found in the coelenterate tissue. Aposymbiotic coelenterate tissue contained 0.169 +/- 0.05 mM glycerol. The metabolic inhibitors, sodium cyanide, aminooxyacetic acid and cerulenin were used to try and uncouple the production of glycerol by the zooxanthellae from its utilization by the coelenterate host. 10 -5 M NaCN increased the ratio of cross photosynthesis to respiration in both intact tentacles and isolated zooxanthellae, increased translocation from 17.7 +/- 3.5% of total fixed carbon in controls to 43.5 +/- 5.79%, and doubled the amount of photosynthetically fixed carbon accumulating in the coelenterate host over that in controls

  18. Bacterial translocation in clinical intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicalese, L; Sileri, P; Green, M; Abu-Elmagd, K; Kocoshis, S; Reyes, J

    2001-05-27

    Bacterial translocation (BT) has been suggested to be responsible for the high incidence of infections occurring after small bowel transplantation (SBTx). Bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the mucosal barrier function as a consequence of preservation injury or acute rejection (AR), and potent immunosuppression are all associated with BT. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the correlation of BT with these events. Fifty pediatric SBTx recipients on tacrolimus and prednisone immunosuppression were analyzed. Blood, stool, and liver biopsies and peritoneal fluid were cultured (circa 4000 total specimens) when infection was clinically suspected or as part of follow-up. BT episodes were considered when microorganisms were found simultaneously in blood or liver biopsy and stool. BT (average of 2.0 episodes/patient) was evident in 44% of patients and was most frequently caused by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella. The presence of a colon allograft was associated with a higher rate of BT (75% vs. 33.3%). Furthermore, the transplantation procedure (colon vs. no colon) affected the rate of BT: SBTx=40% vs. 25%, combined liver and SBTx=100% vs. 30%, multivisceral transplantation=25% vs. 50%. AR was associated with 39% of BT episodes. BT followed AR in 9.6% of the cases. In 5.2% of the cases, positive blood cultures without stool confirmation of the bacteria were seen. Prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) affected BT rate significantly (CIT>9 hr 76% vs. CIT<9 hr 20.8%). This study shows that 1) a substantial percentage of, but not all, BT is associated with AR, 2) the presence of a colon allograft increases the risk for BT, and 3) a long CIT is associated with a high incidence of BT after SBTx.

  19. Meiotic delay of translocation carrying spermatocytes responsible for reduced transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van

    1991-01-01

    Using in vivo pulse labelling of spermatocytes from mice irradiated with different doses of X-rays (6 and 7 Gy). The authors demonstrated that cells having translocations derived from irradiated stem cells tend to spend longer time at the meiotic prophase than normal cells. At the 2 Gy level this effect is much less pronounced. The recorded delay forms a good explanation for the reduced transmission of translocations to the next generation observed by others. (author)

  20. Translocations as experiments in the ecological resilience of an asocial mega-herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linklater, Wayne L; Gedir, Jay V; Law, Peter R; Swaisgood, Ron R; Adcock, Keryn; du Preez, Pierre; Knight, Michael H; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-01-01

    Species translocations are remarkable experiments in evolutionary ecology, and increasingly critical to biodiversity conservation. Elaborate socio-ecological hypotheses for translocation success, based on theoretical fitness relationships, are untested and lead to complex uncertainty rather than parsimonious solutions. We used an extraordinary 89 reintroduction and 102 restocking events releasing 682 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) to 81 reserves in southern Africa (1981-2005) to test the influence of interacting socio-ecological and individual characters on post-release survival. We predicted that the socio-ecological context should feature more prominently after restocking than reintroduction because released rhinoceros interact with resident conspecifics. Instead, an interaction between release cohort size and habitat quality explained reintroduction success but only individuals' ages explained restocking outcomes. Achieving translocation success for many species may not be as complicated as theory suggests. Black rhino, and similarly asocial generalist herbivores without substantial predators, are likely to be resilient to ecological challenges and robust candidates for crisis management in a changing world.

  1. Impact analysis of tap switch out of step for converter transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-yue, ZHANG; Zhen-hua, ZHANG; Zhang-xue, XIONG; Gao-wang, YU

    2017-06-01

    AC transformer load regulation is mainly used to adjust the load side voltage level, improve the quality of power supply, the voltage range is relatively narrow. In DC system, converter transformer is the core equipment of AC and DC power converter and inverter. converter transformer tap adjustment can maintain the normal operation of the converter in small angle range control, the absorption of reactive power, economic operation, valve less stress, valve damping circuit loss, AC / DC harmonic component is also smaller. In this way, the tap switch action is more frequent, and a large range of the tap switch adjustment is required. Converter transformer with a more load voltage regulation switch, the voltage regulation range of the switch is generally 20~30%, the adjustment of each file is 1%~2%. Recently it is often found that the tap switch of Converter Transformers is out of step in Converter station. In this paper, it is analyzed in detail the impact of tap switch out of step for differential protection, overexcitation protection and zero sequence over current protection. Analysis results show that: the tap switch out of step has no effect on the differential protection and the overexcitation protection including the tap switch. But the tap switch out of step has effect on zero sequence overcurrent protection of out of step star-angle converter transformer. The zero sequence overcurrent protection will trip when the tap switch out of step is greater than 3 for out of step star-angle converter transformer.

  2. Synchronized tapping facilitates learning sound sequences as indexed by the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Keiko S; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether and how single finger tapping in synchrony with sound sequences contributed to the auditory processing of them. The participants learned two unfamiliar sound sequences via different methods. In the tapping condition, they learned an auditory sequence while they tapped in synchrony with each sound onset. In the no tapping condition, they learned another sequence while they kept pressing a key until the sequence ended. After these learning sessions, we presented the two melodies again and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). During the ERP recordings, 10% of the tones within each melody deviated from the original tones. An analysis of the grand average ERPs showed that deviant stimuli elicited a significant P300 in the tapping but not in the no-tapping condition. In addition, the significance of the P300 effect in the tapping condition increased as the participants showed highly synchronized tapping behavior during the learning sessions. These results indicated that single finger tapping promoted the conscious detection and evaluation of deviants within the learned sequences. The effect was related to individuals' musical ability to coordinate their finger movements along with external auditory events.

  3. A statistical characterization of the finger tapping test: modeling, estimation, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel; McNames, James; Klein, Krystal; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha

    2015-03-01

    Sensory-motor performance is indicative of both cognitive and physical function. The Halstead-Reitan finger tapping test is a measure of sensory-motor speed commonly used to assess function as part of a neuropsychological evaluation. Despite the widespread use of this test, the underlying motor and cognitive processes driving tapping behavior during the test are not well characterized or understood. This lack of understanding may make clinical inferences from test results about health or disease state less accurate because important aspects of the task such as variability or fatigue are unmeasured. To overcome these limitations, we enhanced the tapper with a sensor that enables us to more fully characterize all the aspects of tapping. This modification enabled us to decompose the tapping performance into six component phases and represent each phase with a set of parameters having clear functional interpretation. This results in a set of 29 total parameters for each trial, including change in tapping over time, and trial-to-trial and tap-to-tap variability. These parameters can be used to more precisely link different aspects of cognition or motor function to tapping behavior. We demonstrate the benefits of this new instrument with a simple hypothesis-driven trial comparing single and dual-task tapping.

  4. Uptake, translocation, and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moming Zhao; Shuzhen Zhang; Sen Wang; Honglin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Uptake,translocation and debromination of three polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs),BDE-28,-47 and-99,in maize were studied in a hydroponic experiment.Roots took up most of the PBDEs in the culture solutions and more highly brominated PBDEs had a stronger uptake capability.PBDEs were detected in the stems and leaves of maize after exposure but rarely detected in the blank control plants.Furthermore,PBDE concentrations decreased from roots to stems and then to leaves,and a very clear decreasing gradient was found in segments upwards along the stem.These altogether provide substantiating evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs in maize.More highly brominated PBDEs were translocated with more difficulty.Radial translocation of PBDEs from nodes to sheath inside maize was also observed.Both acropetal and radial translocations were enhanced at higher transpiration rates,suggesting that PBDE transport was probably driven by the transpiration stream.Debromination of PBDEs occurred in all parts of the maize,and debromination patterns of different parent PBDEs and in different parts of a plant were similar but with some differences.This study for the first time provides direct evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs within plants,elucidates the process of PBDE transport and clarifies the debromination products of PBDEs in maize.

  5. KPNB1 mediates PER/CRY nuclear translocation and circadian clock function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yool; Jang, A Reum; Francey, Lauren J; Sehgal, Amita; Hogenesch, John B

    2015-08-29

    Regulated nuclear translocation of the PER/CRY repressor complex is critical for negative feedback regulation of the circadian clock of mammals. However, the precise molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we report that KPNB1, an importin β component of the ncRNA repressor of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NRON) ribonucleoprotein complex, mediates nuclear translocation and repressor function of the PER/CRY complex. RNAi depletion of KPNB1 traps the PER/CRY complex in the cytoplasm by blocking nuclear entry of PER proteins in human cells. KPNB1 interacts mainly with PER proteins and directs PER/CRY nuclear transport in a circadian fashion. Interestingly, KPNB1 regulates the PER/CRY nuclear entry and repressor function, independently of importin α, its classical partner. Moreover, inducible inhibition of the conserved Drosophila importin β in lateral neurons abolishes behavioral rhythms in flies. Collectively, these data show that KPNB1 is required for timely nuclear import of PER/CRY in the negative feedback regulation of the circadian clock.

  6. Depletion of pro-oncogenic RUNX2 enhances gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-mutated pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells through the induction of pro-apoptotic TAp63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Nakamura, Mizuyo; Ogata, Takehiro; Sang, Meijie; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Sang, Meixiang; Shimozato, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we have described that siRNA-mediated silencing of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) improves anti-cancer drug gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-deficient human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells through the augmentation of p53 family TAp63-dependent cell death pathway. In this manuscript, we have extended our study to p53-mutated human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. According to our present results, knockdown of mutant p53 alone had a marginal effect on GEM-mediated cell death of Panc-1 cells. We then sought to deplete RUNX2 using siRNA in Panc-1 cells and examined its effect on GEM sensitivity. Under our experimental conditions, RUNX2 knockdown caused a significant enhancement of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Notably, GEM-mediated induction of TAp63 but not of TAp73 was further stimulated in RUNX2-depleted Panc-1 cells, indicating that, like AsPC-1 cells, TAp63 might play a pivotal role in the regulation of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Consistent with this notion, forced expression of TAp63α in Panc-1 cells promoted cell cycle arrest and/or cell death, and massively increased luciferase activities driven by TAp63-target gene promoters such as p21WAF1 and NOXA. In addition, immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RUNX2 forms a complex with TAp63 in Panc-1 cells. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that depletion of RUNX2 enhances the cytotoxic effect of GEM on p53-mutated Panc-1 cells through the stimulation of TAp63-dependent cell death pathway even in the presence of a large amount of pro-oncogenic mutant p53, and might provide an attractive strategy to treat pancreatic cancer patients with p53 mutations.

  7. Chemiosmotic Energy Conservation in Dinoroseobacter shibae: Proton Translocation Driven by Aerobic Respiration, Denitrification, and Photosynthetic Light Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kirchhoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dinoroseobacter shibae is an aerobic anoxygenic phototroph and able to utilize light energy to support its aerobic energy metabolism. Since the cells can also grow anaerobically with nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptor, we were interested in how the cells profit from photosynthesis during denitrification and what the steps of chemiosmotic energy conservation are. Therefore, we conducted proton translocation experiments and compared O2-, NO3-, and NO2- respiration during different light regimes and in the dark. We used wild type cells and transposon mutants with knocked-out nitrate- and nitrite- reductase genes (napA and nirS, as well as a mutant (ppsR impaired in bacteriochlorophyll a synthesis. Light had a positive impact on proton translocation, independent of the type of terminal electron acceptor present. In the absence of an electron acceptor, however, light did not stimulate proton translocation. The light-driven add-on to proton translocation was about 1.4 H+/e- for O2 respiration and about 1.1 H+/e- for NO3- and NO2-. We could see that the chemiosmotic energy conservation during aerobic respiration involved proton translocation, mediated by the NADH dehydrogenase, the cytochrome bc1 complex, and the cytochrome c oxidase. During denitrification the last proton translocation step of the electron transport was missing, resulting in a lower H+/e- ratio during anoxia. Furthermore, we studied the type of light-harvesting and found that the cells were able to channel light from the green–blue spectrum most efficiently, while red light has only minor impact. This fits well with the depth profiles for D. shibae abundance in the ocean and the penetration depth of light with different wavelengths into the water column.

  8. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  9. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  10. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block for postoperative pain management: a review [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jakobsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale.

  11. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block for postoperative pain management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Jan; Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Ledin, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale).

  12. Astronomy on Tap as a Professional Development Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily; Burtnyk, Kimberly; Silverman, Jeffrey; Popinchalk, Mark; Constellation of Astronomy On Tap Host Stars

    2018-01-01

    We lured scientists, educators, and other astronomy enthusiasts into bars around the world with promises of fun public outreach, but we secretly provided them with networking opportunities and taught them how to be better communicators! Astronomy on Tap (AoT) events began in New York City in 2013, and since then nearly 400 events (featuring 1-6 presenters each) have been organized by over 100 people in over 30 locations across the U.S. and around the world. Implicit in the design of typical AoT events are opportunities for professional development in several areas, most prominently in networking and science communication. We surveyed organizers and presenters to assess the extent to which they have benefited from these opportunities. We report results from that survey and present plans for codifying professional development aspects of AoT events for future implementation.

  13. Force reconstruction from tapping mode force microscopy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payam, Amir F; Martin-Jimenez, Daniel; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Fast, accurate, and robust nanomechanical measurements are intensely studied in materials science, applied physics, and molecular biology. Amplitude modulation force microscopy (tapping mode) is the most established nanoscale characterization technique of surfaces for air and liquid environments. However, its quantitative capabilities lag behind its high spatial resolution and robustness. We develop a general method to transform the observables into quantitative force measurements. The force reconstruction algorithm has been deduced on the assumption that the observables (amplitude and phase shift) are slowly varying functions of the tip–surface separation. The accuracy and applicability of the method is validated by numerical simulations and experiments. The method is valid for liquid and air environments, small and large free amplitudes, compliant and rigid materials, and conservative and non-conservative forces. (paper)

  14. Free-Energy Landscape of Reverse tRNA Translocation through the Ribosome Analyzed by Electron Microscopy Density Maps and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of reverse tRNA translocation in the ribosome, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome-tRNAs-mRNA-EFG complex were performed. The complex at the post-translocational state was directed towards the translocational and pre-translocational states by fitting the complex into cryo-EM density maps. Between a series of the fitting simulations, umbrella sampling simulations were performed to obtain the free-energy landscape. Multistep structural changes, such as a ratchet-like motion and rotation of the head of the small subunit were observed. The free-energy landscape showed that there were two main free-energy barriers: one between the post-translocational and intermediate states, and the other between the pre-translocational and intermediate states. The former corresponded to a clockwise rotation, which was coupled to the movement of P-tRNA over the P/E-gate made of G1338, A1339 and A790 in the small subunit. The latter corresponded to an anticlockwise rotation of the head, which was coupled to the location of the two tRNAs in the hybrid state. This indicates that the coupled motion of the head rotation and tRNA translocation plays an important role in opening and closing of the P/E-gate during the ratchet-like movement in the ribosome. Conformational change of EF-G was interpreted to be the result of the combination of the external motion by L12 around an axis passing near the sarcin-ricin loop, and internal hinge-bending motion. These motions contributed to the movement of domain IV of EF-G to maintain its interaction with A/P-tRNA. PMID:24999999

  15. Free-energy landscape of reverse tRNA translocation through the ribosome analyzed by electron microscopy density maps and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Ishida

    Full Text Available To understand the mechanism of reverse tRNA translocation in the ribosome, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome-tRNAs-mRNA-EFG complex were performed. The complex at the post-translocational state was directed towards the translocational and pre-translocational states by fitting the complex into cryo-EM density maps. Between a series of the fitting simulations, umbrella sampling simulations were performed to obtain the free-energy landscape. Multistep structural changes, such as a ratchet-like motion and rotation of the head of the small subunit were observed. The free-energy landscape showed that there were two main free-energy barriers: one between the post-translocational and intermediate states, and the other between the pre-translocational and intermediate states. The former corresponded to a clockwise rotation, which was coupled to the movement of P-tRNA over the P/E-gate made of G1338, A1339 and A790 in the small subunit. The latter corresponded to an anticlockwise rotation of the head, which was coupled to the location of the two tRNAs in the hybrid state. This indicates that the coupled motion of the head rotation and tRNA translocation plays an important role in opening and closing of the P/E-gate during the ratchet-like movement in the ribosome. Conformational change of EF-G was interpreted to be the result of the combination of the external motion by L12 around an axis passing near the sarcin-ricin loop, and internal hinge-bending motion. These motions contributed to the movement of domain IV of EF-G to maintain its interaction with A/P-tRNA.

  16. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Crookes

    Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  17. RoboTAP: Target priorities for robotic microlensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundertmark, M.; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bachelet, E.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Cassan, A.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Ranc, C.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Steele, I. A.; Mao, S.; Ment, K.; Menzies, J.; Li, Z.; Cross, S.; Maoz, D.; Shvartzvald, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The ability to automatically select scientifically-important transient events from an alert stream of many such events, and to conduct follow-up observations in response, will become increasingly important in astronomy. With wide-angle time domain surveys pushing to fainter limiting magnitudes, the capability to follow-up on transient alerts far exceeds our follow-up telescope resources, and effective target prioritization becomes essential. The RoboNet-II microlensing program is a pathfinder project, which has developed an automated target selection process (RoboTAP) for gravitational microlensing events, which are observed in real time using the Las Cumbres Observatory telescope network. Aims: Follow-up telescopes typically have a much smaller field of view compared to surveys, therefore the most promising microlensing events must be automatically selected at any given time from an annual sample exceeding 2000 events. The main challenge is to select between events with a high planet detection sensitivity, with the aim of detecting many planets and characterizing planetary anomalies. Methods: Our target selection algorithm is a hybrid system based on estimates of the planet detection zones around a microlens. It follows automatic anomaly alerts and respects the expected survey coverage of specific events. Results: We introduce the RoboTAP algorithm, whose purpose is to select and prioritize microlensing events with high sensitivity to planetary companions. In this work, we determine the planet sensitivity of the RoboNet follow-up program and provide a working example of how a broker can be designed for a real-life transient science program conducting follow-up observations in response to alerts; we explore the issues that will confront similar programs being developed for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other time domain surveys.

  18. Perineal tap water burns in the elderly: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael D E; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter J; Goltsman, David

    2017-11-01

    Burn injuries are expensive to treat. Burn injuries have been found to be difficult to treat in elderly patients than their younger counterparts. This is likely to result in higher financial burden on the healthcare system; however, no population-specific study has been conducted to ascertain the inpatient treatment costs of elderly patients with hot tap water burns. Six elderly patients (75-92 years) were admitted for tap water burns at Concord Hospital during 2010. All costs incurred during their hospitalization were followed prospectively, and were apportioned into 'direct' and 'indirect' costs. Direct costs encompassed directly measurable costs, such as consumables used on the ward or in theatres, and indirect costs included hospital overheads, such as bed and theatre costs. Three males and three females admitted with burns to the buttocks, legs or feet. Total burn surface area (TBSA) ranged from 9-21% (mean 12.8%). Length of stay ranged from 26-98 days (mean 46 days). One patient died, and four required surgical management or grafting. Total inpatient costs ranged from $69 782.33 to $254 652.70 per patient (mean $122 800.20, standard deviation $67 484.46). TBSA was directly correlated with length of stay (P < 0.01) and total cost (P < 0.01). Hot water burns among the elderly are associated with high treatment costs, which are proportional to the size of the burn. The cost of treating this cohort is higher than previously reported in a general Australian burn cohort. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Beam polarimetry in the CBELSA/TAPS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    In the identification of nucleon resonances polarization observables play an important role. For the photoproduction experiments of the CBELAS/TAPS assembly at the accelerator facility ELSA in the framework of this thesis linearly and circularly polarized were realized and prepared. Linearly polarized photons were produced on a diamond crystal under usage of the coherent bremsstrahlung. By alignment of the crystal in the bremsstrahlung coherent intensity increasements in form of pronounced edges could be generated. The number of the polarized photons lying in the increasement determines in comparison to the incoherently produced background the degree of polarization. The position of the coherent edge could be tuned by means of control distributions to an arbitrary position in the measured energy spectrum as well as the degree of polarization of the photons optimized. For the production of circularly polarized photons longitudinally polarized electrons on the bremsstrahlung target are required. The polarization transfer of the bremsstrahlung process is uniquely given by the QED, so that the degree of polarization of the photons can be determined via a measurement of the electron-beam polarization. With this goal a for the first time in the CBELSA/TAPS applied momentum-selecting Moeller polarimeter was developed and integrated in the photon-tagging facility. Via a change of the beam helicity the counting-rate asymmetry for parallely and antiparallely beam and target electrons was measured and the degree of polarization of the electrons at beam energies of 2350 MeV determined to typically above 60%. By means of dedicated test measurements and simulations the functionality of the Moeller polarimeter was checked and the relative systematic uncertainty determined to 1%. Since 2007 the Moeller polarimeter essential for the double-polarization experiments is in current operation. Finally a method was sketched, in which via the known cross-section asymmetry of the

  20. Expanding the Universe of "Astronomy on Tap" Public Outreach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Levine, Brian; Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Tyndall, Amy; Muna, Demitri; Garofali, Kristen; Morris, Brett; Byler, Nell; Fyhrie, Adalyn; Rehnberg, Morgan; Hart, Quyen N.; Connelly, Jennifer L.; Silvia, Devin W.; Morrison, Sarah J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Tremblay, Grant; Schwamb, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT, astronomyontap.org) is free public outreach event featuring engaging science presentations in bars, often combined with music, games, and prizes, to encourage a fun, interactive atmosphere. AoT events feature several short astronomy-related presentations primarily by local professional scientists, but also by visiting scientists, students, educators, amatuer astronomers, writers, and artists. Events are held in social venues (bars, coffee shops, art galleries, etc.) in order to bring science directly to the public in a relaxed, informal atmosphere. With this we hope to engage a more diverse audience than typical lectures at academic and cultural institutions and to develop enthusiasm for science among voting, tax-paying adults. The flexible format and content of an AoT event is easy to adapt and expand based on the priorities, resources, and interests of local organizers. The social nature of AoT events provides important professional development and networking opportunities in science communication. Since the first New York City event in April 2013, Astronomy on Tap has expanded to more than ten cities globally, including monthly events in NYC, Austin, Seattle, and Tucson; semi-regular events in Columbus, New Haven, Santiago, Toronto, and Denver; occasional (so far) events in Rochester (NY), Baltimore, Lansing, and Washington, DC; and one-off events in Chicago and Taipei. Several venues regularly attract audiences of over 200 people. We have received media coverage online, in print, and occasionally even on radio and television. In this poster we describe the overarching goals and characteristics of AoT events, distinct adaptations of various locations, resources we have developed, and the methods we use to coordinate among the worldwide local organizers.

  1. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten μl of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca * and Te * tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc * , Co * , Zn * , Se * , Rb * , and Eu * were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be * , Mn * , Sr * , Y * , Ba * , Ce * , Pm * , Gd * , Hf * , Yb * , Lu * , Os * , Ir * , and Pt * remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant tissues, though their translocation was considerably influenced by the plant species. (author)

  2. High-speed detection of DNA translocation in nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccari, Raquel L.; Ciccarella, Pietro; Bahrami, Azadeh; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Albrecht, Tim

    2016-03-01

    We present a high-speed electrical detection scheme based on a custom-designed CMOS amplifier which allows the analysis of DNA translocation in glass nanopipettes on a microsecond timescale. Translocation of different DNA lengths in KCl electrolyte provides a scaling factor of the DNA translocation time equal to p = 1.22, which is different from values observed previously with nanopipettes in LiCl electrolyte or with nanopores. Based on a theoretical model involving electrophoresis, hydrodynamics and surface friction, we show that the experimentally observed range of p-values may be the result of, or at least be affected by DNA adsorption and friction between the DNA and the substrate surface.We present a high-speed electrical detection scheme based on a custom-designed CMOS amplifier which allows the analysis of DNA translocation in glass nanopipettes on a microsecond timescale. Translocation of different DNA lengths in KCl electrolyte provides a scaling factor of the DNA translocation time equal to p = 1.22, which is different from values observed previously with nanopipettes in LiCl electrolyte or with nanopores. Based on a theoretical model involving electrophoresis, hydrodynamics and surface friction, we show that the experimentally observed range of p-values may be the result of, or at least be affected by DNA adsorption and friction between the DNA and the substrate surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Gel electrophoresis confirming lengths and purity of DNA samples, comparison between Axopatch 200B and custom-built setup, comprehensive low-noise amplifier characterization, representative I-V curves of nanopipettes used, typical scatter plots of τ vs. peak amplitude for the four LDNA's used, table of most probable τ values, a comparison between different fitting models for the DNA translocation time distribution, further details on the stochastic numerical simulation of the scaling statistics and the derivation of the extended

  3. Role of non-equilibrium conformations on driven polymer translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, H H; Muthukumar, M

    2018-01-14

    One of the major theoretical methods in understanding polymer translocation through a nanopore is the Fokker-Planck formalism based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium of polymer conformations. The criterion for applicability of the quasi-equilibrium approximation for polymer translocation is that the average translocation time per Kuhn segment, ⟨τ⟩/N K , is longer than the relaxation time τ 0 of the polymer. Toward an understanding of conditions that would satisfy this criterion, we have performed coarse-grained three dimensional Langevin dynamics and multi-particle collision dynamics simulations. We have studied the role of initial conformations of a polyelectrolyte chain (which were artificially generated with a flow field) on the kinetics of its translocation across a nanopore under the action of an externally applied transmembrane voltage V (in the absence of the initial flow field). Stretched (out-of-equilibrium) polyelectrolyte chain conformations are deliberately and systematically generated and used as initial conformations in translocation simulations. Independent simulations are performed to study the relaxation behavior of these stretched chains, and a comparison is made between the relaxation time scale and the mean translocation time (⟨τ⟩). For such artificially stretched initial states, ⟨τ⟩/N K polymers including single stranded DNA (ssDNA), double stranded DNA (dsDNA), and synthetic polymers. Even when these data are rescaled assuming a constant effective velocity of translocation, it is found that for flexible (ssDNA and synthetic) polymers with N K Kuhn segments, the condition ⟨τ⟩/N K polymers such as ssDNA, a crossover from quasi-equilibrium to non-equilibrium behavior would occur at N K ∼ O(1000).

  4. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  5. Tap to Togetherness: An Innovative Family Relationship Program Reaches Ghana, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Tap to Togetherness is a unique program designed to build and enhance family relationships through tap dance steps. Kansas State University researchers from the School of Music, Theatre and Dance and the College of Human Ecology, led by Julie L. Pentz, Associate Professor of Dance, Director of the K-State Dance Program, developed the program.…

  6. On-load Tap Changer Diagnosis on High-Voltage Power Transformers using Dynamic Resistance Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    High-voltage transformers have tap changers to regulate the voltage in the high-voltage network when the load changes. Those tap changers are subject to different degradation mechanisms and need regular maintenance. Various defects, like contact degradation, often remain undetected and the

  7. Persistent suppression of subthalamic beta-band activity during rhythmic finger tapping in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The function of synchronous oscillatory activity at beta band (15-30Hz) frequencies within the basal ganglia is unclear. Here we sought support for the hypothesis that beta activity has a global function within the basal ganglia and is not directly involved in the coding of specific biomechanical parameters of movement. We recorded local field potential activity from the subthalamic nuclei of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease during a synchronized tapping task at three different externally cued rates. Beta activity was suppressed during tapping, reaching a minimum that differed little across the different tapping rates despite an increase in velocity of finger movements. Thus beta power suppression was independent of specific motor parameters. Moreover, although beta oscillations remained suppressed during all tapping rates, periods of resynchronization between taps were markedly attenuated during high rate tapping. As such, a beta rebound above baseline between taps at the lower rates was absent at the high rate. Our results demonstrate that beta desynchronization in the region of the subthalamic nucleus is independent of motor parameters and that the beta resynchronization is differentially modulated by rate of finger tapping, These findings implicate consistent beta suppression in the facilitation of continuous movement sequences. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TAPS experiments at Ganil: new developments, on-line results and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautridou, P.; Lefevre, F.; Marques, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Ostendorf, R.; Quebert, J.; Schutz, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present contribution is to show what the status of data analysis is only three months after TAPS has left GANIL. The authors also described briefly the data analysis package, they presently use and which has been specially developped for the TAPS experiments. One should notice that this package can be easily modified to suit any experimental situation. 8 figs

  9. 7 CFR 760.102 - Administration of ELAP, LFP, LIP, SURE, and TAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of ELAP, LFP, LIP, SURE, and TAP. 760.102 Section 760.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE... TAP. (a) The programs in subparts C through H of this part will be administered under the general...

  10. Quantifying Parkinson's disease finger-tapping severity by extracting and synthesizing finger motion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel index of Parkinson's disease (PD) finger-tapping severity, called "PDFTsi," for quantifying the severity of symptoms related to the finger tapping of PD patients with high accuracy. To validate the efficacy of PDFTsi, the finger-tapping movements of normal controls and PD patients were measured by using magnetic sensors, and 21 characteristics were extracted from the finger-tapping waveforms. To distinguish motor deterioration due to PD from that due to aging, the aging effect on finger tapping was removed from these characteristics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the age-normalized characteristics, and principal components that represented the motion properties of finger tapping were calculated. Multiple linear regression (MLR) with stepwise variable selection was applied to the principal components, and PDFTsi was calculated. The calculated PDFTsi indicates that PDFTsi has a high estimation ability, namely a mean square error of 0.45. The estimation ability of PDFTsi is higher than that of the alternative method, MLR with stepwise regression selection without PCA, namely a mean square error of 1.30. This result suggests that PDFTsi can quantify PD finger-tapping severity accurately. Furthermore, the result of interpreting a model for calculating PDFTsi indicated that motion wideness and rhythm disorder are important for estimating PD finger-tapping severity.

  11. Finger tapping and pre-attentive sensorimotor timing in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J; Gravel, Nickolas; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Valera, Eve M

    2017-12-01

    Sensorimotor timing deficits are considered central to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the tasks establishing timing impairments often involve interconnected processes, including low-level sensorimotor timing and higher level executive processes such as attention. Thus, the source of timing deficits in ADHD remains unclear. Low-level sensorimotor timing can be isolated from higher level processes in a finger-tapping task that examines the motor response to unexpected shifts of metronome onsets. In this study, adults with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms (n = 25) and controls (n = 26) performed two finger-tapping tasks. The first assessed tapping variability in a standard tapping task (metronome-paced and unpaced). In the other task, participants tapped along with a metronome that contained unexpected shifts (±15, 50 ms); the timing adjustment on the tap following the shift captures pre-attentive sensorimotor timing (i.e., phase correction) and thus should be free of potential higher order confounds (e.g., attention). In the standard tapping task, as expected, the ADHD group had higher timing variability in both paced and unpaced tappings. However, in the pre-attentive task, performance did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. Together, results suggest that low-level sensorimotor timing and phase correction are largely preserved in ADHD and that some timing impairments observed in ADHD may stem from higher level factors (such as sustained attention).

  12. Follow You, Follow  Me: Continuous Mutual Prediction and Adaptation in Joint Tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Vuust, Peter; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    both were hearing each other, the pair became a coupled, mutually and continuously adaptive unit of two “hyper-followers”, with their intertap intervals (ITIs) oscillating in opposite directions on a tap-to-tap basis. There was thus no evidence for the emergence of a leader–follower strategy. We also...

  13. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.; Sapriel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 w...

  14. Sorting genomes by reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Li, Guojun; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The problem of sorting by reciprocal translocations (abbreviated as SBT) arises from the field of comparative genomics, which is to find a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations that transforms one genome Pi into another genome Gamma, with the restriction that Pi and Gamma contain the same genes. SBT has been proved to be polynomial-time solvable, and several polynomial algorithms have been developed. In this paper, we show how to extend Bergeron's SBT algorithm to include insertions and deletions, allowing to compare genomes containing different genes. In particular, if the gene set of Pi is a subset (or superset, respectively) of the gene set of Gamma, we present an approximation algorithm for transforming Pi into Gamma by reciprocal translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively), providing a sorting sequence with length at most OPT + 2, where OPT is the minimum number of translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively) needed to transform Pi into Gamma; if Pi and Gamma have different genes but not containing each other, we give a heuristic to transform Pi into Gamma by a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions, with bounds for the length of the sorting sequence it outputs. At a conceptual level, there is some similarity between our algorithm and the algorithm developed by El Mabrouk which is used to sort two chromosomes with different gene contents by reversals, insertions, and deletions.

  15. A somatic origin of homologous Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Yueksel-Apak, M. (Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey)); Neri, G. (Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)); Serville, F. (Hopital d' Enfants Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)); Balicek, P.; Haluza, R. (Univ. Hospital of Hradeck Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)); Farah, L.M.S. (Escuola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    One t(14q 14q), three t(15q 15q), two t(21q21q), and two t(22q22q) nonmosaic, apparently balanced, de novo Robertsonian translocation cases were investigated with polymorphic markers to establish the origin of the translocated chromosomes. Four cases had results indicative of an isochromosome: one t(14q14q) case with mild mental retardation and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14, one t(15q15q) case with the Prader-Willi syndrome and UPD(15), a phenotypically normal carrier of t(22q22q) with maternal UPD(22), and a phenotypically normal t(21q21q) case of paternal UPD(21). All UPD cases showed complete homozygosity throughout the involved chromosome, which is supportive of a postmeiotic origin. In the remaining four cases, maternal and paternal inheritance of the involved chromosome was found, which unambiguously implies a somatic origin. One t(15q15q) female had a child with a ring chromosome 15, which was also of probable postmeiotic origin as recombination between grandparental haplotypes had occurred prior to ring formation. UPD might be expected to result from de novo Robertsonian translocations of meiotic origin; however, all de novo homologous translocation cases, so far reported, with UPD of chromosomes 14, 15, 21, or 22 have been isochromosomes. These data provide the first direct evidence that nonmosaic Robertsonian translocations, as well as isochromosomes, are commonly the result of a mitotic exchange. 75 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Electrostatics of polymer translocation events in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2016-07-07

    We develop an analytical theory that accounts for the image and surface charge interactions between a charged dielectric membrane and a DNA molecule translocating through the membrane. Translocation events through neutral carbon-based membranes are driven by a competition between the repulsive DNA-image-charge interactions and the attractive coupling between the DNA segments on the trans and the cis sides of the membrane. The latter effect is induced by the reduction of the coupling by the dielectric membrane. In strong salt solutions where the repulsive image-charge effects dominate the attractive trans-cis coupling, the DNA molecule encounters a translocation barrier of ≈10 kBT. In dilute electrolytes, the trans-cis coupling takes over image-charge forces and the membrane becomes a metastable attraction point that can trap translocating polymers over long time intervals. This mechanism can be used in translocation experiments in order to control DNA motion by tuning the salt concentration of the solution.

  17. Nonabsorbable Antibiotics Reduce Bacterial and Endotoxin Translocation in Hepatectomised Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kakkos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that septic complications, occurring after major hepatectomies, may be caused by gram negative bacteria, translocating from the gut. We investigated in rats, the effect of extended hepatectomy on the structure and morphology of the intestinal mucosa as well as on the translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins. We also examined the effect of nonabsorbable antibiotics on reducing the intestinal flora and consequently the phenomenon of translocation by administering neomycin sulphate and cefazoline. Hepatectomy was found to increase translocation, while administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics decreased it significantly. In addition, hepatectomy increased the aerobic cecal bacterial population, which normalised in the group receiving antibiotics. Among the histological parameters evaluated, villus height demonstrated a significant reduction after hepatectomy, while the number of villi per cm and the number of mitoses per crypt, remained unchanged. Our results indicate that administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics presents a positive effect on bacterial and endotoxin translocation after extended hepatectomy, and this may be related to reduction of colonic bacterial load as an intraluminal effect of antibiotics.

  18. Tapping but not massage enhances vasodilation and improves venous palpation of cutaneous veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Mika; Sasaki, Shinsuke; Mori, Masaharu; Ogino, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated whether tapping on the median cubital vein or massaging the forearm was more effective in obtaining better venous palpation for venipuncture. Forty healthy volunteers in their twenties were subjected to tapping (10 times in 5 sec) or massage (10 strokes in 20 sec from the wrist to the cubital fossa) under tourniquet inflation on the upper arm. Venous palpation was assessed using the venous palpation score (0-6, with 0 being impalpable). Three venous factors-venous depth, cross-sectional area, and elevation-were also measured using ultrasonography. The venous palpation score increased significantly by tapping but not by massage. Moreover, all 3 venous measurements changed significantly by tapping, while only the depth decreased significantly by massage. The three venous measurements correlated significantly with the venous palpation score, indicating that they are useful objective indicators for evaluating vasodilation. We suggest that tapping is an effective vasodilation technique.

  19. TouchGrid: Touchpad pointing by recursively mapping taps to smaller display regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Touchpad devices are widely used but lacking in pointing efficiency. The TouchGrid, an instance of what we term cell cursors, replaces moving the cursor through dragging the finger on a touchpad with tapping in different regions of the touchpad. The touchpad regions are recursively mapped...... to smaller display regions and thereby enable high-precision pointing without requiring high tapping precision. In an experiment, six subjects used the TouchGrid and a standard touchpad across different numbers of targets, distances to targets, and target widths. Whereas standard touchpad operation follows...... Fitts’ law, target selection time with the TouchGrid is a linear function of the required number of taps. The TouchGrid was significantly faster for small targets and for tasks requiring one tap, and marginally faster for two-tap tasks. Error rates tended to be higher with the TouchGrid than...

  20. Association between finger tapping, attention, memory, and cognitive diagnosis in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Israel; Lavner, Yizhar

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the association between spontaneous finger tapping and cognitive function, with a detailed analysis of the two main phases of finger tapping, the touch-phase and the off-phase. 170 elderly patients (83 men, 87 women; M age = 82.1 yr., SD = 6.2) underwent cognitive assessment including the Mini-Mental State Examination, a forward digit span test, and 15 sec. of finger tapping. Results indicated a significant increase in the length and variability of the finger-touch phase among participants with mild cognitive impairment or dementia compared to participants with no cognitive impairment, suggesting a relationship between finger tapping and attention, short-term memory, and cognitive diagnosis. Pattern classification analyses on the finger tapping parameters indicated a specificity of 0.91 and sensitivity of 0.52 for ruling out cognitive impairment.

  1. TAP1-deficiency does not alter atherosclerosis development in Apoe-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kolbus

    Full Text Available Antigen presenting cells (APC have the ability to present both extra-cellular and intra-cellular antigens via MHC class I molecules to CD8(+ T cells. The cross presentation of extra-cellular antigens is reduced in mice with deficient Antigen Peptide Transporter 1 (TAP1-dependent MHC class I antigen presentation, and these mice are characterized by a diminished CD8(+ T cell population. We have recently reported an increased activation of CD8(+ T cells in hypercholesterolemic Apoe(-/- mice. Therefore, this study included TAP1-deficient Apoe(-/- mice (Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- to test the atherogenicity of CD8(+ T cells and TAP1-dependent cross presentation in a hypercholesterolemic environment. As expected the CD8(+ T cell numbers were low in Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- mice in comparison to Apoe(-/- mice, constituting ~1% of the lymphocyte population. In spite of this there were no differences in the extent of atherosclerosis as assessed by en face Oil Red O staining of the aorta and cross-sections of the aortic root between Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- and Apoe(-/- mice. Moreover, no differences were detected in lesion infiltration of macrophages or CD3(+ T cells in Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- compared to Apoe(-/- mice. The CD3(+CD4(+ T cell fraction was increased in Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- mice, suggesting a compensation for the decreased CD8(+ T cell population. Interestingly, the fraction of CD8(+ effector memory T cells was increased but this appeared to have little impact on the atherosclerosis development.In conclusion, Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- mice develop atherosclerosis equal to Apoe(-/- mice, indicating a minor role for CD8(+ T cells and TAP1-dependent antigen presentation in the disease process.

  2. Tap Arduino: An Arduino microcontroller for low-latency auditory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Benjamin G; van Vugt, Floris T

    2016-12-01

    Timing abilities are often measured by having participants tap their finger along with a metronome and presenting tap-triggered auditory feedback. These experiments predominantly use electronic percussion pads combined with software (e.g., FTAP or Max/MSP) that records responses and delivers auditory feedback. However, these setups involve unknown latencies between tap onset and auditory feedback and can sometimes miss responses or record multiple, superfluous responses for a single tap. These issues may distort measurements of tapping performance or affect the performance of the individual. We present an alternative setup using an Arduino microcontroller that addresses these issues and delivers low-latency auditory feedback. We validated our setup by having participants (N = 6) tap on a force-sensitive resistor pad connected to the Arduino and on an electronic percussion pad with various levels of force and tempi. The Arduino delivered auditory feedback through a pulse-width modulation (PWM) pin connected to a headphone jack or a wave shield component. The Arduino's PWM (M = 0.6 ms, SD = 0.3) and wave shield (M = 2.6 ms, SD = 0.3) demonstrated significantly lower auditory feedback latencies than the percussion pad (M = 9.1 ms, SD = 2.0), FTAP (M = 14.6 ms, SD = 2.8), and Max/MSP (M = 15.8 ms, SD = 3.4). The PWM and wave shield latencies were also significantly less variable than those from FTAP and Max/MSP. The Arduino missed significantly fewer taps, and recorded fewer superfluous responses, than the percussion pad. The Arduino captured all responses, whereas at lower tapping forces, the percussion pad missed more taps. Regardless of tapping force, the Arduino outperformed the percussion pad. Overall, the Arduino is a high-precision, low-latency, portable, and affordable tool for auditory experiments.

  3. Polypeptide Translocation Through the Mitochondrial TOM Channel: Temperature-Dependent Rates at the Single-Molecule Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R; Lamichhane, Usha; Romero-Ruiz, Mercedes; Nussberger, Stephan; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2013-01-03

    The TOM protein complex facilitates the transfer of nearly all mitochondrial preproteins across outer mitochondrial membranes. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on facilitated translocation of a mitochondrial presequence peptide pF1β. Ion current fluctuations analysis through single TOM channels revealed thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of substrate binding and allowed determining the energy profile of peptide translocation. The activation energy for the on-rate and off-rate of the presequence peptide into the TOM complex was symmetric with respect to the electric field and estimated to be about 15 and 22 kT per peptide. These values are above that expected for free diffusion of ions in water (6 kT) and reflect the stronger interaction in the channel. Both values are in the range for typical enzyme kinetics and suggest one process without involving large conformational changes within the channel protein.

  4. Mechanism for translocation of fluoroquinolones across lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, O.; Rog, T.; Javanainen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Classical atom-scale molecular dynamics simulations, constrained free energy calculations, and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are employed to study the diffusive translocation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) across lipid membranes. CPFX is considered here as a representative of the fluoroquinolone...... antibiotics class. Neutral and zwitterionic CPFX coexist at physiological pH, with the latter being predominant. Simulations reveal that only the neutral form permeates the bilayer, and it does so through a novel mechanism that involves dissolution of concerted stacks of zwitterionic ciprofloxacins....... Subsequent QM analysis of the observed molecular stacking shows the important role of partial charge neutralization in the stacks, highlighting how the zwitterionic form of the drug is neutralized for translocation. The findings propose a translocation mechanism in which zwitterionic CPFX molecules approach...

  5. Biological mechanisms and translocation kinetics of particulate plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dissolution and elimination of particulate 239 Pu from its initial sites of deposition in phagocytic organs (the liver, spleen, and lung), as well as its translocation and redeposition in soft tissue organs and skeleton have been investigated. Beagles were injected intravenously with particulate Pu and sacrificed sequentially at times ranging from 33 to 830 days after injection. Equations that describe the overall retention of Pu in liver, spleen, lung, and bone were calculated. Plutonium mobilized from these organs either re-entered the blood stream and redeposited in the skeleton and liver parenchyma or was excreted. The protracted translocation of Pu to bone surfaces potentially exposes all cells involved in osteogenesis to continuous α-radiation, a situation that could enhance the hazard of developing osteosarcoma. A kinetic model that describes the translocation of Pu from the phagocytic compartments to blood and its subsequent redistribution to bone, liver, and other organs was formulated

  6. Evaluating descriptors for the lateral translocation of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanova, Olga; Borbe, Stefan; Mühlfeld, Stefanie; Becker, Martin; Kubitz, Ralf; Häussinger, Dieter; Berlage, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic images of tissue sections are used for diagnosis and monitoring of therapy, by analysis of protein patterns correlating to disease states. Spatial protein distribution is influenced by protein translocation between different membrane compartments and quantified by comparison of microscopic images of biological samples. Cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by translocation of transport proteins, and quantification of their dislocation offers new diagnostic options. However, reliable and unbiased tools are lacking. The nowadays used manual method is slow, subjective and error-prone. We have developed a new workflow based on automated image analysis and improved it by the introduction of scale-free descriptors for the translocation quantification. This fast and unbiased method can substitute the manual analysis, and the suggested descriptors perform better than the earlier used statistical variance.

  7. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  8. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  9. The Genetics of a Probable Insertional Translocation in SORDARIA BREVICOLLIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, D J

    1979-05-01

    A chromosome rearrangement has been isolated and characterized in Sordaria brevicollis. Crosses to spore color mutants on each of the seven linkage groups have enabled the breakpoints to be mapped. The simplest hypothesis to account for the results is that a piece of linkage group VI has been translocated to linkage group V and inserted 2.7 map units from its centromere. Previous reports of markers on this linkage group with centromere distances greater than 2.7 units make it unlikely that the translocation is quasiterminal.

  10. Free energy evaluation in polymer translocation via Jarzynski equality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe, E-mail: fmondaini@if.ufrj.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Petrópolis, 25.620-003, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations, which provide free energy estimates for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. We employ the Jarzynski equality in its rigorous setting, to compute the variation of the free energy in single monomer translocation events. In our three-dimensional Langevin simulations, the excluded-volume and van der Waals interactions between beads (monomers and membrane atoms) are modeled through a repulsive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and consecutive monomers are subject to the Finite-Extension Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) potential. Analysing data for polymers with different lengths, the free energy profile is noted to have interesting finite-size scaling properties.

  11. Free energy evaluation in polymer translocation via Jarzynski equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Felipe; Moriconi, L.

    2014-01-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations, which provide free energy estimates for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. We employ the Jarzynski equality in its rigorous setting, to compute the variation of the free energy in single monomer translocation events. In our three-dimensional Langevin simulations, the excluded-volume and van der Waals interactions between beads (monomers and membrane atoms) are modeled through a repulsive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and consecutive monomers are subject to the Finite-Extension Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) potential. Analysing data for polymers with different lengths, the free energy profile is noted to have interesting finite-size scaling properties.

  12. The action spectrum in chloroplast translocation in multilayer leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lechowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By measurement of light transmittance through a leaf as criterion of chloroplast translocation, the action spectrum of Ajuga reptans was established. In the spectrum obtained, a correction was introduced for leaf autoabsorption calculated on the basis of the Beer-Lambert law. The action spectrum has two maxima: at λ= 375 nm and λ= 481 nm. The range above 502 nm has no significant effect on chloroplast translocation. Comparison with other objects examined demonstrated that in multilayer leaf cells riboflavin seems also to be a photoreceptor active in this process.

  13. Tapping into tongue motion to substitute or augment upper limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghovanloo, Maysam; Sahadat, M. Nazmus; Zhang, Zhenxuan; Kong, Fanpeng; Sebkhi, Nordine

    2017-05-01

    Assistive technologies (AT) play an important role in the lives of people with disabilities. Most importantly, they allow individuals with severe physical disabilities become more independence. Inherent abilities of the human tongue originated from its strong representation in the motor cortex, its direct connection to the brain through well-protected cranial nerves, and easy access without a surgery have resulted in development of a series of tongue-operated ATs that tap into the dexterous, intuitive, rapid, precise, and tireless motion of the tongue. These ATs not only help people with tetraplegia as a result of spinal cord injury or degenerative neurological diseases to access computers/smartphones, drive wheelchairs, and interact with their environments but also have the potential to enhance rehabilitation paradigms for stroke survivors. In this paper, various types of tongue operated ATs are discussed based on their working principles and task based performances. Comparisons are drawn based on widely accepted and standardized quantitative measures, such as throughput, information transfer rate, typing speed/accuracy, tracking error, navigation period, and navigation accuracy as well as qualitative measures, such as user feedback. Finally, the prospects of using variations of these versatile devices to enhance human performance in environments that limit hand and finger movements, such as space exploration or underwater operations are discussed.

  14. Automatic and objective assessment of alternating tapping performance in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memedi, Mevludin; Khan, Taha; Grenholm, Peter; Nyholm, Dag; Westin, Jerker

    2013-12-09

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a method for enabling quantitative and automatic scoring of alternating tapping performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten healthy elderly subjects and 95 patients in different clinical stages of PD have utilized a touch-pad handheld computer to perform alternate tapping tests in their home environments. First, a neurologist used a web-based system to visually assess impairments in four tapping dimensions ('speed', 'accuracy', 'fatigue' and 'arrhythmia') and a global tapping severity (GTS). Second, tapping signals were processed with time series analysis and statistical methods to derive 24 quantitative parameters. Third, principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of these parameters and to obtain scores for the four dimensions. Finally, a logistic regression classifier was trained using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation to map the reduced parameters to the corresponding visually assessed GTS scores. Results showed that the computed scores correlated well to visually assessed scores and were significantly different across Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores of upper limb motor performance. In addition, they had good internal consistency, had good ability to discriminate between healthy elderly and patients in different disease stages, had good sensitivity to treatment interventions and could reflect the natural disease progression over time. In conclusion, the automatic method can be useful to objectively assess the tapping performance of PD patients and can be included in telemedicine tools for remote monitoring of tapping.

  15. Arrhythmokinesis is evident during unimanual not bimanual finger tapping in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, Megan H; Velisar, Anca; Koop, Mandy Miller; Shreve, Lauren; Quinn, Emma; Bronte-Stewart, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmokinesis, the variability in repetitive movements, is a fundamental feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that unimanual repetitive alternating finger tapping (AFT) would reveal more arrhythmokinesis compared to bimanual single finger alternating hand tapping (SFT), in PD. The variability of inter-strike interval (CVISI) and of amplitude (CVAMP) during AFT and SFT were measured on an engineered, MRI-compatible keyboard in sixteen PD subjects off medication and in twenty-four age-matched controls. The CVISI and CVAMP of the more affected (MA) and less affected (LA) sides in PD subjects were greater during AFT than SFT (P tapping brings out more arrhythmokinesis compared to bimanual, single finger tapping in PDs but not in controls. Arrhythmokinesis during unimanual, alternating finger tapping captured a significant difference between both the MA and LA hands of PD subjects and controls, whereas that during a bimanual, single finger tapping task only distinguished between the MA hand and controls. Arrhythmokinesis underlies freezing of gait and may also underlie the freezing behavior documented in fine motor control if studied using a unimanual alternating finger tapping task.

  16. Effectiveness of Modal Decomposition for Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy Microcantilevers in Liquid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Kwang; Lee, Soo Il

    2016-05-01

    The modal decomposition of tapping mode atomic force microscopy microcantilevers in liquid environments was studied experimentally. Microcantilevers with different lengths and stiffnesses and two sample surfaces with different elastic moduli were used in the experiment. The response modes of the microcantilevers were extracted as proper orthogonal modes through proper orthogonal decomposition. Smooth orthogonal decomposition was used to estimate the resonance frequency directly. The effects of the tapping setpoint and the elastic modulus of the sample under test were examined in terms of their multi-mode responses with proper orthogonal modes, proper orthogonal values, smooth orthogonal modes and smooth orthogonal values. Regardless of the stiffness of the microcantilever under test, the first mode was dominant in tapping mode atomic force microscopy under normal operating conditions. However, at lower tapping setpoints, the flexible microcantilever showed modal distortion and noise near the tip when tapping on a hard sample. The stiff microcantilever had a higher mode effect on a soft sample at lower tapping setpoints. Modal decomposition for tapping mode atomic force microscopy can thus be used to estimate the characteristics of samples in liquid environments.

  17. X-ray microtomography study of the compaction process of rods under tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Xi, Yan; Cao, Yixin; Wang, Yujie

    2012-05-01

    We present an x-ray microtomography study of the compaction process of cylindrical rods under tapping. The process is monitored by measuring the evolution of the orientational order parameter, local, and overall packing densities as a function of the tapping number for different tapping intensities. The slow relaxation dynamics of the orientational order parameter can be well fitted with a stretched-exponential law with stretching exponents ranging from 0.9 to 1.6. The corresponding relaxation time versus tapping intensity follows an Arrhenius behavior which is reminiscent of the slow dynamics in thermal glassy systems. We also investigated the boundary effect on the ordering process and found that boundary rods order faster than interior ones. In searching for the underlying mechanism of the slow dynamics, we estimated the initial random velocities of the rods under tapping and found that the ordering process is compatible with a diffusion mechanism. The average coordination number as a function of the tapping number at different tapping intensities has also been measured, which spans a range from 6 to 8.

  18. Antibacterial TAP-mimic electrospun polymer scaffold: effects on P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maria Tereza P; Evans, Joshua D; Gregory, Richard L; Valera, Marcia C; Bottino, Marco C

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to investigate, in vitro, the effects of a recently developed triple antibiotic paste (TAP)-mimic polymer nanofibrous scaffold against Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Dentin specimens (4 × 4 × 1 mm(3)) were prepared from human canines. The specimens were sterilized, inoculated with P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), and incubated for 1 week to allow for biofilm formation. Infected dentin specimens were exposed for 3 days to the following treatments: antibiotic-free polydioxanone scaffold (PDS, control), PDS + 25 wt% TAP [25 mg of each antibiotic (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) per mL of the PDS polymer solution], or a saturated TAP-based solution (50 mg of each antibiotic per mL of saline solution). In order to serve as the negative control, infected dentin specimens were left untreated (bacteria only). To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the TAP-mimic scaffold, a colony-forming unit (CFU) per milliliter (n = 10/group) measurement was performed. Furthermore, additional specimens (n = 2/group) were prepared to qualitatively study biofilm inhibition via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistics were performed, and significance was set at the 5% level. Both the TAP-mimic scaffold and the positive control (TAP solution) led to complete bacterial elimination, differing statistically (p mimic scaffold against an established P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Collectively, the data suggest that the proposed nanofibrous scaffold might be used as an alternative to the advocated clinical gold standard (i.e., TAP) for intracanal disinfection prior to regenerative endodontics.

  19. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F

    2007-05-01

    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (water to their children. Of the parents surveyed, 82.5% reported that their child's physician had never discussed the type of water they should use. Many Latino families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  20. CSF tapping also improves mental imagery of gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Bruno; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Assal, Frédéric; Allali, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to compare the changes of Timed Up and Go (TUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) after CSF tapping between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and its mimics. TUG and iTUG were performed before and 24 h after CSF tapping in 117 patients (75.8 ± 6.9 years; 35% female) with suspicion of iNPH (68 iNPH and 49 mimics). Mental imagery of locomotion was modified after CSF tapping in iNPH patients, but not in the mimics.

  1. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in tap water - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Agata

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a review of the occurrence of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in tap water. The aim of this study was also to compare the applied methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) investigations in tap water. As the concentration of ARGs in treated, drinking water is expected to be very low and may cause problems in a standard isolation procedure, the special emphasis is placed on the applied procedures of DNA extraction and their efficiency. The study presents the first attempts to obtain DNA directly from tap water. Further efforts must be put to determine the final amount of obtained DNA and the presence of chosen ARGs among the molecules.

  2. On the Cutting Performance of Coated HSS Taps When Machining of Austenitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwkova, Petra; Piska, Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with a quality of the PVD coated HSS taps when cutting the stainless austenitic chromiumnickel non-stabilized steel DIN 1.4301 (X5CrNi 18-10). The main attention is focused on the analysis of loading (cutting moment, specific energy) of the HSS taps by means of pieso-electrical dynamometer Kistler 9272 and the relation between the quality of duplex and triplex PVD coatings and their effects on the quality of machined thread surfaces and tool life of the taps. The results showed a safe and stabilized cutting with acceptable quality of threads for HSSE with the TiN+TiCN+DLC coating.

  3. Pros and cons of characterising an optical translocation setup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphanga, Charles

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available an optical translocation setup Charles Maphanga 1, 2 , Rudzani Malabi 1, 2 , Saturnin Ombinda-Lemboumba 1 , Malik Maaza 2 , Patience Mthunzi-Kufa 1, 2* 1 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, National Laser Centre, P O BOX 395, Pretoria...

  4. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...

  5. 40 CFR 798.5460 - Rodent heritable translocation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fertile animals for cytological confirmation as translocation heterozygotes. (3) Animal selection—(i... administration include oral, inhalation, admixture with food or water, and IP or IV injection. (e) Test.... Criteria for determining normal and semisterile males are usually established for each new strain because...

  6. Polymer translocation through a nanopore: a showcase of anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, A; Dubbeldam, Johan L A; Rostiashvili, Vakhtang G; Vilgis, Thomas A

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the translocation dynamics of a polymer chain threaded through a membrane nanopore by a chemical potential gradient that acts on the chain segments inside the pore. By means of diverse methods (scaling theory, fractional calculus, and Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations), we demonstrate that the relevant dynamic variable, the transported number of polymer segments, s(t), displays an anomalous diffusive behavior, both with and without an external driving force being present. We show that in the absence of drag force the time tau, needed for a macromolecule of length N to thread from the cis into the trans side of a cell membrane, scales as tauN(2/alpha) with the chain length. The anomalous dynamics of the translocation process is governed by a universal exponent alpha= 2/(2nu + 2 - gamma(1)), which contains the basic universal exponents of polymer physics, nu (the Flory exponent) and gamma(1) (the surface entropic exponent). A closed analytic expression for the probability to find s translocated segments at time t in terms of chain length N and applied drag force f is derived from the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, and shown to provide analytic results for the time variation of the statistical moments and . It turns out that the average translocation time scales as tau proportional, f(-1)N(2/alpha-1). These results are tested and found to be in perfect agreement with extensive Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics computer simulations.

  7. Selective bowel decontamination results in gram-positive translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R J; Smith, S D; Rowe, M I

    1990-05-01

    Colonization by enteric gram-negative bacteria with subsequent translocation is believed to be a major mechanism for infection in the critically ill patient. Selective bowel decontamination (SBD) has been used to control gram-negative infections by eliminating these potentially pathogenic bacteria while preserving anaerobic and other less pathogenic organisms. Infection with gram-positive organisms and anaerobes in two multivisceral transplant patients during SBD led us to investigate the effect of SBD on gut colonization and translocation. Twenty-four rats received enteral polymixin E, tobramycin, amphotericin B, and parenteral cefotaxime for 7 days (PTA + CEF); 23 received parenteral cefotaxime alone (CEF), 19 received the enteral antibiotics alone (PTA), 21 controls received no antibiotics. Cecal homogenates, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), liver, and spleen were cultured. Only 8% of the PTA + CEF group had gram-negative bacteria in cecal culture vs 52% CEF, 84% PTA, and 100% in controls. Log Enterococcal colony counts were higher in the PTA + CEF group (8.0 + 0.9) vs controls (5.4 + 0.4) P less than 0.01. Translocation of Enterococcus to the MLN was significantly increased in the PTA + CEF group (67%) vs controls (0%) P less than 0.01. SBD effectively eliminates gram-negative organisms from the gut in the rat model. Overgrowth and translocation of Enterococcus suggests that infection with gram-positive organisms may be a limitation of SBD.

  8. Toponomics method for the automated quantification of membrane protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanova, Olga; Borbe, Stefan; Mühlfeld, Stefanie; Becker, Martin; Kubitz, Ralf; Häussinger, Dieter; Berlage, Thomas

    2011-09-19

    Intra-cellular and inter-cellular protein translocation can be observed by microscopic imaging of tissue sections prepared immunohistochemically. A manual densitometric analysis is time-consuming, subjective and error-prone. An automated quantification is faster, more reproducible, and should yield results comparable to manual evaluation. The automated method presented here was developed on rat liver tissue sections to study the translocation of bile salt transport proteins in hepatocytes. For validation, the cholestatic liver state was compared to the normal biological state. An automated quantification method was developed to analyze the translocation of membrane proteins and evaluated in comparison to an established manual method. Firstly, regions of interest (membrane fragments) are identified in confocal microscopy images. Further, densitometric intensity profiles are extracted orthogonally to membrane fragments, following the direction from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Finally, several different quantitative descriptors were derived from the densitometric profiles and were compared regarding their statistical significance with respect to the transport protein distribution. Stable performance, robustness and reproducibility were tested using several independent experimental datasets. A fully automated workflow for the information extraction and statistical evaluation has been developed and produces robust results. New descriptors for the intensity distribution profiles were found to be more discriminative, i.e. more significant, than those used in previous research publications for the translocation quantification. The slow manual calculation can be substituted by the fast and unbiased automated method.

  9. Bladder calculus resulting from an intravesical translocation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although perforation of the uterus by an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is commonly encountered, intravesical translocation and secondary calculus formation is a very rare complication.We report a case of a 60-year old multiparous woman in whom an intrauterine contraceptive Copper-T device inserted 12 years ...

  10. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Hanada, Kentaro; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  11. Resource Control: A Translocation Of The Scramble For Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a theoretical framework successfully adapted from the biological and medical sciences, namely; translocation analysis, the paper traces the ancestry of the present resource control problem to the scramble, first, and then, the use of fiscal and revenue allocation commissions during the colonial era, and the ...

  12. Single-Molecule Studies of Bacterial Protein Translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedrov, Alexej; Kusters, Ilja; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2013-01-01

    In prokaryotes, a large share of the proteins are secreted from the cell through a process that requires their translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. This process is mediated by the universally conserved Sec system with homologues in the endoplasmic reticulum and thylakoid membranes of

  13. Introduction: translocal development, development corridors and development chains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.; Westen, A.C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction to this Special Issue of International Development Planning Review. It uses the concepts of translocal development, development corridors and development chains to secure a better grasp of what development means in the context of globalisation and how ‘local

  14. Concentration Polarization in Translocation of DNA through Nanopores and Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Dubsky, P.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we provide a theory to show that high-field electrokinetic translocation of DNA through nanopores or nanochannels causes large transient variations of the ionic concentrations in front and at the back of the DNA due to concentration polarization (CP). The CP causes strong local

  15. Identification of copy number variations and translocations in cancer cells from Hi-C data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Ay, Ferhat

    2017-10-18

    Eukaryotic chromosomes adapt a complex and highly dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structure, which profoundly affects different cellular functions and outcomes including changes in epigenetic landscape and in gene expression. Making the scenario even more complex, cancer cells harbor chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., copy number variations (CNVs) and translocations) altering their genomes both at the sequence level and at the level of 3D organization. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques (e.g., Hi-C), which are originally developed for decoding the 3D structure of the chromatin, provide a great opportunity to simultaneously identify the locations of genomic rearrangements and to investigate the 3D genome organization in cancer cells. Even though Hi-C data has been used for validating known rearrangements, computational methods that can distinguish rearrangement signals from the inherent biases of Hi-C data and from the actual 3D conformation of chromatin, and can precisely detect rearrangement locations de novo have been missing. In this work, we characterize how intra and inter-chromosomal Hi-C contacts are distributed for normal and rearranged chromosomes to devise a new set of algorithms (i) to identify genomic segments that correspond to CNV regions such as amplifications and deletions (HiCnv), (Nurtdinov et al.) to call inter-chromosomal translocations and their boundaries (HiCtrans) from Hi-C experiments, and (iii) to simulate Hi-C data from genomes with desired rearrangements and abnormalities (AveSim) in order to select optimal parameters for and to benchmark the accuracy of our methods. Our results on 10 different cancer cell lines with Hi-C data show that we identify a total number of 105 amplifications and 45 deletions together with 90 translocations, whereas we identify virtually no such events for two karyotypically normal cell lines. Our CNV predictions correlate very well with whole genome sequencing (WGS) data among chromosomes

  16. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten {mu}l of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca{sup *} and Te{sup *} tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc{sup *}, Co{sup *}, Zn{sup *}, Se{sup *}, Rb{sup *}, and Eu{sup *} were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be{sup *}, Mn{sup *}, Sr{sup *}, Y{sup *}, Ba{sup *}, Ce{sup *}, Pm{sup *}, Gd{sup *}, Hf{sup *}, Yb{sup *}, Lu{sup *}, Os{sup *}, Ir{sup *}, and Pt{sup *} remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant

  17. Primary stability of a hybrid self-tapping implant compared to a cylindrical non-self-tapping implant with respect to drilling protocols in an ex vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Takeshi; Wagner, Wilfried; Klein, Marcus Oliver; Stender, Elmar; Wieland, Marco; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2011-03-01

    Modifications of implant design have been intending to improve primary stability. However, little is known about investigation of a hybrid self-tapping implant on primary stability. The aims of this study were to evaluate the primary stability of two hybrid self-tapping implants compared to one cylindrical non-self-tapping implant, and to elucidate the relevance of drilling protocols on primary stability in an ex vivo model. Two types of hybrid self-tapping implants (Straumann® Bone Level implant [BL], Straumann® Tapered Effect implant [TE]) and one type of cylindrical non-self-tapping implant (Straumann® Standard Plus implant [SP]) were investigated in the study. In porcine iliac cancellous bones, 10 implants each were inserted either using standard drilling or under-dimensioned drilling protocol. The evaluation of implant-bone interface stability was carried out by records of maximum insertion torque, the Periotest® (Siemens, Bensheim, Germany), the resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and the push-out test. In each drilling group, the maximum insertion torque values of BL and TE were significantly higher than SP (p=.014 and p=.047, respectively). In each group, the Periotest values of TE were significantly lower than SP (p=.036 and p=.033, respectively). The Periotest values of BL and TE were significantly lower in the group of under-dimensioned drilling than standard drilling (p=.002 and p=.02, respectively). In the RFA, no statistical significances were found in implants between two groups and between implants in each group. In each group, the push-out values of BL and TE were significantly higher than SP (p=.006 and p=.049, respectively). Hybrid self-tapping implants could achieve a high primary stability which predicts them for use in low-density bone. However, there is still a debate to clarify the influence of under-dimensioned drilling on primary stability. © 2009, Copyright the Authors. Journal Compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genetic mechanisms leading to primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Dos Santos; Dantas, Anelisa Gollo; Ueta, Renata; Perez, Ana Beatriz; Haidar, Mauro; Canonaco, Rosane; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-05-01

    To map the X-chromosome and autosome breakpoints in women with balanced X-autosome translocations and primary amenorrhea, searching candidate genomic loci for female infertility. Retrospective and case-control study. University-based research laboratory. Three women with balanced X-autosome translocation and primary amenorrhea. Conventional cytogenetic methods, genomic array, array painting, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Karyotype, copy number variation, breakpoint mapping, and gene expression levels. All patients presented with breakpoints in the Xq13q21 region. In two patients, the X-chromosome breakpoint disrupted coding sequences (KIAA2022 and ZDHHC15 genes). Although both gene disruptions caused absence of transcription in peripheral blood, there is no evidence that supports the involvement of these genes with ovarian function. The ZDHHC15 gene belongs to a conserved syntenic region that encompasses the FGF16 gene, which plays a role in female germ line development. The break in the FGF16 syntenic block may have disrupted the interaction between the FGF16 promoter and its cis-regulatory element. In the third patient, although both breakpoints are intergenic, a gene that plays a role in the DAX1 pathway (FHL2 gene) flanks distally the autosome breakpoint. The FHL2 gene may be subject to position effect due to the attachment of an autosome segment in Xq21 region. The etiology of primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocation patients may underlie more complex mechanisms than interruption of specific X-linked candidate genes, such as position effect. The fine mapping of the rearrangement breakpoints may be a tool for identifying genetic pathogenic mechanisms for primary amenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of uranium speciation in the uptake and translocation of uranium by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbs, S. D.; Brady, D. J.; Kochian, L. V. [US Plant, Soil, and Nutrition Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Uranium (U) uptake and translocation by plants was characterized using a computer speciation model to develop a nutrient culture system that provided U as a single predominant species in solution. A hydroponic uptake study determined that at pH 5.0, the uranyl (UO2{sup 2+}) cation was more readily taken up and translocated by peas (Pisum sativum) than the hydroxyl and carbonate U complexes present in the solution at pH 6.0 and 8.0, respectively. A subsequent experiment tested the extent to which various monocot and dicot species take up and translocate the uranyl cation. Of the species screened, tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and red beet (Beta vulgaris) were the species showing the greatest accumulation of U. In addition to providing fundamental information regarding U uptake by plants, the results obtained also have implications for the phytoremediation of U-contaminated soils. The initial characterization of U uptake by peas suggested that in the field, a soil pH of <5.5 would be required in order to provide U in the most plant-available form. A pot study using U-contaminated soil was therefore conducted to assess the extent to which two soil amendments, HEDTA and citric acid, were capable of acidifying the soil, increasing U solubility, and enhancing U uptake by red beet. Of these two amendments, only citric acid proved effective, decreasing the soil pH to 5.0 and increasing U accumulation by a factor of 14. The results of this pot study provide a basis for the development of an effective phytoremediation strategy for U-contaminated soils. (author)

  20. Role of uranium speciation in the uptake and translocation of uranium by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbs, S.D.; Brady, D.J.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium (U) uptake and translocation by plants was characterized using a computer speciation model to develop a nutrient culture system that provided U as a single predominant species in solution. A hydroponic uptake study determined that at pH 5.0, the uranyl (UO2 2+ ) cation was more readily taken up and translocated by peas (Pisum sativum) than the hydroxyl and carbonate U complexes present in the solution at pH 6.0 and 8.0, respectively. A subsequent experiment tested the extent to which various monocot and dicot species take up and translocate the uranyl cation. Of the species screened, tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and red beet (Beta vulgaris) were the species showing the greatest accumulation of U. In addition to providing fundamental information regarding U uptake by plants, the results obtained also have implications for the phytoremediation of U-contaminated soils. The initial characterization of U uptake by peas suggested that in the field, a soil pH of <5.5 would be required in order to provide U in the most plant-available form. A pot study using U-contaminated soil was therefore conducted to assess the extent to which two soil amendments, HEDTA and citric acid, were capable of acidifying the soil, increasing U solubility, and enhancing U uptake by red beet. Of these two amendments, only citric acid proved effective, decreasing the soil pH to 5.0 and increasing U accumulation by a factor of 14. The results of this pot study provide a basis for the development of an effective phytoremediation strategy for U-contaminated soils. (author)

  1. Cold-inhibited phloem translocation in sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusak, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental studies were undertaken on a simplified single source leaf-single sink leaf, or single source leaf-double sink leaf sugar beet system to investigate the responsive nature of the long-distance phloem translocation system to localized cooling perturbations on the source leaf petiole. Experiments were performed by using a steady state [ 14 C]-labelling system for the source leaf, and translocation into the sink leaf (leaves) was monitored with a Geiger-Mueller system. A specially designed Peltier apparatus enabled cooling of the source petiole to 1 0 C (or other desired temperatures) at various positions on the petiole, over different lengths, and at different rates of cooling. Initial experiment were designed to test the predictions of a mathematical recovery model of translocation inhibited by cold. The results did not support the mathematical model, but did suggest that vascular anastomoses may be involved in the recovery response. Selective petiolar incision/excision experiments showed that anastomoses were capable of re-establishing translocation following a disruption of flow. Studies with two monitored sink levels suggested that the inhibition to slow-coolings was not due to reduced translocation through the cooled source petiole region, but rather, was due to a repartitioning of flow among the terminal sinks (sink leaves and hypocotyl/crown region above the heat-girdled root). This repartitioning occurred via a redirection of flow through the vascular connections in the crown region of the plant, and appeared to be promoted by rapid, physical signals originating from the cooled region of the petiole

  2. MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argani, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    The MiT subfamily of transcription factors includes TFE3, TFEB, TFC, and MiTF. Gene fusions involving two of these transcription factors have been identified in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Xp11 translocation RCCs were first officially recognized in the 2004 WHO renal tumor classification, and harbor gene fusions involving TFE3. The t(6;11) RCCs harbor a specific Alpha-TFEB gene fusion and were first officially recognized in the 2013 International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia. These two subtypes of translocation RCC have many similarities. Both were initially described in and disproportionately involve young patients, though adult translocation RCC may overall outnumber pediatric cases. Both often have unusual and distinctive morphologies; the Xp11 translocation RCCs frequently have clear cells with papillary architecture and abundant psammomatous bodies, while the t(6;11) RCCs frequently have a biphasic appearance with both large and small epithelioid cells and nodules of basement membrane material. However, the morphology of these two neoplasms can overlap, with one mimicking the other. Both of these RCCs underexpress epithelial immunohistochemical markers like cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) relative to most other RCCs. Unlike other RCCs, both frequently express the cysteine protease cathepsin k and often express melanocytic markers like HMB45 and Melan A. Finally, TFE3 and TFEB have overlapping functional activity as these two transcription factors frequently heterodimerize and bind to the same targets. Therefore, on the basis of clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic similarities, the 2013 ISUP Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia grouped these two neoplasms together under the heading of "MiT family translocation RCC." This review summarizes our current knowledge of these recently described RCCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tobacco Industry interference in TAPS policy making in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P Antonov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco industry (TI has a powerful grasp of politics and the media in Bulgaria, but there is limited knowledge of its methods and communication messages. To explore and analyse them, we are using a recent case from the policy advocacy practice of the Smoke-free Life Coalition, ENSP member in Bulgaria. A mixed social research methodology was employed, involving: a case study; qualitative content analysis of documented communication; ethnographic participant observation; and semi-structured interviews with TAPS advocacy campaigners, policy makers and TI representatives, in the action research tradition. The case study analyses TI reaction to a surprising proposal for a complete ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, submitted to Bulgaria’s Parliament in November 2016 – and consecutively withdrawn. Being involved in all stages of the case and present at meetings between TI and MPs enables the researchers to gather rich information and analyse it, to cast light on: the methods for successful interference with democratic decision making, applied by industry representatives; the specific communication messages and arguments they employ to suppress smoke-free legislation. The paper observes how TI speculates with the interests of different groups, affected by and involved in its operations, to successfully contradict health concerns voiced by MPs. Democratically elected representatives appear unable to uphold the social and health interests of their voters and succumb to TI priorities. The paper concludes that a pro-industry discourse, which favours corporate incomes over concerns for people’s health and life, dominates democratic decision making mechanisms in Bulgaria’s post-socialist political landscape. Funding The Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases

  4. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Moor, IJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report serves as an introduction to the problem of alien and translocated aquatic animals in southern Africa is given followed by checklists of the different species which have been introduced into or translocated within the subcontinent...

  5. Long-range correlation in synchronization and syncopation tapping: a linear phase correction model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Delignières

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper a model for accounting for the increase in long-range correlations observed in asynchrony series in syncopation tapping, as compared with synchronization tapping. Our model is an extension of the linear phase correction model for synchronization tapping. We suppose that the timekeeper represents a fractal source in the system, and that a process of estimation of the half-period of the metronome, obeying a random-walk dynamics, combines with the linear phase correction process. Comparing experimental and simulated series, we show that our model allows accounting for the experimentally observed pattern of serial dependence. This model complete previous modeling solutions proposed for self-paced and synchronization tapping, for a unifying framework of event-based timing.

  6. EFFECT OF PILOT HOLE TAPPING ON PULLOUT STRENGTH AND INSERTION TORQUE OF DUAL CORE PEDICLE SCREWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; Silva, Patrícia; Falcai, Maurício José; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of pilot hole tapping on pullout resistance and insertion torque of pedicle screws with a conical core. Mechanical tests using a universal testing machine were performed on pedicle screws with a conical core that were inserted into pedicles in the fifth lumbar vertebra of calves. The insertion torque was measured using a torque meter with a capacity of 10 Nm, which was considered to be the highest torque value. The pilot holes were prepared using a probe of external diameter 3.8 mm and tapping of the same dimensions and thread characteristics as the screw. Decreased insertion torque and pullout resistance were observed in the group with prior tapping of the pilot hole. Pilot hole tapping reduced the insertion torque and pullout resistance of pedicle screws with a conical core that had been inserted into the pedicle of the fifth lumbar vertebra of calves.

  7. Fast and controlled fabrication of porous graphene oxide: application of AFM tapping for mechano-chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Liangyong; Korobko, Alexander V.; Bus, Marcel; Boshuizen, Bart; Sudhölter, Ernst J. R.; Besseling, Nicolaas A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a novel method to fabricate porous graphene oxide (PGO) from GO by exposure to oxygen plasma. Compared to other methods to fabricate PGO described so far, e.g. the thermal and steam etching methods, oxygen plasma etching method is much faster. We studied the development of the porosity with exposure time using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the development of PGO upon oxygen-plasma exposure can be controlled by tapping mode AFM scanning using a Si tip. AFM tapping stalls the growth of pores upon further plasma exposure at a level that coincides with the fraction of sp2 carbons in the GO starting material. We suggest that AFM tapping procedure changes the bond structure of the intermediate PGO structure, and these stabilized PGO structures cannot be further etched by oxygen plasma. This constitutes the first report of tapping AFM as a tool for local mechano-chemistry.

  8. Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Akihiko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Samejima, Masahiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Translocation Study of Some Zooxanthellae Clade to the Survival and Growth of Goniastrea Aspera After Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Pujiono W

    2014-01-01

    Inter-host translocation technique of zooxanthellae was attempted to prove Buddemier and Futin's (1993) theory on adaptation. The recent trend of coral products trading must be anticipated by its mass production through artificial techniques, the alternation of natural resources. Translocation bio-technique of zooxanthellae on coral was expected to resolve the problem and the translocation study should provide fundamental answer to coral recovery. The study of zooxanthellae translocation was ...

  10. Microbial Translocation in HIV Infection is Associated with Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Pedersen, Maria; Trøseid, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals.......Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals....

  11. Functional analysis of the accessory protein TapA in Bacillus subtilis amyloid fiber assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation relies on the assembly of a fibrous scaffold formed by the protein TasA. TasA polymerizes into highly stable fibers with biochemical and morphological features of functional amyloids. Previously, we showed that assembly of TasA fibers requires the auxiliary protein TapA. In this study, we investigated the roles of TapA sequences from the C-terminal and N-terminal ends and TapA cysteine residues in its ability to promote the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers. We found that the cysteine residues are not essential for the formation of TasA fibers, as their replacement by alanine residues resulted in only minor defects in biofilm formation. Mutating sequences in the C-terminal half had no effect on biofilm formation. However, we identified a sequence of 8 amino acids in the N terminus that is key for TasA fiber formation. Strains expressing TapA lacking these 8 residues were completely defective in biofilm formation. In addition, this TapA mutant protein exhibited a dominant negative effect on TasA fiber formation. Even in the presence of wild-type TapA, the mutant protein inhibited fiber assembly in vitro and delayed biofilm formation in vivo. We propose that this 8-residue sequence is crucial for the formation of amyloid-like fibers on the cell surface, perhaps by mediating the interaction between TapA or TapA and TasA molecules.

  12. Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.

  13. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordach, A.; Chardwattananon, C.; Wongin, K.; Chayaput, B.; Wongpat, N.

    2018-02-01

    The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA) of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  14. Photonic-Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Photonic -Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps Kenneth E. Kolodziej, Sivasubramaniam Yegnanarayanan, Bradley T. Perry MIT Lincoln...canceller design that uses photonics and a vector modulator architecture to provide a high number of canceller taps with tunable time-delays, which allow...microwave photonics , RF cancellation. I. INTRODUCTION In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) technologies are being consid- ered for 5th generation (5G) wireless

  15. TAPRegExt: a VOResource Schema Extension for Describing TAP Services Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demleitner, Markus; Dowler, Patrick; Plante, Ray; Rixon, Guy; Taylor, Mark; Demleitner, Markus

    2012-08-01

    This document describes an XML encoding standard for metadata about services implementing the table access protocol TAP [TAP], referred to as TAPRegExt. Instance documents are part of the service's registry record or can be obtained from the service itself. They deliver information to both humans and software on the languages, output formats, and upload methods supported by the service, as well as data models implemented by the exposed tables, optional language features, and certain limits enforced by the service.

  16. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordach A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  17. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  18. Translocation as a conservation tool for Agassiz's desert tortoises: Survivorship, reproduction, and movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. E. Nussear; C. R. Tracy; P. A. Medica; D. S. Wilson; R. W. Marlow; P. S. Corn

    2012-01-01

    We translocated 120 Agassiz's desert tortoises to 5 sites in Nevada and Utah to evaluate the effects of translocation on tortoise survivorship, reproduction, and habitat use. Translocation sites included several elevations, and extended to sites with vegetation assemblages not typically associated with desert tortoises in order to explore the possibility of moving...

  19. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  20. Dek-can rearrangement in translocation (6;9)(p23;q34)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soekarman, D.; von Lindern, M.; van der Plas, D. C.; Selleri, L.; Bartram, C. R.; Martiat, P.; Culligan, D.; Padua, R. A.; Hasper-Voogt, K. P.; Hagemeijer, A.

    1992-01-01

    The translocation (6;9)(p23;q34) is mainly found in specific subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The diagnosis of this translocation is not easy since the cytogenetic change is quite subtle. The two genes involved in this translocation were recently isolated

  1. Short Communication. Resin tapping activity as a contribution to the management of maritime pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, A.; Pereira, J.M.; Soares, P.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: In this work potential resin yield in a region of high forest ability where maritime pine is the main species was estimated in order to understand the viability of promoting resin exploitation. Area of study: This study was conducted in Castro Da ire County in central region of Portugal. Material and methods: To quantify the resin yield of trees tapped for the first time two plots were installed in a maritime pine stand with average tree age 65 years. Before the beginning of the resin tapping, dendrometric tree variables were measured. Also, in a neighbouring stand, 25 trees were selected to check the relation between tree dbh and resin yield. Gum resin from every tree was weighted during the season. Estimates of potential resin yield in Castro Daire County were made based on data from National Forest Inventory plots, resin tapping legislation and resin yield values obtained in the field. Two scenarios were considered: high and low resin yield. To understand the intentions of forest owners towards restarting resin tapping activity 16 maritime pine forest owners were interviewed. Main results: The results point out a high yield potential capacity for gum resin production in the County: values between 2,025 and 5,873 tons were obtained. Research highlights: Results may highlight the important socio-economical role of the resin tapping activity and can be used to support national forest policies to the resin sector and give forest owners motivation to reactivate resin tapping activity. (Author)

  2. Modality-dependent effect of motion information in sensory-motor synchronised tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro

    2018-05-14

    Synchronised action is important for everyday life. Generally, the auditory domain is more sensitive for coding temporal information, and previous studies have shown that auditory-motor synchronisation is much more precise than visuo-motor synchronisation. Interestingly, adding motion information improves synchronisation with visual stimuli and the advantage of the auditory modality seems to diminish. However, whether adding motion information also improves auditory-motor synchronisation remains unknown. This study compared tapping accuracy with a stationary or moving stimulus in both auditory and visual modalities. Participants were instructed to tap in synchrony with the onset of a sound or flash in the stationary condition, while these stimuli were perceived as moving from side to side in the motion condition. The results demonstrated that synchronised tapping with a moving visual stimulus was significantly more accurate than tapping with a stationary visual stimulus, as previous studies have shown. However, tapping with a moving auditory stimulus was significantly poorer than tapping with a stationary auditory stimulus. Although motion information impaired audio-motor synchronisation, an advantage of auditory modality compared to visual modality still existed. These findings are likely the result of higher temporal resolution in the auditory domain, which is likely due to the physiological and structural differences in the auditory and visual pathways in the brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Delayed Visual Feedback on Synchrony Perception in a Tapping Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Keetels

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensory events following a motor action are, within limits, interpreted as a causal consequence of those actions. For example, the clapping of the hands is initiated by the motor system, but subsequently visual, auditory, and tactile information is provided and processed. In the present study we examine the effect of temporal disturbances in this chain of motor-sensory events. Participants are instructed to tap a surface with their finger in synchrony with a chain of 20 sound clicks (ISI 750 ms. We examined the effect of additional visual information on this ‘tap-sound’-synchronization task. During tapping, subjects will see a video of their own tapping hand on a screen in front of them. The video can either be in synchrony with the tap (real-time recording, or can be slightly delayed (∼40–160 ms. In a control condition, no video is provided. We explore whether ‘tap-sound’ synchrony will be shifted as a function of the delayed visual feedback. Results will provide fundamental insights into how the brain preserves a causal interpretation of motor actions and their sensory consequences.

  4. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  5. Pengaruh Self Tapping terhadap Penurunan Level Dysmenorhea pada Mahasiswi Program Studi Ilmu Keperawatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Lismidiati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea primer adalah nyeri pada perut bagian bawah yang dirasakan pada saat menstruasi tanpa adanya kelainan pada panggul. Banyaknya gejala yang muncul saat dysmenorrhea dapat berpengaruh pada aktivitas kerja dan aktivitas sehari-hari. Ada beberapa manajemen nyeri untuk mengatasi dysmenorrhea primer, salah satunya adalah dengan self tapping. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis efektifitas terapi self tapping dalam menurunkan level nyeri dysmenorrhea primer pada mahasiswi PSIK FK UGM. Penelitian ini adalah jenis penelitian quasi experiment non randomized pretest-postest with control. Pada kelompok intervensi diberikan perlakuan self tapping, sedangkan pada kelompok kontrol diberikan perlakuan nafas dalam. Pengukuran level nyeri dysmenorrhea primer dilakukan menggunakan instrumen Numerical Rating Scale (NRS dengan skala 1−10. Jumlah responden sebanyak 60 orang. Untuk mengetahui perbandingan level nyeri sebelum dan sesudah terapi pada kelompok intervensi dan kelompok kontrol, dilakukan uji statistik Wilcoxon. Sedangkan untuk membandingkan perbedaan level nyeri antara kelompok intervensi dan kelompok kontrol dilakukan uji statistik Mann Whitney. Hasil menunjukkan intervensi self tapping lebih efektif menurunkan level nyeri dysmenorrhea primer pada mahasiswi PSIK FK UGM dengan nilai p = 0,007. Kesimpulannya terdapat pengaruh terapi self tapping terhadap terhadap level nyeri dysmenorrhea primer pada mahasiswi PSIK FK UGM. Terapi self tapping dapat dijadikan pilihan penanganan untuk mengurangi nyeri pada saat mengalami dysmenorrhea primer.

  6. Tapped density optimisation for four agricultural wastes - Part II: Performance analysis and Taguchi-Pareto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade Oluwaseyi Ayodele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this attempt, which is a second part of discussions on tapped density optimisation for four agricultural wastes (particles of coconut, periwinkle, palm kernel and egg shells, performance analysis for comparative basis is made. This paper pioneers a study direction in which optimisation of process variables are pursued using Taguchi method integrated with the Pareto 80-20 rule. Negative percentage improvements resulted when the optimal tapped density was compared with the average tapped density. However, the performance analysis between optimal tapped density and the peak tapped density values yielded positive percentage improvements for the four filler particles. The performance analysis results validate the effectiveness of using the Taguchi method in improving the tapped density properties of the filler particles. The application of the Pareto 80-20 rule to the table of parameters and levels produced revised tables of parameters and levels which helped to identify the factor-levels position of each parameter that is economical to optimality. The Pareto 80-20 rule also produced revised S/N response tables which were used to know the relevant S/N ratios that are relevant to optimality.

  7. Construction of new tie-in in the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline (GASBOL) using hot tapping techniques; Derivacao do Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil com a tecnica de hot-tapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto; Leite Filho, Ismael Casono; Lobao Filho, Jesualdo Pereira; Saavedra, Marcelo Curto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    To supply 2,4 MM m3/d of natural gas to Tres Lagoas thermo electric plant, it was necessary to install a new delivery point of 12'' in the 32'' trunk line of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline. The most efficient method for executing new delivery points and maintenance repairs in pipelines is using the 'hot-tapping' technique, because there is no need to stop flow and blow down lines. This paper shows the project, specifications, planning and a detailed job execution to support this new city-gate, using a T split sleeve welded in the pipeline, explaining all the activities. Complex and innovative aspects related to the welding and inspection processes, executed in a API 5L X70 pipe at 92 kgf/cm{sup 2}, are also reported. (author)

  8. Binding and Translocation of Termination Factor Rho Studied at the Single-Molecule Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslover, Daniel J.; Fazal, Furqan M.; Mooney, Rachel A.; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Rho termination factor is an essential hexameric helicase responsible for terminating 20–50% of all mRNA synthesis in E. coli. We used single- molecule force spectroscopy to investigate Rho-RNA binding interactions at the Rho- utilization (rut) site of the ? tR1 terminator. Our results are consistent with Rho complexes adopting two states, one that binds 57 ±2 nucleotides of RNA across all six of the Rho primary binding sites, and another that binds 85 ±2 nucleotides at the six primary sites plus a single secondary site situated at the center of the hexamer. The single-molecule data serve to establish that Rho translocates 5′-to-3′ towards RNA polymerase (RNAP) by a tethered-tracking mechanism, looping out the intervening RNA between the rut site and RNAP. These findings lead to a general model for Rho binding and translocation, and establish a novel experimental approach that should facilitate additional single- molecule studies of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:22885804

  9. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L"−"1). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ_P_S_I_I) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads

  10. A computer vision framework for finger-tapping evaluation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Taha; Nyholm, Dag; Westin, Jerker; Dougherty, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The rapid finger-tapping test (RFT) is an important method for clinical evaluation of movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In clinical practice, the naked-eye evaluation of RFT results in a coarse judgment of symptom scores. We introduce a novel computer-vision (CV) method for quantification of tapping symptoms through motion analysis of index-fingers. The method is unique as it utilizes facial features to calibrate tapping amplitude for normalization of distance variation between the camera and subject. The study involved 387 video footages of RFT recorded from 13 patients diagnosed with advanced PD. Tapping performance in these videos was rated by two clinicians between the symptom severity levels ('0: normal' to '3: severe') using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor examination of finger-tapping (UPDRS-FT). Another set of recordings in this study consisted of 84 videos of RFT recorded from 6 healthy controls. These videos were processed by a CV algorithm that tracks the index-finger motion between the video-frames to produce a tapping time-series. Different features were computed from this time series to estimate speed, amplitude, rhythm and fatigue in tapping. The features were trained in a support vector machine (1) to categorize the patient group between UPDRS-FT symptom severity levels, and (2) to discriminate between PD patients and healthy controls. A new representative feature of tapping rhythm, 'cross-correlation between the normalized peaks' showed strong Guttman correlation (μ2=-0.80) with the clinical ratings. The classification of tapping features using the support vector machine classifier and 10-fold cross validation categorized the patient samples between UPDRS-FT levels with an accuracy of 88%. The same classification scheme discriminated between RFT samples of healthy controls and PD patients with an accuracy of 95%. The work supports the feasibility of the approach, which is presumed suitable for PD monitoring

  11. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  12. Measurement of Young's modulus variation with layer pair and interplanar spacing in gold–nickel nanolaminates using nanoindentation and the tapping mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, H. S. Tanvir; Jankowski, Alan F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Box 41021, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2015-03-28

    The features of grain size and interface separation strengthen the mechanical behavior of metallic nanolaminates. In addition, the presence of interlayer lattice strains can lead to a superlattice structure within the nanolaminate. The superlattice affects intrinsic properties of technological interest including electronic, magnetic, and elastic. The complex elastic and plastic behaviors of gold–nickel nanolaminate superlattice coatings as studied using nanoindentation are revisited with the tapping mode of a force microscope. Young's modulus is determined with nanoindentation during the initial elastic unloading after plastic deformation at depths up to one-fifth the coating thickness. The tapping mode provides a measurement during the initial elastic deformation at depths of only a few nanometers. The tapping mode utilizes the shift in the resonant frequency of the probe-cantilever system as contact is made with the sample surface. Both of these nanoprobe test methods produce results for measurements conducted with loading normal to the surface plane. A softening in the Young's modulus of gold–nickel nanolaminate coatings occurs for samples with layer pair spacing between 1 and 9 nm. The magnitude of softening corresponds with a progressive increase in the tensile state as measured with the change of interplanar spacing along the growth direction.

  13. Ultrasensitive and selective gold film-based detection of mercury (II) in tap water using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Liquan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Pengfei

    2013-09-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01ng/ml for Hg(2+) ions in ultrapure and tap water based on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg(2+)-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg(2+) ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. The coefficients obtained for ultrapure and tap water were 0.99902 and 0.99512, respectively, for the linear part over a range of 0.01-100ng/ml. The results show that the double-effect sensor has potential for practical applications with ultra sensitivity and selectivity, especially in online or real-time monitoring of Hg(2+) ions pollution in tap water with the further improvement of portable LSCI-SPR instrument. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Markers of immunity and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to be correlated to portal hypertension, a clinically relevant haemodynamic alteration, and appeared to be associated with increased mortality. To assess the consequences of BT on immunity, we developed an assay for the detection of bacterial DNA (bDNA), a novel marker of BT. Using the assay in the second study......Bacterial translocation (BT), the migration of enteric bacteria to extraintestinal sites, is related to immune stimulation and haemodynamic changes in experimental cirrhosis. These changes may be highly relevant to patients with cirrhosis, where changes in the circulation cause serious......, in 38 patients with ascites, we found no association between bDNA and immunity, in contrast to some previous findings. In the final paper, exploring one possible translocation route, we hypothesized a difference in bDNA levels between the blood from the veins draining the gut on one hand and the liver...

  15. Sex Chromosome Translocations in the Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Martin L.

    1972-01-01

    Haldane's rule states that in organisms with differentiated sex chromosomes, hybrid sterility or inviability is generally expressed more frequently in the heterogametic sex. This observation has been variously explained as due to either genic or chromosomal imbalance. The fixation probabilities and mean times to fixation of sex-chromosome translocations of the type necessary to explain Haldane's rule on the basis of chromosomal imbalance have been estimated in small populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The fixation probability of an X chromosome carrying the long arm of the Y(X·YL) is approximately 30% greater than expected under the assumption of no selection. No fitness differences associated with the attached YL segment were detected. The fixation probability of a deficient Y chromosome is 300% greater than expected when the X chromosome contains the deleted portion of the Y. It is suggested that sex-chromosome translocations may play a role in the establishment of reproductive isolation. PMID:4630586

  16. Analysis of photosynthate translocation velocity and measurement of weighted average velocity in transporting pathway of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Cailin; Luo Shishi; Gong Jian; Zhang Hao; Ma Fei

    1996-08-01

    The translocation profile pattern of 14 C-photosynthate along the transporting pathway in crops were monitored by pulse-labelling a mature leaf with 14 CO 2 . The progressive spreading of translocation profile pattern along the sheath or stem indicates that the translocation of photosynthate along the sheath or stem proceed with a range of velocities rather than with just a single velocity. The method for measuring the weighted average velocity of photosynthate translocation along the sheath or stem was established in living crops. The weighted average velocity and the maximum velocity of photosynthate translocation along the sheath in rice and maize were measured actually. (4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  17. A strategy for generation and balancing of autosome: Y chromosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sonal S; Cheong, Han; Meller, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for generation and maintenance of translocations that move large autosomal segments onto the Y chromosome. Using this strategy we produced ( 2;Y) translocations that relocate between 1.5 and 4.8 Mb of the 2nd chromosome.. All translocations were easily balanced over a male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) mutant chromosome. Both halves of the translocation carry visible markers, as well as P-element ends that enable molecular confirmation. Halves of these translocations can be separated to produce offspring with duplications and with lethal second chromosome deficiencies . Such large deficiencies are otherwise tedious to generate and maintain.

  18. Polymer translocation in the presence of excluded volume and explicit hydrodynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillouzic, Steve; Slater, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations of polymer translocation are hereby reported. No external force was applied to the polymer during translocation, and the dynamics was dominated by polymer-pore interactions. It was found that hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in the relaxation of the polymer on each side of the membrane but have a negligible impact on the translocation process itself. Also, the scaling laws obtained for the relaxation and translocation times indicate that long translocating polymers may be considered to be following a quasi-equilibrium anomalous diffusion process in the absence of external forces

  19. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 2 (2008), s. 112-121 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  20. "Translocal Express" juba täna! / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    27. märtsil algab Kumu Kunstimuuseumis "Public Preparation'i" ("Avalik ettevalmistus") sarja rahvusvaheline seminar "Translocal Express. Golden Age" ("Translokaalne ekspress. Kuldaeg"), kus on kõne all ajalookirjutamise ja kollektiivse mälu roll praegu domineerivas natsionalistlikus diskursuses ja selle käsitlemine kaasaegses kunstis. Seminaril on lähtutud eelkõige kunstnike Martin Krenni (Viin) ja Kristina Normani teoste tutvustamisest

  1. Single-strand DNA molecule translocation through nanoelectrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiongce; Payne, Christina M; Cummings, Peter T; Lee, James W

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the translocation of single-strand DNA through nanoscale electrode gaps under the action of a constant driving force. The application behind this theoretical study is a proposal to use nanoelectrodes as a screening gap as part of a rapid genomic sequencing device. Preliminary results from a series of simulations using various gap widths and driving forces suggest that the narrowest electrode gap that a single-strand DNA can pass is ∼1.5 nm. The minimum force required to initiate the translocation within nanoseconds is ∼0.3 nN. Simulations using DNA segments of various lengths indicate that the minimum initiation force is insensitive to the length of DNA. However, the average threading velocity of DNA varies appreciably from short to long DNA segments. We attribute such variation to the different nature of drag force experienced by the short and long DNA segments in the environment. It is found that DNA molecules deform significantly to fit in the shape of the nanogap during the translocation

  2. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In addition, fifteen individuals were radio–tagged and released back into the source population as a control. Most individuals settled in less than two months and their seasonal home range, once settled, was similar to that observed in the source population. Mean duration of tracking was not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, two years after the last translocation, tagged individuals can still be observed, but most hares present are not tagged, which indicates natural reproduction of the released individuals. The translocation of wild individuals thus appears to give encouraging results.

  3. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  4. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  5. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  6. Translocation of 11C from leaves of Helianthus: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensom, D.S.; Aikman, D.; Scobie, J.; Drinkwater, A.; Ledingham, K.W.O.

    1977-01-01

    11 C fed to leaves as 11 CO 2 was used to study the dynamics of short-term translocation of photosynthate in Helianthus. As in 14 C studies small amounts of tracer were often detected in the stem close to the fed leaf in th first 5 min, followed by a larger mass flow after 15 min. The speed of mass flow of tracer movement was calculated to be 60 to 400 cm.h -1 depending on the method of calculation. There was no evidence in the premass flow for discrete spots along the stem or petiole where tracer accumulated. Neither was there firm evidence for pulses of tracer moving steadily forward, but there were point fluctuations of greater variability than would be expected by chance alone, which suggest the possibility of aberrations of movement superimposed on the mass flow. Details of these aberrations could not be assessed with certainty from these preliminary experiments owing to the rather low tracer activity. The translocation profiles were sensitive to the prior light conditioning of the plant and above all to chilling. In Helianthus the latter produced temporary restrictions in translocation which lasted for some 10-12 min. (author)

  7. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Cross-cultural influences on rhythm processing: reproduction, discrimination, and beat tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J; Bentley, Jocelyn; Grahn, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    The structures of musical rhythm differ between cultures, despite the fact that the ability to entrain movement to musical rhythm occurs in virtually all individuals across cultures. To measure the influence of culture on rhythm processing, we tested East African and North American adults on perception, production, and beat tapping for rhythms derived from East African and Western music. To assess rhythm perception, participants identified whether pairs of rhythms were the same or different. To assess rhythm production, participants reproduced rhythms after hearing them. To assess beat tapping, participants tapped the beat along with repeated rhythms. We expected that performance in all three tasks would be influenced by the culture of the participant and the culture of the rhythm. Specifically, we predicted that a participant's ability to discriminate, reproduce, and accurately tap the beat would be better for rhythms from their own culture than for rhythms from another culture. In the rhythm discrimination task, there were no differences in discriminating culturally familiar and unfamiliar rhythms. In the rhythm reproduction task, both groups reproduced East African rhythms more accurately than Western rhythms, but East African participants also showed an effect of cultural familiarity, leading to a significant interaction. In the beat tapping task, participants in both groups tapped the beat more accurately for culturally familiar than for unfamiliar rhythms. Moreover, there were differences between the two participant groups, and between the two types of rhythms, in the metrical level selected for beat tapping. The results demonstrate that culture does influence the processing of musical rhythm. In terms of the function of musical rhythm, our results are consistent with theories that musical rhythm enables synchronization. Musical rhythm may foster musical cultural identity by enabling within-group synchronization to music, perhaps supporting social cohesion.

  9. Timing at peak force may be the hidden target controlled in continuation and synchronization tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yue; Clark, Jane E; Whitall, Jill

    2017-05-01

    Timing control, such as producing movements at a given rate or synchronizing movements to an external event, has been studied through a finger-tapping task where timing is measured at the initial contact between finger and tapping surface or the point when a key is pressed. However, the point of peak force is after the time registered at the tapping surface and thus is a less obvious but still an important event during finger tapping. Here, we compared the time at initial contact with the time at peak force as participants tapped their finger on a force sensor at a given rate after the metronome was turned off (continuation task) or in synchrony with the metronome (sensorimotor synchronization task). We found that, in the continuation task, timing was comparably accurate between initial contact and peak force. These two timing events also exhibited similar trial-by-trial statistical dependence (i.e., lag-one autocorrelation). However, the central clock variability was lower at the peak force than the initial contact. In the synchronization task, timing control at peak force appeared to be less variable and more accurate than that at initial contact. In addition to lower central clock variability, the mean SE magnitude at peak force (SEP) was around zero while SE at initial contact (SEC) was negative. Although SEC and SEP demonstrated the same trial-by-trial statistical dependence, we found that participants adjusted the time of tapping to correct SEP, but not SEC, toward zero. These results suggest that timing at peak force is a meaningful target of timing control, particularly in synchronization tapping. This result may explain the fact that SE at initial contact is typically negative as widely observed in the preexisting literature.

  10. The 3-Second Rule in Hereditary Pure Cerebellar Ataxia: A Synchronized Tapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shunichi; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Terao, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The ‘3-second rule’ has been proposed based on miscellaneous observations that a time period of around 3 seconds constitutes the fundamental unit of time related to the neuro-cognitive machinery in normal humans. The aim of paper was to investigate the temporal processing in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and SCA31, pure cerebellar types of spinocerebellar degeneration, using a synchronized tapping task. Seventeen SCA patients (11 SCA6, 6 SCA31) and 17 normal age-matched volunteers participated. The task required subjects to tap a keyboard in synchrony with sequences of auditory stimuli presented at fixed interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between 200 and 4800 ms. In this task, the subjects required non-motor components to estimate the time of forthcoming tone in addition to motor components to tap. Normal subjects synchronized their taps to the presented tones at shorter ISIs, whereas as the ISI became longer, the normal subjects displayed greater latency between the tone and the tapping (transition zone). After the transition zone, normal subjects pressed the button delayed relative to the tone. On the other hand, SCA patients could not synchronize their tapping with the tone even at shorter ISIs, although they pressed the button delayed relative to the tone earlier than normal subjects did. The earliest time of delayed tapping appearance after the transition zone was 4800 ms in normal subjects but 1800 ms in SCA patients. The span of temporal integration in SCA patients is shortened compared to that in normal subjects. This could represent non-motor cerebellar dysfunction in SCA patients. PMID:25706752

  11. Delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Mei, Xi; Chen, Andrew C N

    2015-02-01

    Information on fine motor and basic cognitive functions in spastic diplegia is sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate index finger's tapping speed and cognitive functions in categorization and old/new recognition of pictures in patients with mild spastic diplegia. Fifteen preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia and 15 healthy male teenagers participated in this study. Finger-tapping tests and cognitive tests were performed on all participants. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the finger-tapping tests, the tapping speed was significantly slower in patients than in controls. In the tests of tapping one key persistently and tapping two keys alternately, the reaction time gaps between the left and right digits were larger in patients than in controls. In the categorization tests, the accuracies and reaction times for animal/plant and girl face pictures, but not for boy face pictures, were significantly worse in patients than in controls. In the recognition tests, the accuracies for old/new, animal/plant, and boy/girl face pictures were significantly lower in patients than in controls. The reaction times for old/new, animal/plant, and new face pictures, but not for old face pictures, were significantly longer in patients compared with controls. Our results demonstrate delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia. Our experimental paradigm is sensitive for the study of fine motor and cognitive functions between patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatic and Objective Assessment of Alternating Tapping Performance in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevludin Memedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and evaluation of a method for enabling quantitative and automatic scoring of alternating tapping performance of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Ten healthy elderly subjects and 95 patients in different clinical stages of PD have utilized a touch-pad handheld computer to perform alternate tapping tests in their home environments. First, a neurologist used a web-based system to visually assess impairments in four tapping dimensions (‘speed’, ‘accuracy’, ‘fatigue’ and ‘arrhythmia’ and a global tapping severity (GTS. Second, tapping signals were processed with time series analysis and statistical methods to derive 24 quantitative parameters. Third, principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of these parameters and to obtain scores for the four dimensions. Finally, a logistic regression classifier was trained using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation to map the reduced parameters to the corresponding visually assessed GTS scores. Results showed that the computed scores correlated well to visually assessed scores and were significantly different across Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores of upper limb motor performance. In addition, they had good internal consistency, had good ability to discriminate between healthy elderly and patients in different disease stages, had good sensitivity to treatment interventions and could reflect the natural disease progression over time. In conclusion, the automatic method can be useful to objectively assess the tapping performance of PD patients and can be included in telemedicine tools for remote monitoring of tapping.

  13. Inorganic chemical quality of European tap-water: 2. Geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flem, B.; Reimann, C.; Birke, M.; Banks, D.; Filzmoser, P.; Frengstad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • European scale comparison of tap water. • 579 tap water samples have been analyses for more than 60 parameters. • Chemical geographical distribution. • Water treatment processes. • Importance of geology on tap water quality. - Abstract: 579 tap water samples were collected at the European scale and analysed at a single laboratory for more than 60 parameters. This dataset is analysed here in terms of the spatial and national distribution of the analysed inorganic chemical parameters. The distribution of most parameters is controlled by various artificial and natural factors (land use, distribution network, water source and treatment, geographical location and geology). The distribution of nitrate can be interpreted in terms of land use and climate. Water treatment affects the distribution of phosphorus in tap water; especially the policy of adding phosphate to potable water in the UK to suppress plumbosolvency. The distribution of alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Sr and Li appears to reflect both water source (low in surface waters) and the geological contrast between base-poor crystalline rock terrains and carbonate rich sedimentary rock. The Scandinavian nations’ tap water shows the highest concentrations of most of the rare earth elements, probably reflecting their geological availability and mobility in low pH raw water sources. The distribution of fluoride, uranium and arsenic also appear to exhibit geological and source (groundwater versus surface water) controls. Hungary returns several high As results, which may reflect As-rich reducing groundwaters of the Pannonian basin. Much Estonian tap water reflects a very specific hydrochemical environment, namely Palaeozoic near-coastal aquifers, which yield deep, reducing or saline groundwater (possibly influenced by marine intrusion), enriched in Ba, B, Br − , Cl − , Eu, F − , I, Li, K, Mn and Na

  14. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt David W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. Results The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. Conclusion The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving

  15. Fate and chemical speciation of antimony (Sb) during uptake, translocation and storage by rye grass using XANES spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Sarret, Géraldine; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of increased prevalence in the environment, but there is little knowledge about the mechanisms of its uptake and translocation within plants. Here, we applied for the synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to analyze the speciation of Sb in roots and shoots of rye grass (Lolium perenne L. Calibra). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions to which either antimonite (Sb(III)), antimonate (Sb(V)) or trimethyl-Sb(V) (TMSb) were added. While exposure to Sb(III) led to around 100 times higher Sb accumulation in the roots than the other two treatments, there was no difference in total Sb in the shoots. Antimony taken up in the Sb(III) treatment was mainly found as Sb-thiol complexes (roots: >76% and shoots: 60%), suggesting detoxification reactions with compounds such as glutathione and phytochelatins. No reduction of accumulated Sb(V) was found in the roots, but half of the translocated Sb was reduced to Sb(III) in the Sb(V) treatment. Antimony accumulated in the TMSb treatment remained in the methylated form in the roots. By synchrotron based XANES spectroscopy, we were able to distinguish the major Sb compounds in plant tissue under different Sb treatments. The results help to understand the translocation and transformation of different Sb species in plants after uptake and provide information for risk assessment of plant growth in Sb contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distinct roles of ATM and ATR in the regulation of ARP8 phosphorylation to prevent chromosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiying; Shi, Lin; Kinomura, Aiko; Fukuto, Atsuhiko; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Oma, Yukako; Harata, Masahiko; Ikura, Masae; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Kanaar, Roland; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2018-05-08

    Chromosomal translocations are hallmarks of various types of cancers and leukemias. However, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome translocations remain largely unknown. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, facilitates DNA repair to prevent chromosome abnormalities. Previously, we showed that ATM deficiency led to the 11q23 chromosome translocation, the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemia. Here, we show that ARP8, a subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, is phosphorylated after etoposide treatment. The etoposide-induced phosphorylation of ARP8 is regulated by ATM and ATR, and attenuates its interaction with INO80. The ATM-regulated phosphorylation of ARP8 reduces the excessive loading of INO80 and RAD51 onto the breakpoint cluster region. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of ARP8, regulated by ATM, plays an important role in maintaining the fidelity of DNA repair to prevent the etoposide-induced 11q23 abnormalities. © 2018, Sun et al.

  17. Nuclear translocation of mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH6 as a response of cells to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, M; Kaina, B

    2000-11-17

    Mammalian mismatch repair has been implicated in mismatch correction, the prevention of mutagenesis and cancer, and the induction of genotoxicity and apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of cells specifically with agents inducing O(6)-methylguanine in DNA, such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, elevates the level of MSH2 and MSH6 and increases GT mismatch binding activity in the nucleus. This inducible response occurs immediately after alkylation, is long-lasting and dose-dependent, and results from translocation of the preformed MutSalpha complex (composed of MSH2 and MSH6) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. It is not caused by an increase in MSH2 gene activity. Cells expressing the DNA repair protein O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), thus having the ability to repair O(6)-methylguanine, showed no translocation of MutSalpha, whereas inhibition of MGMT by O(6)-benzylguanine provoked the translocation. The results demonstrate that O(6)-methylguanine lesions are involved in triggering nuclear accumulation of MSH2 and MSH6. The finding that treatment of cells with O(6)-methylguanine-generating mutagens results in an increase of MutSalpha and GT binding activity in the nucleus indicates a novel type of genotoxic stress response.

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Lumbar Tapping Utilization for Suspected Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Under-Drainage Malfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Beom; Ahn, Ho-Young; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yang, Ji-Ho; Yi, Jin-Seok; Lee, Il-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of shunt malfunction can be challenging since neuroimaging results are not always correlated with clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a simple, minimally invasive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lumbar tapping test that predicts shunt under-drainage in hydrocephalus patients. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological features of 48 patients who underwent routine CSF lumbar tapping after ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) operation using a programmable shunting device. We compared shunt valve opening pressure and CSF lumbar tapping pressure to check under-drainage. The mean pressure difference between valve opening pressure and CSF lumbar tapping pressure of all patients were 2.21±24.57 mmH 2 O. The frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 2.06±1.26 times. Eighty five times lumbar tapping of 41 patients showed that their VPS function was normal which was consistent with clinical improvement and decreased ventricle size on computed tomography scan. The mean pressure difference in these patients was -3.69±19.20 mmH 2 O. The mean frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 2.07±1.25 times. Fourteen cases of 10 patients revealed suspected VPS malfunction which were consistent with radiological results and clinical symptoms, defined as changes in ventricle size and no clinical improvement. The mean pressure difference was 38.07±23.58 mmH 2 O. The mean frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 1.44±1.01 times. Pressure difference greater than 35 mmH 2 O was shown in 2.35% of the normal VPS function group (2 of 85) whereas it was shown in 64.29% of the suspected VPS malfunction group (9 of 14). The difference was statistically significant ( p =0.000001). Among 10 patients with under-drainage, 5 patients underwent shunt revision. The causes of the shunt malfunction included 3 cases of proximal occlusion and 2 cases of distal obstruction and valve malfunction. Under-drainage of CSF should be suspected if CSF lumbar tapping

  19. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  20. Experimental and computational studies on the DNA translocation mechanism of the T4 viral packaging motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy; Arya, Gaurav; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is a double stranded DNA virus that infects E.coli by injecting the viral genome through the cellular wall of a host cell. The T4 genome must be ejected from the viral capsid with sufficient force to ensure infection. To generate high ejection forces, the genome is packaged to high density within the viral capsid. A DNA translocation motor, in which the protein gp17 hydrolyzes ATP and binds to the DNA, is responsible for translocating the genome into the capsid during viral maturation of T4. This motor generates forces in excess of 60 pN and packages DNA at rates exceeding 2000 base pairs/second (bp/s)1. Understanding these small yet powerful motors is important, as they have many potential applications. Though much is known about the activity of these motors from bulk and single molecule biophysical techniques, little is known about their detailed molecular mechanism. Recently, two structures of gp17 have been obtained: a high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structure showing a monomeric compacted form of the enzyme, and a cryo-electron microscopic structure of the extended form of gp17 in complex with actively packaging prohead complexes. Comparison of these two structures indicates several key differences, and a model has been proposed to explain the translocation action of the motor2. Key to this model are a set of residues forming ion pairs across two domains of the gp17 molecule that are proposed to be involved in force generation by causing the collapse of the extended form of gp17. Using a dual optical trap to measure the rates of DNA packaging and the generated forces, we present preliminary mutational data showing that these several of these ion pairs are important to motor function. We have also performed preliminary free energy calculations on the extended and collapsed state of gp17, to confirm that these interdomain ion pairs have large contributions to the change in free energy that occurs upon the collapse of gp17 during the

  1. Apoptotic role of TGF-β mediated by Smad4 mitochondria translocation and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lijuan; Qiu, Tao; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei

    2011-07-01

    Smad4, originally isolated from the human chromosome 18q21, is a key factor in transducing the signals of the TGF-β superfamily of growth hormones and plays a pivotal role in mediating antimitogenic and proapoptotic effects of TGF-β, but the mechanisms by which Smad4 induces apoptosis are elusive. Here we report that Smad4 directly translocates to the mitochondria of apoptotic cells. Smad4 gene silencing by siRNA inhibits TGF-β-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells and UV-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Cell fractionation assays demonstrated that a fraction of Smad4 translocates to mitochondria after long time TGF-β treatment or UV exposure, during which the cells were under apoptosis. Smad4 mitochondria translocation during apoptosis was also confirmed by fluorescence observation of Smad4 colocalization with MitoTracker Red. We searched for mitochondria proteins that have physical interactions with Smad4 using yeast two-hybrid screening approach. DNA sequence analysis identified 34 positive clones, five of which encoded subunits in mitochondria complex IV, i.e., one clone encoded cytochrome c oxidase COXII, three clones encoded COXIII and one clone encoded COXVb. Strong interaction between Smad4 with COXII, an important apoptosis regulator, was verified in yeast by β-gal activity assays and in mammalian cells by immunoprecipitation assays. Further, mitochondrial portion of cells was isolated and the interaction between COXII and Smad4 in mitochondria upon TGF-β treatment or UV exposure was confirmed. Importantly, targeting Smad4 to mitochondria using import leader fusions enhanced TGF-β-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results suggest that Smad4 promote apoptosis of the cells through its mitochondrial translocation and association with mitochondria protein COXII. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study comparing rhythmic finger tapping in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guio, François; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2012-02-01

    This study compared brain activation during unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in 12-year-old children with that of adults. Subjects pressed a button at a pace initially indicated by a metronome (12 consecutive tones), and then continued for 16 seconds of unpaced tapping to provide an assessment of their ability to maintain a steady rhythm. These analyses focused on the superior vermis of the cerebellum, which is known to play a key role in timing. Twelve adults and 12 children performed this rhythmic finger tapping task in a 3 T scanner. Whole-brain analyses were performed in Brain Voyager, with a random-effects analysis of variance using a general linear model. A dedicated cerebellar atlas was used to localize cerebellar activations. As in adults, unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in children demonstrated activations in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and cerebellum. However, overall activation was different, in that adults demonstrated much more deactivation in response to the task, particularly in the occipital and frontal cortices. The other main differences involved the additional recruitment of motor and premotor areas in children compared with adults, and increased activity in the vermal region of the cerebellum. These findings suggest that the timing component of the unpaced rhythmic finger tapping task is less efficient and automatic in children, who need to recruit the superior vermis more intensively to maintain the rhythm, although they performed somewhat more poorly than adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tapping mode imaging and measurements with an inverted atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sandra S F; Green, John-Bruce D

    2006-07-18

    This report demonstrates the successful use of the inverted atomic force microscope (i-AFM) for tapping mode AFM imaging of cantilever-supported samples. i-AFM is a mode of AFM operation in which a sample supported on a tipless cantilever is imaged by one of many tips in a microfabricated tip array. Tapping mode is an intermittent contact mode whereby the cantilever is oscillated at or near its resonance frequency, and the amplitude and/or phase are used to image the sample. In the process of demonstrating that tapping mode images could be obtained in the i-AFM design, it was observed that the amplitude of the cantilever oscillation decreased markedly as the cantilever and tip array were approached. The source of this damping of the cantilever oscillations was identified to be the well-known "squeeze film damping", and the extent of damping was a direct consequence of the relatively shorter tip heights for the tip arrays, as compared to those of commercially available tapping mode cantilevers with integrated tips. The functional form for the distance dependence of the damping coefficient is in excellent agreement with previously published models for squeeze film damping, and the values for the fitting parameters make physical sense. Although the severe damping reduces the cantilever free amplitude substantially, we found that we were still able to access the low-amplitude regime of oscillation necessary for attractive tapping mode imaging of fragile molecules.

  4. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, quantitative EEG findings, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Geun; Kang, Kyunghun; Jung, Ji-Young; Park, Sung-Pa; Lee, Maan-Gee; Lee, Ho-Won

    2014-12-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed relationships between quantitative EEG measurements and clinical parameters in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients, along with differences in these quantitative EEG markers between cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and nonresponders. Twenty-six idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (9 cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and 17 cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders) constituted the final group for analysis. The resting EEG was recorded and relative powers were computed for seven frequency bands. Cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders, when compared with responders, showed a statistically significant increase in alpha2 band power at the right frontal and centrotemporal regions. Higher delta2 band powers in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions and lower alpha1 band powers in the right temporal region significantly correlated with poorer cognitive performance. Higher theta1 band powers in the left parietal and occipital regions significantly correlated with gait dysfunction. And higher delta1 band powers in the right frontal regions significantly correlated with urinary disturbance. Our findings may encourage further research using quantitative EEG in patients with ventriculomegaly as a potential electrophysiological marker for predicting cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders. This study additionally suggests that the delta, theta, and alpha bands are statistically correlated with the severity of symptoms in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients.

  5. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun; Mo Cehui; Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei

    2010-01-01

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD ≤ 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD ≤ 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  6. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mo Cehui, E-mail: tchmo@jnu.edu.c [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD {<=} 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD {<=} 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  7. Phosphate ions as inhibiting agents for copper corrosion in chlorinated tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohai, L. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Schreiner, W.H. [Laboratório de Superfícies e Interfases, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Vázquez, M., E-mail: mvazquez@fi.mdp.edu.ar [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Valcarce, M.B. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-05-15

    PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions as corrosion inhibitor were investigated on copper in tap water in the presence of NaClO. The inhibitor was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and weight loss tests. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the passive layer. In inhibited tap water, the passive layer is thick and compact if NaClO is present. Weight-loss tests showed the inhibition of uniform dissolution and no pitting attack. When adding NaClO, Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is incorporated to the passive film. Thus, phosphate ions are effective as inhibitors for copper in tap water, even when using high dosages of biocides. - Highlights: ► Changes in the copper corrosion after adding phosphate to tap water were analyzed. ► When NaClO and phosphates are present, Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} participates of the surface film. ► In the absence of biocide the surface film contains a mixture of Cu{sub 2}O, CuO and Cu(OH){sub 2}. ► PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} is an effective inhibitor for Cu in tap water containing high NaClO dosages.

  8. Predictive rhythmic tapping to isochronous and tempo changing metronomes in the nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Jorge; Yc, Karyna; Ayala, Yaneri A; Dotov, Dobromir; Prado, Luis; Merchant, Hugo

    2018-04-30

    Beat entrainment is the ability to entrain one's movements to a perceived periodic stimulus, such as a metronome or a pulse in music. Humans have a capacity to predictively respond to a periodic pulse and to dynamically adjust their movement timing to match the varying music tempos. Previous studies have shown that monkeys share some of the human capabilities for rhythmic entrainment, such as tapping regularly at the period of isochronous stimuli. However, it is still unknown whether monkeys can predictively entrain to dynamic tempo changes like humans. To address this question, we trained monkeys in three tapping tasks and compared their rhythmic entrainment abilities with those of humans. We found that, when immediate feedback about the timing of each movement is provided, monkeys can predictively entrain to an isochronous beat, generating tapping movements in anticipation of the metronome pulse. This ability also generalized to a novel untrained tempo. Notably, macaques can modify their tapping tempo by predicting the beat changes of accelerating and decelerating visual metronomes in a manner similar to humans. Our findings support the notion that nonhuman primates share with humans the ability of temporal anticipation during tapping to isochronous and smoothly changing sequences of stimuli. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  10. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  11. Development of a tapping device: a new needle insertion method for prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerburg, V; Moerland, M A; Konings, M K; Vosse, R E van de; Lagendijk, J J W; Battermann, J J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a tapping device for needle insertion for prostate brachytherapy. This device will tap the needle into the prostate with a certain, well-defined, amount of momentum, instead of the currently used method of pushing the needle. Because of the high needle insertion velocity, we expect prostate motion and deformation to be less compared to current methods. We measured the momentum that is applied when manually tapping the needle into the prostate and found a mean momentum of 0.50 ± 0.07 N s. The tapping device is pneumatically driven and we found that the delivered momentum increased linearly with the applied air pressure. The efficacy of the tapping device was tested on a piece of beef, placed on a freely moving and rotating platform. A significant correlation was found between the applied pressure and the rotation and displacement of the beef. Displacements and rotations were minimal for the highest pressure (4 bar) and amounted to only 2 mm and 6 deg., respectively. Higher air pressures will further reduce displacements and rotations

  12. Polyphasic Temporal Behavior of Finger-Tapping Performance: A Measure of Motor Skills and Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Leyla; Kiziltan, Erhan; Gundogan, Nimet Unay

    2016-01-01

    Successive voluntary motor movement involves a number of physiological mechanisms and may reflect motor skill development and neuromuscular fatigue. In this study, the temporal behavior of finger tapping was investigated in relation to motor skills and fatigue by using a long-term computer-based test. The finger-tapping performances of 29 healthy male volunteers were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression models established for inter-tapping interval. The results suggest that finger-tapping performance exhibits a polyphasic nature, and has several characteristic time points, which may be directly related to muscle dynamics and energy consumption. In conclusion, we believe that future studies evaluating the polyphasic nature of the maximal voluntary movement will lead to the definition of objective scales that can be used in the follow up of some neuromuscular diseases, as well as, the determination of motor skills, individual ability, and peripheral fatigue through the use of a low cost, easy-to-use computer-based finger-tapping test.

  13. A Direct-Learning Approach to Acquiring a Bimanual Tapping Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Claire F; Gomes, Thábata V B; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2017-01-01

    The theory of direct learning (D. M. Jacobs & C. F. Michaels, 2007 ) has proven useful in understanding improvement in perception and exploratory action. Here the authors assess its usefulness for understanding the learning of a motor skill, bimanual tapping at a difficult phase relation. Twenty participants attempted to learn to tap with 2 index fingers at 2 Hz with a phase lag of 90° (i.e., with a right-right period of 500 ms and a right-left period of 125 ms). There were 30 trials, each with 50 tapping cycles. Computer-screen feedback informed of errors in both period and phase for each pair of taps. Participants differed dramatically in their success. Learning was assessed by identifying the succession of attractors capturing tapping over the experiment. A few participants' attractors migrated from antiphase to 90° with an appropriate period; others became attracted to a fixed right-left interval, rather than phase, with or without attraction to period. Changes in attractor loci were explained with mixed success by direct learning, inviting elaboration of the theory. The transition to interval attractors was understood as a change in intention, and was remarkable for its indifference to typical bimanual interactions.

  14. Parametric CAD and Fea Model of a Saddle Tapping Tee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Lund Jepsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

     Often it is necessary to branch of a pipe section on an oilrig. This operation is often performed by making a so-called "Hot Tapping", which involves welding a pipe and a flange on to the pipe section. A spherical valve and a gate are mounted on to the flange, i.e. weld-o-let. In order to perform...... the welding operations a so-called habitat must be constructed. This habitat encapsulates the "Hot Tapping" spot and is relatively costly. Thus, to avoid weld operations on to the pipeline, a solution with clamps has been developed, i.e. a Saddle Tapping Tee. The Saddle Tapping Tee is clamped on the pipe...... is determined from paragraph K302.3.2 in ASME B31.3. A full parametric 3D CAD model of the Saddle Tapping Tee is developed where a number of user-defined parameters are controlled from an Excel spreadsheet allowing parameter studies and technical documentation to be generated effectively. The same Excel spread...

  15. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  16. Tapping insertional torque allows prediction for better pedicle screw fixation and optimal screw size selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Dmitriev, Anton E; Luhmann, Scott J

    2013-08-01

    There is currently no reliable technique for intraoperative assessment of pedicle screw fixation strength and optimal screw size. Several studies have evaluated pedicle screw insertional torque (IT) and its direct correlation with pullout strength. However, there is limited clinical application with pedicle screw IT as it must be measured during screw placement and rarely causes the spine surgeon to change screw size. To date, no study has evaluated tapping IT, which precedes screw insertion, and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength. The objective of this study was to investigate tapping IT and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength and optimal screw size. In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. Twenty fresh-frozen human cadaveric thoracic vertebral levels were prepared and dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry scanned for bone mineral density (BMD). All specimens were osteoporotic with a mean BMD of 0.60 ± 0.07 g/cm(2). Five specimens (n=10) were used to perform a pilot study, as there were no previously established values for optimal tapping IT. Each pedicle during the pilot study was measured using a digital caliper as well as computed tomography measurements, and the optimal screw size was determined to be equal to or the first size smaller than the pedicle diameter. The optimal tap size was then selected as the tap diameter 1 mm smaller than the optimal screw size. During optimal tap size insertion, all peak tapping IT values were found to be between 2 in-lbs and 3 in-lbs. Therefore, the threshold tapping IT value for optimal pedicle screw and tap size was determined to be 2.5 in-lbs, and a comparison tapping IT value of 1.5 in-lbs was selected. Next, 15 test specimens (n=30) were measured with digital calipers, probed, tapped, and instrumented using a paired comparison between the two threshold tapping IT values (Group 1: 1.5 in-lbs; Group 2: 2.5 in-lbs), randomly assigned to the left or right pedicle on each

  17. Phosphate ions as inhibiting agents for copper corrosion in chlorinated tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohai, L.; Schreiner, W.H.; Vázquez, M.; Valcarce, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    PO 4 3− ions as corrosion inhibitor were investigated on copper in tap water in the presence of NaClO. The inhibitor was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and weight loss tests. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the passive layer. In inhibited tap water, the passive layer is thick and compact if NaClO is present. Weight-loss tests showed the inhibition of uniform dissolution and no pitting attack. When adding NaClO, Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 is incorporated to the passive film. Thus, phosphate ions are effective as inhibitors for copper in tap water, even when using high dosages of biocides. - Highlights: ► Changes in the copper corrosion after adding phosphate to tap water were analyzed. ► When NaClO and phosphates are present, Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 participates of the surface film. ► In the absence of biocide the surface film contains a mixture of Cu 2 O, CuO and Cu(OH) 2 . ► PO 4 3− is an effective inhibitor for Cu in tap water containing high NaClO dosages

  18. Comparison of timing and force control of foot tapping between elderly and young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Koji; Takebayashi, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Kenzo; Takuma, Yutaka; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Miyamoto, Shoko; Okabe, Takao; Okuda, Takahiro; Kaba, Hideto

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] To examine the ability of young and elderly individuals to control the timing and force of periodic sequential foot tapping. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were 10 young (age, 22.1 ± 4.3 years) and 10 elderly individuals (74.8 ± 6.7 years) who were healthy and active. The foot tapping task consisted of practice (stimulus-synchronized tapping with visual feedback) and recall trials (self-paced tapping without visual feedback), periodically performed in this order, at 500-, 1,000-, and 2,000-ms target interstimulus-onset intervals, with a target force of 20% maximum voluntary contraction of the ankle plantar-flexor muscle. [Results] The coefficients of variation of force and intertap interval, used for quantifying the steadiness of the trials, were significantly greater in the elderly than in the young individuals. At the 500-ms interstimulus-onset interval, age-related effects were observed on the normalized mean absolute error of force, which was used to quantify the accuracy of the trials. The coefficients of variation of intertap interval for elderly individuals were significantly greater in the practice than in the recall trials at the 500- and 1,000-ms interstimulus-onset intervals. [Conclusion] The elderly individuals exhibited greater force and timing variability than the young individuals and showed impaired visuomotor processing during foot tapping sequences.

  19. Power Loss Minimization for Transformers Connected in Parallel with Taps Based on Power Chargeability Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Jaramillo-Duque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model and solution approach for minimizing internal power losses in Transformers Connected in Parallel (TCP with tap-changers is proposed. The model is based on power chargeability balance and seeks to keep the load voltage within an admissible range. For achieving this, tap positions are adjusted in such a way that all TCP are set in similar/same power chargeability. The main contribution of this paper is the inclusion of several construction features (rated voltage, rated power, voltage ratio, short-circuit impedance and tap steps in the minimization of power losses in TCP that are not included in previous works. A Genetic Algorithm (GA is used for solving the proposed model that is a system of nonlinear equations with discrete decision variables. The GA scans different sets for tap positions with the aim of balancing the power supplied by each transformer to the load. For this purpose, a fitness function is used for minimizing two conditions: The first condition consists on the mismatching between power chargeability for each transformer and a desired chargeability; and the second condition is the mismatching between the nominal load voltage and the load voltage obtained by changing the tap positions. The proposed method is generalized for any given number of TCP and was implemented for three TCP, demonstrating that the power losses are minimized and the load voltage remains within an admissible range.

  20. The ribosome structure controls and directs mRNA entry, translocation and exit dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkcuoglu, Ozge; Doruker, Pemra; Jernigan, Robert L; Sen, Taner Z; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The protein-synthesizing ribosome undergoes large motions to effect the translocation of tRNAs and mRNA; here, the domain motions of this system are explored with a coarse-grained elastic network model using normal mode analysis. Crystal structures are used to construct various model systems of the 70S complex with/without tRNA, elongation factor Tu and the ribosomal proteins. Computed motions reveal the well-known ratchet-like rotational motion of the large subunits, as well as the head rotation of the small subunit and the high flexibility of the L1 and L7/L12 stalks, even in the absence of ribosomal proteins. This result indicates that these experimentally observed motions during translocation are inherently controlled by the ribosomal shape and only partially dependent upon GTP hydrolysis. Normal mode analysis further reveals the mobility of A- and P-tRNAs to increase in the absence of the E-tRNA. In addition, the dynamics of the E-tRNA is affected by the absence of the ribosomal protein L1. The mRNA in the entrance tunnel interacts directly with helicase proteins S3 and S4, which constrain the mRNA in a clamp-like fashion, as well as with protein S5, which likely orients the mRNA to ensure correct translation. The ribosomal proteins S7, S11 and S18 may also be involved in assuring translation fidelity by constraining the mRNA at the exit site of the channel. The mRNA also interacts with the 16S 3' end forming the Shine–Dalgarno complex at the initiation step; the 3' end may act as a 'hook' to reel in the mRNA to facilitate its exit

  1. TFE3-positive renal cell carcinomas are not always Xp11 translocation carcinomas: Report of a case with a TPM3-ALK translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, Paul Scott; Shago, Mary; Marrano, Paula; Shaikh, Furqan; Somers, Gino R

    2016-10-01

    Translocation-associated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a distinct subtype of RCC with gene rearrangements of the TFE3 or TFEB loci. The TFE3 gene is located at Xp11 and can fuse to a number of translocation partners, resulting in high nuclear expression of TFE3 protein. TFE3 immunostaining is often used as a surrogate marker for a TFE3 translocation. We report a case of an RCC that expressed TFE3 but showed only gain of TFE3 rather than a translocation. Moreover, this case had a t(1;2) translocation fusing ALK and TMP3, identical to that seen in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour. There was resulting overexpression of ALK protein in a cytoplasmic and membranous pattern. The patient was not treated with chemotherapy but following regional nodal recurrence, an ALK inhibitor was added and the patient remains alive one year later. There are only rare reports of RCC with an ALK-TMP3 fusion, and these tumours can express TFE3 on some unknown basis not related to a TFE3 translocation. Any RCC positive for TFE3 and lacking a translocation should be tested for ALK expression and translocation. Recognition of this subtype of RCC will allow ALK inhibitor therapy to be added, in the hope of improving patient outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. TA3 - Dosimetry and instrumentation supply of the M-Fish technique to the Fish-3 painting technique for analysing translocations: A radiotherapy-treated patient study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, A.L.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.A.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.; Roy, L.; Bourhis, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, the chromosome translocation study is the best method to estimate the dose of an old radiation exposure. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique allows an easy detection of this kind of aberrations. However, as only a few number of chromosomes is usually painted, some bias could skew the result. To evaluate the advantage of using full genome staining (M-F.I.S.H. technique) compared with three chromosomes labelling (F.I.S.H.-3 painting), we compared translocation yields in radiotherapy treated patients. Methods: Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of two patients treated for a throat cancer by radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained, before, along the treatment and six or four months later. For each sample, a dicentrics analysis was performed together with translocation analysis either with F.I.S.H.-3 painting or M-F.I.S.H.. Results: By confronting results from the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique and the M-F.I.S.H. technique, significant differences were revealed. The translocations yield seemed to be stable with the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique whereas it is not the case with the M-F.I.S.H. technique. This difference in results was explained by the bias induced by F.I.S.H.-3 Painting technique in the visualisation of complex aberrations. Furthermore, we found the presence of a clone bearing a translocation involving a painted chromosome. Conclusions: According to the potential bias of F.I.S.H.-3 painting on translocations study, the M-F.I.S.H. technique should provide more precise and reproducible results. Because of its more difficult implement, it seems hardly applicable to retrospective dosimetry instead of F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique. (authors)

  3. TA3 - Dosimetry and instrumentation supply of the M-Fish technique to the Fish-3 painting technique for analysing translocations: A radiotherapy-treated patient study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, A.L.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.A.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.; Roy, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bourhis, J. [Laboratoire UPRES EA 27-10, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et Tissus sains, PR1, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Currently, the chromosome translocation study is the best method to estimate the dose of an old radiation exposure. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique allows an easy detection of this kind of aberrations. However, as only a few number of chromosomes is usually painted, some bias could skew the result. To evaluate the advantage of using full genome staining (M-F.I.S.H. technique) compared with three chromosomes labelling (F.I.S.H.-3 painting), we compared translocation yields in radiotherapy treated patients. Methods: Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of two patients treated for a throat cancer by radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained, before, along the treatment and six or four months later. For each sample, a dicentrics analysis was performed together with translocation analysis either with F.I.S.H.-3 painting or M-F.I.S.H.. Results: By confronting results from the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique and the M-F.I.S.H. technique, significant differences were revealed. The translocations yield seemed to be stable with the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique whereas it is not the case with the M-F.I.S.H. technique. This difference in results was explained by the bias induced by F.I.S.H.-3 Painting technique in the visualisation of complex aberrations. Furthermore, we found the presence of a clone bearing a translocation involving a painted chromosome. Conclusions: According to the potential bias of F.I.S.H.-3 painting on translocations study, the M-F.I.S.H. technique should provide more precise and reproducible results. Because of its more difficult implement, it seems hardly applicable to retrospective dosimetry instead of F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique. (authors)

  4. A case-control study on association of proteasome subunit beta 8 (PSMB8) and transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) polymorphisms and their transcript levels in vitiligo from Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, Shahnawaz D; Mansuri, Mohmmad Shoab; Singh, Mala; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Laddha, Naresh C; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmunity has been implicated in the destruction of melanocytes from vitiligo skin. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-II linked genes proteasome subunit beta 8 (PSMB8) and transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1), involved in antigen processing and presentation have been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases including vitiligo. To explore PSMB8 rs2071464 and TAP1 rs1135216 single nucleotide polymorphisms and to estimate the expression of PSMB8 and TAP1 in patients with vitiligo and unaffected controls from Gujarat. PSMB8 rs2071464 polymorphism was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and TAP1 rs1135216 polymorphism was genotyped by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) in 378 patients with vitiligo and 509 controls. Transcript levels of PSMB8 and TAP1 were measured in the PBMCs of 91 patients and 96 controls by using qPCR. Protein levels of PSMB8 were also determined by Western blot analysis. The frequency of 'TT' genotype of PSMB8 polymorphism was significantly lowered in patients with generalized and active vitiligo (p = 0.019 and p = 0.005) as compared to controls suggesting its association with the activity of the disease. However, TAP1 polymorphism was not associated with vitiligo susceptibility. A significant decrease in expression of PSMB8 at both transcript level (p = 0.002) as well as protein level (p = 0.0460) was observed in vitiligo patients as compared to controls. No significant difference was observed between patients and controls for TAP1 transcripts (p = 0.553). Interestingly, individuals with the susceptible CC genotype of PSMB8 polymorphism showed significantly reduced PSMB8 transcript level as compared to that of CT and TT genotypes (p = 0.009 and p = 0.003 respectively). PSMB8 rs2071464 was associated with generalized and active vitiligo from Gujarat whereas TAP1 rs1135216 showed no association. The

  5. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  6. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  7. Comparison of bone-conducted vibration for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: forehead versus mastoid tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Chen; Wang, Shou-Jen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2012-02-01

    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) stimuli at forehead (Fz) and mastoid sites for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs). Prospective study. University hospital. Twenty healthy subjects underwent oVEMP testing via BCV stimuli at Fz and mastoid sites. Another 50 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease also underwent oVEMP testing. All healthy subjects showed clear oVEMPs via BCV stimulation regardless of the tapping sites. The right oVEMPs stimulated by tapping at the right mastoid had earlier nI and pI latencies and a larger nI-pI amplitude compared with those stimulated by tapping at the Fz and left mastoid. Similar trends were also observed in left oVEMPs. However, the asymmetry ratio did not differ significantly between the ipsilateral mastoid and Fz sites. Clinically, tapping at the Fz revealed absent oVEMPs in 28% of Meniere's ears, which decreased to 16% when tapping at the ipsilesional (hydropic) mastoid site, exhibiting a significant difference. Tapping at the ipsilateral mastoid site elicits earlier oVEMP latencies and larger oVEMP amplitudes when compared with tapping at the Fz site. Thus, tapping at the Fz site is suggested to screen for the otolithic function, whereas tapping at the ipsilesional mastoid site is suitable for evaluating residual otolithic function.

  8. Tap Water Hydraulic Control Systems - Design and Industrial Applications. Chapter 7 in Advances in Hydraulic Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...... applications and the environmental benefits are in focus, in particular in the food processing industry and in fire-fighting systems.......Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...

  9. Investigation of Natural Radioactivity in the Tap and Spring Water in Yaounde Town, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.; Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radionuclide concentrations in the tap and springs water in Yaounde town, capital of Cameroon with a population of 3.5 million inhabitants were estimated by gamma spectrometry, using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl) and HPGe detector systems. Tap water samples were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, respectively in December 2002 and July 2003 and spring water samples were collected in August 2010. The radionuclides observed with regularity belonged to the series decay naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238 U and 232 Th as well as the non-series nuclide 40 K. Assuming an individual daily consumption of 1 litre of water, the average annual intake for these populations is 3821 Bq/y for tap water and 1161 Bq/y for spring water.

  10. Study of tapping process of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites/AA7075 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Alessio; Mehtedi, Mohamad El; Forcellese, Archimede; Nardinocchi, Alessia; Simoncini, Michela

    2018-05-01

    The present investigation aims at studying the tapping process of a three-layer stack constituted by two CFRP layers and a core plate in AA7075 aluminum alloy. The CFRP laminates were obtained by a pre-impregnated woven sample made up of T700 carbon fibers and a thermoset epoxy matrix. Tapping experiments were performed on a 5-axis machining center instrumented with a dynamometer to measure thrust force generated during process. A high-speed steel tool, coated with nanocomposite TiAlN, was used. According to the tool manufacturer recommendations, rotational speed and feed rate were 800 rpm and 1000 mm/min, respectively. Similar thrust force time history responses were obtained by tapping different holes, even though the vertical force increases with number of threaded holes. Furthermore, a quantitative evaluation of delamination at the periphery of entry holes was carried out. The delamination at the entry hole strongly increases with number of threaded holes.

  11. On the TAP Free Energy in the Mixed p-Spin Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Kuo; Panchenko, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Thouless et al. (Phys Mag 35(3):593-601, 1977), derived a representation for the free energy of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, called the TAP free energy, written as the difference of the energy and entropy on the extended configuration space of local magnetizations with an Onsager correction term. In the setting of mixed p-spin models with Ising spins, we prove that the free energy can indeed be written as the supremum of the TAP free energy over the space of local magnetizations whose Edwards-Anderson order parameter (self-overlap) is to the right of the support of the Parisi measure. Furthermore, for generic mixed p-spin models, we prove that the free energy is equal to the TAP free energy evaluated on the local magnetization of any pure state.

  12. Physics evaluation for testino. of RAPS and TAPS fuel pins in CIRUS pressurised water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Benjamin; Paul, O.P.K.

    1976-01-01

    Relevant calculations carried out to assess the reactivity effect, heat generation and other parameters for testing of RAPS and TAPS fuel pins in the Cirus pressurised water loop are summarised. The Cirus neutron flux level being low, in order to simulate the RAPS design heat rating of ∫ Kdtheta = 40 w/cm, the required plutonium enrichment in mixed plutonium uranium oxide fuel pin was worked out. The results showed that a PuO 2 enrichment of 1.5 wt percent would be necessary to meet the above requirement. The analysis for the TAPS pin indicated that the desired heat flux of 115w/cm 2 cannot be obtained in the Cirus loop with either a 7 pin cluster geometry, or with a single pin with the enrichment level as used in TAPS pin. Lattice code DUMLAC and the core simulation code AECLHEX were used for these studies. (author)

  13. Balance outcomes following a tap dance program for a child with congenital myotonic muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biricocchi, Charlanne; Drake, JaimeLynn; Svien, Lana

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the effects of a 6-week progressive tap dance program on static and dynamic balance for a child with type 1 congenital myotonic muscular dystrophy (congenital MMD1). A 6-year-old girl with congenital MMD1 participated in a 1-hour progressive tap dance program. Classes were held once a week for 6 consecutive weeks and included 3 children with adaptive needs and 1 peer with typical development. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) balance subsection and the Pediatric Balance Scale were completed at the beginning of the first class and the sixth class. The participant's BOT-2 score improved from 3 to 14. Her Pediatric Balance Scale score did not change. Participation in a progressive tap dance class by a child with congenital MMD1 may facilitate improvements in static and dynamic balance.

  14. Predicting consumer preferences for mineral composition of bottled and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, Stefan; Hernández, Alejandra; González, Susana; Luis Cortina, Jose; Tauler, Roma; Devesa, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The overall liking for taste of water was correlated with the mineral composition of selected bottled and tap waters. Sixty-nine untrained volunteers assessed and rated twenty-five different commercial bottled and tap waters from. Water samples were physicochemical characterised by analysing conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major anions and cations: HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + . Residual chlorine levels were also analysed in the tap water samples. Globally, volunteers preferred waters rich in calcium bicarbonate and sulfate, rather than in sodium chloride. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to accurately predict the overall liking by a Partial Least Squares regression using either all measured physicochemical parameters or a reduced number of them. These results were in agreement with previously published results using trained panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training: TAPS: the task analysis profiling system. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-06-01

    This report discusses an automated task analysis profiling system (TAPS) designed to provide a linking tool between the behaviors of nuclear power plant operators in performing their tasks and the measurement tools necessary to evaluate their in-plant performance. TAPS assists in the identification of the entry-level skill, knowledge, ability and attitude (SKAA) requirements for the various tasks and rapidly associates them with measurement tests and human factors principles. This report describes the development of TAPS and presents its first demonstration. It begins with characteristics of skilled human performance and proceeds to postulate a cognitive model to formally describe these characteristics. A method is derived for linking SKAA characteristics to measurement tests. The entire process is then automated in the form of a task analysis computer program. The development of the program is detailed and a user guide with annotated code listings and supporting test information is provided

  16. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torup, H; Bøgeskov, M; Hansen, E G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is widely used as a part of pain management after various abdominal surgeries. We evaluated the effect of TAP block as an add-on to the routine analgesic regimen in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. METHODS......: In a prospective blinded study, 70 patients scheduled for elective robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy were randomised to receive either TAP block (ropivacaine 0.5%, 20 ml on each side) or sham block (isotonic saline 0.9%, 20 ml on each side). All patients had patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine...... and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment, had no effect on morphine consumption, VAS pain scores, or frequency of nausea and vomiting after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with paracetamol and NSAID alone....

  17. Cross-Cultural Influences on Rhythm Processing: Reproduction, Discrimination, and Beat Tapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures of musical rhythm differ between cultures, despite the fact that the ability to synchronize one’s movements to musical rhythms appears to be universal. To measure the influence of culture on rhythm processing, we tested East African and North American adults on the perception, production, and beat tapping of rhythms derived from East African and Western music. To assess rhythm perception, participants identified whether pairs of rhythms were same or different. To assess rhythm production, participants reproduced rhythms after hearing them. To assess beat tapping, participants tapped the beat along with repeated rhythms. We expected that performance in all three tasks would be influenced both by the culture of the participant and by the culture of the rhythm. Specifically, we predicted that a participant’s ability to discriminate, reproduce, and accurately tap the beat would be better for rhythms from their own culture than for rhythms from another culture. In the rhythm discrimination task, there were no differences in discriminating culturally familiar and unfamiliar rhythms. In the rhythm reproduction task, both groups reproduced East African rhythms more accurately than Western rhythms, but East African participants also showed an effect of cultural familiarity, leading to a significant interaction. In the beat tapping task, participants in both groups tapped the beat more accurately for culturally familiar than unfamiliar rhythms. The results demonstrate that culture does influence the processing of musical rhythm. In terms of the function of musical rhythm, our results are consistent with theories that musical rhythm enables synchronization. Musical rhythm may foster musical cultural identity by enabling within-group synchronization to music, perhaps supporting social cohesion.

  18. Association of LMP/TAP gene polymorphisms with tuberculosis susceptibility in Li population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a contagious disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Several association studies have suggested that cellular immune response is vital for controlling and preventing of tuberculosis infection. Low molecular weight polypeptides (LMPs and transporters with antigen processing (TAPs are the main molecules in the processing and presentation pathway for intracellular antigens. This study was performed to elucidate whether these antigen-processing genes (LMP/TAP polymorphisms could be associated with the risk of tuberculosis infection in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited 205 active pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 217 normal controls from Li population for this study. Four polymorphisms of LMP/TAP genes were determined by PCR-RFLP assay and haplotypes were constructed by software PHASE 1.0. Of the total four polymorphisms, genotype frequencies of LMP7 AA homozygote and CA heterozygote were significantly greater among cases compared to controls, with odds ratio of 3.77 (95% CI: 1.60-8.89; P = 0.002 and 2.97 (95% CI: 1.80-4.90; P<0.0001, respectively. The genotypes of TAP1-2 GG homozygote and AG heterozygote were more frequent in subjects with TB than in controls, with odds ratio of 3.94 (95% CI: 1.82-8.53; P = 0.001 and 2.87 (95% CI: 1.75-4.71; P<0.0001, respectively. Similarly, we found that haplotype B which carried LMP7 and TAP1-2 variations significantly increased the susceptibility to TB (OR = 3.674, 95% CI: 2.254-5.988; P<0.0001. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the homozygote of wild haplotype A (A/A may be a strong protection for TB infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that LMP/TAP gene polymorphisms might be risk factors for TB infection among Li population in China.

  19. Finger tapping impairments are highly sensitive for evaluating upper motor neuron lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Afsaneh; Newton, Braeden D; Okuda, Darin T

    2017-03-21

    Identifying highly sensitive and reliable neurological exam components are crucial in recognizing clinical deficiencies. This study aimed to investigate finger tapping performance differences between patients with CNS demyelinating lesions and healthy control subjects. Twenty-three patients with multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome with infratentorial and/or cervical cord lesions on MRI, and 12 healthy controls were videotaped while tapping the tip of the index finger against the tip and distal crease of the thumb using both the dominant and non-dominant hand. Videos were assessed independently by 10 evaluators (three MS neurologists, four neurology residents, three advanced practice providers). Sensitivity and inter-evaluator reliability of finger tapping interpretations were calculated. A total of 1400 evaluations (four videos per each of the 35 subjects evaluated by 10 independent providers) were obtained. Impairments in finger tapping against the distal thumb crease of the non-dominant hand, identified by neurologists, had the greatest sensitivity (84%, p tapping against the thumb crease was more sensitive than the thumb tip across all categories of providers. The best inter-evaluator reliability was associated with neurologists' evaluations for the thumb crease of the non-dominant hand (kappa = 0.83, p tapping against the distal thumb crease of the non-dominant hand was a more sensitive technique for detecting impairments related to CNS demyelinating lesions. Our findings highlight the importance of precise examinations of the non-dominant side where impaired fine motor control secondary to an upper motor injury might be detectable earlier than the dominant side.

  20. Evidence for repetitive load in the trapezius muscle during a tapping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatis, L; Müller, C; Nakaseko, M; Läubli, T

    2012-08-01

    Many studies describe the trapezius muscle activation pattern during repetitive key-tapping focusing on continuous activation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the upper trapezius is phasically active during supported key tapping, whether this activity is cross-correlated with forearm muscle activity, and whether trapezius activity depends on key characteristic. Thirteen subjects (29.7 ± 11.4 years) were tested. Surface EMG of the finger's extensor and flexor and of the trapezius muscles, as well as the key on-off signal was recorded while the subject performed a 2-min session of key tapping at 4 Hz. The linear envelopes obtained were cut into single tapping cycles extending from one onset to the next onset signal and subsequently time-normalized. Effect size between mean range and maximal standard deviation was calculated to determine as to whether a burst of trapezius muscle activation was present. Cross-correlation was used to determine the time-lag of the activity bursts between forearm and trapezius muscles. For each person the mean and standard deviation of the cross-correlations coefficient between forearm muscles and trapezius were determined. Results showed a burst of activation in the trapezius muscle during most of the tapping cycles. The calculated effect size was ≥0.5 in 67% of the cases. Cross-correlation factors between forearm and trapezius muscle activity were between 0.75 and 0.98 for both extensor and flexor muscles. The cross-correlated phasic trapezius activity did not depend on key characteristics. Trapezius muscle was dynamically active during key tapping; its activity was clearly correlated with forearm muscles' activity.