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Sample records for transitional nucleus 187pt

  1. Shape coexistence near the Z-82 closed shell: a study of the excited states of 187Au and 187Pt in the β+ decay of 187Hg and 187Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, M.A. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    The decays of mass-separated (2.4, 2.2 min)/sup 187m,g/Hg and (8.4 min) 187 Au were studied. Both high- and low-spin states in 187 Au are fed in the (β + , EC) decay of /sup 187m,g/Hg isomers. The h/sub 11/2/, h/sub 9/2/, s/sub 1/2/, d/sub 3/2/, and d/sub 5/2/ collective bands, which are systematically observed throughout the odd-mass gold isotopes, are now extended to 187 Au. In 187 Au, the h/sub 9/2/ bandhead is below the h/sub 11/2/ bandhead, and the transition between the two is found to proceed via a hindered M1 transition due to the change in nuclear shape involved in the transition. One of the most important results of the present study is the discovery of the coupling of the odd proton in an h/sub 9/2/ particle state to the excited O + state of the 186 Pt core. Only the low spin states in 187 Pt appear to be populated in the beta decay of 187 Au. The nature of these low-spin states is not understood at present. One aspect of the levels of 187 Pt not previously reported is a delayed transition of 251 keV energy observed in the present study. 111 references

  2. Lifetime measurements in shape transition nucleus {sup 188}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohilla, Aman; Gupta, C.K.; Chamoli, S.K. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, New Delhi (India); Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India); Chakraborty, S.; Sharma, H.P. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Varanasi (India); Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Biswas, D.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Nuclear level lifetimes of high spin states in yrast and non-yrast bands of {sup 188}Pt nucleus have been measured using recoil distance plunger setup present at IUAC, Delhi. In the experiment nuclear states of interest were populated via {sup 174}Yb({sup 18}O,4n){sup 188}Pt reaction at a beam energy of 79MeV provided by 15 UD Pelletron accelerator. The extracted B(E2 ↓) values show an initial rise up to 4{sup +} state and then a nearly constant behavior with spin along yrast band, indicating change of nuclear structure in {sup 188}Pt at low spins. The good agreement between experimental and TPSM model B(E2 ↓) values up to 4{sup +} state suggests an increase in axial deformation of the nucleus. The average absolute β{sub 2} = 0.20 (3) obtained from measured B(E2 ↓) values matches well the values predicted by CHFB and IBM calculations for oblate (β{sub 2} ∝ -0.19) and prolate (β{sub 2} ∝ 0.22) shapes. As the lifetime measurements do not yield the sign of β{sub 2}, no definite conclusion can be drawn on the prolate or oblate collectivity of {sup 188}Pt on the basis of present measurements. (orig.)

  3. Lifetime measurements in shape transition nucleus 188Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohilla, Aman; Gupta, C. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Sharma, H. P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I. M.; Biswas, D. C.; Chamoli, S. K.

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear level lifetimes of high spin states in yrast and non-yrast bands of 188Pt nucleus have been measured using recoil distance plunger setup present at IUAC, Delhi. In the experiment nuclear states of interest were populated via 174Yb(18O,4 n)188Pt reaction at a beam energy of 79MeV provided by 15 UD Pelletron accelerator. The extracted B(E2\\downarrow) values show an initial rise up to 4+ state and then a nearly constant behavior with spin along yrast band, indicating change of nuclear structure in 188Pt at low spins. The good agreement between experimental and TPSM model B(E2\\downarrow) values up to 4^+ state suggests an increase in axial deformation of the nucleus. The average absolute β2 = 0.20 (3) obtained from measured B(E2\\downarrow) values matches well the values predicted by CHFB and IBM calculations for oblate ( β2 ˜ -0.19) and prolate (β2 ˜ 0.22) shapes. As the lifetime measurements do not yield the sign of β2, no definite conclusion can be drawn on the prolate or oblate collectivity of 188Pt on the basis of present measurements.

  4. Definite evidence of the Landau-Zener transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von; Voit, H.

    1986-05-01

    It is shown that the Landau-Zener transition mechanism due to the formation of molecular orbitals of the active neutron exists in the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ). The evidence stems from characteristic changes of the angular distributions observed as function of the incident energy. (author)

  5. Study of electromagnetic transition probabilities in the 58Co nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Bernard.

    1971-01-01

    Some aspects of the shell model are recalled and the M1 transition probability formulae and magnetic moment expressions in the case of odd-odd nuclei are established in detail. The different methods of delayed coincidence analysis are descibed. The mean lifetimes and branching ratios of the 58 Co excited levels at 53 keV and 112 keV are measured by 58 Fe(p,n) 58 Co reaction. The mean lifetime found for the 53 keV level was 15.0+-0.4 μs and that of the 112 keV level 0.26 +- 0.04ns. The predominant configurations for the first excited levels of 58 Co are suggested. The experimental and theoretical results are compared [fr

  6. Shape coexistence and shape transition in self-conjugate nucleus 72Kr and the tensor force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K.; Sun, Y.; Wadsworth, R.

    2017-11-01

    Oblate-prolate shape-coexistence is well-known in the N = Z nucleus 72Kr. Furthermore, recent experimental data implies that there is a rapid shape transition at very low spins in this nucleus. We reinvestigate this problem by using large-scale shell-model calculations with the monopole interactions derived from the monopole-based universal force that contains the tensor force in the Hamiltonian. We show that in 72Kr, states with nucleon-quartet excitation from the pf shell to the {g}9/2–{d}5/2 orbits, which favor large prolate deformation, compete with those having the pf shell as the main configuration with oblate deformation. These shapes can coexist if the two types of states reside closely in excitation energy. In 72Kr the tensor force is found to provide precisely such a coexistence condition near the ground state. As the tensor effect changes dynamically with orbital occupation when the nucleus rotates, a rapid shape transition can occur.

  7. Low- to high-grade metamorphic transition in the Southern part of Karnataka Nucleus, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    The southern part of Karnataka Nucleus has a strong imprint of 2.6 Ga metamorphism. This has affected the schist belts of Karnataka Nucleus from greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. The higher grades of metamorphism are in the Holenarasipur, Nuggihalli, Krishnarajpet, Hadnur and Melkote schist belts. In the high grade transition zone, around Sargur only keels of schist belts are preserved and occur as highly dismembered, disconnected belts with the top and bottom of the stratigraphic column obliterated due to high grade metamorphism and accompanying migmatization. Absence of high-grade metamorphic minerals in the sediments of the Dharwar schist belts supports the contention that high grade metamorphism post-dated the Dharwar sedimentation and occurred around 2.6 Ga ago. Sargur type metamorphism occurred at upper crustal levels and charnockite type metamorphism occurred in lower crustal levels. The P-T conditions for the mineral assemblage in metapelites of Sargur Group indicate burial depths up to at least 15 km suggesting that they were subducted and later obducted during the development of Early Proterozoic Mobile Belt along the southern border of the Karnataka Nucleus.

  8. Decoding brain state transitions in the pedunculopontine nucleus: cooperative phasic and tonic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne ePetzold

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN are most active during the waking state. Their activation is deemed to cause a switch in the global brain activity from sleep to wakefulness, while their sustained discharge may contribute to upholding the waking state and enhancing arousal. Similarly, non-cholinergic PPN neurons are responsive to brain state transitions and their activation may influence some of the same targets of cholinergic neurons, suggesting that they operate in coordination. Yet, it is not clear how the discharge of distinct classes of PPN neurons organize during brain states. Here we monitored the in vivo network activity of PPN neurons in the anesthetized rat across two distinct levels of cortical dynamics and their transitions. We identified a highly structured configuration in PPN network activity during slow-wave activity that was replaced by decorrelated activity during the activated state. During the transition, neurons were predominantly excited (phasically or tonically, but some were inhibited. Identified cholinergic neurons displayed phasic and short latency responses to sensory stimulation, whereas the majority of non-cholinergic showed tonic responses and remained at high discharge rates beyond the state transition. In vitro recordings demonstrate that cholinergic neurons exhibit fast adaptation that prevents them from discharging at high rates over prolonged time periods. Our data shows that PPN neurons have distinct but complementary roles during brain state transitions, where cholinergic neurons provide a fast and transient response to sensory events that drive state transitions, whereas non-cholinergic neurons maintain an elevated firing rate during global activation.

  9. Electron-nuclear γ transition spectrum of a nucleus in a multicharged atomic ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, L.N.; Letokhov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear emission of absorption spectrum of an atom possesses a set of electron satelites which are due to an alternation of the state of the electron shell. It is shown that the mechanism of formation of the satellites might be different for neutral atoms and high-charge ions. In the first case (loose electron shell) a ''shaking'' of the shell resulting from the interaction between the nucleus and γ quantum is predominant. In the second case (rigid electron shell) the mechanism involves a direct interaction between the γ quantum and electrons. The second mechanism is important in the case of dipole nuclear transitions and dominates at γ quantum energies p 2λ (λ is the nuclear transition multipole order, μ p ∼ 1/2 π is the relative proton mass and z the core mass). In the spectrum of the plasma source the electron satellites corresponding to the γ quantum emission and absorption lines are not overlapped by the Doppler contour of the γ line

  10. Abrupt changes in pentobarbital sensitivity in preBötzinger complex region, hypoglossal motor nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, and cortex during rat transitional period (P10-P15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sara M F; Johnson, Stephen M

    2015-02-01

    On postnatal days P10-P15 in rat medulla, neurotransmitter receptor subunit composition shifts toward a more mature phenotype. Since medullary GABAARs regulate cardiorespiratory function, abrupt alterations in GABAergic synaptic inhibition could disrupt homeostasis. We hypothesized that GABAARs on medullary neurons become more resistant to positive allosteric modulation during P10-P15. Medullary and cortical slices from P10 to P20 rats were used to record spontaneous action potentials in pre-Botzinger Complex (preBötC-region), hypoglossal (XII) motor nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and cortex during exposure to pentobarbital (positive allosteric modulator of GABAARs). On P14, pentobarbital resistance abruptly increased in preBötC-region and decreased in NTS, but these changes in pentobarbital resistance were not present on P15. Pentobarbital resistance decreased in XII motor nucleus during P11-P15 with a nadir at P14. Abrupt changes in pentobarbital resistance indicate changes in GABAergic receptor composition and function that may compensate for potential increased GABAergic inhibition and respiratory depression that occurs during this key developmental transitional period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The first observation of EO transitions from negative parity states in even-even nucleus 160Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    In even-even deformed nuclei up to now EO-transitions were found only between the states of the same spin belonging to Κ π = O + rotational bands. There is no forbidenness for EO-transitions between states belonging to bands with any other quantum number Κ provided both initial and final states have the same J π Κ values. EO-transitions may depopulate odd-parity states. In odd nuclei β-vibrational states are identified by transition with EO-components. Here transitions also proceed between states with the same J π K numbers. Even-even nuclide 160 Dy is the first nucleus where the EO-transitions between odd-parity states have been found

  12. Regular-chaos transition of the energy spectrum and electromagnetic transition intensities in 44V nucleus using the framework of the nuclear shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamoudi, A.K.; Abdul Majeed Al-Rahmani, A.

    2012-01-01

    The spectral fluctuations and the statistics of electromagnetic transition intensities and electromagnetic moments in 44 V nucleus are studied by the framework of the interacting shell model, using the FPD6 as a realistic effective interaction in the isospin formalism for 4 particles move in the fp-model space with a 40 Ca core. To look for a regular-chaos transition in 44 V nucleus, we perform shell model calculations using various interaction strengths β to the off-diagonal matrix elements of the FPD6. The nearest-neighbors level spacing distribution P(s) and the distribution of electromagnetic transition intensities [such as, B(M1) and B(E2) transitions] are found to have a regular dynamic at β=0, a chaotic dynamic at β⩾0.3 and an intermediate situation at 0 3 statistic we have found a regular dynamic at β=0, a chaotic dynamic at β⩾0.4 and an intermediate situation at 0<β<0.4. It is also found that the statistics of the squares of M1 and E2 moments, which are consistent with a Porter-Thomas distribution, have no dependence on the interaction strength β.

  13. Search for and study of linking transitions between super- and normal deformed wells in the 151Tb nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, J.

    2003-12-01

    While the superdeformation phenomenon has been observed many times in different mass regions, the excitation energy and angular momentum are not known for most of the superdeformed bands, mainly in the A ∼ 150 mass region. We have thus undertaken the search for and study of linking transitions between super and normal deformed potential wells in the Tb 151 nucleus with the EUROBALL-IV spectrometer based at the subatomic research institute of Strasbourg. This nucleus presents the peculiarity of having an excited superdeformed band identical to the yrast one of Dy 152 , which has recently been linked to normal deformed states. As the Dy 152 nucleus exhibits a shape coexistence in the first potential well, we have also searched for collective rotational bands with prolate but moderate shape, coexisting with the oblate structure of Tb 151 . The discovery of new superdeformed bands in the Tb 151,152 isotopes, the extension to lower and higher spins of the previously known bands, and mean field calculations with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential have contributed to improve our knowledge as well as raise new questions on the orbitals configuration assignments of these bands. (author)

  14. Non-adiabatic transition of the fissioning nucleus at scission: the time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carjan, N.; Rizea, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden approximation has been recently used to calculate the microscopic scission-properties during low-energy fission of 236 U. In this approach the scission process, i.e., the transition from two fragments connected by a thin neck to two separated fragments was considered to happen suddenly. The approach is stationary (the time evolution is not explicitly treated) and it only involves the two sets of neutron eigenstates for the two nuclear configurations considered: just before scission (α i ) and immediately after scission (α f ). The purpose of the present paper is to go beyond this mathematical approximation considering the real physical situation in which the above mentioned transition takes place in a time interval ΔT ≠ 0. For this we need to follow the evolution from α i to αf of all occupied neutron states by solving numerically the two-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation with time-dependent potential. Calculations are performed for mass divisions from A L = 70 to A L = 118 (A L being the light fragment mass) taking into account all the neutron states (Ω = 1/2, 3/2,..., 11/2) that are bound in 236 U at α i . The diabatic-dissipative dynamics of the neck rupture is very complicated and its exact duration is un-known. ΔT is therefore taken as parameter having values from 0.25 x 10 -22 to 6 x 10 -22 sec. The resulting scission neutron multiplicities - sc and primary fragments' excitation energies E sc * are compared with those obtained in the frame of the sudden approximation (that corresponds to ΔT = 0). As expected, shorter is the transition time more excited are the fragments and more neutrons are emitted, the sudden approximation being an upper limit. For ΔT = 10 -22 sec, which is a realistic value, the time dependent results are 20% below this limit. For transition times longer than 5 x 10 -22 sec the adiabatic limit is reached: no scission neutrons are emitted anymore and the excitation energy at α f is negligible. The

  15. Abrupt changes in pentobarbital sensitivity in preBötzinger complex region, hypoglossal motor nucleus, nucleus tractus solitariius, and cortex during rat transitional period (P10–P15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sara M. F.; Johnson, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    On postnatal days P10–P15 in rat medulla, neurotransmitter receptor subunit composition shifts towards a more mature phenotype. Since medullary GABAARs regulate cardiorespiratory function, abrupt alterations in GABAergic synaptic inhibition could disrupt homeostasis. We hypothesized that GABAARs on medullary neurons become more resistant to positive allosteric modulation during P10–P15. Medullary and cortical slices from P10–P20 rats were used to record spontaneous action potentials in pre-Botzinger Complex (preBötC-region), hypoglossal (XII) motor nucleus, nucleus tractus solitariius (NTS), and cortex during exposure to pentobarbital (positive allosteric modulator of GABAARs). On P14, pentobarbital resistance abruptly increased in preBötC-region and decreased in NTS, but these changes in pentobarbital resistance were not present on P15. Pentobarbital resistance decreased in XII motor nucleus during P11–P15 with a nadir at P14. Abrupt changes in pentobarbital resistance indicate changes in GABAergic receptor composition and function that may compensate for potential increased GABAergic inhibition and respiratory depression that occurs during this key developmental transitional period. PMID:25550216

  16. Search for and study of linking transitions between super- and normal deformed wells in the {sup 151}Tb nucleus; Recherche et etude de transitions de liaison entre les puits super- et normalement deformes dans le noyau {sup 151}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, J

    2003-12-01

    While the superdeformation phenomenon has been observed many times in different mass regions, the excitation energy and angular momentum are not known for most of the superdeformed bands, mainly in the A {approx} 150 mass region. We have thus undertaken the search for and study of linking transitions between super and normal deformed potential wells in the Tb{sup 151} nucleus with the EUROBALL-IV spectrometer based at the subatomic research institute of Strasbourg. This nucleus presents the peculiarity of having an excited superdeformed band identical to the yrast one of Dy{sup 152}, which has recently been linked to normal deformed states. As the Dy{sup 152} nucleus exhibits a shape coexistence in the first potential well, we have also searched for collective rotational bands with prolate but moderate shape, coexisting with the oblate structure of Tb{sup 151}. The discovery of new superdeformed bands in the Tb{sup 151,152} isotopes, the extension to lower and higher spins of the previously known bands, and mean field calculations with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential have contributed to improve our knowledge as well as raise new questions on the orbitals configuration assignments of these bands. (author)

  17. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  18. The Neuronal Transition Probability (NTP) Model for the Dynamic Progression of Non-REM Sleep EEG: The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Merica, H

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has gone into linking to its neuronal substrates the dynamic structure of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, defined as the pattern of time-course power in all frequency bands across an entire episode. Using the spectral power time-courses in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), we showed in the typical first episode, several moves towards-and-away from deep sleep, each having an identical pattern linking the major frequency bands beta, sigma and delta. The neuronal transition probability model (NTP) - in fitting the data well - successfully explained the pattern as resulting from stochastic transitions of the firing-rates of the thalamically-projecting brainstem-activating neurons, alternating between two steady dynamic-states (towards-and-away from deep sleep) each initiated by a so-far unidentified flip-flop. The aims here are to identify this flip-flop and to demonstrate that the model fits well all NREM episodes, not just the first. Using published data on suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN...

  19. The neuronal transition probability (NTP model for the dynamic progression of non-REM sleep EEG: the role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helli Merica

    Full Text Available Little attention has gone into linking to its neuronal substrates the dynamic structure of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, defined as the pattern of time-course power in all frequency bands across an entire episode. Using the spectral power time-courses in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG, we showed in the typical first episode, several moves towards-and-away from deep sleep, each having an identical pattern linking the major frequency bands beta, sigma and delta. The neuronal transition probability model (NTP--in fitting the data well--successfully explained the pattern as resulting from stochastic transitions of the firing-rates of the thalamically-projecting brainstem-activating neurons, alternating between two steady dynamic-states (towards-and-away from deep sleep each initiated by a so-far unidentified flip-flop. The aims here are to identify this flip-flop and to demonstrate that the model fits well all NREM episodes, not just the first. Using published data on suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN activity we show that the SCN has the information required to provide a threshold-triggered flip-flop for TIMING the towards-and-away alternations, information provided by sleep-relevant feedback to the SCN. NTP then determines the PATTERN of spectral power within each dynamic-state. NTP was fitted to individual NREM episodes 1-4, using data from 30 healthy subjects aged 20-30 years, and the quality of fit for each NREM measured. We show that the model fits well all NREM episodes and the best-fit probability-set is found to be effectively the same in fitting all subject data. The significant model-data agreement, the constant probability parameter and the proposed role of the SCN add considerable strength to the model. With it we link for the first time findings at cellular level and detailed time-course data at EEG level, to give a coherent picture of NREM dynamics over the entire night and over hierarchic brain levels all the way from the SCN

  20. Influence of photoperiod duration and light–dark transitions on entrainment of Per1 and Per2 gene and protein expression in subdivisions of the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosniyenko, Serhiy; Hut, R.A.; Daan, S.; Sumová, Alena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 9 (2009), s. 1802-1814 ISSN 0953-816X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/08/0503 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSH-2004115-4-018741 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : clock gene * suprachiasmatic nucleus * photoperiod Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 3.418, year: 2009

  1. Perspective of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the lectures given at the International School of nuclear physics, Erice, 1985, which survey the expectations for the field of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The primary motivation for the field, the organization of the lectures, and a description of the NA 34 experiment, are all briefly given. (U.K.)

  2. Onuf's nucleus X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1981-01-01

    in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...

  3. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  4. Hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative picture of high energy hadron-nucleus collision process, emerging from the analysis of experimental data, is presented. Appropriate description procedure giving a possibility of reproducing various characteristics of this process in terms of the data on elementary hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. Formula reproducing hadron-nucleus collision cross sections is derived. Inelastic collision cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus reactions at wide energy interval are calculated for Pb, Ag, and Al targets. A-dependence of cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions at nearly 50 GeV/c momentum were calculated and compared with existing experimental data. Energy dependence of cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions is determined simply by energy dependence of corresponding cross sections for hadron-nucleon collisions; A-dependence is determined simply by nuclear sizes and nucleon density distributions in nuclei

  5. The 'Big Karl' magnetic spectrometer - studies of the 103Ru transition nucleus with (d,p) and (p,d) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerlimann, W.

    1981-04-01

    The paper describes the structure and characteristics of the spectrometer and its application in a study of the 102 Ru(d,p) 103 Ru and 104 Ru(p,d) 103 Ru reactions. The study is structured as follows: To begin with the theoretical fundamentals, ion-optical characteristics and layout of BIG KARL are described. Field measurements and analyses carried out on the magnets of the spectrometer are described as well as the functioning of the 'Ht correction coils' used here for the first time to prevent faulty imaging. Chapter IV then describes methods employed so far to optimize resolution for large aperture angles of the spectrometer. Finally, chapter V investigates the 103 Ru transition nucleons on the basis of the 102 Ru(d,p) 103 RU and 104 Ru(p,d) 103 Ru transfer reactions measured in BIG KARL. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. K+-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  7. Statistical simulation of hadron-nucleus and light nucleus-nucleus interaction. Intranuclear cascade model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobov, G.A.; Stepanov, N.V.; Sibirtsev, A.A.; Trebukhovskij, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    A new version of the program of statistical simulation of hadron-nucleus and light nucleus-nucleus interaction is elaborated. The cascade part of the program is described. The comparison of model predictions with the proton-nucleus interaction experiments is performed. A satisfactory calculations-experiment agreement is obtained

  8. High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)

  9. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1993-10-01

    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  10. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs

  11. Study of Relativistic Nucleus - Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to survey the reaction mechanisms involved in the collision of 60~GeV/nucleon and 200~GeV/nucleon light ions ($^{16}$0 and $^{32}$S provided by a new GSI-LBL injector) with different nuclei, to determine the stopping power of nuclear matter and to search for evidence of the formation of quark matter by comparison to hadron-nucleus reactions at the same incident energies. \\\\ The experimental set-up consists of a 2 m Streamer Chamber in the Vertex Magnet used to detect all the charged particles emerging from the interaction as well as the neutral strange particles that decay inside the chamber. The high energy of the forward-going particles are detected by four sets of calorimeters. A highly segmented Photon Position Detector (PPD) backed up by a 240 segment Ring Calorimeter will cover one unit of rapidity around mid-rapidity. An Intermediate Calorimeter will cover the rest of the forward phase space except for the region around beam rapidity, where a Veto Calorimeter will detect be...

  12. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding

    2010-11-12

    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  13. The imaginary part of the nucleus - nucleus optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1978-01-01

    The contribution to the imaginary nucleus - nucleus optical potential has been estimated by evaluating the energy - conserving seocond-order term in the perturbation series. The incoming nuclear field is supposed to excite nucleons in a nucleus in this calculation and the nuclear excitations are approximated by particle-hole excitations in a Fermi gas. The resulting imaginary potential compares favourably with phenomenological potentials. (author)

  14. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    HIJING generator simulation of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. It is shown that the global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as distribution of a charged multiplicity, total and electromagnetic transverse energy over pseudorapidity are rather sensitive to some predictions of models of high-exited nuclear medium formation, namely parton energy losses in dense nuclear matter. These losses result in appearance of a broad maximum in global variable distributions over pseudorapidity. The most profound of this effect occurs at central heavy ion collisions at LHC energy

  16. Jefferson Lab's Journey into the Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2004-01-01

    The year 1969 saw the publication of the first results indicating that hard scattering centres exist deep inside protons. A collaboration between the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was using SLAC's new high-energy electron LINAC to pioneer a rich new field in the study of the nucleus--deep inelastic scattering. Their measurements revealed that nucleons are made up of point-like particles, which Richard Feynman dubbed ''partons''. Thirty-five years on, studies of the parton-nature of the nucleus continue, not only at the traditional high-energy centres, but also at lower-energy laboratories, and in particular at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Virginia. Jefferson Lab is home to the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Its main mission is to explore the atomic nucleus and the fundamental building-blocks of matter. As part of this mission, researchers there study the transition from the picture of the nucleus as a bound state of neutrons and protons to its deeper structure in terms of quarks and gluons--in other words, the transition from the hadronic degrees of freedom of nuclear physics to the quark-gluon degrees of freedom of high-energy physics. In exploring this transition, a wide range of experiments has been performed, from measurements of elastic form factors at large momentum transfers to studies of deep inelastic scattering. An array of spectrometers together with electron-beam energies of up to 5.7 GeV has allowed the laboratory to make significant contributions to this field. This article describes three experiments, each aimed at improving our understanding of a different aspect of the partonic nature of matter. The first, a classic deep inelastic scattering experiment, seeks to further our understanding of the composition of nucleon spin. The second experiment studies the concept of quark-hadron duality--a link between the deep inelastic

  17. J/$\\psi$ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (quark-gluon plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ psi yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (9 refs).

  18. Re-187-Os-187, Pt-190-Os-186 Isotopic and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Group IVA Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; McCoy, T. J.; Schulte, R. F.; McDonough, W. F.; Ash, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently completed Re-187-Os-187 and Pt-190-Os-186 isotopic and elemental studies of the two largest magmatic iron meteorite groups, IIAB and IIIAB [1]. These studies revealed closed-system behavior of both isotopic systems, but complex trace element behavior for Re, Pt and Os in group IIIAB. Here we examine isotopic and trace elemental systematics of group IVA irons. The IVA irons are not as extensively fractionated as IIAB and IIIAB and their apparently less complex crystallization history may make for more robust interpretation of the relative partitioning behavior of Re, Pt and Os, as well as the other highly siderophile elements (HSE) measured here; Pd, Ru and Ir [e.g. 2]. An additional goal of our continuing research plan for iron meteorites is to assess the possibility of relating certain ungrouped irons with major groups via trace element modeling. Here, the isotopic and trace element systematics of the ungrouped irons Nedagolla and EET 83230 are compared with the IVA irons.

  19. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  20. Antiproton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastry, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of low energy antiproton ring at CERN has initiated antiproton-nucleus(antip - A) collision experiments. These give information on antiproton-nucleon(antiproton - N) interaction in the nuclei, structure of antiprotonic atoms, antiprotonic bound states in the nucleus, strange particle production etc. Considerable data on antiproton - A scattering cross sections at several incident energies for targets like 12 C, 16 O, 18 Ca etc. have become available. Both elastic and inelastic antiproton-A cross sections show diffractive oscillatory behaviour. As a result, it is possible to qualitatively understand antiproton-A cross sections by treating the target as a black sphere with diffused surface. Phenomenological optical potentials including those generated by the model independent Fourier-Bessel method show that the potential is highly absorptive; imaginary part dominates and has longer range than real part and the latter decreases with energy. Spin-orbit term is less important. Some of these can be understood in terms of meson exchange antiproton-N potentials. The large imaginary part is due to the availability of additional channels initiated by antiproton annihilation. Optical potentials show several ambiguities including the Igo ambiguity. More fundamental approaches to the potential based on antiproton-N t matrix and folding models have been attempted. A comparison of heavy ion scatering and antiproton-A scattering is made. It is shown that semi-classical WKB method is applicable for antiproton-A scattering. Some recent work on antiproton-p potentials, antiprotonic states and strange particle production is discussed. (author). 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tables

  1. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Enterria, D.G.

    2000-05-01

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E γ > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar 36 + Au 197 , Ag 107 , Ni 58 , C 12 at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4π. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pnγ) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  2. Fission probability of nucleus of sup(232)Th mesoatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Gavrilov, Yu.K.; Kim Si wan; Krogulski, T.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Ortlepp, H.-G.; Polikanov, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The fission probability of the nucleus of the sup(232)Th muonic atom has been measured. The fission yield was measured simultaneously with the intensity of 5g-4f transition in the muonic atom sup(232)Th. A good agreement with previous result obtained in measurements with the fission chamber and evident disagreement with the photoemulsion data have been obtained

  3. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-15

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  4. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  5. Diabatic interaction potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Lukasiak, A.

    1984-01-01

    Within a refined method for the construction of diabatic states allowing for the treatment of the full spin-orbit coupling, characteristic features of the diabatic potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions are investigated. Approximately 90% of the strong repulsion results from diabatic particle-hole excitations, while only 10% is due to compression. The diabatic interaction potential describes a physical situation intermediate between adiabatic and sudden approximations. (orig.)

  6. The subthalamic nucleus, Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.

    2008-01-01

    Part I. Development, cytology, topography and connections. This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology

  7. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  8. Beyond the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detraz, C.

    1993-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear physics research should enjoy considerable financial and political support rather than the reductions at present planned, as it offers the potential for solving many social, political and environmental issues. The long-range scientific aims of nuclear physics are changing and two important research directions are emerging, how quarks interact and assemble (the individual-to-collective phase transition at the microscopic level) and the study of hadronic matter. Their study will lead to an understanding of the properties of hadronic matter and of the binding of elementary particles to form baryons and matter. These will become central to science theories of the future. (UK)

  9. Spectroscopic Studies of the Nucleus GOLD-195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Susan Marie

    The nucleus ^{195}Au has been studied via in-beam gamma -ray and electron spectroscopy with the reactions ^{196}Pt(p,2n)^ {195}Au at beam energies of 12 and 16 MeV, and the reaction ^{rm nat }Ir(alpha,2n) ^{195}Au at a beam energy of 26 MeV. All experiments were performed at the University of Notre Dame tandem accelerator facility and utilized elements of the University of Pittsburgh multi-detector gamma-array and ICEBall mini-orange electron spectrometer. Fifty-five new transitions and thirty-six new energy levels have been observed. The U(6/4) supersymmetric algebra has been proposed to provide a simultaneous description for the positive parity states of the pair of nuclei ^{194 }Pt and ^{195}Au. The observed energy spectra for these nuclei show satisfactory agreement with the U(6/4) predicted spectra. The collective properties including relative B(E2) values for the Pt and Au nuclei in this mass region are also consistent with theoretical predictions. However, the measured E2/M1 mixing ratios for transitions in ^{195} Au indicate that the single particle description for the odd-A nucleus is incomplete. The new data for ^{195}Au is further combined with the existing data for ^{194} Pt and ^{195}Pt within the context of the larger U_{ nu}(6/12) otimes U_{pi}(6/4) supersymmetry. A consistent fit to the energy eigenvalue equation is obtained and a modified prediction for the negative parity states in the odd-odd nucleus ^{196} Au is made. Thus, the proposal of an underlying supersymmetry for the quartet of nuclei ^ {194}Pt-^{195} Pt-^{195}Au- ^{196}Au also appears valid. New transitions and levels involved in the negative parity h_{11/2} decoupled band in ^{195}Au have also been observed. The band appears to be much more fragmented at high spins than the analogous structures in the lighter odd-A Au nuclei, but it is unclear what the source of this difference is. It is, however, proposed that a consistent description for both the positive and negative parity

  10. High energy hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Fujio

    1983-02-01

    This is a lecture note concerning high energy hadron-nucleus collision. The lecture gives the inelastic total cross section and the Glanber approximate multiple scattering formula at first. The mechanism of nuclear spallation is described in a cylindrical image. The multiplicity, the one particle distribution and the time-space structure of particle production are discussed. Various models are presented. The attenuation of forward particles and the structure of hadrons are discussed for each model. The atomic number (A) dependence of the production of large transverse momentum particles and jet, and the A dependence of charged multiplicity are presented. The backward production of particles and many body correlation are discussed. Lepton pair production and the initial interaction of constituents, collective interaction, multi quark state and phase transition are described. (Kato, T.)

  11. Neutrino anomaly and -nucleus interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    neutrino nucleus interactions in the domain of low and intermediate energy. The nuclear physics inputs mainly enter through two types of processes. These are: A. The nuclear processes responsible for neutrino production in the calculation of solar and atmospheric neutrino fluxes. B. The nuclear processes in which ...

  12. The nucleus as a laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin-Stoyle, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The nucleus is a complicated many-body structure whose properties when carefully studied can frequently give important information about the underlying elementary particle interactions. This article reviews progress in research of this kind over the last twenty-five years. (author)

  13. Higgs and Particle Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe

    We apply a diagrammatic approach to study Higgs boson, a color-neutral heavy particle, pro- duction in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the saturation framework without quantum evolution. We assume the strong coupling constant much smaller than one. Due to the heavy mass and colorless nature of Higgs particle, final state interactions are absent in our calculation. In order to treat the two nuclei dynamically symmetric, we use the Coulomb gauge which gives the appropriate light cone gauge for each nucleus. To further eliminate initial state interactions we choose specific prescriptions in the light cone propagators. We start the calculation from only two nucleons in each nucleus and then demonstrate how to generalize the calculation to higher orders diagrammatically. We simplify the diagrams by the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward identities. The resulting cross section is factorized into a product of two Weizsacker-Williams gluon distributions of the two nuclei when the transverse momentum of the produced scalar particle is around the saturation momentum. To our knowledge this is the first process where an exact analytic formula has been formed for a physical process, involving momenta on the order of the saturation momentum, in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the quasi-classical approximation. Since we have performed the calculation in an unconventional gauge choice, we further confirm our results in Feynman gauge where the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution is interpreted as a transverse momentum broadening of a hard gluons traversing a nuclear medium. The transverse momentum factorization manifests itself in light cone gauge but not so clearly in Feynman gauge. In saturation physics there are two different unintegrated gluon distributions usually encountered in the literature: the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution and the dipole gluon distribution. The first gluon distribution is constructed by solving classical Yang-Mills equation of motion in the Mc

  14. Color oscillations of nucleons in a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Possibility of nucleus description as an object consisting of quarks and gluons is considered. A model of two-nucleon interaction in a nucleus is presented and analytical expressions for the nucleus nucleon ground state wave functions and also for nuclear nucleon structure functions are obtained. The carried out analysis shows that the suggested model permits to express the nucleus structure functions at quark level only by means of nucleon and Δ-isobaric degrees of freedom

  15. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  16. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  17. Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Briz Monago, Jose Antonio; Nácher González, Enrique

    The Ph.D. thesis entitled “Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay” is devoted to the study of the shape of the ground state of the 72Kr nucleus. It is an N=Z nucleus in the mass region A~70-80 where shape transitions and the shape coexistence phenomena have been identified. Furthermore, this nucleus participates in the rp-process as a waiting point due to the slowdown of the process taking place at the arrival to this nucleus. The study of the properties of this nucleus is interesting from the Nuclear Structure point of view, for the phenomena occurring in its mass region and have been predicted for it, and from the Nuclear Astrophysics for the accurate performance of astrophysical calculations. The β+/EC decay of the 72Kr nucleus has been studied through two complementary experiments at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva (Switzerland). In one of them, the low-spin structure of the daughter nucleus, 72Br, has been revised via conversion electron spectroscopy where the convers...

  18. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-01-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the optimal

  19. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-10-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  20. Monopole excitation of nucleus in the bound muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirov, B.M.; Abazov, V.M.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The work is aimed at theoretical and experimental investigation into the possibility of nucleus excitation under the muon decay on mesic atom K-shell. The process of mesic atom formation is briefly considered. The stage of muon presence in the mesic atom orbit is completed by mesoatomic cascade, muon decay or muon nuclear capture. Recording of electron coincidences from decay of muon with nuclear transition γ-quanta makes up the base of experiment on the search for the nucleus excitation under the bound muon decay. Muon 158 Sm atom is considered in detail. The experimental data obtained allow one to ascertain the upper limit of probability of the first 152 SmO + level excitation under the bound muon decay W -3

  1. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, G.S.; RAGAB, H.S.; SEDDEEK, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  2. Pion production at 1800 in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chessin, S.A.

    1983-05-01

    A survey experiment of pion production at 180 0 in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. Beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 2.1 GeV/A protons, alphas, and carbon were used, as well as proton beams of 0.80 GeV, 3.5 GeV, and 4.89 GeV, and argon beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 1.83 GeV/A. This is the first such experiment to use the heavier beams. Targets used ranged from carbon to lead. An in-depth review of the literature, both experimental and theoretical, is also presented. The systematics of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made both with prior experiments and with the predictions of the models reviewed. The cross sections appear consistent with a simple single nucleon-nucleon collision picture, without the need for collective or other exotic effects. Suggestions for future work are made

  3. The nucleus-nucleus proximity potential and superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using up-to-date values of nuclear radii and of the nuclear surface tension, the 1977 proximity treatment of nucleus-nucleus interaction is confronted with 113 measured fusion barriers. The ∼4% overestimate of theory with respect to experiment, seen in a similar comparison in 1981, is no longer present. The calculated proximity barriers, when applied to fusion reactions used to produce heavy elements with atomic number Z = 102-118, suggest that the unexpectedly large cross section observed in the reaction 86 Kr + 208 Pb r a rrow 293 118 + 1n may be due to the sinking of the Coulomb barrier below the level of the bombarding energy. Tests of this hypothesis are suggested. Some consequences of the appearance of such unshielded reactions for very heavy systems are discussed. An Appendix supplies very accurate analytic formulas for the universal nuclear proximity force and potential functions φand Φ. This does away with the need to consult the tables published in 1977

  4. Parity Measurements in the 70Ga Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas Vargas, D. C.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Jones, K. D.; Le, K. Q.; Harbin, B. L.; Döring, J.; Abromeit, B.; Dungan, R.; Lubna, R.; Tabor, S. L.; Tai, P.-L.; Tripati, Vandana; Vonmoss, J. M.; Morrow, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    The odd-odd 70Ga nucleus was studied at high spin after being produced at Florida State University using the 62Ni(14C,αpn) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. The resulting γ rays were detected in coincidence using an array of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The linear polarizations of eight γ-ray transitions in 70Ga were measured by comparing their scattering yields within a Clover detector in the parallel and perpendicular directions relative to the beam axis, under the requirement that at least one other γ ray in 70Ga was recorded by a single-crystal detector in the array. As a result of these measurements, the parities of six states were confirmed and those of two other states were established for the first time based on a comparison of the experimental polarizations with the predicted ones determined from known spin assignments. The resulting level spectrum of 70Ga shows both similarities and differences with the predictions of previous shell-model calculations. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Ohio Wesleyan University Summer Science Research Program.

  5. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  6. Ionization by nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological description of ionization events is given that applies to both shaking transitions of the composite nucleus-atom system and the process in which the charged particles emitted in a nuclear decay transfer energy by a relatively slow ''direct collision'' final state interaction with atomic electrons. Specific areas covered include shakeoff in internal conversion, shakeoff in electron capture, shakeoff in beta decay, and inner electron ejection in alpha decay. (5 figs., 1 table)

  7. Nucleus behavior in violent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.

    1985-01-01

    Thanks to new heavy ion beams (Argon, Krypton...) accelerated at Ganil and Sara to velocities of about 0.2 to 0.5 times the light one, very violent collisions, between complex nuclei can be made. During peripheral collisions, the projectile is strongly heated in '' wearing away'' the target and follows its way at high velocity in loosing nucleons. Resulting fragments can present themselves as nuclei very different from usual stable nuclei, often at existence limit. In more central collisions, the energy transferred is such that fusion of both leads to a new type of very hot nucleus near the immediate boiling. Another existence limit is reached by this way: where the bound nucleon system tend to become nucleon gas or a bulk of little fragments [fr

  8. Magnetic dipole excitations of the 163Dy nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenginerler, Zemine; Tabar, Emre; Yakut, Hakan; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Guliyev, Ekber

    2014-03-01

    In this study some properties of the magnetic dipole excitations of the deformed odd mass 163Dy nucleus were studied by using Quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model (QPNM). The several of the ground-state and low-lying magnetic dipole (M1) mode characteristics were calculated for deformed odd-mass nuclei using a separable Hamiltonian within the QPNM. The M1 excited states, reduced transition probabilities B(M1), the ground-state magnetic properties such as magnetic moment (μ), intrinsic magnetic moment (gK) , effective spin factor (gseff.) are the fundamental characteristics of the odd-mass nucleus and provide key information to understand nuclear structure. The theoretical results were compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical approaches. Calculations show that the spin-spin interaction in this isotopes leads to polarization effect influencing the magnetic moments. Furthermore we found a strong fragmentation of the M1 strength in 163Dy nucleus which was in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Sakarya University, Project Number: 2012-50-02-007 and Z.Zenginerler acknowledge to TUBITAK-TURKEY 2013, fellowship No: 2219.

  9. Action potentials: to the nucleus and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ramendra N; Dudek, Serena M

    2008-04-01

    The neuronal nucleus is now widely accepted as playing a vital role in maintaining long-term changes in synaptic effectiveness. To act, however, the nucleus must be appropriately relayed with information regarding the latest round of synaptic plasticity. Several constraints of doing so in a neuron pertain to the often significant spatial distance of synapses from the nucleus and the number of synapses required for such a signal to reach functional levels in the nucleus. Largely based on the sensitivity of transcriptional responses to NMDA receptor antagonists, it has been postulated that the signals are physically relayed by biochemical messengers from the synapse to the nucleus. Alternatively, a second, less often considered but equally viable method of signal transduction may be initiated by action potentials generated proximal to the nucleus, wherefrom the signal can be relayed directly by calcium or indirectly by biochemical second messengers. We consider action potential-dependent signaling to the nucleus to have its own computational advantages over the synapse-to-nucleus signal for some functions. This minireview summarizes the logic and experimental support for these two modes of signaling and attempts to validate the action potential model as playing an important role in transcriptional regulation relating specifically to long-term synaptic plasticity.

  10. Do migrating cells need a nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2018-03-05

    How the nucleus affects cell polarity and migration is unclear. In this issue, Graham et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201706097) show that enucleated cells polarize and migrate in two but not three dimensions and propose that the nucleus is a necessary component of the molecular clutch regulating normal mechanical responses. © 2018 Hawkins.

  11. The temperature dependence of giant resonances in high-excited nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Song Hongqiu

    1991-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock equation and the linear response theory in finite temperature are used to calculate the positions and transition strenghths of the giant resonances of high-excited nucleus Pb 208 . The result shows a downward shift and a broadening of the giant resonance energies as temperatrue increases

  12. Evidence for monosynaptic projections from the nucleus retroambiguous to hindlimb motoneurons in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; deWeerd, H; Holstege, G

    1997-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a group of premotor neurons at the transition between brainstem and spinal cord. It projects to certain motoneuronal cell groups, among which is a distinct set of motoneurons in the lumbar enlargement innervating muscles including iliopsoas, adductor longus, and

  13. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells. PMID:24445418

  14. Pedunculopontine nucleus cholinergic deficiency in cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Karin; Edwards, Nancy A; Urbano, Demelio; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Iacono, Diego; Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Amaro, Edson; Horovitz, Silvina G; Hallett, Mark

    2018-03-06

    The etiology of cervical dystonia is unknown. Cholinergic abnormalities have been identified in dystonia animal models and human imaging studies. Some animal models have cholinergic neuronal loss in the striatum and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of cholinergic abnormalities in the putamen and pedunculopontine nucleus in cervical dystonia human brain donors. Formalin-fixed brain tissues were obtained from 8 cervical dystonia and 7 age-matched control brains (controls). Pedunculopontine nucleus was available in only 6 cervical dystonia and 5 controls. Neurodegeneration was evaluated pathologically in the putamen, pedunculopontine nucleus, and other regions. Cholinergic neurons were detected using choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry in the putamen and pedunculopontine nucleus. Putaminal cholinergic neurons were quantified. A total of 6 cervical dystonia patients and 6 age-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging to determine if there were white matter microstructural abnormalities around the pedunculopontine nucleus. Decreased or absent choline acetyltransferase staining was identified in all 6 pedunculopontine nucleus samples in cervical dystonia. In contrast, strong choline acetyltransferase staining was present in 4 of 5 pedunculopontine nucleus controls. There were no differences in pedunculopontine nucleus diffusion tensor imaging between cervical dystonia and healthy controls. There was no difference in numbers of putaminal cholinergic neurons between cervical dystonia and controls. Our findings suggest that pedunculopontine nucleus choline acetyltransferase deficiency represents a functional cholinergic deficit in cervical dystonia. Structural lesions and confounding neurodegenerative processes were excluded by absence of neuronal loss, gliosis, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities, and beta-amyloid, tau, and alpha

  15. Charmonia suppression in nucleus-nucleus interactions at CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormack, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Scalas, E; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2004-01-01

    The NA50 experiment at CERN SPS has studied charmonium production in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. According to the theoretical predictions the observation of the suppression of the J/ psi production yield is expected to be an unambiguous probe for a phase transition from ordinary nuclear matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined. (10 refs).

  16. Strangeness production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehring, H.; Ranft, J.; Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1993-01-01

    Λ, bar Λ, and K S 0 production is studied in a Monte Carlo dual parton model for hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions with an SU(3) symmetric sea for chain formation (chain ends) but strangeness suppression in the chain fragmentation process. Additionally, (qq)-(bar q bar q) production from the sea was introduced into the chain formation process with the same probability as for the q→qq branching within the chain decay process. With these assumptions, multiplicity ratios and Feynman-x distributions for strange particles in h-h and multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions are reasonably well reproduced

  17. Search for tetrahedral in 156Gd nucleus by γ spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, Q.T.

    2009-11-01

    Theoretical calculations using realistic mean-field method suggest the existence of nuclear shapes with tetrahedral and/or octahedral symmetries in some rare earth nuclei around 156 Gd and 160 Yb. In nuclei with exact tetrahedral symmetry, the E2 intra-band transitions are predicted to vanish completely or to be very weak. This work is devoted to an experimental research of the tetrahedral symmetry in the nucleus 156 Gd. An experiment has been carried out with the JUROGAM γ-rays detector at Jyvaskyla (Finland) by using the fusion-evaporation reaction 154 Sm(α,2n) 156 Gd. In analysis, the branching ratios of two parity negative bands were determined, the angular distribution has been analyzed to determine the nature of one inter-band transition between these two bands. The transitions strength ratios determined are of the same order of magnitude as previous experiments, and some upper limits have been established for the lowest spin. The missing of the E2 transitions below the I π = 9 - states in the odd spin parity negative band were confirmed. The results of this work reinforced the hypothesis of the tetrahedral symmetry in the nucleus 156 Gd. γ-ray spectroscopy is the major tool used for this work. Detection principles and γ-ray simulations are detailed in the document. The simulation, based on realistic events, has been realised to compare the response function of two multi-detectors EUROBALL and AGATA. The results show that under certain conditions the first phase of AGATA (demonstrator) is also a tool to search for rare events. (author)

  18. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  19. The nucleus of Comet Borrelly: A study of morphology and surface brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, J.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R.; Soderblom, L.; Buratti, B.; Hicks, M.; Nelson, R.; Britt, D.

    2004-01-01

    Stereo images obtained during the DS1 flyby were analyzed to derive a topographic model for the nucleus of Comet 19P/Borrelly for morphologic and photometric studies. The elongated nucleus has an overall concave shape, resembling a peanut, with the lower end tilted towards the camera. The bimodal character of surface-slopes and curvatures support the idea that the nucleus is a gravitational aggregate, consisting of two fragments in contact. Our photometric modeling suggests that topographic shading effects on Borrelly's surface are very minor (the given resolution of the terrain model. Instead, albedo effects are thought to dominate Borrelly's large variations in surface brightness. With 90% of the visible surface having single scattering albedos between 0.008 and 0.024, Borrelly is confirmed to be among the darkest of the known Solar System objects. Photometrically corrected images emphasize that the nucleus has distinct, contiguous terrains covered with either bright or dark, smooth or mottled materials. Also, mapping of the changes in surface brightness with phase angle suggests that terrain roughness at subpixel scale is not uniform over the nucleus. High surface roughness is noted in particular near the transition between the upper and lower end of the nucleus, as well as near the presumed source region of Borrelly's main jets. Borrelly's surface is complex and characterized by distinct types of materials that have different compositional and/or physical properties. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Klochkov, V; Herve, A E; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Matulewicz, T N; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Mathes, H; Roehrich, D; Marcinek, A J; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Koziel, M E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Strikhanov, M; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Blondel, A P P; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Di luise, S; Veberic, D; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Morgala, S J; Paolone, V; Damyanova, A; Gazdzicki, M; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B

    2007-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  1. Nucleus accumbens surgery for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xue-lian; Chang, Chong-wang; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Li; Wu, He-ming; Zhao, Hai-kang; Geng, Ning; Gao, Guo-dong

    2013-01-01

    Opiate addiction remains intractable in a large percentage of patients, and relapse is the biggest hurdle to recovery because of psychological dependence. Multiple studies identify a central role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in addiction; several studies note decreased addictive behavior after interventions in this area. Based on animal experiments, our institute started the clinical trial for the treatment of drug addicts' psychological dependence by making lesions in the bilateral NAc with stereotactic surgery from July 2000. The short-term outcomes were encouraging and triggered rapid application of this treatment in China from 2003 to 2004. However, lack of long-term outcomes and controversy eventually led to halting the surgery for addiction by the Ministry of Health of China in November 2004 and a nationwide survey about it later. Our institute had performed this surgery in 272 patients with severe heroin addiction. The follow-up study showed that the 5-year nonrelapse rate was 58% and the quality of life was significantly improved. Patients had several kinds of side effects, but the incidence rate was relatively low. The patients gradually recovered more than 5 years after the surgery. The side effects did not severely influence an individual's life or work. Nationwide surgery showed that the nonrelapse rate was 50% in the sample of 150 cases, from 1167 patients overall who underwent stereotactic surgery in China. Although sometimes accompanied by neuropsychological adverse events, stereotactic ablation of NAc may effectively treat opiate addiction. Lesion location has a significant impact on treatment efficacy and requires further study. Because ablation is irreversible, the NAc surgery for addiction should be performed with cautiousness, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an ideal alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  3. Transport of glutathione into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH) is present in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. However, the functions of GSH in the nucleus remain poorly characterised. GSH appears to become sequestered in the nucleus at the early stages of the cell cycle. As part of our search for proteins that may be involved in GSH transport into the nucleus, we studied the functions of the nucleoporin called Alacrima Achalasia aDrenal Insufficiency Neurologic disorder (ALADIN). ALADIN is encoded by the Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia (AAAS) gene in mammalian cells. Defects in ALADIN promote adrenal disorders and lead to the triple A syndrome in humans. The ALADIN protein localizes to the nuclear envelope in Arabidopsis thaliana and interacts with other components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We characterised the functions of the ALADIN protein in an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion knockout mutant, which shows slow growth compared to the wild type. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  5. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  6. Kaon-nucleus reactions and hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in hypernuclear physics and kaon-nucleus scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the spectroscopy of Λ single particle states in heavy systems, as revealed by the (π + ,K + ) reaction. 26 refs., 8 figs

  7. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  8. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  9. Targeting the red nucleus for cerebellar tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, M; Manto, M; Merle, P; Tir, M; Montpellier, D; Constant, J-M; Le Gars, D; Macron, J-M; Krystkowiak, P

    2014-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the thalamus (and especially the ventral intermediate nucleus) does not significantly improve a drug-resistant, disabling cerebellar tremor. The dentato-rubro-olivary tract (Guillain-Mollaret triangle, including the red nucleus) is a subcortical loop that is critically involved in tremor genesis. We report the case of a 48-year-old female patient presenting with generalized cerebellar tremor caused by alcohol-related cerebellar degeneration. Resistance to pharmacological treatment and the severity of the symptoms prompted us to investigate the effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the red nucleus. Intra-operative microrecordings of the red nucleus revealed intense, irregular, tonic background activity but no rhythmic components that were synchronous with upper limb tremor. The postural component of the cerebellar tremor disappeared during insertion of the macro-electrodes and for a few minutes after stimulation, with no changes in the intentional (kinetic) component. Stimulation per se did not reduce postural or intentional tremor and was associated with dysautonomic symptoms (the voltage threshold for which was inversed related to the stimulation frequency). Our observations suggest that the red nucleus is (1) an important centre for the genesis of cerebellar tremor and thus (2) a possible target for drug-refractory tremor. Future research must determine how neuromodulation of the red nucleus can best be implemented in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

  10. High density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.; Hofmann, J.; Scheid, W.; Greiner, W.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of high density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and related phenomena, as density isomers, highly isobaric and hot nuclear matter, pionization and granulation of dense matter, compressibility and soundwaves in nuclear matter, are discussed

  11. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using ...

  12. Cell Biology of the Caenorhabditis elegans Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Fix, Orna; Askjaer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleus have provided fascinating insight to the organization and activities of eukaryotic cells. Being the organelle that holds the genetic blueprint of the cell, the nucleus is critical for basically every aspect of cell biology. The stereotypical development of C. elegans from a one cell-stage embryo to a fertile hermaphrodite with 959 somatic nuclei has allowed the identification of mutants with specific alterations in gene expression programs, nuclear morphology, or nuclear positioning. Moreover, the early C. elegans embryo is an excellent model to dissect the mitotic processes of nuclear disassembly and reformation with high spatiotemporal resolution. We review here several features of the C. elegans nucleus, including its composition, structure, and dynamics. We also discuss the spatial organization of chromatin and regulation of gene expression and how this depends on tight control of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Finally, the extensive connections of the nucleus with the cytoskeleton and their implications during development are described. Most processes of the C. elegans nucleus are evolutionarily conserved, highlighting the relevance of this powerful and versatile model organism to human biology. PMID:28049702

  13. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  14. Decay Properties of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During the past years a considerable experimental effort has been devoted to the production and study of nuclei close to the neutron and proton drip-lines. The most spectacular phenomenon encountered is the occurrence of neutron halos in the loosely bound neutron rich nuclei. \\\\ \\\\ Another interesting feature, observed at ISOLDE, which most likely is connected to the halo structure, is the very strong (super-allowed) Gamow-Teller $\\beta$- transitions to highly excited states which are systematically observed for the lightest neutron rich drip-line nuclei. These transitions might be viewed as arising from the quasi-free $\\beta$ -decay of the halo neutrons. It is proposed to make a detailed study of the $\\beta$- strength function for $^{11}$Li, a nuclide having a half-life of 8.2 ms and a Q $\\beta$-value of 20.73~MeV. \\\\ \\\\ So far only a lower limit of the Gamow-Teller transition rate to highly excited states ($\\approx$~18.5~MeV) in the daughter nucleus has been obtained from measurements of $\\beta$-delayed tri...

  15. Pion inelastic scattering and the pion-nucleus effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This work examines pion inelastic scattering with the primary purpose of gaining a better understanding of the properties of the pion-nucleus interaction. The main conclusion of the work is that an effective interaction which incorporates the most obvious theoretical corrections to the impulse approximation does a good job of explaining pion elastic and inelastic scattering from zero to 200 MeV without significant adjustments to the strength parameters of the force. Watson's multiple scattering theory is used to develop a theoretical interaction starting from the free pion-nucleon interaction. Elastic scattering was used to calibrate the isoscalar central interaction. It was found that the impulse approximation did poorly at low energy, while the multiple scattering corrections gave good agreement with all of the data after a few minor adjustments in the force. The distorted wave approximation for the inelastic transition matrix elements are evaluated for both natural and unnatural parity excitations. The isoscalar natural parity transitions are used to test the reaction theory, and it is found that the effective interaction calibrated by elastic scattering produces good agreement with the inelastic data. Calculations are also shown for other inelastic and charge exchange reactions. It appears that the isovector central interaction is reasonable, but the importance of medium corrections cannot be determined. The unnatural parity transitions are also reasonably described by the theoretical estimate of the spin-orbit interaction, but not enough systematic data exists to reach a firm conclusion

  16. In-beam spectroscopic studies of the 44S nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, L.; Sohler, D.; Grévy, S.; Sorlin, O.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Bastin, B.; Achouri, N. L.; Angélique, J. C.; Azaiez, F.; Baiborodin, D.; Borcea, R.; Bourgeois, C.; Buta, A.; Bürger, A.; Chapman, R.; Dalouzy, J. C.; Dlouhy, Z.; Drouard, A.; Elekes, Z.; Franchoo, S.; Gaudefroy, L.; Iacob, S.; Laurent, B.; Lazar, M.; Liang, X.; Liénard, E.; Mrazek, J.; Nalpas, L.; Negoita, F.; Nowacki, F.; Orr, N. A.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pougheon, F.; Poves, A.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.

    2012-02-01

    The structure of the 44S nucleus has been studied at GANIL through the one proton knock-out reaction from a 45Cl secondary beam at 42 A·MeV. The γ rays following the de-excitation of 44S were detected in flight using the 70 BaF2 detectors of the Château de Cristal array. An exhaustive γγ-coincidence analysis allowed an unambiguous construction of the level scheme up to an excitation energy of 3301 keV. The existence of the spherical 22+ state is confirmed and three new γ-ray transitions connecting the prolate deformed 21+ level were observed. Comparison of the experimental results to shell model calculations further supports a prolate and spherical shape coexistence with a large mixing of states built on the ground state band in 44S.

  17. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  18. Decoding calcium signaling across the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Guimarães, Erika S; Andrade, Lídia M; Menezes, Gustavo B; Fatima Leite, M

    2014-09-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an important multifaceted second messenger that regulates a wide range of cellular events. A Ca(2+)-signaling toolkit has been shown to exist in the nucleus and to be capable of generating and modulating nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) transients. Within the nucleus, Ca(2+) controls cellular events that are different from those modulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). This review focuses on nuclear Ca(2+) signals and their role in regulating physiological and pathological processes. ©2014 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  19. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  20. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  1. Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)

  2. The Nucleus Retroambiguus Control of Respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert

    2009-01-01

    The role of the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the context of respiration control has been subject of debate for considerable time. To solve this problem, we chemically (using D, L-homocysteic acid) stimulated the NRA in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats and studied the respiratory

  3. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs

  4. Correlations in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1976-09-01

    The correlations between the particles produced in interactions of hadrons with emulsion nuclei were investigated. The data are in qualitative agreement with the models which describe the interactions with nuclei as subsequent collisions of the fast part of excited hadronic matter inside the nucleus. (author)

  5. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia. E-mail: kanchanp@magnum.barc.ernet.in. Abstract. We locate resonances in η-light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the t-matrices and hence ...

  6. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  7. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2015), s. 1627-1640 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cell nucleus * chromatin * genome function Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  8. Iliacus Abscess with Radiculopathy Mimicking Herniated Nucleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... radiculopathy mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus: Aadditional diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:392-3. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows ...

  9. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic ...

  10. The suprachiasmatic nucleus-paraventricular nucleus interactions: a bridge to the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, R. M.; Hermes, M. H.; Kalsbeek, A.

    1998-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is one of the principal neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By means of anatomical, physiological and electrophysiological techniques we have demonstrated that VP containing pathways from the SCN serve to affect neuroendocrine and 'autonomic' neurons in the

  11. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  12. Theory of and effects from elastoplasticity in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1985-02-01

    Elastoplasticity of finite Fermi systems results from a coherent coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom and subsequent equilibration essentially due to two-body collisions. Within a non-markovian transport-theoretical approach referred to as dissipative diabatic dynamics (DDD), elastoplastical forms the link between giant vibrations and overdamped motion of nuclear. Obersvable effects resulting from this non-markovian behaviour in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. May 2006 physics pp. 943–946. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus bound state. V JHA1, B J ROY1, A CHATTERJEE1 and H MACHNER2 ... are being carried out or proposed in different laboratories around the world. In this work we .... be due to a virtual state near the η-threshold. 4.

  14. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the

  15. The Baryon Production and Baryon Number Transfer in Hadron-Hadron, Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, P.

    2006-09-01

    This work concerns soft hadronic interactions which in the Standard Model carry most of the observable cross-section but are not amenable to quantitative predictions due to the very nature of the QCD (Theory of Strong Interactions). In the low momentum transfer region the evolving coupling constant caused perturbation theory to break down. In this situation better experimental understanding of the physics phenomena is needed. One aspect of the soft hadronic interactions will be discussed in this work: transfer of the baryon number from the initial to the final state of the interaction. The past experimental knowledge on this process is presented, reasons for its unsatisfactory status are discussed and condition necessary for improvement are outlined: that is experimental apparatus with superior performance over the full range of available interactions: hadron-hadron collision, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. A consistent model-independent picture of the baryon number transfer process emerging from the data on the full range of interactions is shown. It offers serious challenge to theory to provide quantitative and detailed explanation of the measurements. (author)

  16. Nucleus spectroscopy: extreme masses and deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, Ch.

    2009-12-01

    The author proposes a synthesis of research activities performed since 1995 in the field of experimental nuclear physics, and more particularly in the investigation of two nucleus extreme states: deformation on the one hand, heavy and very heavy nuclei on the other hand. After a presentation of the context of investigations on deformation, rotation, and heavy nuclei, he gives an overview of developments regarding instruments (gamma spectrometers, detection of fission fragments, and detection at the focal plane of spectrometers or separators) and analysis techniques. Experiments and results are then reported and discussed, concerning super-deformed states with a high angular moment, spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, very heavy nuclei close to nucleus map borders. He finally draws perspectives for middle and long term studies on the heaviest nuclei

  17. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about......In their natural environment, cells are regularly exposed to various stress conditions that may lead to protein misfolding, but also in the absence of stress, misfolded proteins occur as the result of mutations or failures during protein synthesis. Since such partially denatured proteins are prone...... to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...

  18. M1 transitions between superdeformed states in 195Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xing; Xingqu Chen; Xiaochun Wang

    1996-01-01

    Using a triaxial-particle-rotor model, the quadrupole and dipole transition energies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia, electromagnetic transition probabilities and the relative intensity of the E2 γ-transitions are calculated for superdeformed bands in 195 Tl. A strong perturbation effect of rotation on transition energies and M1 and E2 transitions of superdeformed states is investigated. The total M1 transitions, enhanced by internal conversion, are expected to compete strongly with the E2 γ-ray at low spins in the superdeformed 195 Tl nucleus. (author)

  19. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition....

  20. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  1. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We locate resonances in η-light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body ... We planned to study the resonances in η-light nuclei systems since the few-body systems can be treated .... In an eigenphase formu- lation of the S-matrix, S = ηe2iδ (with η being the inelasticity factor), one can.

  2. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  3. Mechanical response and buckling of a polymer simulation model of the cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banigan, Edward; Stephens, Andrew; Marko, John

    The cell nucleus must robustly resist extra- and intracellular forces to maintain genome architecture. Micromanipulation experiments measuring nuclear mechanical response reveal that the nucleus has two force response regimes: a linear short-extension response due to the chromatin interior and a stiffer long-extension response from lamin A, comprising the intermediate filament protein shell. To explain these results, we developed a quantitative simulation model with realistic parameters for chromatin and the lamina. Our model predicts that crosslinking between chromatin and the lamina is essential for responding to small strains and that changes to the interior topological organization can alter the mechanical response of the whole nucleus. Thus, chromatin polymer elasticity, not osmotic pressure, is the dominant regulator of this force response. Our model reveals a novel buckling transition for polymer shells: as force increases, the shell buckles transverse to the applied force. This transition, which arises from topological constrains in the lamina, can be mitigated by tuning the properties of the chromatin interior. Thus, we find that the genome is a resistive mechanical element that can be tuned by its organization and connectivity to the lamina.

  4. Limits to the formation of hot fusion nuclei in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, J.; Tamain, B.

    1987-01-01

    The maximum temperature which can be sustained by a nucleus is discussed. Methods used to measure the temperature; values measured in fusion reactors; theoretical investigations on the value of the limiting temperature; and information about dynamical limitations on excitation energy storage in nuclei are reviewed. It is concluded that thermalized fusion nuclei are formed at temperatures up to 5 MeV for heavy systems and 6 MeV for medium mass systems. Thermal energy in central nucleus-nucleus collisions might not exceed some saturation value due to two effects: a sharing of the deposited energy into compressional and thermal energies; and a dynamical competition between thermal energy deposition and fast pre-equilibrium emission

  5. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

  6. Proton rapidity distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The proton rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies are analysed by the revised thermalized cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to he in agreement with the experimental data of Si-AI and Si-Pb collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c, Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c, and S-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c. (Author)

  7. Subthreshold pion production from nucleus-nucleus collisions around 100 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalá, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A. C.

    1993-12-01

    Several global variables were tested with the aim to determine the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions producing pions at incident energies around 100 MeV/nucleon. The experimental set-up includes the MEDEA multidetector, part of which is used as a π 0 spectrometer, and an additional hodoscope of plastic scintillators to cover very forward angles. A statistical model was used to generate both inclusive and pion-triggered events. Selection of well measured events was made through the measured total parallel momentum. Among the different global variables which were tested, the average parallel velocity was seen to give the best correlation with the impact parameter.

  8. Study on the (n, γf) process on 235U nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlougy, Z.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Krishtiak, J.; Panteleev, Ts.

    1979-01-01

    The fluctuations of uranium X-rays yield in coincidencA with fission of 235 U nucleus were observed at several neutron resonances. The results show the dependence of Ksub(α1) yield on fission width GITAsub(f). This dependence is explained by (n, γf) process on the 235 U nucleus. The mean width (GITAsub(γf)) was determined to be equal to (2.1sub(-1.7)sup(+1.5)) MeV. The mean energy of continuus γ - rays emitted before the fission was found to be (750sub(-130)sup(+400)) keV. It seems that the γ - transitions taking place before fission are mostly of the magnetic dipole ones

  9. Pion-nucleus double charge exchange and the nuclear shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Gibbs, W.R.; Ginocchio, J.N.; Kaufmann, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The pion-nucleus double charge exchange reaction is studied with special emphasis on nuclear structure. The reaction mechanism and nuclear structure aspects of the process are separated using both the plane-wave and distorted-wave impulse approximations. Predictions are made employing both the seniority model and a full shell model (with a single active orbit). Transitions to the double analog state and to the ground state of the residual nucleus are computed. The seniority model yields particularly simple relations among double charge exchange cross sections for nuclei within the same shell. Limitations of the seniority model and of the plane-wave impulse approximation are discussed as well as extensions to the generalized seniority scheme. Applications of the foregoing ideas to single charge exchange are also presented

  10. Towards a unified model of neutrino-nucleus reactions for neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S. X.; Kamano, H.; Hayato, Y.; Hirai, M.; Horiuchi, W.; Kumano, S.; Murata, T.; Saito, K.; Sakuda, M.; Sato, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    2017-05-01

    A precise description of neutrino-nucleus reactions will play a key role in addressing fundamental questions such as the leptonic CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy through analyzing data from next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments. The neutrino energy relevant to the neutrino-nucleus reactions spans a broad range and, accordingly, the dominant reaction mechanism varies across the energy region from quasi-elastic scattering through nucleon resonance excitations to deep inelastic scattering. This corresponds to transitions of the effective degree of freedom for theoretical description from nucleons through meson-baryon to quarks. The main purpose of this review is to report our recent efforts towards a unified description of the neutrino-nucleus reactions over the wide energy range; recent overall progress in the field is also sketched. Starting with an overview of the current status of neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments, we formulate the cross section to be commonly used for the reactions over all the energy regions. A description of the neutrino-nucleon reactions follows and, in particular, a dynamical coupled-channels model for meson productions in and beyond the Δ (1232) region is discussed in detail. We then discuss the neutrino-nucleus reactions, putting emphasis on our theoretical approaches. We start the discussion with electroweak processes in few-nucleon systems studied with the correlated Gaussian method. Then we describe quasi-elastic scattering with nuclear spectral functions, and meson productions with a Δ -hole model. Nuclear modifications of the parton distribution functions determined through a global analysis are also discussed. Finally, we discuss issues to be addressed for future developments.

  11. The basic elementary particles as martensitic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguinaco-Bravo, V. J.; Onoro, J.

    1999-01-01

    The martensitic transformation is a diffusional structural change that produces an important modification of the microstructure and properties of materials. In this paper we propose how the martensitic phase is nucleated from a basic elementary particle (bep). The bep is formed in several stages. Vacancies, divacancies, etc. are formed at high temperature, which collapse into prismatic dislocation loops during the cooling process. We define a bep as a dislocation loop reaching a critical radius and fulfilling certain elastic energy conditions. A martensitic nucleus is a bep that coincides crystallographically with the habit plane of the matrix. (Author) 16 refs

  12. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  13. From the nucleus discovery to DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a brief review of the main events in the field of nuclear reactions that are acknowledged as milestones because of their importance due to either experimental setting or physical interpretation. It is shown that the pace of discoveries has been strongly dependent on the technical progress in detection means at the beginning of nuclear physics and now is linked to the development of simulation means. The discovery of the neutron, the development of the Geiger counter, the theory of the compound nucleus or the first direct reactions are among these milestones

  14. Lectures on the theory of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, Aleksej Grigorevich

    1975-01-01

    Provides an advanced and up-to-date account of the theory of nuclear structure and discusses in considerable detail both the superfluid and collective models of the nucleus, in addition to earlier complementary models and theories. The book also examines other important topics such as the rotational and vibrational spectra of nuclei which have not previously been treated in such depth. To summarize, it covers a large amount of theoretical ground in one volume and attempts to fill a serious gap in the literature. Many problems are included

  15. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Crawford, B.E.; Grossmann, C.A.; Lowie, L.Y.; Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S.J.; Smith, D.A.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Delheij, P.P.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N.R.; Sharapov, E.I.; Stephenson, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  17. Role of nucleon exchange in dissipative and absorptive nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Santanu

    1988-01-01

    When a heavy nucleus impinges upon another, a number of nucleons can be exchanged between them. The number of such exchanges is a measure of the flux (a part of it) removed from the elastic channel and hence could give rise to an absorptive component in the nucleus-nucleus optical model potential. The transferred nucleons also carry certain amount of momentum which can cause an energy dissipation from the relative motion between the two nuclei. Both of these approaches have been studied in the last few years. However calculations of the flux to obtain the absorptive potential were based on nuclear models, such as fermi gas, where the tail region of the nucleus (which should be the most important region for transfer to occur) is treated inadequately. On the other hand, the proximity type of nuclear friction relies on a nucleon flux which is defined in pure classical terms. A model is presented to obtain a quantum mechanically defined particle flux. The time-dependent wave functions of single particle states in the field of two moving potential pockets are calulated. From the calculated flux, both the absorptive potential and the radial friction coefficient are obtained. The results are compared with phenomenological values for sup(16)O+sup(40)Ca and sup(40)Ca+sup(40)Ca systems. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs

  18. Experimental study of collective flow phenomena in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chkhaidze, L V; Kharkhelauri, L L

    2002-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of collective flow phenomena, such as the sideward and elliptic flow of nuclear matter, discovered during the last 10-15 years in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are presented in this review. Sideward (often termed directed) and elliptic flows have been observed for protons, antiprotons, light nuclei, pions, kaons, and lambdas emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 0.1-1.8 GeV/nucleon of LBL Bevalac and GSI/SIS by Plastic-Ball, Streamer Chamber, EOS-NPC, FOPI, LAND, TAPS, and KAOS collaborations; at 2-4 GeV/nucleon of Dubna JINR by SKM-200-GIBS, Propane Buble Chamber, and Emulsion Chamber collaborations; at 2-14 GeV/nucleon of BNL AGS, by the E877, E895, and E917 collaborations; and at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon of CERN SPS, by the WA98 and NA49 collaborations and more recently by the STAR at RHIC BNL. In the review, the results of the SKM-200-GIBS collaboration of JINR are presented and compared with the results of different experiments by Bevalac, GSI/SIS, BNL, and...

  19. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The question of possible existence of η-mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. An- swer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of η-nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of η-mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it.

  20. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The question of possible existence of -mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the ...

  1. Prestress mediates force propagation into the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shaohua; Chen Jianxin; Butler, James P.; Wang Ning

    2005-01-01

    Several reports show that the nucleus is 10 times stiffer than the cytoplasm. Hence, it is not clear if intra-nuclear structures can be directly deformed by a load of physiologic magnitudes. If a physiologic load could not directly deform intra-nuclear structures, then signaling inside the nucleus would occur only via the mechanisms of diffusion or translocation. Using a synchronous detection approach, we quantified displacements of nucleolar structures in cultured airway smooth muscle cells in response to a localized physiologic load (∼0.4 μm surface deformation) via integrin receptors. The nucleolus exhibited significant displacements. Nucleolar structures also exhibited significant deformation, with the dominant strain being the bulk strain. Increasing the pre-existing tensile stress (prestress) in the cytoskeleton significantly increased the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus (defined as nucleolus displacement per surface deformation) whereas decreasing the prestress significantly lowered the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus. Abolishing the stress fibers/actin bundles by plating the cells on poly-L-lysine-coated dishes dramatically inhibited stress propagation to the nucleolus. These results demonstrate that the prestress in the cytoskeleton is crucial in mediating stress propagation to the nucleolus, with implications for direct mechanical regulation of nuclear activities and functions

  2. Study of the /sup 50/V nucleus with the (/sup 3/He,d), (/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. ), (/sup 3/He,p), and (/sup 3/He,p. gamma. ) reactions. [Angular distribution, 13 and 22 MeV, analog states, DWBA, J,. pi. , spectroscopic factors, angular momentum, transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J W

    1971-06-01

    The nucleus /sup 50/V with a ground-state configuration (..pi..f/sub 7/2/)/sup 3/(..nu..f/sub 7/2/)/sup -1/ was studied with the /sup 49/Ti(/sup 3/He,d)/sup 50/V, /sup 51/V)/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 50/V, and /sup 48/Ti(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 50/V, and /sup 48/Ti(/sup 3/He,p..gamma..)/sup 50/V reactions induced by the /sup 3/He/sup + +/ beam from the tandem Van de Graaff at the Argonne National Laboratory. The angular distributions from (/sup 3/He,d), (/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..), and (/sup 3/He,p) reactions induced by 22-MeV /sup 3/He were studied with overall energy resolution widths of 20, 30, and 42 keV, respectively. The reactions (/sup 3/He,p) and (/sup 3/He,p..gamma..) were also studied at an incident energy of 13 MeV to obtain the ..gamma.. decay of /sup 50/V levels (including two 0/sup +/ isobaric analog states) in which the neutron-proton pair is transferred with zero angular momentum. The angular distributions of the charged-particle reactions were analyzed with the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), and spectroscopic factors have been extracted for the one-nucleon transfer reactions. The two-nucleon transfer reaction (/sup 3/He,p) was analyzed with the DWBA on the assumption that the neutron-proton pair is transferred as a deuteron. The angular momentum L/sub np/ of the transferred deuteron is established for most of the levels, and the possibility that several levels might have spin and parity 1/sup +/ is discussed.

  3. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  4. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com; Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com; Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  5. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  6. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  7. Excited states in the doubly closed shell nucleus $^{132}_{50}Sn_{82}$

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørnstad, T; Ewan, G T; Jonson, B; Kawade, K; Kérek, A; Mattsson, S; Sistemich, K

    1982-01-01

    New excited states in the nucleus /sup 1/ /sup 32/Sn have been identified from gamma gamma coincidence measurements. Strong beta feeding to a state at 7.210 keV was established. This level is interpreted as a 6^{-} state formed after a\\pig/sup -1//sub 9/2/ to nu g/sup -1//sub 7/2/GT beta ^{-} transition from the 7^{-} ground state of /sup 132/In. The deexcitation of the 7210 keV state passes through a 4351 keV state, providing support for a 3^{-} assignment of this level.

  8. The Changes of Energy Interactions between Nucleus Function and Mitochondria Functions Causing Transmutation of Chronic Inflammation into Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovskiy, Michail R

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions induce the mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy according to the first law of thermodynamics in able-bodied cells and changes the mechanisms of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy creating a transition stationary state of ablebodied cells into quasi-stationary pathologic states of acute inflammation transiting then into chronic inflammation and then transmuting into cancer metabolism. The mechanisms' influences of intruding etiologic pathologic agents (microbe, virus, etc.) lead to these changes of energy interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions causing general acute inflammation, then passing into local chronic inflammation, and reversing into cancer metabolism transmutation. Interactions between biochemical processes and biophysical processes of cellular capacitors' operations create a supplementary mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy in the norm and in pathology. Discussion of some scientific works eliminates doubts of the authors of these works.

  9. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  10. Electronic equipment for atomic nucleus structure studying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Vasilev, D.; Vylov, Ts.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Salamatin, A.V.; Sidorov, V.T.; Sinaev, A.N.; Churin, I.N.

    1985-01-01

    The CAMAC electronic equipment used in data acquisition systems for spectrometers intended for investigation of the structure of an atomic nucleus is considered. Specific features of electronic units forming a part of spectrometers for determination of neutrino helicity and three-dimensional amplitude-time measurements as well as electrostatic beta-spectrometer are discussed. Parameters of the MAK-1, the MAK-2 and the MAK-3 multichannel amplitude analyzers developed specially for these spectrometers are given. Accumulation of data coming from analog-to-digital converters and output of recorded spectra on the screens of displays is realized without use of the crate dataway that permits to avoid time losses and to place several analyzers in a crate. Observation of spectra is realized simultaneously with their registration

  11. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttilae, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stevenson, S.I.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Sharapov, E.I.; Postma, H.; Masuda, Y.; Shimizu, H.M.; Iinuma, M.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Fukuda, K.

    1995-01-01

    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  13. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  14. Calcium microdomains in mitochondria and nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Teresa; Villalobos, Carlos; Chamero, Pablo; Alvarez, Javier; García-Sancho, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Endomembranes modify the progression of the cytosolic Ca(2+) wave and contribute to generate Ca(2+) microdomains, both in the cytosol and inside the own organella. The concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol ([Ca(2+)](C)), the mitochondria ([Ca(2+)](M)) and the nucleus ([Ca(2+)](N)) are similar at rest, but may become very different during cell activation. Mitochondria avidly take up Ca(2+) from the high [Ca(2+)](C) microdomains generated during cell activation near Ca(2+) channels of the plasma membrane and/or the endomembranes and prevent propagation of the high Ca(2+) signal to the bulk cytosol. This shaping of [Ca(2+)](C) signaling is essential for independent regulation of compartmentalized cell functions. On the other hand, a high [Ca(2+)](M) signal is generated selectively in the mitochondria close to the active areas, which tunes up respiration to the increased local needs. The progression of the [Ca(2+)](C) signal to the nucleus may be dampened by mitochondria, the nuclear envelope or higher buffering power inside the nucleoplasm. On the other hand, selective [Ca(2+)](N) signals could be generated by direct release of stored Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm. Ca(2+) release could even be restricted to subnuclear domains. Putative Ca(2+) stores include the nuclear envelope, their invaginations inside the nucleoplasm (nucleoplasmic reticulum) and nuclear microvesicles. Inositol trisphosphate, cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate have all been reported to produce release of Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm, but contribution of these mechanisms under physiological conditions is still uncertain.

  15. Octupole vibration in the superdeformed {sup 196}Pb nucleus; Vibration octupolaire dans le noyau superdeforme {sup 196}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouneau, S.; Azaiez, F.; Duprat, J. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    The study of the superdeformed (SD) {sup 196}Pb nucleus has been revisited using the EUROGAM phase 2 spectrometer. All the three observed excited SD bands were found to decay to the Yrast SD band through, presumably, E1 transitions, allowing relative spin and excited energy assignments. Comparisons with calculation using the random phase approximation suggests that all three excited bands can be interpreted as octupole vibrational structures. (authors) 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. J/psi production in proton-nucleus collisions at ALICE: cold nuclear matter really matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Heavy quarkonia are expected to be sensitive to the properties of strongly interacting matter, at both low and high temperatures. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, a phase transition to a deconfined state of quarks and gluons (Quark-Gluon Plasma) is thought to take place once the temperature of the system exceeds a critical temperature of the order of 150-200 MeV. The deconfined state can induce a suppression of charmonium (due to color screening, dominant at SPS and RHIC energies), which can be overturned at LHC energy by the (re)combination of the large number of free c and cbar quarks, taking place when the system cools down below the critical temperature. Cold nuclear matter also has an influence on heavy quarkonia. Such effects can be studied in proton-nucleus collisions, where no deconfined state is expected to be created. At LHC energy, they mainly include nuclear shadowing, gluon saturation, break-up of the quarkonium states, and parton energy loss in the initial and final state. The study of these eff...

  17. Transverse energy distribution, charged particle multiplicities and spectra in 16O-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunier, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The HELIOS (High Energy Lepton and Ion Spectrometer) experiment, installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, proposes to examine in details the physical properties of a state of high energy created in nuclei by ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is generally believed that, at high densities or temperatures, a phase transition to a plasma of quark and gluons will occur. The dynamic of the expansion of such a plasma and its subsequent condensation into a hadron gas should markedly affect the composition and momentum distribution of the emerging particles and photons. The HELIOS experimental setup therefore combines 4π calorimetric coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two particle correlations, low and high mass lepton pairs and photons. The emphasis is placed on transverse energy flow (E/sub T/) measurements with good energy resolution, and the ability to trigger the acquisition of data in a variety of E/sub T/ ranges, thereby selecting the impact parameter or the violence of the collisions. This short note presents HELIOS results, for the most part still preliminary, on 16 O-nucleus collisions at the incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The E/sub T/ distributions from Al, Ag and W targets are discussed and compared to the associated charged particle multiplicities from W. Charged particle and (converted) photon spectra measured with the external magnetic spectrometer are compared for 16 O + W and p + W collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. 5 refs., 7 figs

  18. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestfall, D. Gary

    1997-01-01

    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  19. Study of Strange and Multistrange Particles in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Vande vyvre, P; Feofilov, G; Snoeys, W; Hetland, K F; Campbell, M; Klempt, W

    2002-01-01

    % NA57\\\\ \\\\ The goal of the experiment is to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This study was initiated at the OMEGA spectrometer, where three ion experiments have been performed: WA85 (S-W and p-W collisions at 200 A GeV/c), WA94 (S-S and p-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c) and WA97 (Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-Be collisions at 160 A GeV/c).\\\\ \\\\ The experiment aims at extending the scope of WA97 by:\\\\ \\\\ - investigating the beam energy dependence of the enhancements of multi-strange particle production reported by the previous experiments, and by\\\\ \\\\\\\\ \\\\- measuring the yields of strange and multi-strange particles over an extended centrality range compared with the previous experiments.\\\\ \\\\ The apparatus consists mainly of silicon pixel detector planes.

  20. Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph

    1997-07-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions.

  1. Peculiarities of Λ hyperon and π meson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazdzicki, M.; Skrzypscak, E.; Iovchev, K.; Kladnitskaya, E.; Okonov, E.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data on the production of lambda hyperons and anti π mesons in He-Li, C-C, C-Ne and O-Ne collisions at 4.5 Gev/c per nucleon and C-C collisions at 4.2 Gev/c per nucleon is presented. Kinematical features of lambda are shown to depend on the collision centrality in contrast to the stable behaviour of the pion characteristics. The correlation between the characteristics of lambda and accompanying pions is observed. The effects seem to be incompatible with the intranuclear cascade approach. The data suggest the formation of a fully stopped and themalized hot source in central nucleus-nucleus collisions in which lambda hyperons are produced

  2. Method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Malakhov, A.I.; Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the HIJING generator simulation of heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energy scale, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions is proposed for the CMS experiment at LHC. The basic idea is to use the time coincidence of signals with resolution better than 1 ns from the two very forward calorimeter arms covering the acceptance 3<|η|<5. The method efficiency is investigated by variation of energy thresholds in the calorimeters for different colliding ion species, namely, PbPb, NbNb, CaCa, OO, pPb, pCa, pp. It is shown that a stable efficiency of event selection (∼98%) is provided in an energy threshold range up to 100 GeV for nuclear collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon in the centre of mass system. In the pp collision case the relevant efficiency drops from 93% down to 80%

  3. HIJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for P-nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Pfoh, A.; Shor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons are shown for the HIJET generated data and measured data for average multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and leading proton spectra in proton-nucleus and heavy ion reactions. The algorithm for the generator is one of an incident particle on a target of uniformly distributed nucleons. The dynamics of the interaction limit secondary interactions in that only the leading baryon may re-interact with the nuclear volume. Energy and four momentum are globally conserved in each event. 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  5. Antiproton-nucleus inelastic scattering and the spin-isospin dependence of the N anti N interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT=0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments at LEAR, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 34 refs

  6. Impact parameter measurements in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, S.

    1981-01-01

    There are two complementary ways to measure impact parameters in nucleus-nucleus collisions. A collision between two nuclei with atomic number A is illustrated, the overlap of N nucleons in each nucleus determined by the geometric impact parameter. The non-interacting A-N nucleons, the spectators, are roughly confined to an inner cone surrounding the incident projectile direction. They consist of fragments from A-N to 1. The transverse momentum distributions has been measured at energies of 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon and recently at the ISR (by group 418) at 500GeV/nucleon. The distribution at both energies fall exponentially with the square of the transverse momentum. The falloff is twice as slow at 1000 as compared with 2 GeV/c. This is the result of the very large multiplicity at ISR energies, the pions blowing out the fragments. The important feature to understand is that these fragments are essentially independent of the mechanisms that take place in the interaction between the 2N interacting nucleons. Therefore the detection of the number of nucleons in this region is a mechanism independent way to measure the impact parameter

  7. Transverse-momentum distribution of produced particles in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-Hao, S.; Wong, C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to discern coherent or collective processes from incoherent processes in nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies, we study the transverse-momentum distribution of the produced particles with an incoherent-multiple-collision model. In this model, the projectile nucleon makes successive inelastic collisions with nucleons in the target nucleus, the probability of such collisions being given by the thickness function and the nucleon-nucleon inelastic cross section. It is assumed that each baryon-baryon collision produces particles and degrades momenta just as a baryon-baryon collision in free space, and that there are no secondary collisions between the produced particles and the nucleons. We found that the average transverse momentum and the charged-multiplicity data at Fermilab and CERN ISR energies can be well explained by such a model. However, the average transverse momentum for some events observed by the Japanese-American cooperative emulsion experiment (JACEE) associated with large energy density in the central rapidity region differ markedly from the model results. Such a deviation indicates the presence of coherent or collective effects for these collisions and may indicate the possibility of a formation of quark-gluon plasma

  8. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  9. Spectroscopy of the doubly magic nucleus 100Sn and its decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinke, Christoph B.

    2010-01-01

    -Teller transition strength in the decay of 100 Sn turned out to be a surprisingly high value of B GT =9.1 +4.8 -2.3 . In the daughter nucleus 100 In five gamma rays with transition energies of E γ =96 keV, 141 keV, 436 keV, 1297 keV and 2048 keV deexciting the populated 1 + -state after the beta decay of 100 Sn could be observed for the first time. Different scenarios for the level structure in 100 In are discussed but can unfortunately not be distinguished on the basis of the present data. For each scenario a ground state to ground state Q EC value of the decay was calculated. (orig.)

  10. Spectroscopy of the doubly magic nucleus {sup 100}Sn and its decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinke, Christoph B.

    2010-07-23

    }{sub 0}}=3.29{+-}0.20 MeV. The resultant Gamow-Teller transition strength in the decay of {sup 100}Sn turned out to be a surprisingly high value of B{sub GT}=9.1{sup +4.8}{sub -2.3}. In the daughter nucleus {sup 100}In five gamma rays with transition energies of E{sub {gamma}}=96 keV, 141 keV, 436 keV, 1297 keV and 2048 keV deexciting the populated 1{sup +}-state after the beta decay of {sup 100}Sn could be observed for the first time. Different scenarios for the level structure in {sup 100}In are discussed but can unfortunately not be distinguished on the basis of the present data. For each scenario a ground state to ground state Q{sub EC} value of the decay was calculated. (orig.)

  11. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  12. Nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Reanalysis of the Weizsaecker-Williams method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbury, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses of the comparison of Weizsaecker-Williams theory to experiment for nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions have not been definitive because of different assumptions concerning the value of the minimum impact parameter. This situation is corrected by providing criteria that allow one to make definitive statements concerning agreement or disagreement between Weizsaescker-Williams theory and experiment

  13. The Nucleus 59Cu. Complex Structure, Shape Evolution, Exotic Decay Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoiu, Corina

    2002-08-01

    High-spin states in the mass A∼60 region were populated using the state-of-art γ-ray spectrometers Gammasphere, Euroball, and GASP in conjunction with dedicated ancillary detectors. In particular, the 59 Cu nucleus was studied in several experiments, and a very extensive level scheme was determined. It comprises more than 320 transitions connecting about 150 excited states. Relative to mass, it is the most extensive level scheme known to date. Next to the spherical states at low excitation energy eight regular sequences of high-energy γ-ray transitions have been observed. They form rotational bands with various degree of deformation, which are interpreted in the light of the shell model and the configuration-dependent Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach. One of the experiments was dedicated to the study of prompt particle decays. It revealed five prompt proton decays connecting five deformed states in three of the rotational bands in 59 Cu with three spherical states in the daughter nucleus 58 Ni. It is the first observation of the fine structure of the newly discovered prompt proton decay mode. The proton decays compete with the γ decay-out from the second minimum of the nuclear potential into the low-spin spherical states in the first minimum of the potential. The discrete γ decay-out mechanism of the yrast superdeformed band is investigated in detail. The nucleus 59 Zn, the mirror partner of 59 Cu, was identified for the first time, and the mirror symmetry of the T=1/2 A=59 pair is discussed

  14. Unravelling the Mystery of the Atomic Nucleus A Sixty Year Journey 1896 — 1956

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Unravelling the Mystery of the Atomic Nucleus tells the story of how, in the span of barely sixty years, we made a transition from the belief that matter was composed of indivisible atoms, to the discovery that in the heart of each atom lies a nucleus which is ten thousand times smaller than the atom, which nonetheless carries almost all its mass, and the transformations of which involve energies that could never be reached by chemical reactions. It was not a smooth transition. The nature of nuclei, their properties, the physical laws which govern their behaviour, and the possibility of controlling to some extent their transformations, were discovered in discontinuous steps, following paths which occasionally led to errors which in turn were corrected by further experimental discoveries. The story begins in 1896 when radioactivity was unexpectedly discovered and continues up to the nineteen-sixties. The authors describe the spectacular progress made by physics during that time, which not only revealed a new f...

  15. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-04-04

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  16. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, Marek; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear proteins are a vital component of eukaryotic cell nuclei and have a profound effect on the way in which genetic information is stored, expressed, replicated, repaired, and transmitted to daughter cells and progeny. Because of the plethora of functions, nuclear proteins represent the most abundant components of cell nuclei in all eukaryotes. However, while the plant genome is well understood at the DNA level, information on plant nuclear proteins remains scarce, perhaps with the exception of histones and a few other proteins. This lack of knowledge hampers efforts to understand how the plant genome is organized in the nucleus and how it functions. This review focuses on the current state of the art of the analysis of the plant nuclear proteome. Previous proteome studies have generally been designed to search for proteins involved in plant response to various forms of stress or to identify rather a modest number of proteins. Thus, there is a need for more comprehensive and systematic studies of proteins in the nuclei obtained at individual phases of the cell cycle, or isolated from various tissue types and stages of cell and tissue differentiation. All this in combination with protein structure, predicted function, and physical localization in 3D nuclear space could provide much needed progress in our understanding of the plant nuclear proteome and its role in plant genome organization and function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  18. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy; Bremsstrahlung thermique comme sonde de la multifragmentation nucleaire dans les collisions noyau-noyau aux energies de Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enterria, D.G

    2000-05-15

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E{sub {gamma}} > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar{sup 36} + Au{sup 197}, Ag{sup 107}, Ni{sup 58}, C{sup 12} at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4{pi}. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pn{gamma}) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  20. Signals of a phase transition in nuclear breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.

    1987-01-01

    We show that nuclei break up like finite systems that exhibit a clean phase transition in infinite size. This is done by studying conditional moments of the fragment multiplicities, the largest fragment size produced by event and its fluctuations. The nature of this smooth phase transition cannot be determined from the available experimental data. The ''critical point'' is reached when the energy deposited in the nucleus is 90% of its binding energy

  1. Transit transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  2. From Di-Nucleus to Mono-Nucleus - Neck Evolution in Fusion of Massive Systems -

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Y.; Shen, Caiwan; Boilley, D.; Giraud, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    6 pages, 3 figures, Proceedings of the Japanese French Symposium - New paradigms in Nuclear Physics, Paris, 29th September - 2nd October, to be published in Int. J. of Modern Physics E; International audience; Dynamics of the neck degree of freedom during fusioning process between heavy ions is studied. Time scales of the three degrees of freedom (the relative distance, the neck and the mass-asymmetry) are studied, showing an early equilibration of the neck. This means that a di-nucleus forme...

  3. On angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of amplitudes of quadrupole and hexadecapole components of angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by neutrons with the energies E n < or approx. 6 MeV is conducted. Stability of this amplitude to permeability optical coefficient variations for neutrons is revealed. It is shown, that the ratio of these amplitudes as well as the character of their dependence on the target nucleus orientation degree are sensitive to the type of fission probability distribution along K projection if fissile nucleus J spin to the fragment scattering axis. This sensitivity may be used for fragment angular distribution anisotropy formation statistical model verification

  4. Theoretical interpretation of medium energy nucleon nucleus inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, Christian

    1970-06-01

    A theoretical study is made of the medium energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering (direct interaction), by applying the distorted wave Born approximation such as can be deduced from the paired equation method. It is applied to the interpretation of the inelastic scattering of 12 MeV protons by 63 Cu; this leads us to make use of different sets of wave functions to describe the various states of the target nucleus. We analyze the nature of these states and the shape of the nucleon-nucleus interaction potential, and we compare the results with those obtained from other theoretical and experimental work. (author) [fr

  5. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S.  R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S.  D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M.  J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  6. Determination of the B(E3;0$^+\\!\\rightarrow$ 3$^{-}$) strength in the octupole correlated nucleus $^{144}$Ba using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ state in this nucleus. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decay connecting the 3$^{-}$ and 2$^{+}$ states using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The result will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in this nucleus. We require 27 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.

  7. Formation and identification of Centauro and Strangelets in nucleus- nucleus collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Filippov, S N; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wlodarczyk, Z

    1999-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model for the formation and decay of a cosmic ray Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Our model naturally incorporates the $9 possibility of strangelet formation, Strangelets being conjectured to be the "strongly penetrating component" observed in hadron-rich cosmic ray events. Based on this model we have performed Monte-Carlo simulations to study the $9 Centauro and strangelet dynamic and kinematic characteristics in central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies, as well as their identification by the detector system CASTOR. CASTOR is being developed for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at $9 the LHC and will probe the very forward pseudorapidity region 5.6

  8. Experiment NA 38: a study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The research being reported consists of a study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions using the enlarged Dimuon Spectrometer. The main goal of the experiment is to search for evidence of a quark-gluon plasma by studying correlations in the distributions of mass, transverse momentum, transverse energy and rapidity on an event by event basis, and comparing these distributions to those at similar energies where the incident particle is a proton rather than an ion. The experiment uses a multimuons spectrometer supplemented with a new detectors in the target region. New equipment in the target region is required to measure the transverse electromagnetic energy as a function of rapidity (electromagnetic calorimeter), detect reinteractions in the target and identify the vertex of the interaction (active target), identify incident ions and possible outgoing fragments, center beam on targets, and fight against pile-up in the detector (Cherenkov quartz counters and beam hodoscope). Design, testing, and calibration of this new equipment and associated electronics and software is discussed. 1 ref

  9. Study of chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at AGS and SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Becattini, F; Keränen, A; Manninen, J; Stock, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of centre of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark non-equilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from larg...

  10. Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

  11. Experimental problems of search for quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonov, Eh.O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental problems for searching for quark-gluon (quagma) plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions (NbNb,CaCa, ArPb, CnE, ONe) in the energy range E=0.4-1 GeV/A and 3.67 GeV/A and 200 GeV/A energies are discussed. Peculiarities of performing experiments on Dubna synchrophasotron and SPS Bevalac are discussed. The first results prove hadron matter thermalization sufficient for quagma manifestation. It is found that such characteristics of studied interactions as relative λ-hyperon yield, spectral (temperature) characteristics of λ k -hyperons (with higher values of transferred transverse momenta) and associatively produced peons are of greatest interest. The necessity of precise establishment of λ-hyperon group as excessive and differing in its origin from the other particles of the hadron phase is noted. It is shown that experimental approach used in Dubna research proved efficient and requires further development. It includes : selection of rare events (fluctuations) in central interactions of nuclei with high local excitation; search and research of peculiarities in the production of strange particles and in associative pion production; use of streamer spectrometer with a trigger system of rigid selection of central interactions

  12. Pathological gambling after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, H. M. M.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Schuurman, P. R.; Speelman, J. D.; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease who developed pathological gambling within a month after successful bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. There was no history of gambling. On neuropsychological testing, slight cognitive decline was evident 1 year after surgery.

  13. Excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus F-25

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajta, Zs.; Stanoiu, M.; Sohler, D.; Jansen, G. R.; Azaiez, F.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Sorlin, O.; Brown, B. A.; Belleguic, M.; Borcea, C.; Bourgeois, C.; Dlouhý, Zdeněk; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Zs.; Grévy, S.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Hagen, G.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Kerek, A.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lukyanov, S.; Mandal, S.; Mayet, P.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Negoita, F.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Podolyák, Zs.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Savajols, H.; Sletten, G.; Timár, J.; Timis, C.; Yamamoto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), 054323 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nucleus F-25 * gamma-ray spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.733, year: 2014

  14. Radiological study of the calcanean ossification secondary nucleus development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Filho, Guaracy.

    1994-01-01

    This work describes the normal aspects of the calcanean ossification secondary nucleus radiological development, the appearing time, his form, localization, fragmentation and evolution of area, from a sample of normal individuals. (author). 14 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Strangeness production in proton–proton and proton–nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) and proton–nucleus () reactions within an effective Lagrangian model. The kaon production proceeds mainly via excitations of * (1650), * (1710), and * (1720) resonant intermediate nucleonic states, in the collision of two initial state ...

  16. The picture of the nuclei disintegration mechanism - from hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions experimental investigations at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.; Chmielowski, W.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the nuclei disintegration process in collisions of high-energy hadrons with nuclei is revealed experimentally. The disintegration appears as a complicated nuclear process developing in time and space in intranuclear matter, consisting at least of three stages which last together about 10 -24 - 10 -17 s after the impact. At the first stage, which lasts about 10 -24 - 10 -22 s, fast nucleons are densely emitted and the target-nucleus is locally damaged. At the second stage, lasting about 10 -22 - 10 -1 7 s, the damaged and unstable residual target nucleus uses to evaporate light fragments - mainly nucleons, deuterons, tritons, α-particles. At the final stage, the residual target-nucleus uses to split sometimes into two or more nuclear fragments

  17. Di-nucleus dynamics towards fusion of heavy nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Y.; Shen, Caiwan; Kosenko, G.; Boilley, D.; Giraud, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The Two-Step Model for fusion of massive systems is briefly recapitulated, which clar- ifies the mechanism of so-called fusion hindrance. Since the neck changes the potential landscape, especially the height of the conditional saddle point, time evolution of the neck degree of freedom plays a crucial role in fusion. We analytically solve time-evolution of nuclear shape of the composite system from di-nucleus to mono-nucleus. The time- dependent distribution function of...

  18. Ion-beam spectroscopic studies of the 69As nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Cojocaru, V.; Olariu, A.; Petre, M.; Popescu, I. V.; Gheboianu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Excited state of the neutron deficient 69 As nucleus were investigated in the 58 Ni( 14 N,2pn) reaction by ion-beam γ spectroscopic methods (excitation functions, γγ-coincidences, angular distributions and linear polarization gated with neutrons). A new more complete level scheme of 69 As has been proposed with spin-parity values. The structure of the nucleus is discussed in the framework of the interaction boson-fermion model (IBFM). (authors)

  19. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  20. New computational methods for determining antikaon-nucleus bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, P.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Optical potential for antikaon-nucleus strong interactions are constructed using elementary antikaon-nucleus potentials determined previously. The optical potentials are used to determine the existence of a kaon hypernucleus. Modern three dimensional visualization techniques are used to study model dependences, new methods for speeding the calculation of the optical potential are developed, and previous approximation to avoid full Fermi averaging are eliminated. 19 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Violation of time reversal symmetry in compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a general formulation for the description of time-reversal violation in compound-nucleus reactions on the base of the S matrix and calculates an expression describing this violation by means of the statistical model of Bose, Harney, and Weidenmueller (1986). The result is applied to the compound-nucleus 28 Si for which a time-reversal parameter has been explicitely calculated. (HSI)

  2. Finding of increased caudate nucleus in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, K; Bohbot, V D; Bogdanovic, N; Selbaek, G; Braekhus, A; Engedal, K

    2018-02-01

    A recently published study using an automated MRI volumetry method (NeuroQuant®) unexpectedly demonstrated larger caudate nucleus volume in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) compared to patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment (SCI and MCI). The aim of this study was to explore this finding. The caudate nucleus and the hippocampus volumes were measured (both expressed as ratios of intracranial volume) in a total of 257 patients with SCI and MCI according to the Winblad criteria and AD according to ICD-10 criteria. Demographic data, cognitive measures, and APOE-ɛ4 status were collected. Compared with non-dementia patients (SCI and MCI), AD patients were older, more of them were female, and they had a larger caudate nucleus volume and smaller hippocampus volume (P<.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, age and female sex were associated with larger caudate nucleus volume, but neither diagnosis nor memory function was. Age, gender, and memory function were associated with hippocampus volume, and age and memory function were associated with caudate nucleus/hippocampus ratio. A larger caudate nucleus volume in AD patients was partly explained by older age and being female. These results are further discussed in the context of (1) the caudate nucleus possibly serving as a mechanism for temporary compensation; (2) methodological properties of automated volumetry of this brain region; and (3) neuropathological alterations. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of the caudate nucleus in AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  4. Study of high energy densities over extended nuclear volumes via nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment examines in detail the characteristics of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions using $^{16}$O beams of 200 GeV/A from the SPS. The experiment combines 4$\\pi$ calorimeter coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two-particle correlations, low and high-mass lepton pairs and photons. A multiwire active target allows maximum interaction rates with a minimum of secondary interactions. Additional data are taken with an emulsion target.

  5. Proton-hole and core-excited states in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 131}In{sub 82}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taprogge, J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Jungclaus, A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Grawe, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Borzov, I.N. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Soederstroem, P.A.; Baba, H.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Watanabe, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); National Physical Laboratory, NPL, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Simpson, G.S.; Drouet, F. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble Cedex (France); Sumikama, T. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Xu, Z.Y.; Niikura, M. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Browne, F. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); University of Brighton, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gernhaeuser, R.; Steiger, K.; Muecher, D. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Gey, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble Cedex (France); Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jung, H.S. [Chung-Ang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.D.; Kwon, Y.K. [Institute for Basic Science, Rare Isotope Science Project, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Institute for Basic Science, Rare Isotope Science Project, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Schaffner, H. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Li, Z. [Peking University, School of Physics and State key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Sakurai, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Vajta, Zs. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); MTA Atomki, P.O. Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Wu, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Peking University, School of Physics and State key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Yagi, A.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Toyonaka (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Benzoni, G. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Boenig, S.; Ilieva, S.; Kroell, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Chae, K.Y. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Physics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A. [Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Daugas, J.M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon cedex (France); Gadea, A.; Montaner-Piza, A. [CSIC-Univ. of Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); Itaco, N. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Caserta (Italy); Kondev, F.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Lane, G.J. [Australian National University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Canberra (Australia); Moschner, K.; Wendt, A. [University of Cologne, IKP, Cologne (Germany); Naqvi, F. [Yale University, Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT (United States); Orlandi, R. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en StralingsFysica, Heverlee (Belgium); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Patel, Z.; Podolyak, Zs. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    The β decay of the N = 83 nucleus {sup 131}Cd has been studied at the RIBF facility at the RIKEN Nishina Center. The main purpose of the study was to identify the position of the 1p{sub 3/2} and 0f{sub 5/2} proton-hole states and the energies of core-excited configurations in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 131}In. From the radiation emitted following the β decay, a level scheme of {sup 131}In was established and the β feeding to each excited state determined. Similarities between the single-particle transitions observed in the β decays of the N = 83 isotones {sup 132}In and {sup 131}Cd are discussed. Finally the excitation energies of several core-excited configurations in {sup 131}In are compared to QRPA and shell-model calculations. (orig.)

  6. Proton-hole and core-excited states in the semi-magic nucleus 131In82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taprogge, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Borzov, I. N.; Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Söderström, P. -A.; Sumikama, T.; Xu, Z. Y.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Fukuda, N.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gey, G.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jung, H. S.; Kameda, D.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, Y. -K.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Kwon, Y. K.; Li, Z.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Steiger, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bönig, S.; Chae, K. Y.; Coraggio, L.; Daugas, J. -M.; Drouet, F.; Gadea, A.; Gargano, A.; Ilieva, S.; Itaco, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Kröll, T.; Lane, G. J.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Moschner, K.; Mücher, D.; Naqvi, F.; Niikura, M.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Orlandi, R.; Patel, Z.; Podolyák, Zs.; Wendt, A.

    2016-11-01

    The decay of the N = 83 nucleus Cd-131 has been studied at the RIBF facility at the RIKEN Nishina Center. The main purpose of the study was to identify the position of the and proton-hole states and the energies of core-excited configurations in the semi-magic nucleus In-131. From the radiation emitted following the decay, a level scheme of In-131 was established and the feeding to each excited state determined. Similarities between the single-particle transitions observed in the decays of the N = 83 isotones In-132 and Cd-131 are discussed. Finally the excitation energies of several core-excited configurations in In-131 are compared to QRPA and shell-model calculations.

  7. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  8. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, S. D.; Soloy, E.; Kanka, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nucleus transfer for the production of multiple embryos derived from a donor embryo relies upon the reprogramming of the donor nucleus so that it behaves similar to a zygotic nucleus. One indication of nucleus reprogramming is the RNA synthetic activity. In normal bovine embryogenesis, the embryo...

  9. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  10. Heterogeneous calretinin expression in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, S; Williams, A; MacLeod, K M

    2014-08-01

    Multiple calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are expressed at high levels and in complementary patterns in the auditory pathways of birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, but whether specific members of the CaBP family can be used to identify neuronal subpopulations is unclear. We used double immunofluorescence labeling of calretinin (CR) in combination with neuronal markers to investigate the distribution of CR-expressing neurons in brainstem sections of the cochlear nucleus in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). While CR was homogeneously expressed in cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, CR expression was highly heterogeneous in cochlear nucleus angularis (NA), a nucleus with diverse cell types analogous in function to neurons in the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus. To quantify the distribution of CR in the total NA cell population, we used antibodies against neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), a postmitotic neuron-specific nuclear marker. In NA neurons, NeuN label was variably localized to the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the intensity of NeuN immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with the intensity of CR immunoreactivity. The percentage of CR + neurons in NA increased from 31 % in embryonic (E)17/18 chicks, to 44 % around hatching (E21), to 51 % in postnatal day (P) 8 chicks. By P8, the distribution of CR + neurons was uniform, both rostrocaudal and in the tonotopic (dorsoventral) axis. Immunoreactivity for the voltage-gated potassium ion channel Kv1.1, used as a marker for physiological type, showed broad and heterogeneous postsynaptic expression in NA, but did not correlate with CR expression. These results suggest that CR may define a subpopulation of neurons within nucleus angularis.

  11. Slow phasic changes in nucleus accumbens dopamine release during fixed ratio acquisition: a microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, K N; Correa, M; Salamone, J D

    2011-11-24

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral output during reinforcement-seeking behavior. Several studies have investigated the characteristics of accumbens DA release during the performance of well-learned operant behaviors, but relatively few have focused on the initial acquisition of particular instrumental behaviors or operant schedules. The present experiments focused on the initial acquisition of operant performance on a reinforcement schedule by studying the transition from a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule to another operant schedule with a higher ratio requirement (i.e. fixed ratio 5 [FR5]). Microdialysis sessions were conducted in different groups of rats that were tested on either the FR1 schedule; the first, second, or third day of FR5 training; or after weeks of FR5 training. Consistent with previous studies, well-trained rats performing on the FR5 schedule after weeks of training showed significant increases in extracellular DA in both core and shell subregions of nucleus accumbens during the behavioral session. On the first day of FR5 training, there was a substantial increase in DA release in nucleus accumbens shell (i.e. approximately 300% of baseline). In contrast, accumbens core DA release was greatest on the second day of FR5 training. In parallel experiments, DA release in core and shell subregions did not significantly increase during free consumption of the same high carbohydrate food pellets that were used in the operant experiments, despite the very high levels of food intake in experienced rats. However, in rats exposed to the high-carbohydrate food for the first time, there was a tendency for extracellular DA to show a small increase. These results demonstrate that transient increases in accumbens DA release occur during the initial acquisition of ratio performance, and suggest that core and shell subregions show different temporal patterns during acquisition of instrumental behavior

  12. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  13. Classical cadherins control nucleus and centrosome position and cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Isabelle; Camand, Emeline; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2009-06-01

    Control of cell polarity is crucial during tissue morphogenesis and renewal, and depends on spatial cues provided by the extracellular environment. Using micropatterned substrates to impose reproducible cell-cell interactions, we show that in the absence of other polarizing cues, cell-cell contacts are the main regulator of nucleus and centrosome positioning, and intracellular polarized organization. In a variety of cell types, including astrocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, calcium-dependent cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions induce nucleus and centrosome off-centering toward cell-cell contacts, and promote orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis toward free cell edges. Nucleus and centrosome off-centering is controlled by N-cadherin through the regulation of cell interactions with the extracellular matrix, whereas the orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis is determined by the geometry of N-cadherin-mediated contacts. Our results demonstrate that in addition to the specific function of E-cadherin in regulating baso-apical epithelial polarity, classical cadherins control cell polarization in otherwise nonpolarized cells.

  14. Qualitative analysis neurons in the adult human dentate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many relevant findings regarding to the morphology and cytoarchitectural development of the dentate nucleus have been presented so far, very little qualitative information has been collected on neuronal morphology in the adult human dentate nucleus. The neurons were labelled by Golgi staining from thirty human cerebella, obtained from medico-legal forensic autopsies of adult human bodies and free of significant brain pathology. The human dentate neurons were qualitatively analyzed and these cells were classified into two main classes: the small and the large multipolar neurons. Considering the shape of the cell body, number of the primary dendrites, shape of the dendritic tree and their position within the dentate nucleus, three subclasses of the large multipolar neurons have been recognized. The classification of neurons from the human dentate nucleus has been qualitatively confirmed in fetuses and premature infants. This study represents the first qualitative analysis and classification of the large multipolar neurons in the dentate nucleus of the adult human.

  15. Alteration of Paramecium candatum germinal nucleus morphology after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokin, S.I. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.)

    1982-09-01

    A study was made on morphologic changes of micronucleus (Mi) after whole-body ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of paramecia as well as after local irradiation of this nucleus or the area of macronucleus (Ma). The whole-body irradiation of its Ma part leads to generative nucleus growth in sizes and chromatin structure change, which is expressed in occurence of large chromatin bodies. Aftereffects of local action on Mi for viable descendants are expressed in nucleus size transformation (usually in reduction), gaining ''comet-shaped'' form and probably in reduction of dna amount. Irradiation of Ma and total effect on cell cause Mi changes of reversible character. All morphologic changes of Mi after local ultraviolet irradiation are conserved in descendants and are not photoreactivated. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The results obtained make it possible to speak about different mechanisms of action on Mi in the case of local and whole-body UV irradiation of cell. The effect of irradiated Ma on generative nucleus, but not direct damage of this nucleus is the reason for Mi morphologic reconstruction after whole-body action on paramecium.

  16. Strange mesonic transition form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, J.L.; Musolf, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The strange-quark vector current ρ-to-π meson transition form factor is computed at one-loop order using strange meson intermediate states. A comparison is made with a φ-meson dominance model estimate. We find that one-loop contributions are comparable in magnitude to those predicted by φ-meson dominance. It is possible that the one-loop contribution can make the matrix element as large as those of the electromagnetic current mediating vector meson radiative decays. However, due to the quadratic dependence of the one-loop results on the hadronic form factor cutoff mass, a large uncertainty in the estimate of the loops is unavoidable. These results indicate that non-nucleonic strange quarks could contribute appreciable in moderate-parallel Q 2 parallel parity-violating electron-nucleus scattering measurements aimed at probing the strange-quark content of the nucleon. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  18. Complete Plastid Genome Sequences of Three Rosids (Castanea, Prunus, Theobroma): Evidence for At Least Two Independent Transfers of rpl22 to the Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert K.; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Hansen, Anne K.; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Functional gene transfer from the plastid to the nucleus is rare among land plants despite evidence that DNA transfer to the nucleus is relatively frequent. During the course of sequencing plastid genomes from representative species from three rosid genera (Castanea, Prunus, Theobroma) and ongoing projects focusing on the Fagaceae and Passifloraceae, we identified putative losses of rpl22 in these two angiosperm families. We further characterized rpl22 from three species of Passiflora and one species of Quercus and identified sequences that likely represent pseudogenes. In Castanea and Quercus, both members of the Fagaceae, we identified a nuclear copy of rpl22, which consisted of two exons separated by an intron. Exon 1 encodes a transit peptide that likely targets the protein product back to the plastid and exon 2 encodes rpl22. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 97 taxa, including 93 angiosperms and four gymnosperm outgroups using alignments of 81 plastid genes to examine the phylogenetic distribution of rpl22 loss and transfer to the nucleus. Our results indicate that within rosids there have been independent transfers of rpl22 to the nucleus in Fabaceae and Fagaceae and a putative third transfer in Passiflora. The high level of sequence divergence between the transit peptides in Fabaceae and Fagaceae strongly suggest that these represent independent transfers. Furthermore, Blast searches did not identify the “donor” genes of the transit peptides, suggesting a de novo origin. We also performed phylogenetic analyses of rpl22 for 87 angiosperms and four gymnosperms, including nuclear-encoded copies for five species of Fabaceae and Fagaceae. The resulting trees indicated that the transfer of rpl22 to the nucleus does not predate the origin of angiosperms as suggested in an earlier study. Using previously published angiosperm divergence time estimates, we suggest that these transfers occurred approximately 56–58, 34–37, and 26–27 Ma for the Fabaceae

  19. Nuclear structure information from nucleon-nucleus scattering experiments at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1989-02-01

    We discuss a variety of forward-angle measurements of cross sections for (n,p), (p,p') and (p,n) reactions which were carried out using the medium-resolution spectrometer (MRS) at TRIUMF. The ratio of L=0 isovector spinflip cross section and Gamow-Teller strength has been investigated at 200-450 MeV for several strong transitions of known B(GT) in p-shell nuclei. Isospin symmetry in N-nucleus reactions has been tested for Gamow-Teller transitions to isospin triads in A=6 and A=12 nuclei. The prospects of identifying orbital and meson exchange current contributions in M1 transitions from a state-by-state comparison of M1 and Gamow-Teller strength in sd shell nuclei are discussed. Finally we describe a test of the Gamow-Teller sum rule in 54 Fe where both S - and S + strength are substantial and have been extracted from a multipole decomposition of (p,n) and (n,p) angular distributions

  20. Presidential Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-09

    done to facilitate the transition.52 CRS-12 53 David T. Stanley, Changing Administrations (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1965), p. 6. 54 “Pre...Conference of Mayors; Sharleen Hirsch, an educational administrator; and Jule Sugarman , a public administrator. Staff members were assigned to task forces...Issues,” Washington Post, Nov. 13, 1980, p. Al. 77 David Hoffman, “Bush Names Baker Secretary of State,” Washington Post, Nov. 10, 1988, pp. Al and

  1. Activation of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens promotes sucrose-reinforced cued approach behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M. Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety.

  2. Description of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in a field theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, J.

    1984-08-01

    For the purpose of studying high energy heavy-ion collisions a self-consistent theory of relativistic nuclear fluid-dynamics coupled to classical meson fields is developed. The essential difference to the conventional fluid dynamic description arises from the coupling of meson fields to the nuclear fluid and from the non-linear relation for the effective baryon mass leading to a relativistic self-consistent description for the nuclear equation of state. The effects of different equations of state resulting from linear and nonlinear mean field approaches are studied in the event-by-event kinetic flow analysis of heavy ion collisions. The predictions for the symmetrical system Nb(Esub(Lab)=400 MeV/N)Nb are in good agreement with the experimental 4π-data. Investigating the phase structure in the linear mean field approach a phase transition occuring at Tapprox.=200 MeV for chemical potential μ=0 was found in this model. This transition is similar to recent QCD predictions. The model indicates a further phase transition at Tapprox.=20 MeV (baryon fluid to gas). There is, however, no correct description of the compressibility of nuclear matter in the linear mean field model. The extension to nonlinear scalar meson interaction allows for a correct description of the bulk properties of nuclear matter. It was found though that the phase transition is always present for reasonable values of the coupling constants. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. An Exploration of Structures in the Transitional Odd-Odd Nucleus Lu-160

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    8 6 Semiconductor band gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7 Woods- Saxon potential...know I needed to know. Brandon Karpf, my close friend and perpetual roommate, deserves my endless gratitude for letting me keep the light on late at...does occur, and its importance to our work will be discussed in Section 3.3. 3.1.1 Shell Model Potential Woods- Saxon Potential As mentioned previously

  4. Statistical emission of complex fragments from highly excited compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuse, T.

    1991-01-01

    A full statistical analysis has been given in terms of the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method. The charge and kinetic energy distributions of 35 Cl+ 12 C reaction at E lab = 180, 200 MeV and 23 Na+ 24 Mg reaction at E lab = 89 MeV which form the 47 V compound nucleus are investigated as a prototype of the light mass system. The measured kinetic energy distributions of the complex fragments are shown to be well reproduced by the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, so the observed complex fragment production is understood as the statistical binary decay from the compound nucleus induced by heavy-ion reaction. Next, this method is applied to the study of the complex production from the 111 In compound nucleus which is formed by the 84 Kr+ 27 Al reaction at E lab = 890 MeV. (K.A.) 18 refs., 10 figs

  5. Proton decay in a nucleus: Nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.A.; Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.; Sanchez-Gomez, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, proton decay in a large nucleus is studied in the framework of SU(5) grand unification theory (GUT). By using a method based upon the Green's-function technique of many-body physics, nuclear effects on spectator and pole terms are computed. The decay width in the nucleus is found to be practically the same as in free space. However, nuclear effects are of considerable importance concerning the positron spectrum. A density-correlation expansion is introduced which is useful for carrying out a systematic study of nuclear effects in proton decay in a large nucleus. The method presented here can be easily extended to other GUT's or supersymmetric GUT's

  6. Analysis of a deep nucleus of Tehuantepec Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J. J.; Machain C, M. L.

    2009-10-01

    A nucleus of sediments obtained in the deep of Tehuantepec Gulf is analyzed; this nucleus has the particularity of to be a sampling of longitude of 18.3 m that include the total of last period glacial, few times obtained in our country. The physical chemistry composition of 10 selected fractions are analyzed with the purpose of to understand the formation processes of deep ocean along the period of 120 000 years, that includes the extracted fraction. Crystallography analysis, morphology, physical chemistry characterization and activity gamma were made. Finding that the content of organic matter falls as the superficial area increases, also was found the presence of natural uranium in similar concentration and balance with its radiogenic descendants along the nucleus profile what suggests the uranium migration to interior of mineral grains. (Author)

  7. Insulin induces calcium signals in the nucleus of rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A; Andrade, Viviane A; Leite, M Fatima; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    Insulin is an hepatic mitogen that promotes liver regeneration. Actions of insulin are mediated by the insulin receptor, which is a receptor tyrosine kinase. It is currently thought that signaling via the insulin receptor occurs at the plasma membrane, where it binds to insulin. Here we report that insulin induces calcium oscillations in isolated rat hepatocytes, and that these calcium signals depend upon activation of phospholipase C and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but not upon extracellular calcium. Furthermore, insulin-induced calcium signals occur in the nucleus, and are temporally associated with selective depletion of nuclear phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and translocation of the insulin receptor to the nucleus. These findings suggest that the insulin receptor translocates to the nucleus to initiate nuclear, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium signals in rat hepatocytes. This novel signaling mechanism may be responsible for insulin's effects on liver growth and regeneration.

  8. Models of the atomic nucleus. With interactive software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    This book-and-CD-software package supplies users with an interactive experience for nuclear visualization via a computer-graphical interface, similar in principle to the molecular visualizations already available in chemistry. Models of the Atomic Nucleus, a largely non-technical introduction to nuclear theory, explains the nucleus in a way that makes nuclear physics as comprehensible as chemistry or cell biology. The book/software supplements virtually any of the current textbooks in nuclear physics by providing a means for 3D visual display of the diverse models of nuclear structure. For the first time, an easy-to-master software for scientific visualization of the nucleus makes this notoriously ''non-visual'' field become immediately 'visible.' After a review of the basics, the book explores and compares the competing models, and addresses how the lattice model best resolves remaining controversies. The appendix explains how to obtain the most from the software provided on the accompanying CD. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear radius deduced from proton diffraction by a black nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2004-06-01

    We find a new method to deduce nuclear radii from proton-nucleus elastic scattering data. In this method, a nucleus is viewed as a “black” sphere. A diffraction pattern of protons by this sphere is equivalent to that of the Fraunhofer diffraction by a circular hole of the same radius embedded in a screen. We determine the black sphere radius in such a way as to reproduce the empirical value of the angle of the observed first diffraction peak. It is useful to identify this radius multiplied by √(3/5 ) with the root-mean-square matter radius of the target nucleus. For most stable isotopes of masses heavier than 50, it agrees, within the error bars, with the values that were deduced in previous elaborate analyses from the data obtained at proton incident energies higher than ˜800 MeV .

  10. NMDA Receptors Mediate Stimulus-Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Neural Synchrony in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Roxana A; Shore, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Auditory information relayed by auditory nerve fibers and somatosensory information relayed by granule cell parallel fibers converge on the fusiform cells (FCs) of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the first brain station of the auditory pathway. In vitro, parallel fiber synapses on FCs exhibit spike-timing-dependent plasticity with Hebbian learning rules, partially mediated by the NMDA receptor (NMDAr). Well-timed bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation, in vivo equivalent of spike-timing-dependent plasticity, can induce stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity (StTDP) of the FCs spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates. In healthy guinea pigs, the resulting distribution of StTDP learning rules across a FC neural population is dominated by a Hebbian profile while anti-Hebbian, suppressive and enhancing LRs are less frequent. In this study, we investigate in vivo, the NMDAr contribution to FC baseline activity and long term plasticity. We find that blocking the NMDAr decreases the synchronization of FC- spontaneous activity and mediates differential modulation of FC rate-level functions such that low, and high threshold units are more likely to increase, and decrease, respectively, their maximum amplitudes. Three significant alterations in mean learning-rule profiles were identified: transitions from an initial Hebbian profile towards (1) an anti-Hebbian; (2) a suppressive profile; and (3) transitions from an anti-Hebbian to a Hebbian profile. FC units preserving their learning rules showed instead, NMDAr-dependent plasticity to unimodal acoustic stimulation, with persistent depression of tone-evoked responses changing to persistent enhancement following the NMDAr antagonist. These results reveal a crucial role of the NMDAr in mediating FC baseline activity and long-term plasticity which have important implications for signal processing and auditory pathologies related to maladaptive plasticity of dorsal cochlear nucleus circuitry.

  11. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Meifeng; Du, Lilong; Zhang, Jiamin; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Baoshan; Wang, Lianyong

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus

  12. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour. © The

  13. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: xubaoshan99@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  14. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  15. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  16. Hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus impacts perception of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Palla, Antonella; Marti, Sarah; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Straumann, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the dentato-olivary projections, interconnecting the dentate nucleus (DN) and the contralateral inferior olivary nucleus (ION), is predicted to interfere with the DN' role in estimating direction of gravity. In a patient with pendular nystagmus due to hypertrophy of the ION secondary to predominantly right-sided ponto-mesencephalic hemorrhage, perceived vertical shifted from clockwise to counter-clockwise deviations within 4 months. We hypothesize that synchronized oscillations of ION neurons induce a loss of inhibitory control, leading to hyperactivity of the contralateral DN and, as a result, to perceived vertical roll-tilt to the side of the over-active DN.

  17. On the hadron formation time in pion-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravina, L.V.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Differences in the observable characteristics of pion-nucleus interactions at high energy are investigated for two definitions of the hadron formation time. The Monte Carlo simulation of hadron-nucleus interactions and quark-gluon string model for hadron-hadron collisions are used. It is shown that the momentum spectrum of the protons in the target fragmentation region is most sensitive to the definition of the formation time. The inclusive meson and meson resonance spectra are similar in the both versions. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-[ 14 C]deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state

  19. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  20. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  1. Analysis of M1 transitions of the analog-antianalog type in 27Al and 31P nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopanets, E.G.; Inopin, E.V.; Korda, L.P.; Kostin, V.Ya.; Kobal', A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The study has been continued of the isobaric analog state (IAS)- isobaric antianalog state (IAAS) transitions. The probabilities have been analyzed of MI-transitions between IAS and IAAS of 27 Al nucleus and of a 31 P nucleus. An analysis of the range of coincidences of theoretical and experimental values for the probabilities of MI-transitions between IAS and IAAS has shown that the coincidence can take place only in the assumption that the equilibrium deformations of initial and final state nuclei under consideration are different

  2. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  3. Photon and neutral pion distributions in 60 and 200 A.GeV 16O + nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Plasil, F.; Young, G.R.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Franz, A.; Kristiansson, P.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Obenshain, F.E.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1987-12-01

    Transverse momentum (p T ) distributions of inclusive photons and neutral pions at midrapidity are measured with a lead glass calorimeter in 60 and 200 A.GeV 16 O + nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions. The variation of the average transverse momentum is investigated as function of centrality, determined by measurements of the remaining energy of the projectile and the charged particle multiplicity. For small values of the entropy, deduced from the multiplicity density, an increase in average p T is observed levelling off for larger values of entropy. The target-mass and energy dependence of π 0 p T distributions are presented. (orig.)

  4. Photon and neutral pion distributions in 60 and 200 A GeV 16O + nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Plasil, F.; Young, G.R.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Franz, A.; Kristiansson, P.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Obenshain, F.E.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Transverse momentum (p T ) distributions of inclusive photons and neutral pions at midrapidity are measured with a lead glass calorimeter in 60 and 200 A GeV 16 O+ nucleus and proton + nucleus reactions. The variation of the average transverse momentum is investigated as function of centrality, determined by measurements of the remaining energy of the projectile and the charged particle multiplicity. For small values of the entropy, deduced from the multiplicity density, and increase in average p T is observed levelling off for larger values of entropy. The target-mass and energy dependence of π 0 p T distributions are presented. (orig.)

  5. Experimental limits on the production of fractionally charged particles in proton-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jonker, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbielli, G.; Barone, L.; Capone, A.; Flegel, W.; Lanceri, L.; Metcalf, M.; Panman, J.; Plunkett, R.; Santoni, C.; Winter, K.; Abt, I.; Aspiazu, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Daumann, H.; Gall, P.D.; Hebbeker, T.; Niebergall, F.; Schuett, P.; Staehelin, P.

    1984-01-01

    A search for fractionally charged Q=1/3 (2/3) particles of different properties of interaction produced in (anti)neutrino-nucleus and in proton-nucleus collisions was performed using the scintillator system of the CHARM neutrino detector at the CERN SPS. No events of the cases considered were found. In (anti)neutrino beams production was found to be less than a few times 10 -5 per interaction of a beam particle. In a proton beam an upper limit on the production cross section of proportional10 -40 cm 2 was obtained. (orig.)

  6. On the Measurement of D-meson Yield in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, M; Gazdzicki, Marek; Markert, Christina

    2000-01-01

    We argue that the measurement of open charm gives a unique opportunity to test the validity of pQCD-based and statistical models of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies. We show that various approaches used to estimate D-meson multiplicity in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 A GeV give predictions which differ by more than a factor of 100. Finally we demonstrate that decisive experimental results concerning the open charm yield in A+A collisions can be obtained using data of the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS.

  7. Manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the HIJING model, global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy scale. An interesting model prediction is the presence of a central bump over a pseudorapidity plateau of a total transverse energy distribution. The bump is induced by a jet quenching effect in a dense nuclear matter. It is shown that a wide acceptance calorimeter with a pseudorapidity coverage -5<η<5 allows one to obtain experimental confirmation of such an effect

  8. The pedunculopontine nucleus as alternative target for deep brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, Marcel Antonius Johannes; Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Heida, Tjitske; van Gils, Stephanus A.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with motor and nonmotor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment where an electrode is implanted in a certain area in the brain. In PD this is mostly done in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus

  9. Strangeness production in proton–proton and proton–nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strangeness production; proton–proton collisions; proton–nucleus collisions; role of baryonic resonances. PACS Nos 13.60.Le; 13.75.Cs; 11.80.-m; 12.40.Vv. 1. Introduction. In the low-energy domain, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is not amenable to the perturbation theory techniques. A compelling description of the ...

  10. Nucleus geometry and mechanical properties of resistance spot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depending on the weld current and time, effects of zinc coating on tensile properties, microhardness values as well as microstructure nugget geometry and nucleus size ratio have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis has been used to investigate the phase that formed at the joint interface. Result of the experiment ...

  11. Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meson production; meson–nucleus interaction; charge symmetry. PACS Nos 13.60.Le; 13.75.-n. 1. Introduction ... sibility to investigate isospin symmetry violation in the pseudoscalar meson sector is by comparing the cross-section of the .... A test measurement was performed with this set-up and more measurements are in ...

  12. Nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2006 physics pp. 899–914. Nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: A review. JEAN-YVES OLLITRAULT. Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, .... advantage of the fact that the density of partons at small Bjorken x is high, ... Kostyuk et. al hep-ph/0305277 (SCM).

  13. Transient state of matter in hadron and nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss properties of the specific strongly interacting transient collective state of matter in hadron and nuclei reactions and emphasize similarity in their dynamics. We consider elliptic flow introduced for description of nucleus collisions and discuss its possible behavior in hadronic reactions.

  14. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2016-06-01

    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the nucleus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Chantale; Choufani, Faten; Avedanian, Levon; Bkaily, Ghassan; Gobeil, Fernand; Jacques, Danielle

    2010-03-01

    Recent work from our group showed that the nuclear envelope membranes contain several G protein-coupled receptors, including prostaglandin E2 (EP3R) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors. Activation of EP3R increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) RNA expression in nuclei. eNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) are reported to also be present at the nuclear level. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also localized at the nuclear level. In this review, we show that stimulation with NO donor sodium nitroprusside results in an increase of intranuclear calcium that was dependent on guanylate cyclase activation, but independent of MAPK. This increase in nuclear calcium correlated with an increase in nuclear transcription of iNOS. H2O2 and ET-1 increase both cytosolic and nuclear ROS in human endocardial endothelial cells and in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. This increase in ROS levels by H2O2 and ET-1 was reversed by the antioxidant glutathione. In addition, our results strongly suggest that cytosolic signalization is not only transmitted to the nucleus but is also generated by the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oxidative stress can be sensed by the nucleus. These results highly suggest that ROS formation is also generated directly by the nucleus and that free radicals may contribute to ET-1 regulation of nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis.

  16. Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Square Kilometre Array ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Square Kilometre Array and Implications for Cluster Physics and Cosmology. Asif Iqbal Ruta Kale Subhabrata Majumdar Biman B. Nath Mahadev Pandge Prateek Sharma Manzoor A. Malik Somak Raychaudhury. Research Article Volume 38 Issue 4 December ...

  17. Transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, S.C.; Borges, A.M.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet, is studied. It is used a technique aiming to put in the detection area (region of low background) the recoils, produced by nuclear reactions between target and particle beams, those produced with the help of cyclotron CV-28. (E.G.) [pt

  18. From the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear- reaction theory is equivalent to the theory of waveguides . We will concentrate on processes in which the incident wave goes through a highly complicated motion in the nu- cleus . We will picture the nucleus as a closed cavity, with ...

  19. Attention alters orientation processing in the human lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sam; Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Orientation selectivity is a cornerstone property of vision, commonly believed to emerge in the primary visual cortex. We found that reliable orientation information could be detected even earlier, in the human lateral geniculate nucleus, and that attentional feedback selectively altered these orientation responses. This attentional modulation may allow the visual system to modify incoming feature-specific signals at the earliest possible processing site.

  20. Oscillations in subthalamic nucleus measured by multi electrode arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, J.; Heida, Tjitske; Bamidis, P D; Konstantindis, S Th; Bliznikova, K; Pallikaris, N

    2010-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia, is involved in the generation of Parkinsonian symptoms and forms one of the main targets for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Effective frequencies of DBS are around 130 Hz. The effect of such stimuli in the STN is largely unknown but has been

  1. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses mediofrontal influence over decision threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanagh, J.F.; Wiecki, T.V.; Cohen, M.X.; Figueroa, C.M.; Samanta, J.; Sherman, S.J.; Frank, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    It takes effort and time to tame one's impulses. Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to contribute by acting as a brake on cortico-striatal function during decision conflict, buying

  2. Inelastic magnetic electron scattering form factors of the Mg nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with higher energy as first-order perturbations; these are called 'core polarization (CP) effects'. The scattering of electrons from the nucleon and nuclei at high energies has provided important information about the size of the nucleus. The electron energies are in the region of 100 MeV and higher, such that the de Broglie ...

  3. Antiproton-nucleus experiments at LEAR and KAON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavin, A.I.

    1989-12-01

    Antimatter and matter-antimatter systems are briefly discussed. Results of the antiproton-nucleus scattering experiments at LEAR are described, with the emphasis on unfinished experiments and on proposed experiments yet untouched. A few remarks on antiproton and antideuteron experiments at KAON are then presented

  4. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    barrier energy have been performed using a potential obtained from the double folding model and are compared with the ... In double folding (DF) model, the real nucleus–nucleus optical potential is given by the expression [9]. V DF(r) = ∫ dr1. ∫ ... expressed as a sum of three Yukawa terms. It is obtained from the fitting of ...

  5. Towards a computational model for stimulation of the Pedunculopontine nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, Marcel Antonius Johannes; Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Heida, Tjitske; van Gils, Stephanus A.

    2009-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has recently been suggested as a new therapeutic target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, particularly those with severe gait and postural impairment [1]. Stimulation at this site is typically delivered at low

  6. S-wave π-nucleus repulsion and dirac phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, S.; Jennings, B.K.

    1993-12-01

    A relativistic π-nucleon potential is extended to m* ≠ m to investigate the possibility of generating s-wave π-nucleus repulsion. We find that relativity does indeed generate significant repulsion, the exact amount depending on the details of the calculation. In contradistinction the tp approximation gives very little repulsion. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Systematic study of multiparticle production in nucleus–nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in nucleus–nucleus interactions at 14.6 A GeV. ASHWINI KUMAR1,∗, G SINGH2 and B K SINGH1. 1High Energy Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University,. Varanasi 221 005, India. 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, State University of New York at Fredonia,. New York 14063 ...

  8. Nucleus-acoustic shock waves in white dwarfs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Jannat

    2018-03-09

    Mar 9, 2018 ... Abstract. The nucleus-acoustic shock waves (NASWs) propagating in a white dwarf plasma system, which contain non-relativistically or ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons, non-relativistically degenerate, viscous fluid of light nuclei, and immobile nuclei of heavy elements, have been theoretically ...

  9. Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The experiment was perfomed at the cooler synchrotron accelerator. COSY, Jülich at several beam energies close to the corresponding production threshold. We also have ongoing programmes on -nucleus final-state interaction studies via + 6Li → 7Be + reactions, high resolution search for dibaryonic resonances ...

  10. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  11. Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulle, Marco; Alice Team; Stern, Alan; CONSTERT Team; Kofman, Wlodek; COSIMA Team; Hilchenbach, Martin; GIADA Team; Rotundi, Alessandra; MIDAS Team; Bentley, Mark; MIRO Team; Hofstadter, Mark; OSIRIS Team; Sierks, Holger; ROSINA Team; Altwegg, Kathrin; RPC Team; Nilsson, Hans; Burch, James; Eriksson, Anders; Heinz-Glassmeier, Karl; Henri, Pierre; Carr, Christopher; RSI Team; Paetzold, Martin; , VIRTIS Team; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Lander Team; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; IDS Team; Gruen, Eberhard; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Weissman, Paul; Project Scientist Team; Taylor, Matt; Buratti, Bonnie; Altobelli, Nicolas; Choukroun, Mathieu; Ground-Based Observations Team; Snodgrass, Colin

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta mission has been taking measurements of its target comet Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since early 2014 and will complete operations at the end of September 2016. The mission Science Management Plan, in 1994, laid out the the prime goals and themes of the mission. These five themes were: 1) To study the global characterisation of the Nuclues, the determination of the dynamics properties , surface morpholy and composition of the comet. 2) Examination of the Chemical, Mineralogical and isotopic compositions of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus.3) Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus4) Study the development of cometary activity and the process in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the inner coma5) The origins of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the solar system,To cover all aspects of the Rosetta mission in this special Show case session, this abstracts is one of 5, with this particular presentation focusing on theme 3, in particular on a) The dust-to-gas ratio; b) distributed sources of volatiles; c) seasonal evolution of the dust size distribution.a) The dust-to-gas ratio has been provided by coma observations measuring the gas and dust loss rates from the nucleus surface. The ratio of these two loss rates provides a lower limit of the dust-to-gas ratio at the nucleus surface, since it does not take into account the largest chunks unable to leave the nucleus, or falling back due to the dominant gravity. We review the value inferred so far, its time evolution, and new techniques to directly measure it in the nucleus.b) Evidences offered by Rosetta observations of gas sublimating from dust particles are up to now faint. We report the few available observations and an estimate of the probable average water content in dust particles inferred by 3D gas-dynamical codes of 67P coma.c) The dust-size distribution tunes the sizes

  12. Pion production and fragmentation of nuclei in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskarsson, A.

    1983-01-01

    In collisions between nuclei at high energies one can study the behaviour of nuclear matter under extreme conditions, regarding nuclear density and temperature. The Bevalac and the CERN SC beams have been used and nuclear emulsion and scintillation telescopes have measured the reaction products. Collisions at 50A-200A MeV and at 2A GeV have been investigated. Proton spectra from 12 C induced reactions at 85A MeV have been recorded for different targets. Energetic protons at large angles can be assumed to be emitted from a source moving with half the beam velocity and a temperature between 13 and 17 MeV, depending on the target. In collisions between nuclei, pions can be produced below 290A MeV due to the internal Fermi motion of the nucleons. Subthreshold pion production has been studied for 12 C induced reactions at 85A and 75A Mev. The cross-sections are consistent with a quasi-free nucleon-nucleon scattering picture, involving Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and pion reabsorption. 16 C induced reactions in emulsion have been studied at 75A, 175A and 2000A MeV. It is shown that the excitation of the parts of the nuclei which are not overlapping (the spectators) increases with the beam energy. The 16 O projectile frequently breaks up into multiple He fragments. These events are associated with large impact parameters. Central collisions with Ag, Br target at 50A-110A MeV have been analysed separately. It is shown that the momentum transfer to the target nucleus is limited to a value considerably lower than the full momentum transfer in a fusion reactions. Events are observed where there are numerous fragments with 3< Z<8. These multifragmentation events cannot be understood in a thermal approach. (author)

  13. Cochlear nucleus neuron analysis in individuals with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Raul; Nelson, Erik G

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cochlear nucleus neuron population in individuals with normal hearing and presbycusis. Retrospective study of archival human temporal bone and brain stem tissues. Using strict inclusion criteria, the temporal bones and cochlear nuclei from six normal hearing individuals and four individuals with presbycusis were selected for analysis. The spiral ganglion cell population, the cochlear nucleus neuron population, and the cell body size of the neurons were quantified in these cases. A relationship was not observed between age and the spiral ganglion cell population in the normal hearing group. Presbycusis subjects exhibited a reduced spiral ganglion cell population. The mean cochlear nucleus neuron population was observed to be significantly higher in the presbycusis group (mean ± standard deviation: 114,170 ± 10,570) compared to the normal hearing group (91,470 ± 9,510) (P = .019). This difference was predominantly the result of greater multipolar and granule cell neuron populations. Only the fusiform neuron type exhibited a significantly different mean cell body cross-sectional area between the normal hearing group (242 ± 27) and the presbycusis group (300 ± 37) (P = .033). This investigation is the first time, to our knowledge, that the populations of the eight neuron types in the cochlear nucleus have been quantified in both normal hearing individuals and individuals with presbycusis. The data support the concept that presbycusis is not an effect of aging alone but instead may be a condition that predisposes one to hearing loss with advancing age and is characterized by a congenitally elevated cochlear nucleus neuron population. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  15. Nucleus-to-nucleus gene transfer and protein retargeting into a remnant cytoplasm of cryptophytes and diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Sven B; Sommer, Maik S; Kroth, Peter G; Gile, Gillian H; Keeling, Patrick J; Maier, Uwe-G

    2006-12-01

    The complex plastid of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can both be traced back to an engulfed eukaryotic red alga. The eukaryotic origin of these plastids is most obvious in cryptophytes, where the organelle still possesses a remnant nucleus, the nucleomorph. The nucleomorph itself is embedded in the periplastid compartment (PPC), the remnant of the former red algal cytosol. In the cryptophyte and diatom, the complex plastid is surrounded by 4 membranes, the outer one being continuous with the host rough endoplasmatic reticulum. In a recent report, we have shown that a nuclear encoded PPC protein of G. theta expressed in P. tricornutum leads to a localization, recently described as being a "bloblike structure," which can be obtained by mutation of plastid protein-targeting sequences of the diatom itself. Here we present further nucleus-encoded PPC proteins from G. theta, such as the eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1alpha, evidence for their nucleus-to-nucleus gene transfer, and retargeting of the proteins. We also investigated the first nuclear encoded PPC-targeted protein of P. tricornutum (Hsp70) and analyzed it for in vivo localization together with the identified G. theta PPC proteins. This revealed that all localize to the bloblike structures, which we suggest is the highly reduced PPC of P. tricornutum. Furthermore, the described cryptophyte PPC proteins possibly allow the elucidation of the processes by which proteins are involved in different levels of host control over its eukaryotic organelle.

  16. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusnáková-Aulická, Š.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, P.; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, M.; Bočková, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2014), s. 1287-1296 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ERD/S * Anterior cingulate cortex * Subthalamic nucleus * Flanker test * Executive functions Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  17. Projections from the raphe nuclei to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)......Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)...

  18. IHW COMET HALLEY NEAR NUCLEUS IMAGE DATA, V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents images of the nucleus of comet 1P/Halley obtained by the various contributing observers of the International Halley Watch (IHW) Near-Nucleus...

  19. Preservation of the nucleus X-pelvic floor motosystem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were investigated neuropathologically, emphazising the sacral spinal cord which contains Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus innervates the pelvic sphincters. In two cases, small striated pelvic muscles were studied. No changes characteristic of ALS...

  20. Search for low lying dipole strength in the neutron rich nucleus Ne{sup 26}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibelin, J

    2005-11-15

    We carried out the Coulomb excitation, on a lead target, of an exotic beam of neutron-rich nucleus Ne{sup 26} at 58 MeV/n, in order to study the possible existence of a pygmy dipole resonance above the neutron emission threshold. The experiment was performed at the Riken Research Facility, in Tokyo (Japan) and included a gamma-ray detector, a charged fragment hodoscope and a neutron detector. Using the invariant mass method in the Ne{sup 25} + n decay channel, and by comparing the reaction cross section on the lead target and a light target of aluminum, we observe a sizable amount of E1 strength between the one neutron and the two neutron emission thresholds. The corresponding Ne{sup 26} angular distribution confirms its nature and we deduce its reduced dipole transition probability value of B(E1) = 0.54 {+-} 0.18 e{sup 2}fm{sup 2}. Our method also enables us to extract for the first time the decay pattern of a pygmy resonance. By detecting the decay photons from the excited states below the neutron emission threshold and by analyzing the angular distribution of the inelastically scattered Ne{sup 26} we deduce the reduced transition probability of the first 2{sup +} state, from the ground state. The value obtained of B(E2) = 87 {+-} 13 e{sup 2}fm{sup 4} being in disagreement with a previous result. (author)

  1. Local circuit input to the medullary reticular formation from the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasse, J; Terman, D; Venugopal, S; Hermann, G; Rogers, R; Travers, J B

    2008-11-01

    The intermediate reticular formation (IRt) subjacent to the rostral (gustatory) nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) receives projections from the rNST and appears essential to the expression of taste-elicited ingestion and rejection responses. We used whole cell patch-clamp recording and calcium imaging to characterize responses from an identified population of prehypoglossal neurons in the IRt to electrical stimulation of the rNST in a neonatal rat pup slice preparation. The calcium imaging studies indicated that IRt neurons could be activated by rNST stimulation and that many neurons were under tonic inhibition. Whole cell patch-clamp recording revealed mono- and polysynaptic projections from the rNST to identified prehypoglossal neurons. The projection was primarily excitatory and glutamatergic; however, there were some inhibitory GABAergic projections, and many neurons received excitatory and inhibitory inputs. There was also evidence of disinhibition. Overall, bath application of GABA(A) antagonists increased the amplitude of excitatory currents, and, in several neurons, stimulation of the rNST systematically decreased inhibitory currents. We have hypothesized that the transition from licks to gapes by natural stimuli, such as quinine monohydrochloride, could occur via such disinhibition. We present an updated dynamic model that summarizes the complex synaptic interface between the rNST and the IRt and demonstrates how inhibition could contribute to the transition from ingestion to rejection.

  2. Nuclear multifragmentation and phase transition for hot nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Borderie, B.; Rivet, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This review article is focused on the tremendous progress realized during the last fifteen years in the understanding of multifragmentation and its relationship to the liquid-gas phase diagram of nuclei and nuclear matter. The explosion of the whole nucleus, early predicted by Bohr [N. Bohr, Nature 137 (1936) 351], is a very complex and rich subject which continues to fascinate nuclear physicists as well as theoreticians who extend the thermodynamics of phase transitions to finite systems.

  3. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease) : severe destruction of the lateral reticular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rub, U; de Vos, RAI; Schultz, C; Brunt, ER; Paulson, H; Braak, H

    The lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) of the medulla oblongata is a precerebellar nucleus involved in proprioception and somatomotor automatisms. We investigated this nucleus in five individuals with clinically diagnosed and genetically confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, Machado-Joseph

  4. DMPD: TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10611754 TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Roberts AB. Microbes Inf...ect. 1999 Dec;1(15):1265-73. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nuc...leus. PubmedID 10611754 Title TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Authors Roberts AB. Publicat

  5. Unusual Crystallization Behavior Close to the Glass Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    Using molecular simulations, we shed light on the mechanism underlying crystal nucleation in metal alloys and unravel the interplay between crystal nucleation and glass transition, as the conditions of crystallization lie close to this transition. While decreasing the temperature of crystallization usually results in a lower free energy barrier, we find an unexpected reversal of behavior for glass-forming alloys as the temperature of crystallization approaches the glass transition. For this purpose, we simulate the crystallization process in two glass-forming Copper alloys, Ag6 Cu4 , which has a positive heat of mixing, and CuZr, characterized by a large negative heat of mixing. Our results allow us to identify this unusual behavior as directly correlated with a nonmonotonic temperature dependence for the formation energy of connected icosahedral structures, which are incompatible with crystalline order and impede the development of the crystal nucleus, leading to an unexpectedly larger free energy barrier at low temperature. This, in turn, promotes the formation of a predominantly closed-packed critical nucleus, with fewer defects, thereby suggesting a new way to control the structure of the crystal nucleus, which is of key importance in catalysis.

  6. Problems of physics of atomic nucleus and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.; Plyujko, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The book is dedicated to actual problems, which are connected to the structure of atomic nuclei and to the description of nuclear reactions. The application of macro-microscopic methods to studies of nuclear properties and mechanisms of nuclear reactions is discussed. Some problems discussed in the book have been only presented in the original papers and have not discussed in books or textbooks previously. The book consists of 15 chapters: Thomas - Fermi approximation and its extension; self-consistent mean field; nucleon-nucleon forces; manifestations of the mean field; the density distribution of nucleons in nuclei; properties of mirror-asymmetric nuclei; giant multipole resonances; alpha decay; proton and cluster decays; properties and decay of the compound nuclei; the optical model of nuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus potential; sub-barrier fusion of nuclei; reactions with transfer of nucleons; superheavy nuclei. The book is recommended for scientists, professors, master and post-graduate students of physics or applied physics.

  7. Pion, pion-pion, and pion-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhin, K N; Tikhonov, V N

    2002-01-01

    This survey is devoted to describing the early studies of 1.1. Gurevich on pion physics that were performed by the photoemulsion method and the studies of the pion-pion interaction that were made by his colleagues on the basis of the hydrogen-bubble-chamber and the magnetic-spectrometer method (as well-as on the basis of the photoemulsion method). Two approaches-an extrapolation of experimental data from the physical region to the pion pole and a theoretical calculation based on the Roy integral equations-are used to deduce information about the pion-pion interaction. The first results obtained for pion-pion and pion-nucleus interactions in the experiments that are being currently performed in Brookhaven and at CERN ( pi pi interaction) and at TRIUMF (Canada) and in Brookhaven (pion-nucleus interaction) are presented, along with the existing theoretical concepts in these realms of physics. (80 refs).

  8. Epilepsy, electroacupuncture and the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur

    2006-12-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation and electroacupuncture have some promise as neuroprotective therapies for patients with poorly controlled epilepsy. It has been demonstrated that stimulation of acupuncture points on the extremities results in stimulation of the vagus nerve. It is possible that the antiepileptic effects of these two applications might be targeting the same centre in the brain. The nucleus of the solitary tract, which is a primary site at which vagal afferents terminate, is also the site for afferent pathways of facial, scalp and auricular acupuncture via trigeminal, cervical spinal and glossopharyngeal nerves. Taken together with laboratory findings, the neuroprotective pathways of electroacupuncture in epileptic models may stem from the collaboration of its anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic actions through the nucleus of the solitary tract via vagus nerve stimulation.

  9. From Nucleons to Nucleus Concepts of Microscopic Nuclear Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jouni

    2007-01-01

    From Nucleons to Nucleus deals with single-particle and collective features of spherical nuclei. Each nuclear model is introduced and derived in detail. The formalism is then applied to light and medium-heavy nuclei in worked-out examples, and finally the acquired skills are strengthened by a wide selection of exercises, many relating the models to experimental data. Nuclear properties are discussed using particles, holes and quasiparticles. A large number of matrix elements of standard operators have been tabulated for reference. From Nucleons to Nucleus is based on lectures on nuclear physics given by the author. Its main scope is thus to serve as a textbook for advanced students. But also researchers will appreciate it as wellbalanced reference to theoretical nuclear physics.

  10. Problems of the π meson-nucleus interaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopaleishvili, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of multiple scattering as applied to PI-meson scattering on nuclei is outlined on the base of optical potential method: first in neglecting the real absorption of a pion by a nucleus and then for the case when this effect is taken into account. The pion interaction with a deuteron is considered both neglecting the pion absorption channel (the relativisitic problem of three bodies) and with account of the absorption channels and pion emission (in this case the problem is solved within the frames of the channel coupling theory for the pion-two nucleus system and the system of two nucleons). Approximate or model solutions to the problem of elastic pion-nuclear scattering primarily in the range of (3.3)-resonance are presented. The formulated theory permits to uniquely describe the observed processes caused by the strong pion interaction with a two-nucleon system

  11. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: Basic Concepts and Novel Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Gerson; Heinsen, Helmut; Plantinga, Birgit R.; Uludag, Kamil; Alho, Eduardo; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Fonoff, Erich T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decades, extensive basic and clinical knowledge has been acquired on the use of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is now clear that mechanisms involved in the effects of this therapy are far more complex than previously anticipated. At frequencies commonly used in clinical practice, neural elements may be excited or inhibited and novel dynamic states of equilibrium are reached. Electrode contacts used for chronic DBS in PD are placed near the dorsal border of the nucleus, a highly cellular region. DBS may thus exert its effects by modulating these cells, hyperdirect projections from motor cortical areas, afferent and efferent fibers to the motor STN. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques may allow us to identify these structures optimizing surgical targeting. In this review, we provide an update on mechanisms and the neural elements modulated by STN DBS. PMID:28966978

  12. Phenomenology of the proton and the nucleus through hard processes in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gousset, T.

    2005-01-01

    My scientific domain is the phenomenology of the non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In the introduction I quickly present the history of QCD since its establishing in the seventies. The first chapter is dedicated to the achievements of the last decade concerning first the hard electroproduction at low impulse transfer in electron-proton reactions and secondly the search for the quark-gluon plasma in ultra-relativistic heavy ion reactions with the help of hard probes. In the second chapter I detail the hard electroproduction reactions with the aim of explaining their factorization in a sub-process including partons and whose amplitude can be computed in the theory of perturbations. Generalized parton distributions, that describe the transition from hadrons to partons could be useful to get more information on hadronic wave functions. Experimental implications are reviewed. The third chapter is dedicated to the J/ψ production in proton-nucleus collisions. J/ψ and the quarkonium family offer, thanks to their easy identification a useful tool to shed light on different sides of QCD such as the production of heavy quarks or the existence of the quark-gluon plasma. In the last chapter I present my last works that concern first the nuclear effects that appear in proton-nucleus collisions when we want to describe the relationship between the production cross-section of a particle and the value of the transverse momentum of the particle, and secondly the observation through radio-detection of big showers due to the interaction with the atmosphere of an ultra-high energy cosmic ray [fr

  13. Inclusive spectra of hadrons in photon-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, S.R.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusive hadron productin in the #betta#A → hX photon-nucleus interaction is investigated. It is shown that, as in the case of the photoabsorption total cross sections, in the inclusive spectra of hadrons with the rise of photon energy the hadron component of the photon begins to dominate. This leads to the charge in the A-dependence of inclusive spectra which does not contradict the available experimental data

  14. Observation for really cold fragmentation of heavy nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goverdovskij, A.A.; Ketlerov, V.V.; Mitrofanov, V.F.; Ostapenko, Yu.B.; Khryachkov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of the detailed study on mass-energy charged correlations of the thorium-232 fission fragments, produced by the 5 MeV neutrons are presented. The event of the thorium nucleus really cold fragmentation into tellurium-134 and strontium-99 at the basic quantum states is identified. It is shown that the whole reaction energy is exhausted by the motion kinetic energy of the fragments in the mutual field

  15. Hidden Glashow resonance in neutrino–nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alikhanov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today it is widely believed that s-channel excitation of an on-shell W boson, commonly known as the Glashow resonance, can be initiated in matter only by the electron antineutrino in the process ν¯ee−→W− at the laboratory energy around 6.3 PeV. In this Letter we argue that the Glashow resonance within the Standard Model also occurs in neutrino–nucleus collisions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1 The Glashow resonance can be excited by both neutrinos and antineutrinos of all the three flavors scattering in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. 2 The Glashow resonance in a neutrino–nucleus reaction does not manifest itself as a Breit–Wigner-like peak in the cross section but the latter exhibits instead a slow logarithmic-law growth with the neutrino energy. The resonance turns thus out to be hidden. 3 More than 98% of W bosons produced in the sub-PeV region in neutrino-initiated reactions in water/ice will be from the Glashow resonance. 4 The vast majority of the Glashow resonance events in a neutrino detector are expected at energies from a few TeV to a few tens of TeV, being mostly initiated by the conventional atmospheric neutrinos dominant in this energy range. Calculations of the cross sections for Glashow resonance excitation on the oxygen nucleus as well as on the proton are carried out in detail. The results of this Letter can be useful for studies of neutrino interactions at large volume water/ice neutrino detectors. For example, in the IceCube detector one can expect 0.3 Glashow resonance events with shower-like topologies and the deposited energies above 300 TeV per year. It is therefore likely already to have at least one Glashow resonance event in the IceCube data set.

  16. Pathological gambling after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smeding, H M M; Goudriaan, A E; Foncke, E M J; Schuurman, P R; Speelman, J D; Schmand, B

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease who developed pathological gambling within a month after successful bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. There was no history of gambling. On neuropsychological testing, slight cognitive decline was evident 1 year after surgery. Stimulation of the most dorsal contact with and without medication induced worse performances on decision making tests compared with the more ventral contact. Pathological gambling disappeared after d...

  17. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic rotation in the nucleus 141Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkowska, Z.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Droste, C.; Morek, T.; Czajkowska, B.; Urban, W.; Marcinkowski, R.; Olbratowski, P.; Lieder, R. M.; Brans, H.; Gast, W.; Jager, H. M.; Mihailescu, L.; Bazzacco, D.; Falconi, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D. R.; Podolyak, Z.

    2003-04-01

    The previously known level scheme of 141 Eu nucleus was revised and substantially extended. Three dipole cascades, characterized by large B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, have been found. Spin and parity assignments were based on the angular distribution ratios and linear polarizations of γ-rays. The experimental results have been compared with the calculations of Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) model.

  19. Hypoxia Silences Retrotrapezoid Nucleus Respiratory Chemoreceptors via Alkalosis

    OpenAIRE

    Basting, Tyler M.; Burke, Peter G.R.; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Daniel S.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2015-01-01

    In conscious mammals, hypoxia or hypercapnia stimulates breathing while theoretically exerting opposite effects on central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs). We tested this theory by examining how hypoxia and hypercapnia change the activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a putative CRC and chemoreflex integrator. Archaerhodopsin-(Arch)-transduced RTN neurons were reversibly silenced by light in anesthetized rats. We bilaterally transduced RTN and nearby C1 neurons with Arch (PRSx8-ArchT...

  20. Does the excited state of the 3He nucleus exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    The suggestion is made that the excited state of the 3 He nucleus found out recently in the reaction has spin and parity 1/2 + and the same configuration that the ground open of 6 He. It is shown that in an elastic nd-scattering a resonance associated with the excited state may be absent due to destructive interference of potential and resonant scattering phases

  1. Dynamics of Galectin-3 in the Nucleus and Cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Spronk, Kimberly J.; Voss, Patricia G.; Patterson, Ronald J.; Wang, John L.; Arnoys, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes selected studies on galectin-3 (Gal3) as an example of the dynamic behavior of a carbohydrate-binding protein in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. Within the 15-member galectin family of proteins, Gal3 (Mr ~30,000) is the sole representative of the chimera subclass in which a proline- and glycine-rich NH2-terminal domain is fused onto a COOH-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain responsible for binding galactose-containing glycoconjugates. The protein shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus on the basis of targeting signals that are recognized by importin(s) for nuclear localization and exportin-1 (CRM1) for nuclear export. Depending on the cell type, specific experimental conditions in vitro, or tissue location, Gal3 has been reported to be exclusively cytoplasmic, predominantly nuclear, or distributed between the two compartments. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of the protein must reflect, then, some balance between nuclear import and export, as well as mechanisms of cytoplasmic anchorage or binding to a nuclear component. Indeed, a number of ligands have been reported for Gal3 in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Most of the ligands appear to bind Gal3, however, through protein-protein interactions rather than through protein-carbohydrate recognition. In the cytoplasm, for example, Gal3 interacts with the apoptosis repressor Bcl-2 and this interaction may be involved in Gal3’s anti-apoptotic activity. In the nucleus, Gal3 is a required pre-mRNA splicing factor; the protein is incorporated into spliceosomes via its association with the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. Although the majority of these interactions occur via the carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal3 and saccharide ligands such as lactose can perturb some of these interactions, the significance of the protein’s carbohydrate-binding activity, per se, remains a challenge for future investigations. PMID:19616076

  2. Lifetimes and electromagnetic transition strengths in 155Dy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, P.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Möller, O.; Dewald, A.; Tonev, D.; Saha, B.; Fitzler, A.; Jessen, K.; Klug, T.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; von Brentano, P.; Goutev, N.; Bazzacco, D.; Ur, C. A.; Farnea, E.; Axiotis, M.; Lunardi, S.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Caprio, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements were carried out for levels in 155Dy through the coincident detection of γ rays. Twenty-six lifetimes, most of them for the first time, were determined using the differential decay curve method for the analysis of the data. At low and medium spins, particle-plus-triaxial-rotor calculations reveal different quadrupole deformations for the one-quasineutron bands in this transitional nucleus. At high spin, the reduced B(E2) transition probabilities confirm with a better precision the results of a previous study implying decreased collectivity with increasing spin.

  3. Study for fusion-fission and quasifission in reactions using {sup 238}U target nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa, E-mail: nishio.katsuhisa@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Reserch Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    Fragment mass distributions for fission after full momentum transfer (FMT) were measured for the {sup 30}Si,{sup 31}P,{sup 34,36}S,{sup 40}Ar + {sup 238}U reactions at bombarding energies around the Coulomb barrier. The experiment was carried out at the JAEA tandem accelerator facility. We observed strong variation of the mass distribution on beam energy and projectile nucleus. In the reaction of {sup 36}S +{sup 238}U we observed a transition from symmetry to asymmetry mass distributions when the beam energies were decreased from the above-barrier to sub-barrier values. The mass asymmetry was A{sub L} /A{sub H} = 74/200, which corresponds to the fission valley leading to the nuclei close to the doubly closed-shell nuclei {sup 78}Ni /{sup 208}Pb. The fission channel is populated by quasifission, which is the disintegration without forming the compound nucleus. The incident-energy dependence is strongly correlated with the prolate deformation of {sup 238}U and the orientation at the initial impact. The results indicate that the reaction starting at the polar collisions on {sup 238}U has larger quasifission probability. The mass distributions are nicely reproduced by a model calculation using Langevin equation. The {sup 40}Ar + {sup 238}U reaction also has the similar mass asymmetry (A{sub L}/A{sub H} {approx} 78/200) in quasifission. In the reactions of {sup 31}P + {sup 238}U and {sup 30}Si + {sup 238}U, mass asymmetries are A{sub L}/A{sub H} 81/188 and 90/178, respectively. The results suggest that the system produced by the reaction using lighter projectile approaches closer to the shape of the compound nucleus even when quasifission occurs. In the reactions of {sup 30}Si +{sup 238}U and {sup 34}S+ {sup 238}U, we also measured the evaporation residue (ER) cross sections to obtain information on the fusion probability. From the ER cross sections for the {sup 34}S+{sup 238}U reaction it was suggested that the symmetric fission is also dominated by quasifission.

  4. Pseudospin Symmetry and Forbidden Magnetic Dipole and Gamow-Teller Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, Joseph

    1999-10-01

    Recently it has been shown that pseudospin symmetry has its origins in a relativistic symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian[1]. Using this symmetry we relate single - nucleon relativistic magnetic moments of states in a pseudospin doublet to the relativistic magnetic dipole transitions between the states in the doublet, and we relate single - nucleon relativistic Gamow - Teller transitions within states in the doublet. We apply these relationships to the Gamow - Teller transitions from ^39Ca to its mirror nucleus ^39K [2] and to the systematics of forbidden magnetic dipole transitions. 1. J. N. Ginocchio and A. Leviatan Phys. Lett. B 425, 1 (1998). 2. J. N. Ginocchio Phys. Rev. C 59, 2487 (1999).

  5. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  6. Coulomb problem for a Z>Z_cr nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, V. M.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Fedotov, A. M.; Lozovik, Yu E.; Popov, V. S.

    2015-08-01

    A closed-form equation is derived for the critical nucleus charge Z=Z_cr at which a discrete level with the Dirac quantum number touches the lower continuum of the Dirac equation solutions. For the Coulomb potential cut off rectangularly at the short distance r0 = R{\\hbar}/(mc), R \\ll {1}, the critical nucleus charge values are obtained for several values of κ and R. It is shown that the partial scattering matrix of elastic positron-nucleus scattering, Sκ = \\exp(2iδκ(\\varepsilon_p)), is also unitary for Z>Z_cr. For this range, the scattering phase δ κ (\\varepsilon _p) is calculated as a function of the positron energy E_p = \\varepsilonp mc2, as are the positions and widths of quasidiscrete levels corresponding to the scattering matrix poles. The implication is that the single-particle approximation for the Dirac equation is valid not only for Z but also for Z>Z_cr and that there is no spontaneous creation of e^+e^- pairs from the vacuum.

  7. Using of exponential integrals for atomic nucleus: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinchev, E.; Karastoyanov, A.

    1986-01-01

    A possibility for direct calculation of the potential of homogenous spherical nucleus using exponential integrals is found. The-two particle static Laplace potential is U=-gE 2 (μr)/4πr, where g is the nuclear charge, μ is a constant and r is the distance between the nucleons. The potential and force curves for a nucleus with the radius R for μr=3,4,5,6,7 are shown. The saturation of the nuclear forces is demonstrated. The limit potential depth is U m =-42.2 MeV for R=1.36 A 1/3 fm, where A is the atomic number. The limit potential at the end of the nucleus is twice as small. A comparison is made with the Yukawa potential, which gives a limit depth triple as large, and with the Woods-Saxon potential, which gives the force in the nuclear centre not equal to zero. The formulae and method are also applicable for more complicated nucleon distributions. (author). 4 figs, 9 refs

  8. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Action at a Distance in the Cell's Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondev, Jane

    Various functions performed by chromosomes involve long-range communication between DNA sequences that are tens of thousands of bases apart along the genome, and microns apart in the nucleus. In this talk I will discuss experiments and theory relating to two distinct modes of long-range communication in the nucleus, chromosome looping and protein hopping along the chromosome, both in the context of DNA-break repair in yeast. Yeast is an excellent model system for studies that link chromosome conformations to their function as there is ample experimental evidence that yeast chromosome conformations are well described by a simple, random-walk polymer model. Using a combination of polymer physics theory and experiments on yeast cells, I will demonstrate that loss of polymer entropy due to chromosome looping is the driving force for homology search during repair of broken DNA by homologous recombination. I will also discuss the spread of histone modifications along the chromosome and away from the DNA break point in the context of simple physics models based on chromosome looping and kinase hopping, and show how combining physics theory and cell-biology experiment can be used to dissect the molecular mechanism of the spreading process. These examples demonstrate how combined theoretical and experimental studies can reveal physical principles of long-range communication in the nucleus, which play important roles in regulation of gene expression, DNA recombination, and chromatin modification. This work was supported by the NSF DMR-1206146.

  10. Integration of sensory quanta in cuneate nucleus neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Bengtsson

    Full Text Available Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4-8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4-8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways.

  11. Chemical anatomy of the human paraventricular thalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, Victoria; Prensa, Lucía; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel

    2004-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (Pa) lies in the most medial aspect of the thalamus and is considered one of the midline thalamic nuclei. In the present study, we carried out histochemical and immunohistochemical procedures in the Pa of normal individuals to visualize the pattern of distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin D-28k (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), substance P (SP), and enkephalin (ENK). Other cytoarchitectural and myeloarchitectural techniques, such as Nissl and Gallyas, were also employed to delineate the boundaries of the Pa. The main findings of this study are: 1) AChE staining in the Pa was heterogeneously distributed along its anteroposterior and mediolateral axes; 2) the Pa harbored numerous CB- and CR-immunoreactive (ir) cells and neuropil, but this nucleus was largely devoid of PV; 3) the Pa was highly enriched in LAMP and this protein appeared uniformly distributed through its whole extent; and, 4) the SP and ENK immunoreactivities in the Pa revealed numerous highly varicose fibers scattered throughout this nucleus, but no stained cells. This morphological study demonstrates that the Pa is a heterogeneous chemical structure in humans. The functional significance of these results is discussed in the light of similar data gathered in several mammalian species. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. An Automatic Learning-Based Framework for Robust Nucleus Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuyong; Xie, Yuanpu; Yang, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Computer-aided image analysis of histopathology specimens could potentially provide support for early detection and improved characterization of diseases such as brain tumor, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and breast cancer. Automated nucleus segmentation is a prerequisite for various quantitative analyses including automatic morphological feature computation. However, it remains to be a challenging problem due to the complex nature of histopathology images. In this paper, we propose a learning-based framework for robust and automatic nucleus segmentation with shape preservation. Given a nucleus image, it begins with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to generate a probability map, on which an iterative region merging approach is performed for shape initializations. Next, a novel segmentation algorithm is exploited to separate individual nuclei combining a robust selection-based sparse shape model and a local repulsive deformable model. One of the significant benefits of the proposed framework is that it is applicable to different staining histopathology images. Due to the feature learning characteristic of the deep CNN and the high level shape prior modeling, the proposed method is general enough to perform well across multiple scenarios. We have tested the proposed algorithm on three large-scale pathology image datasets using a range of different tissue and stain preparations, and the comparative experiments with recent state of the arts demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  13. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting π 0 mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized 3 He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure

  14. Distribution of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNAs in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J.D.; Larsen, Philip J.; Ebling, Francis J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Anatomi, neurobiologi, glutamate receptor, circadian rhythms, suprachiasmatic nucleus, in situ hybridization, rat......Anatomi, neurobiologi, glutamate receptor, circadian rhythms, suprachiasmatic nucleus, in situ hybridization, rat...

  15. THE KÖLLIKER–FUSE NUCLEUS ACTS AS A TIMEKEEPER FOR LATE-EXPIRATORY ABDOMINAL ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENKIN, SARAH E. M.; MILSOM, WILLIAM K.; ZOCCAL, DANIEL B.

    2018-01-01

    While the transition from the inspiratory to the post-inspiratory (post-I) phase is dependent on the pons, little attention has been paid to understanding the role of the pontine respiratory nuclei, specifically the Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF), in transitioning from post-I to the late expiratory (late-E) activity seen with elevated respiratory drive. To elucidate this, we used the in situ working heart-brainstem preparation of juvenile male Holtzman rats and recorded from the vagus (cVN), phrenic (PN) and abdominal nerves (AbN) during baseline conditions and during chemoreflex activation [with potassium cyanide (KCN; n = 13) or hypercapnia (8% CO2; n = 10)] to recruit active expiration. Chemoreflex activation with KCN increased PN frequency and cVN post-I and AbN activities. The inhibition of KF with isoguvacine microinjections (10 mM) attenuated the typical increase in PN frequency and cVN post-I activity, and amplified the AbN response. During hypercapnia, AbN late-E activity emerged in association with a significant reduction in expiratory time. KF inhibition during hypercapnia significantly decreased PN frequency and reduced the duration and amplitude of post-I cVN activity, while the onset of the AbN late-E bursts occurred significantly earlier. Our data reveal a negative relationship between KF-induced post-I and AbN late-E activities, suggesting that the KF coordinates the transition between post-I to late-E activity during conditions of elevated respiratory drive. PMID:28188852

  16. Investigations about the in vitro import of nucleus encoded cyanellar ploypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandtner, M.

    1991-05-01

    Cyanelles are the plastids of the eukaryotic alga Cyanophora paradoxa. They share several features with cyanobacteria: a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, concentric thylakoid membranes and phycobilisomes as light harvesting complexes. Therefore cyanelles were regarded as 'missing link' between the chloroplasts and the prokaryotic ancestor according to the endosymbiotic hypothesis. The genome of the cyanelles resembles that of plastids concerning size and organization. So cyanelles have to import 90% of their proteins. In order to study the import of proteins into cyanelles, it was necessary to isolate a nucleus-encoded gene from a cDNA library. The gene could be expressed in vitro in a suitable plasmid. The radioactive labelled precursor will be incubated with isolated cyanelles. After their lysis their proteins will be run on a gel and the fate of the precursor -whether it was imported and processed respectively or not - will be detected. A method for mRNA isolation was adapted with respect to Cyanophora paradoxa. Based on the mRNA cDNA libraries were established. In parallel the mRNA was in vitro translated. Import experiments with the translation products were performed into cyanelles and pea chloroplasts. Additionally it was tried to import four precursors of higher plants into cyanelles. The isolated cyanelles were not competent for protein uptake. The gene for ferredoxin-NADP-reductase was found in a lambda ZAP cDNA library by screening with homologous antibodies. The transit peptide for the import into cyanelles shows the same general features as chloroplast transit peptides do, but differs from the three known transit peptides of ferredoxin-NADP-reductase from higher plants. (author)

  17. Distinct effect of orphanin FQ in nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis on the rat tail flick reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wu, G

    2001-06-22

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of orphanin FQ (OFQ) microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) on pain modulation. The tail-flick latency (TFL) was used as a behavioral index of nociceptive responsiveness. The result showed microinjection of OFQ into the NRM significantly increased the TFL, whereas microinjection of OFQ into the NGC decreased the TFL, suggesting the analgesic effect of OFQ in the NRM and the hyperalgesic effect of OFQ in the NGC. As there are three classes of putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the hyperalgesic or analgesic effect of OFQ in the RVM might depend upon the different class of the neurons being acted.

  18. Charged pion coherent production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at incident energies between 86 and 330 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassnacht, P.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at foward angles for about twenty projectile target combinations. The incident energies were below or around 300 MeV/nucleon which is the threshold of the elementary reaction NN → NNπ. The study of the inclusive spectra shows some new ideas: shell effects in pion production, collective resonances excitations. These spectra have been analyzed following different models: hard-scattering models which describe the interaction on the basis of the elementary reaction NN → NNπ, statistical model and the pionic cloud model which is a coherent description of the interaction. In the study of the exclusive reactions, we established some empiric rules concerning the cross-section variations. These exclusive spectra were then analyzed in the framework of two-models: the semi-phenomenological model and the pionic fusion [fr

  19. Long noncoding RNAs coordinate functions between mitochondria and the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaru; Yoshitomi, Takeshi; Hu, Ji-Fan; Cui, Jizhe

    2017-08-23

    In animal cells, mitochondria are the primary powerhouses and metabolic factories. They also contain genomes and can produce mitochondrial-specific nucleic acids and proteins. To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) contain characteristic structures, and they are involved in the regulation of almost every stage of gene expression, as well as being implicated in a variety of disease states, such as cancer. In the coordinated signaling system, several lncRNAs, transcribed in the nucleus but residing in mitochondria, play a key role in regulating mitochondrial functions or dynamics. For example, RMRP, a component of the mitochondrial RNase MRP, is important for mitochondrial DNA replication and RNA processing, and the steroid receptor RNA activator, SRA, is a key modulator of hormone signaling and is present in both the nucleus and mitochondria. Some RNA-binding proteins maybe play a role in the lncRNAs transport system, such as HuR, GRSF1, SHARP, SLIRP, PPR, and PNPASE. Furthermore, a series of nuclear DNA-encoded lncRNAs were implicated in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, mitochondrial bioenergetics and biosynthesis, and glutamine metabolism. The mitochondrial genome can also encode a set of lncRNAs, and they are divided into three categories: (1) lncND5, lncND6, and lncCyt b RNA; (2) chimeric mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs; and (3) putative mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs. It has been reported that the mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs appear to operate in the nucleus. The molecular mechanisms underlying trafficking of the mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs to the nucleus in mammals are only now beginning to emerge. In conclusion, both nuclear- and mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs mediate an intense intercompartmental cross-talk, which opens a rich field for investigation of the mechanism

  20. 61. International conference NUCLEUS-2011 on problems of nuclear spectroscopy and structure of atomic nucleus. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The program of the 61th International conference NUCLEUS-2011 covers almost all actual problems of nuclear physics. The recent results of theoretical and experimental investigations of nuclear structure as well as nuclear reactions are presented. The fundamental problems of nuclear physics are discussed. The current achievements in the field of nuclear instrumentation and experimental techniques are considered. The considerable attention is given to modern nuclear databases as scientific research tools [ru

  1. Some ENDOR studies of 3d transition metal ions in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelen, P.P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers 3d transition metal ions substituted in covalent semiconducting crystals. The magnitude of the contact hyperfine field at the 59 Co nucleus in cobalt doped CdS is determined. The results of an ENDOR study of supertransferred hyperfine interactions with nearest neighbour Ga ions in Mn doped GaP are presented. (G.T.H.)

  2. Open-nucleus theory for beef cattle breeding systems: A revisitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Packer, I.U.; Tenorio Vasconselos, M.

    1990-07-01

    A theoretical model for Open-Nucleus Systems is herein described in the case of beef cattle breeding. One of the starting points is the observation that the majority of the standard theoretical models for open-nucleus breeding systems were constructed for the case of discrete generations, i.e. for the cases in which the dam average fertility coefficient is f>2. In the case of cattle herds, when only a fraction of the breeding dams can be replaced, it is therefore worthwhile to build up anew a rather rigorous theoretical model, with overlapping generations, and check its predictions. Namely, we apply the new formulae - explicitly depending on β F , ν F , ν M , K and R - to the system in which all breeding sires are in the Nucleus (and are reared in the nucleus itself), and are mated to both Nucleus and Base dams via artificial insemination. Optimal system design has been looked for by the NAG and MINOS computation programs, operated on Vax computers. Opening the nucleus in this situation results to be very effective since the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain per generation for ''closed nucleus'' systems (x=0) results to be, when e.g. R≡F/M≅200, more than 40% lower than the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain, G*, for open nucleus systems. Optimal design corresponds to: (i) having a fraction p≅16% of the female population in the nucleus; (ii) replacing practically all the (nucleus) breeding sires by the best (nucleus born) males: ν M =97/98%; (iii) using for dam replacement all (b≅100%) the (base and nucleus born) females; (iv) implementing a high upward gene migration (x≅80%), while all the surplus nucleus-born females are to be used as base replacements. This corresponds to replace, at each generation, also almost all the nucleus dams (ν F ≅95/100%), and the largest possible fraction of base dams (β F ≅30%, a value changing with p). 17 refs

  3. Phase transition signals of finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot-Flandrois, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    Phase transitions are universal properties of interacting matter. They are well described if the considered system is infinite, by using standard thermodynamics. But in the case of small systems like atomic nuclei, this formalism cannot be applied anymore. Our aim is to propose a statistical mechanics approach in order to define the thermodynamical features of small open systems subject to non-saturating forces. We concentrate in particular on the definition and characterization for such systems of phase transitions belonging to the liquid gas universality class. Theoretical and experimental observables are defined to signal the occurrence and the order of this transition without any ambiguity. One of the most relevant and experimentally accessible observables consists in the study of kinetic energy fluctuations for a fixed value of the total deposited energy. In a first order phase transition such fluctuations become anomaly high and at the same time the size distribution appears to behave critically. All our results are obtained within numerical simulations of the lattice gas model with a nearest neighbors attractive interaction. Finally we check the influence of non-saturating forces, developing the specific example of the Coulomb interaction in the nucleus. Future improvements and perspectives at this work consist in the analysis of specific effects occurring in nuclei: isospin and quantum mechanics. (author) [fr

  4. Study of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Schmidt, R.; Schulze, R.; Doss, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Garpmann, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Soderstrom, K.; Stenlund, E.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Wienke, R.; Awes, T.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.; Ferguson, R.; Gross, E.; Johnson, J.; Lee, I.Y.; Obenshain, F.; Plasil, F.; Young, G.; Sorensen, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Stepaniak, Y.; Zielinski, I.

    1985-08-01

    In this experiment the physics at high energy densities will be explored. High energy densities are expected in collisions of 16 O (provided from the GSI-LBL light ion source) with large target nuclei. One expectation is a phase transition into the quark gluon plasma. The experiment consists of a vertex detector, called the Plastic Ball, electromagnetic Pb-glass calorimeter, a EM-Hadron Calorimeter Wall, a multiplicity detector for charged particles and a zero degree calorimeter. The Plastic Ball consists of a 655 module, double dE/dx scintillator sphere covering THETAsub(Lab)>30 0 , thus identifying protons, deuterons, tritons, alphas, etc., in the target rapidity domain. THETA 0 are covered by a streamer tube, pad readout array (25000 pads), and by 6 m 2 Pb-Fe electromagnetic/hadronic fine granularity calorimeter following the Fabjan Willis tower design. A 1350-segment, GAMS type lead glass calorimeter of sufficiently small granularity to identify π 0 and direct photons at Esub(perpendicular to)>1 GeV covers the 40 0 -90 0 cm angles. This experiment can be triggered on projectile energy loss high Esub(t), high Msub(ch) or on high Esub(t) and large e-m energy in the lead glass. Overall, it determines the energy flux and Esub(t) distribution, the high psup(perpendicular to) π 0 and γ distribution near mid-rapidity, and the target spectator decay pattern and entropy (from the relative yields of p, d, t...), as well as multiplicity distribution and multiplicity fluctuations. (orig.)

  5. Nucleon-nucleus scattering: a microscopic nonrelativistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Dortmans, H.V.; Raynal, J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors are reviewing the nucleon based microscopic theory of nucleon-nucleus (NA) scattering and its applications taking in consideration the developments that have occurred within the last decade. The review comprises 12 Chapters. The first is a brief outline of some formal aspects of the nuclear optical potential and the scattering theory by which it is related to NN scattering amplitudes, t matrices and g matrices. Then follows a presentation of the momentum space NA optical potential formed by the folding of NN t- and g matrices with nuclear densities. Applications are discussed with the examples taken from the works of Elster et al. and of Arellano et al. A folding model defining the optical potential in coordinate space is then considered. That model presupposes an effective NN interaction to be comprised of density and energy dependent central, tensor, and two-body spin-orbit terms. Such effective interactions are basic for the computer codes DWBA91 and DWBA98 that are the current technology to calculate and use microscopic non-local coordinate space optical potentials. Thus in Chapter 4, we present the helicity formalism, the multipole expansions of the effective interactions, and the particle-hole matrix elements that underlay calculations made with those programs. A key feature of both the momentum and coordinate space formulations of the NA optical potentials are the NN t- and g matrices. Details of those are given in Chapter 5 and 6 respectively. Therein the on- and off-shell properties of the t- and g matrices from realistic bosom exchange potentials, as well as from potentials determined by inversion of phase shift data, are discussed. To form the coordinate space NA optical potentials requites the effective interaction in coordinate space. Thus a parametrisation scheme is needed to specify such front t- and g matrices. A scheme that has proven useful is then discussed. In fact, the effective interactions that result, when folded with nuclear

  6. Neutrino–nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino–nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino–nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino–nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors

  7. Chronic cocaine-regulated epigenomic changes in mouse nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports a role for altered gene expression in mediating the lasting effects of cocaine on the brain, and recent work has demonstrated the involvement of chromatin modifications in these alterations. However, all such studies to date have been restricted by their reliance on microarray technologies that have intrinsic limitations. Results We use next generation sequencing methods, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq for RNA polymerase II and several histone methylation marks, to obtain a more complete view of cocaine-induced changes in gene expression and associated adaptations in numerous modes of chromatin regulation in the mouse nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region. We demonstrate an unexpectedly large number of pre-mRNA splicing alterations in response to repeated cocaine treatment. In addition, we identify combinations of chromatin changes, or signatures, that correlate with cocaine-dependent regulation of gene expression, including those involving pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Through bioinformatic prediction and biological validation, we identify one particular splicing factor, A2BP1(Rbfox1/Fox-1), which is enriched at genes that display certain chromatin signatures and contributes to drug-induced behavioral abnormalities. Together, this delineation of the cocaine-induced epigenome in the nucleus accumbens reveals several novel modes of regulation by which cocaine alters the brain. Conclusions We establish combinatorial chromatin and transcriptional profiles in mouse nucleus accumbens after repeated cocaine treatment. These results serve as an important resource for the field and provide a template for the analysis of other systems to reveal new transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of neuronal regulation. PMID:24758366

  8. Separable representation of multichannel nucleon-nucleus optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.

    2017-05-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship is cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Including excitations of the nucleus in the calculation requires a multichannel optical potential. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent multichannel representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that contain excitations of the nucleus and that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from energy-dependent multichannel optical potentials for neutron and proton scattering from 12C, separable representations based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme are constructed which fulfill reciprocity exactly. Applications to n +12C and p +12C scattering are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological multichannel optical potentials describes scattering data with the same quality as the original potential.

  9. Theory of scattering of nonrelativistic protons on nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabutalybov, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Within the bounds of quasi-classics in HES with distorted waves, on the basis of three-dimensional formulation in the form of analytical receipt formula amplitude of scattering of protons of intermediate energy on the atom nuclear. In the wake of the short-range nature of proton nucleonic interaction proton scattering on the atomic nucleus, represented as sequence of single dispersion. With the help of introduced mathematical method was received recurrence formula which allows expressing form factor in perverted-wave through Born and its derivatives. For density distribution of nucleon was used Fermi-Function

  10. Dust photometry in the near nucleus region of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegoe, K.; Szatmary, Z.; Kondor, A.; Merenyi, E.; Toth, I.; Smith, B.A.

    1988-08-01

    The dust-jet radial brightness has been analyzed along jet cores on images taken by the tv experiment aboard VEGA 2 spacecraft, during the close encounter with comet Halley in 1986 March. Applying the RFIT code for fitting the data obtained it was shown that there is a breakpoint in the radial brightness distribution which occurs at about 40 km above the surface. These results are interpreted as consequences of the heat shock induced disintegration of dust particles as they are ejected into the near-nucleus environment. (R.P.) 22 refs.; 4 tabs

  11. Vacuum oscillations around a large-Z ''nucleus''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, S.; Iwazaki, A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate a possible explanation of sharp e + peaks in heavy-ion collisions by analyzing QED with a large atomic number external source. We show that a highly polarized vacuum around a large Z ''nucleus'' has at least two neutral oscillation modes, whose energies are calculated to be 1.8 MeV and 1.5 MeV with an appropriate choice of the nuclear radius. They decay into a pair of e/sup +-/ through electromagnetic interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig

  12. Pathological gambling after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, H M M; Goudriaan, A E; Foncke, E M J; Schuurman, P R; Speelman, J D; Schmand, B

    2007-05-01

    We describe a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease who developed pathological gambling within a month after successful bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. There was no history of gambling. On neuropsychological testing, slight cognitive decline was evident 1 year after surgery. Stimulation of the most dorsal contact with and without medication induced worse performances on decision making tests compared with the more ventral contact. Pathological gambling disappeared after discontinuation of pergolide and changing the stimulation parameters. Pathological gambling does not seem to be associated with decision making but appears to be related to a combination of bilateral STN stimulation and treatment with dopamine agonists.

  13. Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that were accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the workshop on the analysis of returned comet nucleus samples held in Milpitas, California, January 16 to 18, 1989. The abstracts deal with the nature of cometary ices, cryogenic handling and sampling equipment, origin and composition of samples, and spectroscopic, thermal and chemical processing methods of cometary nuclei. Laboratory simulation experimental results on dust samples are reported. Some results obtained from Halley's comet are also included. Microanalytic techniques for examining trace elements of cometary particles, synchrotron x ray fluorescence and instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA), are presented

  14. Magnetic moment of extremely proton-rich nucleus 23Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomo, T; Matsuta, K; Ozawa, A; Nakashima, Y; Matsumiya, R; Mihara, M; Yasuno, T; Chiba, A; Yamada, K; Momota; Ohtsubo, T; Ohta, M; Shinojima, D; Izumikawa, T; Tanaka, H; Yamaguchi, T; Nakajima, S; Maemura, H; Muranaka, K; Kumashiro, S; Fujiwara, H; Yoshida, K; Sumikama, T; Tanaka, K; Ogura, M; Minamisono, K; Fukuda, M; Minamisono, T; Nojiri, Y; Suzuki, T; Tanihata, I; Alonso, J R; Krebs, G F; Symons, T J M

    2005-01-01

    The g-factor of the extremely proton-rich nucleus 23 Al (T 1/2 = 0.47 s) has been measured by means of the β-NMR method for the first time. The g-factor were determined as |g| = 1.557(88) from the obtained NMR spectra. From the comparison between the experimental value and the shell model calculation, the spin parity of the ground state of 23 Al was determined as I π = 5/2 + . Thus, the magnetic moment of 23 Al was determined as vertical bar μvertical bar = 3.89(22)μ N

  15. W-Z interference in ν-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusevic, R.; Smith, J.

    1988-05-01

    The creation of muon pairs by (anti)neutrinos in the Coulomb field of the nucleus provides a direct test of the interference between the intermediate-vector-boson amplitudes, as predicted by the weak-interaction theory. This paper summarizes the main features of the above process and discusses the feasibility of measuring the W-Z interference by searching for recoilless dimuon events using fine-grained counter neutrino detectors. The result from an earlier experiment which searched for this process is discussed in the context of the present calculation.

  16. W-Z interference in. nu. -nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belusevic, R.; Smith, J.

    1988-05-01

    The creation of muon pairs by (anti)neutrinos in the Coulomb field of the nucleus provides a direct test of the interference between the intermediate-vector-boson amplitudes, as predicted by the weak-interaction theory. This paper summarizes the main features of the above process and discusses the feasibility of measuring the W-Z interference by searching for recoilless dimuon events using fine-grained counter neutrino detectors. The result from an earlier experiment which searched for this process is discussed in the context of the present calculation.

  17. Total reaction cross section calculations in proton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, H.P.; Axen, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a general semiempirical total reaction cross section formula for proton-nucleus reactions. It is applicable for all materials with nuclear charge Z greater than 5, and all proton kinetic energies from the lowest measured energies up to ≅20 GeV. While the regime of applicability is greatly enlarged, agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is comparable to or better than all earlier published results in their regime of applicability. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Level density of radioactive doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Kumar, S.; Rengaiyan, R.; Victor Babu, A.; Preetha, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the single particle energies are obtained by diagonalising the Nilsson Hamiltonian in the cylindrical basis and are generated up to N =11 shells for the isotopes of Ni from A = 48-70, emphasizing the three magic nuclei viz, 48 Ni, 56 Ni and 68 Ni. The statistical quantities like excitation energy, level density parameter and nuclear level density which play the important roles in the nuclear structure and nuclear reactions can be calculated theoretically by means of the Statistical or Partition function method. Hence the statistical model approach is followed to probe the dynamical properties of the nucleus in the microscopic level

  19. Alpha-nucleus elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Alamanos, N.; Berthier, B.; Bruge, G.; Faraggi, H.; Lugol, J.C.; Mittig, W.; Papineau, L.; Yavin, A.I.; Buenerd, M.; Bauhoff, W.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 288, 340, 480 and 699 MeV Alpha-particles was measured on 208 Pb, 116 Sn and 58 Ni. The data were analysed in terms of a phenomenological optical model. The optical potentials obtained were found to vary consistently with the target nucleus and the incident energy. The radial zone where the potentials are well determined was studied in detail. The data for 208 Pb were also analysed with a folding model. The energy dependence of the strong-absorption radius and of the reaction cross section shows that the nuclear surface becomes slightly transparent for incident energies above 150 MeV per nucleon. (orig.)

  20. Tools for visualization of phosphoinositides in the cell nucleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalasová, Ilona; Fáberová, Veronika; Kalendová, Alžběta; Uličná, Lívia; Yildirim, Sukriye; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 4 (2016), s. 485-496 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03403S; GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA CR GA16-03403S Grant - others:Human Frontier Science Program(FR) RGP0017/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nucleus * Phosphoinositides * PI(4,5)P2 * PI(4)P Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  1. Search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in 193Pb nucleus with the EUROGAM II multidetector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducroux, L.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to the search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in 193 Pb nucleus. High spin states of this isotope, populated via fusion-evaporation reaction 168 Er ( 30 Si, 5n) 193 Pb, have been studied with the EUROGAM II γ multidetector array located near the VIVITRON accelerator in Strasbourg. New sorting and analysis programs have been developed in particular related to the background treatment. Angular distribution and linear polarisation analysis allowed us to assign the γ transition multipolarities. Five dipole bands, corresponding to a weakly oblate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed and connected to the low-lying states. The level scheme has been considerably extended up to a spin of 61/2 ℎ and an excitation energy of about 8 MeV. These structures have been interpreted as based on a high-K two-quasi-proton excitation coupled to rotation aligned quasi-neutrons. Six superdeformed bands, corresponding to a high prolate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed. These six bands have been interpreted as three pairs of signature partners based on quasineutron excitations. The extraction of the g-factor of a K=9/2 neutron superdeformed orbital has been done for the first time in lead isotopes, giving access to the magnetic properties of the extreme nuclear matter. All these results have been discussed in terms of microscopic mean field self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the microscopic 'rotor + particle(s)' model. (author)

  2. CO(4-3) and CO(7-6) maps of the nucleus of NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsten, R.; Philipp, S. D.; Weiß, A.; Klein, B.

    2006-08-01

    Context: .Molecular line excitation studies of the nuclei of nearby starburst galaxies yield important information on the starburst phenomena, in particular on the temperature and density of the star-forming gas. Such studies also provide templates for high redshift galaxies with even more extreme star formation. Aims: .Fundamental constraints on the physical properties in the nuclear regions of external galaxies can be derived from the spectral energy distribution (i.e., integrated flux density vs. rotational quantum number) of CO rotational emission arising from warm gas. Methods: .The resolution and sensitivity of the APEX telescope makes it feasible to perform spatially resolved studies of submillimeter (submm) CO emission from the warm, dense gas in nearby starburst nuclei. Using the FLASH dual-channel heterodyne receiver we mapped emission in the CO J=4-3 and 7-6 lines toward the archetypical nuclear starburst galaxy NGC 253. Results: .Combining our new observations with data from the literature, we derive the CO line SED in the central 250 pc of NGC 253, which peaks near the 6-5 transition and has a shape very similar to that of M 82. All CO transitions in the central region can well be fitted with a single temperature/density Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model. A good match to the observations is found by assuming kinetic gas temperatures that are comparable to the dust temperature ({T}kin ≈ 60 K) and a H2 density of order 104 cm-3. Conclusions: .Our very first APEX submm study of a nearby starburst nucleus (NGC 253) meaningfully constrains the physical properties of the star-forming molecular gas it contains. With broader band spectrometers and a chopping secondary coming soon, the impact of APEX on extragalactic astrophysics will be foreseeably significant.

  3. Centrality dependence of pseudorapidity spectra of charged particles produced in the nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Z.; Suleymanov, M. K.; Belashev, B. Z.; Vokal, S.; Vrláková, J.; Zahir, A.; Mehmood, S.; Ajaz, M.; Khalilova, Sh.; Tufail, M.

    2014-07-01

    We have analyzed the pseudorapidity spectra of charged relativistic particles with β > 0.7 produced in Pb + Em (at energy 158 A GeV) reactions as a function of centrality. The relativistic nucleus beams were obtained from SPS machine. The number of g-particles (particles with 0.23 ≤ β ≤ 0.7) has been used to fix the centrality. We have applied the maximum entropy method to analyses the spectra and found some selected pseudorapidity values—nontrivial structure.

  4. A Review of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel T. French

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc and pars dissipatus (PPNd, and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The BG controls locomotion and posture via GABAergic output of the substantia nigra pars reticulate (SNr. In PD patients, GABAergic BG output levels are abnormally increased, and gait disturbances are produced via abnormal increases in SNr-induced inhibition of the MLR. Since the PPN is vastly connected with the BG and the brainstem, dysfunction within these systems lead to advanced symptomatic progression in Parkinson's disease (PD, including sleep and cognitive issues. To date, the best treatment is to perform deep brain stimulation (DBS on PD patients as outcomes have shown positive effects in ameliorating the debilitating symptoms of this disease by treating pathological circuitries within the parkinsonian brain. It is therefore important to address the challenges and develop this procedure to improve the quality of life of PD patients.

  5. Calcium signaling in synapse-to-nucleus communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenston, Anna M; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-11-01

    Changes in the intracellular concentration of calcium ions in neurons are involved in neurite growth, development, and remodeling, regulation of neuronal excitability, increases and decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, and the activation of survival and programmed cell death pathways. An important aspect of the signals that trigger these processes is that they are frequently initiated in the form of glutamatergic neurotransmission within dendritic trees, while their completion involves specific changes in the patterns of genes expressed within neuronal nuclei. Accordingly, two prominent aims of research concerned with calcium signaling in neurons are determination of the mechanisms governing information conveyance between synapse and nucleus, and discovery of the rules dictating translation of specific patterns of inputs into appropriate and specific transcriptional responses. In this article, we present an overview of the avenues by which glutamatergic excitation of dendrites may be communicated to the neuronal nucleus and the primary calcium-dependent signaling pathways by which synaptic activity can invoke changes in neuronal gene expression programs.

  6. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  7. Tools for visualization of phosphoinositides in the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalasova, Ilona; Fáberová, Veronika; Kalendová, Alžběta; Yildirim, Sukriye; Uličná, Lívia; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are glycerol-based phospholipids containing hydrophilic inositol ring. The inositol ring is mono-, bis-, or tris-phosphorylated yielding seven PIs members. Ample evidence shows that PIs localize both to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus. However, tools for direct visualization of nuclear PIs are limited and many studies thus employ indirect approaches, such as staining of their metabolic enzymes. Since localization and mobility of PIs differ from their metabolic enzymes, these approaches may result in incomplete data. In this paper, we tested commercially available PIs antibodies by light microscopy on fixed cells, tested their specificity using protein-lipid overlay assay and blocking assay, and compared their staining patterns. Additionally, we prepared recombinant PIs-binding domains and tested them on both fixed and live cells by light microscopy. The results provide a useful overview of usability of the tools tested and stress that the selection of adequate tools is critical. Knowing the localization of individual PIs in various functional compartments should enable us to better understand the roles of PIs in the cell nucleus.

  8. Nucleus-acoustic shock waves in white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The nucleus-acoustic shock waves (NASWs) propagating in a white dwarf plasma system, which contain non-relativistically or ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons, non-relativistically degenerate, viscous fluid of light nuclei, and immobile nuclei of heavy elements, have been theoretically investigated. We have used the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite-amplitude NASWs to derive the Burgers equation. The NASWs are, in fact, associated with the nucleus-acoustic (NA) waves in which the inertia is provided by the light nuclei, and restoring force is provided by the degenerate pressure of electrons. On the other hand, the stationary heavy nuclei participate only in maintaining the background charge neutrality condition at equilibrium. It is found that the viscous force acting in the fluid of light nuclei is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of NASWs. It is also observed that the basic features (polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the NASWs are significantly modified by the presence of heavy nuclei, and that NASWs are formed with either positive or negative potential depending on the values of the charge density of the heavy nuclei. The basic properties are also found to be significantly modified by the effects of ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons. The implications of our results in white dwarfs are briefly discussed.

  9. Suprachiasmatic modulation of noradrenaline release in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mleux, Benoît; Bayer, Laurence; Eggermann, Emmanuel; Jones, Barbara E; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2007-06-13

    As the major brain circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is known to influence the timing of sleep and waking. We thus investigated here the effect of SCN stimulation on neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) thought to be involved in promoting sleep. Using an acute in vitro preparation of the rat anterior hypothalamus/preoptic area, we found that whereas single-pulse stimulations of the SCN evoked standard fast ionotropic IPSPs and EPSPs, train stimulations unexpectedly evoked a long-lasting inhibition (LLI). Such LLIs could also be evoked in VLPO neurons by pressure application of NMDA within the SCN, indicating the specific activation of SCN neurons. This LLI was shown to result from the presynaptic facilitation of noradrenaline release, because it was suppressed in presence of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of alpha2-adrenoreceptors. The LLI depended on the opening of a potassium conductance, because it was annulled at E(K) and could be reversed below E(K). These results show that the SCN can provide an LLI of the sleep-promoting VLPO neurons that could play a role in the circadian organization of the sleep-waking cycle.

  10. Fusion reaction using low energy neutron-excess nucleus beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu

    1994-01-01

    The present state and the plan of the experiment of measuring the fusion reaction near barriers by using neutron-excess nucleus beam, which has been advanced at RIKEN are reported. One of the purposes of this experiment is the feasibility investigation of the fusion reaction by using neutron-excess nuclei, which is indispensable for synthesizing superheavy elements. It is intended to systematically explore some enhancing mechanism in the neutron-excess nuclei which are unfavorable in beam intensity. This research can become the good means to prove the dynamic behavior of the neutrons on the surfaces of nuclei in reaction. The fusion reaction of 27 Al + Au was measured by using the stable nucleus beam of 27 Al, and the results are shown. In order to know the low energy fusion reaction of 11 Li and 11 Be which are typical halo nuclei, the identification by characteristic α ray of composite nuclei is carried out in 7,9,11 Li + 209 Bi and 9,10,11 Be + 208 Pb. A new detector having high performance, New MUSIC, is being developed. As the experiment by using this detector, the efficient measurement of the fusion reaction by using heavy neutron-excess nuclei up to Ni is considered. An example of 8 Li + α → 11 B + n reaction for celestial body physics is mentioned. (K.I.)

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation for Statistical Decay of Compound Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick M.B.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We perform Monte Carlo simulations for neutron and γ-ray emissions from a compound nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory. This Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach (MCHF method calculation, which gives us correlated information between emitted particles and γ-rays. It will be a powerful tool in many applications, as nuclear reactions can be probed in a more microscopic way. We have been developing the MCHF code, CGM, which solves the Hauser-Feshbach theory with the Monte Carlo method. The code includes all the standard models that used in a standard Hauser-Feshbach code, namely the particle transmission generator, the level density module, interface to the discrete level database, and so on. CGM can emit multiple neutrons, as long as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is larger than the neutron separation energy. The γ-ray competition is always included at each compound decay stage, and the angular momentum and parity are conserved. Some calculations for a fission fragment 140Xe are shown as examples of the MCHF method, and the correlation between the neutron and γ-ray is discussed.

  12. Axonal branching patterns of nucleus accumbens neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anushree; Prensa, Lucía; Cebrián, Carolina; Mengual, Elisa

    2010-11-15

    The patterns of axonal collateralization of nucleus accumbens (Acb) projection neurons were investigated in the rat by means of single-axon tracing techniques using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine. Seventy-three axons were fully traced, originating from either the core (AcbC) or shell (AcbSh) compartment, as assessed by differential calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity. Axons from AcbC and AcbSh showed a substantial segregation in their targets; target areas were either exclusively or preferentially innervated from AcbC or AcbSh. Axon collaterals in the subthalamic nucleus were found at higher than expected frequencies; moreover, these originated exclusively in the dorsal AcbC. Intercompartmental collaterals were observed from ventral AcbC axons into AcbSh, and likewise, interconnections at pallidal and mesencephalic levels were also observed, although mostly from AcbC axons toward AcbSh targets, possibly supporting crosstalk between the two subcircuits at several levels. Cell somata giving rise to short-range accumbal axons, projecting to the ventral pallidum (VP), were spatially intermingled with others, giving rise to long-range axons that innervated VP and more caudal targets. This anatomical organization parallels that of the dorsal striatum and provides the basis for possible dual direct and indirect actions from a single axon on either individual or small sets of neurons. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadhri, Comandur [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  14. A nucleus-based quality control mechanism for cytosolic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rupali; Kawaguchi, Shinichi; Ng, Davis T W

    2010-07-01

    Intracellular quality control systems monitor protein conformational states. Irreversibly misfolded proteins are cleared through specialized degradation pathways. Their importance is underscored by numerous pathologies caused by aberrant proteins. In the cytosol, where most proteins are synthesized, quality control remains poorly understood. Stress-inducible chaperones and the 26S proteasome are known mediators but how their activities are linked is unclear. To better understand these mechanisms, a panel of model misfolded substrates was analyzed in detail. Surprisingly, their degradation occurs not in the cytosol but in the nucleus. Degradation is dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase San1p, known previously to direct the turnover of damaged nuclear proteins. A second E3 enzyme, Ubr1p, augments this activity but is insufficient by itself. San1p and Ubr1p are not required for nuclear import of substrates. Instead, the Hsp70 chaperone system is needed for efficient import and degradation. These data reveal a new function of the nucleus as a compartment central to the quality control of cytosolic proteins.

  15. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  16. The Electro-Excitation Form Factors for Low-Lying States of 7Li Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhl, Z.A.; Salih, L.; Al-Qazaz, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    The transverse electron scattering form factors have been studied for low -lying excited states of 7 L i nucleus. These states are specified by JπT= (0.478MeV),(4.63MeV) and(6.68MeV). The transitions to these states are taking place by both isoscalar and isovector components. These form factors have been analyzed in the framework of the multi-nucleon configuration mixing of harmonic oscillator shell model with size parameter b r ms=1.74fm. The universal two-body of Cohen-Kurath is used to generate the 1p-shell wave functions. The core polarization effects are included in the calculations through effective g-factors and resolved many discrepancies with experiments. A higher configuration effect outside the 1p-shell model space, such as the 2p-shell, enhances the form factors for q-values and reproduces the data. The present results are compared with other theoretical models. PACS: 25.30.Bf Elastic electron scattering - 25.30.Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states - 21.60.Cs Shell model - 27.20. +n 5≤ A ≥19

  17. Spectroscopic criteria for identification of nuclear tetrahedral and octahedral symmetries: Illustration on a rare earth nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, J.; Curien, D.; Dedes, I.; Mazurek, K.; Tagami, S.; Shimizu, Y. R.; Bhattacharjee, T.

    2018-02-01

    We formulate criteria for identification of the nuclear tetrahedral and octahedral symmetries and illustrate for the first time their possible realization in a rare earth nucleus 152Sm. We use realistic nuclear mean-field theory calculations with the phenomenological macroscopic-microscopic method, the Gogny-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, and general point-group theory considerations to guide the experimental identification method as illustrated on published experimental data. Following group theory the examined symmetries imply the existence of exotic rotational bands on whose properties the spectroscopic identification criteria are based. These bands may contain simultaneously states of even and odd spins, of both parities and parity doublets at well-defined spins. In the exact-symmetry limit those bands involve no E 2 transitions. We show that coexistence of tetrahedral and octahedral deformations is essential when calculating the corresponding energy minima and surrounding barriers, and that it has a characteristic impact on the rotational bands. The symmetries in question imply the existence of long-lived shape isomers and, possibly, new waiting point nuclei—impacting the nucleosynthesis processes in astrophysics—and an existence of 16-fold degenerate particle-hole excitations. Specifically designed experiments which aim at strengthening the identification arguments are briefly discussed.

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Lexical Switching in Parkinsons Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, Isabelle; Ehlen, Felicitas; Fromm, Ortwin; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Reduced verbal fluency (VF) has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially those treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS). To delineate the nature of this dysfunction we aimed at identifying the particular VF-related operations modified by STN DBS. Eleven PD patients performed VF tasks in their STN DBS ON and OFF condition. To differentiate VF-components modulated by the stimulation, a temporal cluster analysis was performed, separating production spurts (i.e., 'clusters' as correlates of automatic activation spread within lexical fields) from slower cluster transitions (i.e., 'switches' reflecting set-shifting towards new lexical fields). The results were compared to those of eleven healthy control subjects. PD patients produced significantly more switches accompanied by shorter switch times in the STN DBS ON compared to the STN DBS OFF condition. The number of clusters and time intervals between words within clusters were not affected by the treatment state. Although switch behavior in patients with DBS ON improved, their task performance was still lower compared to that of healthy controls. Beyond impacting on motor symptoms, STN DBS seems to influence the dynamics of cognitive procedures. Specifically, the results are in line with basal ganglia roles for cognitive switching, in the particular case of VF, from prevailing lexical concepts to new ones.

  19. X ray irradiation of a galaxy by an embedded active nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclei of active galaxies radiate a significant fraction of their prodigious luminosities in the x-ray band. These energetic photons penetrate the surrounding galaxy, altering the nature of the matter they encounter. This thesis examines the interactions of X-rays with the three major constituents of a galaxy: stars, gas, and grains. X-rays incident upon a star will heat its outer layers, driving a mass outflow from the stellar surface if the X-ray flux is sufficiently high, but the total mass released from a cluster of X-ray irradiated stars is probably insufficient to fuel the active nucleus. X-rays absorbed in weakly ionized molecular clouds create energetic photo-electrons that directly excite line-emitting transitions of H2 and He. An algorithm given here calculates the excitation yields due to X-ray photoelectrons 100 to 10,000 eV in energy over a range of fractional ionizations. When X-rays irradiate dust grains, the temperatures of the smallest grains fluctuate wildly, heating dramatically during X-ray absorption and cooling rapidly thereafter. IR spectra of X-ray irradiated dust will always turn over shortward of 3 microns, because of evaporative cooling, and will display none of the emission features that come from 3 to 5 A particles, for they will be completely evaporated after just a few X-ray heating events

  20. New information on the T1/2=47 s isomer in the 136I nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, S.; Durell, J.L.; Smith, A.G.; Genevey, J.A.; Pinston, J.A.; Simpson, G.S.; Ahmad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The 136 I nucleus, populated in the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm, was studied by means of prompt γ-ray spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 array. The observation in this work of the 42.6 keV prompt-γ, M1+E2 transition de-exciting the 7 - level in 136 I indicates that this level, interpreted as the (πg 7/2 3 νf 7/2 ) 7- configuration, does not correspond to the T=47 s, β-decaying isomer in 136 I. The isomer is placed 42.6 keV below the 7 - level. It has spin 6 - and is interpreted as the (πg 7/2 2 d 5/2 νf 7/2 ) 6- configuration. This and other members of both multiplets can be reproduced properly only if one assumes that the πd 5/2 orbital in 136 I is located 400keV lower than in 133 Sb. Possible mechanisms causing this effect are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Can nuclear physics explain the anomaly observed in the internal pair production in the Beryllium-8 nucleus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently the experimentalists in Krasznahorkay (2016 [1] announced observing an unexpected enhancement of the e+–e− pair production signal in one of the 8Be nuclear transitions. The subsequent studies have been focused on possible explanations based on introducing new types of particle. In this work, we improve the nuclear physics modeling of the reaction by studying the pair emission anisotropy and the interferences between different multipoles in an effective field theory inspired framework, and examine their possible relevance to the anomaly. The connection between the previously measured on-shell photon production and the pair production in the same nuclear transitions is established. These improvements, absent in the original experimental analysis, should be included in extracting new particle's properties from the experiment of this type. However, the improvements can not explain the anomaly. We then explore the nuclear transition form factor as a possible origin of the anomaly, and find the required form factor to be unrealistic for the 8Be nucleus. The reduction of the anomaly's significance by simply rescaling our predicted event count is also investigated.

  2. Isospin excitation of nucleus in 42,44,48Ca (p,n)42,44,48Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    To obtain information of (p,n) reaction of heavy nucleus in 100 MeV or less, 42,44,48 Ca(p,n) 42,44,48 Sc was observed on the Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center in Tohoku University. The experimental results showed that 7, 8 and 10 spin parities were determined for 42 Sc, 44 Sc and 48 SC, respectively. It was the first determination of one and two negative parity transition of 42 Sc and 48 Sc,respectively, by (p,n) reaction. The full space wave function made by 0f1p shell effective interaction by Richter,et al is good accuracy and reliability. On the (p,n) reaction at E p =35 MeV, the transition matrix elements of 42 Ca, 44 Ca and 48 Ca were derived. On the experiment of 42 Ca(p,n) 42 Sc at E p 2 on energy was agreed with the calculation results by Franey and Love. The nuclear structure of 42 Ca was thought to show more stronger U(4) symmetry, because strong GT transition at T=1 was not observed, which was expected by j-j bonding shell model calculation. (S.Y.)

  3. Pseudo-spin band in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Venkova, T; Gast, W; Podsvirova, E O; Jäger, H M; Mihailescu, L; Bazzacco, D; Menegazzo, R; Lunardi, S; Alvarez, C R; Ur, C; Martínez, T; Angelis, G D; Axiotis, M; Napoli, D; Urban, W; Rzaca-Urban, T; Frauendorf, S

    2003-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu have been populated in a sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 Er( sup 7 Li,5n) reaction and the emitted gamma-radiation was detected with the GASP array. Two sequences of a new identical band have been observed with the transition energies in the favoured and unfavoured sequences being identical within approx 3 keV at low spins and approx 1 keV at high spins over the whole observed spin range. An interpretation as a pseudo-spin singlet band of pi 1/2 sup - [541] x nu 1/2 sup - [420] configuration is proposed. It represents the best example of a pseudo-spin singlet band in normal deformed nuclei known until now.

  4. Microscopic approach of the spectral property of 1+ and high-spin states in 124Te nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhuyi; Ni Shaoyong; Tong Hong; Zhao Xingzhi

    2004-01-01

    Using a microscopic sdIBM-2+2q·p· approach, the spectra of the low-spin and partial high-spin states in 124 Te nucleus are relatively successfully calculated. In particular, the 1 1 + , 1 2 + , 3 1 + , 3 2 + and 5 1 + states are successfully reproduced, the energy relationship resulting from this approach identifies that the 6 1 + , 8 1 + and 10 1 + states belong to the aligned states of the two protons. This can explain the recent experimental results that the collective structures may coexist with the single-particle states. So this approach becomes a powerful tool for successfully describing the spectra of general nuclei without clear symmetry and of isotopes located at transitional regions. Finally, the aligned-state structure and the broken-pair energy of the two-quasi-particle are discussed

  5. Correlations between projectile and target breakup: a comparative study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at 75, 175 and 2000A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarle, C.; Herrstroem, N.Y.; Kullberg, R.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.

    1982-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collision in three different energy intervals: 50-100, 150-200 and 1900-2100A MeV have been studied in nuclear emulsion. The reactions were 16 O + average emulsion target (H, C, N, O, Ag, Br). In each event, all emitted charged particles were recorded, projectile fragments with Z>=2 identifed and the number of charged particles from the target nucleus was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the geometrical aspects of Heavy Ion collisions and direct comparisons are made with the Coldhaber fragmentation model

  6. Role of the red nucleus in suppressing the jaw-opening reflex following stimulation of the raphe magnus nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yoshihide; Ishizuka, Ken'Ichi; Iwasaki, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study, we found that electrical and chemical stimulation of the red nucleus (RN) suppressed the high-threshold afferent-evoked jaw-opening reflex (JOR). It has been reported that the RN receives bilaterally projection fibers from the raphe magnus nucleus (RMg), and that stimulation of the RMg inhibits the tooth pulp-evoked nociceptive JOR. These facts imply that RMg-induced inhibition of the JOR could be mediated via the RN. The present study first examines whether stimulation of the RMg suppresses the high-threshold afferent-evoked JOR. The JOR was evoked by electrical stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), and was recorded as the electromyographic response of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. The stimulus intensity was 4.0 (high-threshold) times the threshold. Conditioning electrical stimulation of the RMg significantly suppressed the JOR. A further study then examined whether electrically induced lesions of the RN or microinjection of muscimol into the RN affects RMg-induced suppression of the JOR. Electrically induced lesions of the bilateral RN and microinjection of muscimol into the bilateral RN both reduced the RMg-induced suppression of the JOR. These results suggest that RMg-induced suppression of the high-threshold afferent-evoked JOR is mediated by a relay in the RN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of the Pion Production Mechanisms in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SC using the Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to study the pion production mechanism in nucleus-nucleus collisions with the |3He and |1|2C beams of the CERN SC using the Omicron Spectrometer. The high intensity ion beams delivered now by the SC combined with the favourable characteristics of the Omicron Spectrometer offer a unique possibility of measuring very low cross-sections (typically in the order of 1 pb/(sr~MeV/c). In a first stage we will measure with an energy resolution of about 3~MeV the spectra of @p@+ emitted at 0|0 in two-body reactions induced by |3He ions of 910~MeV on targets of |6Li, |7Li, |9Be and |1|2C. The aim is to understand the reaction mechanisms and the nuclear wave functions most appropriate to describe the formation of nuclear bound states at momentum transfers of about 1.6@/1.7~GeV/c. The apparatus is shown in the figure. The same instrument will allow the measurement of the @p@+ inclusive spectra emitted at 0|0 after the interaction of the |1|2C|4|+ beam at 1032 MeV with the same targets. At 86 ...

  8. Hearing assessment during deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and dentate cerebellar nucleus in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V. Smit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently it has been shown in animal studies that deep brain stimulation (DBS of auditory structures was able to reduce tinnitus-like behavior. However, the question arises whether hearing might be impaired when interfering in auditory-related network loops with DBS. Methods The auditory brainstem response (ABR was measured in rats during high frequency stimulation (HFS and low frequency stimulation (LFS in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC, n = 5 or dentate cerebellar nucleus (DCBN, n = 5. Besides hearing thresholds using ABR, relative measures of latency and amplitude can be extracted from the ABR. In this study ABR thresholds, interpeak latencies (I–III, III–V, I–V and V/I amplitude ratio were measured during off-stimulation state and during LFS and HFS. Results In both the CIC and the CNBN groups, no significant differences were observed for all outcome measures. Discussion DBS in both the CIC and the CNBN did not have adverse effects on hearing measurements. These findings suggest that DBS does not hamper physiological processing in the auditory circuitry.

  9. The Spectator-Induced Electromagnetic Effect on Meson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at SPS Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki Andrzej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic interaction between the spectator system and the charged mesons produced in the course of the high energy heavy ion collision was studied experimentally and theoretically in earlier works [1,2]. This effect was found to result in very large distortions of the final state spectra of the produced mesons [3] and to bring new information on the space-time evolution of the non-perturbative meson production process [4]. In this paper a more extended analysis of this effect will be presented, including a comparative study between charged meson spectra produced in Pb+Pb collisions as well as collisions of Pb ions with smaller nuclei. The experimental results will be compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving a fair overall understanding of the interplay between the strong and the electromagnetic interaction in the heavy ion collision. A universal behaviour of charged meson spectra emerges from the above comparative study. This gives a unique chance of using the spectator charge as a tool to study the space-time evolution of the high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction.

  10. New - Nucleus - NucNet. The ENS triple communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuz, Peter; Holt, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The ENS triple communication system was built up as a step-by-step response to practical needs. In fact the triple communication system has the fourth issue, namely WINFO. Nuclear Europe was started in 1981 with three pilot issues. Now, Nuclear Europe Worldscan has become an integrator, between over 20 000 members of ENS Member Societies, from the Atlantic to the Urals and beyond; an integrator between Europe and the rest-of-the world nuclear community; between industry and science and engineering; between the bosses and the staff; and finally, an integrator between the nuclear community and those outsiders who take an interest in nuclear issues. Nucleus started in 1987, selected by the ENS Steering Committee for as the most worthwhile for transferring messages from nuclear community to the politicians and opinion-leaders, i.e. to non-technical outsiders. It is a briefing sheet for people who work with key policy principles, politicians and journalists. It is designed and written for people having no time to read. The keys to each two-page Nucleus are headlines. Nucleus appears in English, French, Croatian, Russian, Dutch, Hungarian, Romanian and Finnish. When the need grew really urgent for Europe, the ENS Information Committee proposed a feasibility study, which the European nuclear community entrusted to ENS in 1989. NucNet was launched in January 1991 - first as a European, and later as a truly worldwide, communications system. NucNet is the worldwide network which circulates nuclear news and information that the public should be informed of, written in a language that the public can easily understand. NucNet is highly appreciated, for instance, by NPP managers because they are informed about incidents faster than by any other means. But, NucNet is not merely an incident reporting system. (As a general rule, the network only reports on incidents in nuclear plants if they are rated at level 2 or above on the IAEA's International Nuclear Event Scale). The more

  11. Dual Coding of Frequency Modulation in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraouty, Nihaad; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Lorenzi, Christian; Varnet, Léo; Winter, Ian M

    2018-04-25

    Frequency modulation (FM) is a common acoustic feature of natural sounds and is known to play a role in robust sound source recognition. Auditory neurons show precise stimulus-synchronized discharge patterns that may be used for the representation of low-rate FM. However, it remains unclear whether this representation is based on synchronization to slow temporal envelope (ENV) cues resulting from cochlear filtering or phase locking to faster temporal fine structure (TFS) cues. To investigate the plausibility of those encoding schemes, single units of the ventral cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs of either sex were recorded in response to sine FM tones centered at the unit's best frequency (BF). The results show that, in contrast to high-BF units, for modulation depths within the receptive field, low-BF units (modulation depths extending beyond the receptive field, the discharge patterns follow the ENV and fluctuate at the modulation rate. The receptive field proved to be a good predictor of the ENV responses for most primary-like and chopper units. The current in vivo data also reveal a high level of diversity in responses across unit types. TFS cues are mainly conveyed by low-frequency and primary-like units and ENV cues by chopper and onset units. The diversity of responses exhibited by cochlear nucleus neurons provides a neural basis for a dual-coding scheme of FM in the brainstem based on both ENV and TFS cues. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Natural sounds, including speech, convey informative temporal modulations in frequency. Understanding how the auditory system represents those frequency modulations (FM) has important implications as robust sound source recognition depends crucially on the reception of low-rate FM cues. Here, we recorded 115 single-unit responses from the ventral cochlear nucleus in response to FM and provide the first physiological evidence of a dual-coding mechanism of FM via synchronization to temporal envelope cues and phase locking to temporal

  12. Tractography patterns of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas-Arroyave, Nora; Lauro, Peter M; Huang, Ling; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Lungu, Codrin

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation therapy is an effective symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic effects remain unclear. Although the targets of deep brain stimulation are grey matter structures, axonal modulation is known to play an important role in deep brain stimulation's therapeutic mechanism. Several white matter structures in proximity to the subthalamic nucleus have been implicated in the clinical benefits of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. We assessed the connectivity patterns that characterize clinically beneficial electrodes in Parkinson's disease patients, after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We evaluated 22 patients with Parkinson's disease (11 females, age 57 ± 9.1 years, disease duration 13.3 ± 6.3 years) who received bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus at the National Institutes of Health. During an initial electrode screening session, one month after deep brain stimulation implantation, the clinical benefits of each contact were determined. The electrode was localized by coregistering preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative computer tomography images and the volume of tissue activated was estimated from stimulation voltage and impedance. Brain connectivity for the volume of tissue activated of deep brain stimulation contacts was assessed using probabilistic tractography with diffusion-tensor data. Areas most frequently connected to clinically effective contacts included the thalamus, substantia nigra, brainstem and superior frontal gyrus. A series of discriminant analyses demonstrated that the strength of connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus and the thalamus were positively associated with clinical effectiveness. The connectivity patterns observed in our study suggest that the modulation of white matter tracts directed to the superior frontal gyrus and the thalamus is associated with favourable clinical

  13. Transition density of charge-exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The transition density between parent and analogue states is studied with special reference to its role in charge-exchange nuclear reactions. The structure of the target nucleus is described in a perturbative approach, in which the Coulomb and asymmetry potentials mix the eigenstates of a charge-independent single-particle Hamiltonian. In this model formulae are derived for the transition density, the Coulomb displacement energy and the neutron-proton density difference, and their relationship is used to estimate the transition density. This estimate shows that: the largest contribution comes from the density of the excess neutrons; the weight of the Coulomb-mixing effect is small up to excess neutron number 10, and grows rapidly beyond; the weight of the core polarization term induced by the excess neutrons is modest and is the same for all nuclei. It is indicated that the Coulomb effect may explain the departure from the Lane model of nucleon charge-exchange scattering found for heavy nuclei, whereas the core polarization may account for the observed anomalous dependence of the deg 0 pion charge-exchange cross section on the number of excess neutrons. (author)

  14. The Kölliker-Fuse nucleus orchestrates the timing of expiratory abdominal nerve bursting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, William H; Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K; Paton, Julian F R; Abdala, Ana P; Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zoccal, Daniel B

    2018-02-01

    Coordination of respiratory pump and valve muscle activity is essential for normal breathing. A hallmark respiratory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia is the emergence of active exhalation, characterized by abdominal muscle pumping during the late one-third of expiration (late-E phase). Late-E abdominal activity during hypercapnia has been attributed to the activation of expiratory neurons located within the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG). However, the mechanisms that control emergence of active exhalation, and its silencing in restful breathing, are not completely understood. We hypothesized that inputs from the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) control the emergence of late-E activity during hypercapnia. Previously, we reported that reversible inhibition of the KF reduced postinspiratory (post-I) motor output to laryngeal adductor muscles and brought forward the onset of hypercapnia-induced late-E abdominal activity. Here we explored the contribution of the KF for late-E abdominal recruitment during hypercapnia by pharmacologically disinhibiting the KF in in situ decerebrate arterially perfused rat preparations. These data were combined with previous results and incorporated into a computational model of the respiratory central pattern generator. Disinhibition of the KF through local parenchymal microinjections of gabazine (GABA A receptor antagonist) prolonged vagal post-I activity and inhibited late-E abdominal output during hypercapnia. In silico, we reproduced this behavior and predicted a mechanism in which the KF provides excitatory drive to post-I inhibitory neurons, which in turn inhibit late-E neurons of the pFRG. Although the exact mechanism proposed by the model requires testing, our data confirm that the KF modulates the formation of late-E abdominal activity during hypercapnia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The pons is essential for the formation of the three-phase respiratory pattern, controlling the inspiratory-expiratory phase transition. We provide

  15. γγ-coincidence in the neutron rich nucleus 25F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajta, Zs.; Sohler, D.; Dombradi, Zs.; Azaiez, F.; Belleguic, M.; Brown, B.A.; Becker, F.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The 25 F isotope, having a valence proton in addition to the doubly closed shell 24 O core, is expected to have a rather simple structure: its energy spectrum can be described as a few single proton states coupled to the ground and excited states of the neighboring oxygen nucleus, 24 O. However, states arising from cross shell excitations may also be present. According to theoretical calculations intruder states may appear in 25 F somewhat above the neutron separation energy. To see if any of these states is bound the structure of 25 F was studied at GANIL by in-beam γ-spectroscopic technique in the double step fragmentation reaction. In the experiment the primary beam of 36 S delivered by the two GANIL cyclotrons at an energy of 77.5 MeVA and an intensity of 400 pnA hit a carbon target of 348 mg/cm 2 thickness placed in the SISSI device. The produced nuclei were selected through the Alpha spectrometer. The secondary beam was mainly composed of 24 F, 25,26 Ne, 27,28 Na and 29,30 Mg. The fragments produced by reactions of the secondary beam on an 'active' target made of a plastic scintillator sandwiched by two carbon foils were collected and identified at the focal plane of the SPEG spectrometer by the combined use of ΔE, E, TOF information. 74 BaF 2 scintillators surrounding the secondary target detected the γ rays from the fragments. The γ-spectra were corrected for the Doppler-shift caused by the large fragment velocity. As the detectors were closely packed, the γ rays could easily scatter from one detector to another. To decrease the background caused by the scattered particles, we used the array in anti-Compton mode. On the basis of the analysis of γ-ray spectrum taken for 25 F 6 γ lines are assigned to the studied nucleus between 750 and 4200 keV. To help the level scheme construction, γγ-coincidence matrices were created. Putting a gate on the most intense 1720-keV γ line, it was found to be in coincidence with

  16. Accelerator and reactor complementarity in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, James B.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Liao, Shu; Newstead, Jayden L.; Strigari, Louis E.; Walker, Joel W.

    2018-02-01

    We study the complementarity between accelerator and reactor coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering (CE ν NS ) experiments for constraining new physics in the form of nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI). First, considering just data from the recent observation by the Coherent experiment, we explore interpretive degeneracies that emerge when activating either two or four unknown NSI parameters. Next, we demonstrate that simultaneous treatment of reactor and accelerator experiments, each employing at least two distinct target materials, can break a degeneracy between up and down flavor-diagonal NSI terms that survives analysis of neutrino oscillation experiments. Considering four flavor-diagonal (e e /μ μ ) up- and down-type NSI parameters, we find that all terms can be measured with high local precision (to a width as small as ˜5 % in Fermi units) by next-generation experiments, although discrete reflection ambiguities persist.

  17. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: age-related decline in biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with changes in sleep duration and quality, as well as increased rates of pathologic/disordered sleep. While several factors contribute to these changes, emerging research suggests that age-related changes in the mammalian central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may be a key factor. Prior work from our group suggests that circadian output from the SCN declines because of aging. Furthermore, we have previously observed age-related infertility in female mice, caused by a mismatch between environmental light-dark cycles and the intrinsic, internal biological clocks. In this review, we address regulatory mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals and summarize recent literature describing the effects of aging on the circadian system.

  18. Static negative capacitance of a ferroelectric nano-domain nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluka, Tomas; Mokry, Pavel; Setter, Nava

    2017-10-01

    Miniaturization of conventional field effect transistors (FETs) approaches the fundamental limits beyond which opening and closing the transistor channel require higher gate voltage swing and cause higher power dissipation and heating. This problem could be eliminated by placing a ferroelectric layer between the FET gate electrode and the channel, which effectively amplifies the gate voltage. The original idea of using a bulk ferroelectric negative capacitor suffers however from irreversible multi-domain ferroelectric switching, which does not allow us to stabilize static negative capacitance, while a recent reversible solution with super-lattices may be difficult to integrate onto FET. Here, we introduce a solution which provides static negative capacitance from a nano-domain nucleus. Phase-field simulations confirm the robustness of this concept, the conveniently achievable small effective negative capacitance and the potentially high compatibility of such a negative nano-capacitor with FET technology.

  19. The nucleon-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    The Glauber model has the merit to connect directly the nucleon-nucleus elastic differential cross section with the nucleon-nucleon amplitude and nuclear densities. The general agreement between the 1 GeV proton elastic scattering differential cross sections calculated without adjustable parameter and the experimental data (from He 4 to Pb 208 ) is rather satisfactory up to 2. - 2.5 fm -1 momentum transfer. Although the 1 GeV proton elastic scattering experiments constitute at present one of the best method in determining neutron densities, it seems that self-consistent calculations bring the best knowledge of these densities. The model independent analysis performed with electron and proton scattering experiments show that the difference between neutron and proton r.m.s. radius cannot be determined better than 25-30% for Pb 208 [fr

  20. Gas component parameters in the nucleus of galaxy NGC5879

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, G.T.; Mineva, V.A.; Kyazumov, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Relative intensities of the emission lines from the nucleus of galaxy NGC 5879 are determined, using spectra obtained by the 125-cm ZTE telescope at the Crimea Station of State Astronomical Institute Shane. On the basis of these data, the luminosity in the line HSUB(α) is determined: LSUB(Hα)= 3.43.10 38 erg/sec; also the mass of gas: MSUB(gas)= 1.10 36 g, and other quantities, for H=75 km/s Mpc. The electron density of the gas, nSUB(e), is estimated to be 1550 cm -3 . Nitrogen and sulphur ion contents are correspondingly lgN + =7.09 and lgS + =6.53, assuming lgH=12.00. The NGC 5879 galaxy exibits a weak activity, expressed in relatively strong emission lines, and can be referred to galaxies of the M51 or M81 type, studied in detail by Peimbert

  1. Identification of the doubly magic nucleus 100Sn at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The production of the doubly magic nucleus 100 Sn and other proton-rich nuclei in the A∼100 region in the reaction 112 Sn + nat Ni at 63 MeV/A is discussed. The high acceptance device SISSI, the magnetic spectrometers Alpha and LISE3 at GANIL were employed for the collection, separation and in flight identification of the different reaction products. The measurements of time-of-flight, energy-loss and kinetic energy at event by event mode allow the mass A, atomic number Z, and charge Q determinations of the reaction products. Over twenty events of 100 Sn 48+ were observed over a period of 44 hours with a primary beam intensity of ∼ 2.4 pnA. (author). 20 refs., 6 figs

  2. Identification of the doubly magic nucleus 100 Sn at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Anne, R.; Auger, G.; Bazin, D.; Corre, J.M.; Hue, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Borcea, C.; Borrel, V.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Mueller, A.C.; Pougheon, F.; Sorlin, O.; Fomichov, A.; Lukyanov, S.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Tarasov, O.; Grzywacz, R.; Pfuetzner, M.; Rykaczewski, K.; Zylicz, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the production of the doubly magic nucleus 100 Sn and other proton-rich nuclei in the A∼100 region in the reaction 112 Sn + nat Ni at 63 MeV/A. The high acceptance device SISSI, the magnetic spectrometers Alpha and LISE3 at GANIL were employed for the collection, separation and in flight identification of the different reaction products. The measurements of time-of-flight, energy-loss and kinetic energy at event by event mode allow the mass A, atomic number Z, and charge Q determinations of the reaction products. Over twenty events of 100 Sn 48+ were observed over a period of 44 hours with a primary beam intensity of ∼2.4 pnA. (authors). 20 refs., 6 figs

  3. On the Poisson’s ratio of the nucleus pulposus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M D; Riches, P E

    2013-10-01

    Existing experimental data on the Poisson’s ratio of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue is limited. This study aims to determine whether the Poisson’s ratio of NP tissue is strain-dependent, strain-rate-dependent, or varies with axial location in the disk. Thirty-two cylindrical plugs of bovine tail NP tissue were subjected to ramphold unconfined compression to 20% axial strain in 5% increments, at either 30 lm/s or 0.3 lm/s ramp speeds and the radial displacement determined using biaxial video extensometry. Following radial recoil, the true Poisson’s ratio of the solid phase of NP tissue increased linearly with increasing strain and demonstrated strain-rate dependency. The latter finding suggests that the solid matrix undergoes stress relaxation during the test. For small strains, we suggest a Poisson’s ratio of 0.125 to be used in biphasic models of the intervertebral disk

  4. On the poisson's ratio of the nucleus pulposus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M D; Riches, P E

    2013-10-01

    Existing experimental data on the Poisson's ratio of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue is limited. This study aims to determine whether the Poisson's ratio of NP tissue is strain-dependent, strain-rate-dependent, or varies with axial location in the disk. Thirty-two cylindrical plugs of bovine tail NP tissue were subjected to ramp-hold unconfined compression to 20% axial strain in 5% increments, at either 30 μm/s or 0.3 μm/s ramp speeds and the radial displacement determined using biaxial video extensometry. Following radial recoil, the true Poisson's ratio of the solid phase of NP tissue increased linearly with increasing strain and demonstrated strain-rate dependency. The latter finding suggests that the solid matrix undergoes stress relaxation during the test. For small strains, we suggest a Poisson's ratio of 0.125 to be used in biphasic models of the intervertebral disk.

  5. Observation of Top Quark Production in Proton-Nucleus Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Ambrogi, F; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Escalante Del Valle, A; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Grossmann, J; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krammer, N; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Madlener, T; Mikulec, I; Pree, E; Rad, N; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Spanring, M; Spitzbart, D; Waltenberger, W; Wittmann, J; Wulz, C-E; Zarucki, M; Chekhovsky, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; De Wolf, E A; Di Croce, D; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; De Bruyn, I; De Clercq, J; Deroover, K; Flouris, G; Lontkovskyi, D; Lowette, S; Marchesini, I; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Beghin, D; Bilin, B; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Dorney, B; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Kalsi, A K; Lenzi, T; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Seva, T; Starling, E; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Roskas, C; Salva, S; Tytgat, M; Verbeke, W; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caputo, C; Caudron, A; David, P; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Saggio, A; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Zobec, J; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Coelho, E; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Melo De Almeida, M; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Sanchez Rosas, L J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Thiel, M; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Misheva, M; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Gao, X; Yuan, L; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liao, H; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Zhang, S; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, J; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Zhang, F; Wang, Y; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Segura Delgado, M A; Courbon, B; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Starodumov, A; Susa, T; Ather, M W; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Mahrous, A; Dewanjee, R K; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Kirschenmann, H; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Havukainen, J; Heikkilä, J K; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Laurila, S; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Siikonen, H; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Leloup, C; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Negro, G; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Sahin, M Ö; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Amendola, C; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Charlot, C; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Lobanov, A; Martin Blanco, J; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; 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Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Palladino, V; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Scott, E; Seez, C; Shtipliyski, A; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wardle, N; Winterbottom, D; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Reid, I D; Teodorescu, L; Zahid, S; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Smith, C; Bartek, R; Dominguez, A; Buccilli, A; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Cutts, D; Garabedian, A; Hadley, M; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Lee, J; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Pazzini, J; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Syarif, R; Yu, D; Band, R; Brainerd, C; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Shi, M; 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Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhang, Z; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Ferguson, T; Mudholkar, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Leontsinis, S; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Patterson, J R; Quach, D; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Alyari, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Apyan, A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Canepa, A; Cerati, G B; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cremonesi, M; Duarte, J; Elvira, V D; Freeman, J; Gecse, Z; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Schneider, B; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Gleyzer, S V; Joshi, B M; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Shi, K; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Joshi, Y R; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Martinez, G; Perry, T; Prosper, H; Saha, A; Santra, A; Sharma, V; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Cavanaugh, R; Chen, X; Evdokimov, O; Gerber, C E; Hangal, D A; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kamin, J; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Tonjes, M B; Trauger, H; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Rogan, C; Royon, C; Sanders, S; Schmitz, E; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Eno, S C; Feng, Y; Ferraioli, C; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Hu, M; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Hiltbrand, J; Kalafut, S; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Turkewitz, J; Wadud, M A; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Golf, F; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Freer, C; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wamorkar, T; Wang, B; Wisecarver, A; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Bucci, R; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Li, W; Loukas, N; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Siddireddy, P; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wightman, A; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Higginbotham, S; Kalogeropoulos, A; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Malik, S; Norberg, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Das, S; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Peng, C C; Qiu, H; Schulte, J F; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xiao, R; Xie, W; Cheng, T; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Freed, S; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Kilpatrick, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Shi, W; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Zhang, A; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Ciesielski, R; Goulianos, K; Mesropian, C; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Montalvo, R; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Mengke, T; Muthumuni, S; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Padeken, K; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Joyce, M; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Poudyal, N; Sturdy, J; Thapa, P; Zaleski, S; Brodski, M; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Hussain, U; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2017-12-15

    The first observation of top quark production in proton-nucleus collisions is reported using proton-lead data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s_{NN}]=8.16  TeV. The measurement is performed using events with exactly one isolated electron or muon candidate and at least four jets. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 174  nb^{-1}. The significance of the tt[over ¯] signal against the background-only hypothesis is above 5 standard deviations. The measured cross section is σ_{tt[over ¯]}=45±8  nb, consistent with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  6. Reward and reinforcement activity in the nucleus accumbens during learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Gale

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc has been implicated in learning associations between sensory cues and profitable motor responses. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie these functions remain unclear. We recorded single-neuron activity from the NAcc of primates trained to perform a visual-motor associative learning task. During learning, we found two distinct classes of NAcc neurons. The first class demonstrated progressive increases in firing rates at the go-cue, feedback/tone and reward epochs of the task, as novel associations were learned. This suggests that these neurons may play a role in the exploitation of rewarding behaviors. In contrast, the second class exhibited attenuated firing rates, but only at the reward epoch of the task. These findings suggest that some NAcc neurons play a role in reward-based reinforcement during learning.

  7. Likelihood analysis of parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, D.; Sharapov, E.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the root mean-squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction between compound-nuclear states using likelihood analysis. We briefly review the relevant features of the statistical model of the compound nucleus and the formalism of likelihood analysis. We then discuss the application of likelihood analysis to data on panty-violating longitudinal asymmetries. The reliability of the extracted value of the matrix element and errors assigned to the matrix element is stressed. We treat the situations where the spins of the p-wave resonances are not known and known using experimental data and Monte Carlo techniques. We conclude that likelihood analysis provides a reliable way to determine M and its confidence interval. We briefly discuss some problems associated with the normalization of the likelihood function

  8. Pion-nucleus reactions in a microscopic transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.; Cassing, W.; Mosel, U.; Schaefer, M.; Wolf, G.

    1994-01-01

    We analyse pion-nucleus reactions in a microscopic transport model of the BUU type, which propagates nucleons, pions, deltas and N(1440) resonances explicitly in space and time. In particular we examine pion absorption and inelastic-scattering cross sections for pion kinetic energies T π =85-315 MeV and various target masses. In general, the mass dependence of the experimental data is well described for energies up to the Δ-resonance (∼160 MeV), while the absorption cross sections are somewhat overestimated for the higher energies. In addition we study the possible dynamical effects of delta and pion potentials in the medium on various observables as well as alternative models for the in-medium Δ-width. ((orig.))

  9. Failure of the statistical hypothesis for compound nucleus decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    In the past five years, conclusive evidence has accumulated that channel correlations are important in resonance reactions. Experiments showing the failure of the statistical hypothesis for compound nucleus decay are described. The emphasis is on the radiative neutron capture reaction, where much detailed work has been done. A short summary of the theory of the (n,γ) reaction is presented; it is demonstrated that this reaction is a sensitive probe of the wave functions for highly excited nuclear states. Various experimental techniques using reactor and accelerator-based neutron sources are presented. The experiments have shown that both resonant and non-resonant reactions can show single particle effects where the external part of configuration space is dominant. In the non-resonant case, hard sphere capture is important; on resonances, valence particle motion and the contributions of 1 and 3 quasi-particle doorway states make up a significant fraction of the radiative width

  10. Role of the nucleus in apoptosis: signaling and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorova, Evgeniia A; Zamaraev, Alexey V; Kopeina, Gelina S; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Lavrik, Inna N

    2015-12-01

    Since their establishment in the early 1970s, the nuclear changes upon apoptosis induction, such as the condensation of chromatin, disassembly of nuclear scaffold proteins and degradation of DNA, were, and still are, considered as the essential steps and hallmarks of apoptosis. These are the characteristics of the execution phase of apoptotic cell death. In addition, accumulating data clearly show that some nuclear events can lead to the induction of apoptosis. In particular, if DNA lesions resulting from deregulation during the cell cycle or DNA damage induced by chemotherapeutic drugs or viral infection cannot be efficiently eliminated, apoptotic mechanisms, which enable cellular transformation to be avoided, are activated in the nucleus. The functional heterogeneity of the nuclear organization allows the tight regulation of these signaling events that involve the movement of various nuclear proteins to other intracellular compartments (and vice versa) to initiate and govern apoptosis. Here, we discuss how these events are coordinated to execute apoptotic cell death.

  11. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  12. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  13. Transition Matrix Cluster Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yevick, David; Lee, Yong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that a series of simple procedures for increasing the efficiency of transition matrix calculations can be realized by integrating the standard single-spin reversal transition matrix method with global cluster inversion techniques.

  14. Transit operator absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A nationwide survey of transit operators indicated that absenteeism among transit operators is a significant problem and that the associated costs are substantial. The objective of the research reported here was to determine the scope of operator abs...

  15. Electromagnetic Transition Strengths Studied with Doppler-Shift Techniques Across the Contours of the Valley Of Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loelius, Charles Robert

    The electromagnetic transition strengths between bound states in nuclei provide insight into nuclear structure. On one hand, from a single particle perspective the electromagnetic excitation and de-excitation of nuclei quantify the overlaps of nuclear wavefunctions, probing the internal configuration. On the other hand, in a collective model, the shape and dynamics of the nucleus are reflected in the electromagnetic transition strengths. For example, electric quadrupole transitions are sensitive to the deformation of a nucleus and distinguish between various pictures of collectivity, such as rotors and vibrators. In this work, electromagnetic transition strengths are studied through lifetime and Coulomb-excitation measurements. Nuclei across the contours of the valley of stability are studied to investigate features of nuclear structure and how they change near and far from stability. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  16. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied.In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect.Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  17. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Elodie; Boisseau, Sylvie; Bouyssières, Céline; Appaix, Florence; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN), which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity) while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A) receptors were involved in this effect. Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  18. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during

  20. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  1. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  2. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  3. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.

    1995-05-01

    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  4. Transit manager's handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This handbook provides an overview of public transit in Iowa and how to do business with the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) Office of Public Transit (OPT). It is intended to be a tool to assist transit managers navigate through the many...

  5. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  6. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  7. Calculation of the hyperfine structure transition energy and lifetime in the one-electron Bi[sup 82+] ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkbeiner, M. (Fachbereich Physik, Univ. Kassel (Germany)); Fricke, B. (Fachbereich Physik, Univ. Kassel (Germany)); Kuehl, T. (GSI, Darmstadt (Germany))

    1993-05-03

    We calculate the energy and lifetime of the ground state hyperfine structure transition in one-electron Bi[sup 82+]. The influence of various distributions of the magnetic moment and the electric charge in the nucleus [sub 83][sup 209]Bi on energy and lifetime is studied. (orig.)

  8. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories in the Human Interphase Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. The regulation of genes has been shown to be connected closely to the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the cell nucleus. The nucleus of the cell has for a long

  9. Symmetry energy of the nucleus in the relativistic Thomas–Fermi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S HADDAD

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Abstract. The symmetry energy of a nucleus is determined in a local density approximation and integrating over the entire density distribution of the nucleus, calculated utilizing the relativistic density-dependent Thomas-Fermi approach. The symmetry energy is found to decrease with increasing neutron ...

  10. Cellular Neurophysiology of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Electrical Properties, Neurotransmission, and Mechanisms of Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-29

    activity in rabbit mino -atrial node. Journal of Physiology 308, 331-351. CAHILL. (.M. & MFtNAKER. M. (1987). Kynurenic acid blocks suprachiasmatic nucleus...E. (1987) The Retina: An Approachable Part of* the Brain. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. MA. 35. Drucker-Colin R., Aguilar -Roblero R., Garcia

  11. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this article, some of our recent results on fission fragment/product angular distri- butions are discussed in the context of non-compound nucleus fission. Measurement of fission fragment angular distribution in 28Si+176Yb reaction did not show a large contribution from the non-compound nucleus fission. Data on ...

  12. Spatial and dynamic organization of molecular structures in the cell nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Kee

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we attempt to provide a better understanding of the principles that underlie the spatial dynamic organization of the cell nucleus. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge about the structural and functional organization of the cell nucleus. In chapter 2, the development of a

  13. PROJECTIONS OF THE PARVOCELLULAR RETICULAR-FORMATION TO THE CONTRALATERAL MESENCEPHALIC TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MINKELS, RF; JUCH, PJW; TERHORST, GJ; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    Projections of the parvocellular reticular nucleus (PCRt) to the contralateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5) were studied in the rat with neurophysiological and neuroanatomical techniques. Three types of responses (classified by latencies) were recorded extracellularly in the Me5 area after

  14. Evidence for a periaqueductal gray-nucleus retroambiguus spinal cord pathway in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.; Kerstens, Lenka; Moes, M.C.; Horst, V.G.J.M. van der

    1997-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus in the cat has been shown to receive strong projections from the periaqueductal gray and to send fibres to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in brainstem and spinal cord. The nucleus retroambiguus plays a role in the production of vocalization and possibly copulatory

  15. Degeneration of the external cuneate nucleus in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rub, U; de Vos, RAI; Brunt, ER; Schultz, C; Paulson, H; Del Tredici, K; Braak, H

    2002-01-01

    Owing to its anatomical connections, the external cuneate nucleus (ECU) plays a crucial role in processing proprioceptive input from the upper trunk and upper limbs. Here, we studied this dorsal column nucleus post-mortem in five individuals with clinically diagnosed and genetically confirmed

  16. Dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens shell and core in response to appetitive classical conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, J. J.; de Bruin, J. P. C.; Feenstra, M. G. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in associative reinforcement learning. We investigated the effect of appetitive classical conditioning on dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens shell and core, as dopamine may be differentially activated by conditioned and

  17. Role of orexin receptors in the nucleus accumbens in dopamine-dependent turning behaviour of rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotani, A.; Ikeda, H.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of orexin receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell in rat turning behaviour of rats was studied. Unilateral injection of neither the orexin 1 and 2 receptor agonist orexin A (2 microg) nor the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB 334867 (20 ng) into the nucleus accumbens shell elicited turning

  18. A stereological study of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, A S; Korbo, S; Uylings, H B M

    2014-01-01

    The total number of neurons and glial cells in the mediodorsal thalamic (MDT) nucleus of four aged females with Down syndrome (DS; mean age 69years) was estimated and compared to six age- and sex-matched controls. The MDT nucleus was delineated on coronal sections, and cell numbers (large and small...

  19. Symmetry energy of the nucleus in the relativistic Thomas–Fermi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S HADDAD

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... GANIL/France, and the GSI facility FAIR in Germany, which produce new data for neutron-rich nuclei. A key point is the ... the value of the nuclear matter symmetry energy is deter- mined at the local density value inside the nucleus. The symmetry energy integral and the symmetry energy of the nucleus are ...

  20. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal-Cell Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan; Doeselaar, Marina van; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M; Ito, Keita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  1. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal Cell-Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan A H; van Doeselaar, Marina; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Ito, K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  2. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... In this article, some of our recent results on fission fragment/product angular distributions are discussed in the context of non-compound nucleus fission. Measurement of fission fragment angular distribution in 28Si+176Yb reaction did not show a large contribution from the non-compound nucleus fission.

  3. Cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the rat: role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kawabe

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN was studied in urethane-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats. At the baseline mean arterial pressure (BLMAP close to normal, ARCN stimulation elicited decreases in MAP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. The decreases in MAP elicited by ARCN stimulation were attenuated by either gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY, or beta-endorphin receptor blockade in the ipsilateral hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Combined blockade of GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the ipsilateral PVN converted the decreases in MAP and SNA to increases in these variables. Conversion of inhibitory effects on the MAP and SNA to excitatory effects following ARCN stimulation was also observed when the BLMAP was decreased to below normal levels by an infusion of sodium nitroprusside. The pressor and tachycardic responses to ARCN stimulation at below normal BLMAP were attenuated by blockade of melanocortin 3/4 (MC3/4 receptors in the ipsilateral PVN. Unilateral blockade of GABA-A receptors in the ARCN increased the BLMAP and heart rate (HR revealing tonic inhibition of the excitatory neurons in the ARCN. ARCN stimulation elicited tachycardia regardless of the level of BLMAP. ARCN neurons projecting to the PVN were immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67, NPY, and beta-endorphin. These results indicated that: 1 at normal BLMAP, decreases in MAP and SNA induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the PVN, 2 lowering of BLMAP converted decreases in MAP following ARCN stimulation to increases in MAP, and 3 at below normal BLMAP, increases in MAP and HR induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via MC3/4 receptors in the PVN. These results provide a base for future studies to explore the role of ARCN in cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Modulation of the arcuate nucleus-medial preoptic nucleus lordosis regulating circuit: a role for GABAB receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinchak, Kevin; Dewing, Phoebe; Ponce, Laura; Gomez, Liliana; Christensen, Amy; Berger, Max; Micevych, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol rapidly activates a microcircuit in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that is needed for maximal female sexual receptivity. Membrane estrogen receptor-α complexes with and signals through the metabotropic glutamate receptor-1a stimulating NPY release within the ARH activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. These POMC neurons project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and release β-endorphin. Estradiol treatment induces activation/internalization of MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOR) to inhibit lordosis. Estradiol membrane action modulates ARH gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-B (GABAB) activity. We tested the hypothesis that ARH GABAB receptors mediate estradiol-induced MOR activation and facilitation of sexual receptivity. Double label immunohistochemistry revealed expression of GABAB receptors in NPY, ERα and POMC expressing ARH neurons. Approximately 70% of POMC neurons expressed GABAB receptors. Because estradiol initially activates an inhibitory circuit and maintains activation of this circuit, the effects of blocking GABAB receptors were evaluated before estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment and after at the time of lordosis testing. Bilateral infusions of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP52432, into the ARH prior to EB treatment of ovariectomized rats prevented estradiol-induced activation/internalization of MPN MOR, and the rats remained unreceptive. However, in EB treated rats, bilateral CGP52432 infusions 30 minutes before behavior testing attenuated MOR internalization and facilitated lordosis. These results indicated that GABAB receptors were located within the lordosis-regulating ARH microcircuit and are necessary for activation and maintenance of the estradiol inhibition of lordosis behavior. Although GABAB receptors positively influence estradiol signaling, they negatively regulate lordosis behavior since GABAB activity maintains the estradiol-induced inhibition. PMID:23756153

  5. Regulation of motivation for food by neuromedin U in the paraventricular nucleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, D L; Kasper, J M; Hommel, J D

    2017-01-01

    Motivation for high-fat food is thought to contribute to excess caloric intake in obese individuals. A novel regulator of motivation for food may be neuromedin U (NMU), a highly-conserved neuropeptide that influences food intake. Although these effects of NMU have primarily been attributed to signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), NMU has also been found in other brain regions involved in both feeding behavior and motivation. We investigate the effects of NMU on motivation for food and food intake, and identify the brain regions mediating these effects. The motivational state for a particular reinforcer (e.g., high-fat food) can be assessed using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement under which an increasing number of lever presses are required to obtain subsequent reinforcers. Here, we have used a progressive-ratio operant responding paradigm in combination with an assessment of cumulative food intake to evaluate the effects of NMU administration in rats, and identify the brain regions mediating these effects. We found that peripheral administration of NMU decreases operant responding for high-fat food in rats. Evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity in response to peripheral NMU indicated the PVN and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) as sites of action for NMU. NMU infusion into either region mimics the effects of peripheral NMU on food intake and operant responding for food. NMU-containing projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the PVN and DRN were identified as an endogenous source of NMU. These results identify the DRN as a site of action for NMU, demonstrate that the LH provides endogenous NMU to the PVN and DRN and implicate NMU signaling in the PVN and DRN as a novel regulator of motivation for high-fat foods.

  6. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  7. Visual discrimination in the pigeon (Columba livia): effects of selective lesions of the nucleus rotundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.

  8. Preservation of the nucleus X-pelvic floor motosystem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1984-01-01

    were observed in Onuf's nucleus X, not even in 8 cases in which other caudal motoneuron nuclei presented a severe loss of neurons. The striated sphincters proper demonstrated no signs of neurogenic atrophy in contrast to muscles in the limbs. The bulbo- and ischiocavernosus muscles, also supposedly......Fourteen cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were investigated neuropathologically, emphazising the sacral spinal cord which contains Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus innervates the pelvic sphincters. In two cases, small striated pelvic muscles were studied. No changes characteristic of ALS...... innervated by Onuf's nucleus, were without pathological changes. Moreover, the latter two muscles were found to have a composition very similar to that of the sphincters. This indicates that a characteristic morphology of the nucleus X-innervated muscles exists. A review of the clinical records of all...

  9. Dyspnea as a side effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalif, Joshua I; Sitsapesan, Holly A; Pattinson, Kyle T S; Herigstad, Mari; Aziz, Tipu Z; Green, Alexander L

    2014-02-01

    Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease improves limb function. Unpublished observations from our clinic noted that some subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation patients complain of post-operative dyspnea. Therefore, we designed a prospective, longitudinal study to characterize this in greater depth. We used specific questionnaires to assess dyspnea in patients with electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (n=13) or ventral intermediate thalamus (n=7). St. George's Hospital Respiratory Questionnaire symptom subscale scores were greater in subthalamic nucleus patients (median=18.60, interquartile range=40.80) than ventral intermediate thalamus patients (median = 0.00, interquartile range=15.38) at greater than 6 months post-operatively (pdyspnea severity. We have shown, for the first time, that dyspnea can be a side effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, and that this dyspnea may be highly disabling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurotransmitter mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens septi and related regions in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.

    1981-06-30

    The investigation compares the localization of different transmitter candidates, particularly the amino acide ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glutamate (GLU), in limbic and basal ganglia regions in the rat brain. In particular, the characteristics of nucleus accumbens septi have been studied in some detail. GABA neurons have been found in nucleus accumbens, and GABA projections from this nucleus have been identified in restricted basal forebrain and mesencephalic regions. GLU projections from the neo- or allocortex have been found to terminate in nucleus accumbens and other forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei. Neurotransmitters in local neurons have been identified in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, septum and caudatoputamen by means of local kainic acid injections, while neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus have been studied after systemic treatment of newborn animals with monosodium glutamate. The results are discussed as a basis for a better understanding of limbic-basal ganglia interactions.

  11. Toroidal high-spin isomers in the nucleus 304120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Kosior, A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: Strongly deformed oblate superheavy nuclei form an intriguing region where the toroidal nuclear structures may bifurcate from the oblate spheroidal shape. The bifurcation may be facilitated when the nucleus is endowed with a large angular moment about the symmetry axis with I =Iz . The toroidal high-K isomeric states at their local energy minima can be theoretically predicted using the cranked self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method. Purpose: We use the cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method to predict the properties of the toroidal high-spin isomers in the superheavy nucleus 120304184. Method: Our method consists of three steps: First, we use the deformation-constrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach to search for the nuclear density distributions with toroidal shapes. Next, using these toroidal distributions as starting configurations, we apply an additional cranking constraint of a large angular momentum I =Iz about the symmetry z axis and search for the energy minima of the system as a function of the deformation. In the last step, if a local energy minimum with I =Iz is found, we perform at this point the cranked symmetry- and deformation-unconstrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations to locate a stable toroidal high-spin isomeric state in free convergence. Results: We have theoretically located two toroidal high-spin isomeric states of 120304184 with an angular momentum I =Iz=81 ℏ (proton 2p-2h, neutron 4p-4h excitation) and I =Iz=208 ℏ (proton 5p-5h, neutron 8p-8h) at the quadrupole moment deformations Q20=-297.7 b and Q20=-300.8 b with energies 79.2 and 101.6 MeV above the spherical ground state, respectively. The nuclear density distributions of the toroidal high-spin isomers 120304184(Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ ) have the maximum density close to the nuclear matter density, 0.16 fm-3, and a torus major to minor radius aspect ratio R /d =3.25 . Conclusions: We demonstrate that aligned angular momenta of Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ arising from

  12. Exclusive measurement of breakup reactions with the one-neutron halo nucleus sup 1 sup 1 Be

    CERN Document Server

    Palit, R; Aumann, T; Boretzky, K; Carlson, B V; Cortina-Gil, D; Elze, T W; Emling, H; Geissel, H; Hellström, M; Jones, K L; Kratz, J V; Kulessa, R; Leifels, Y; Leistenschneider, A; Münzenberg, G; Nociforo, C; Reiter, P; Simon, H; Sümmerer, K; Walús, W

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear inelastic scattering of the halo nucleus sup 1 sup 1 Be have been investigated by a measurement of the one-neutron removal channel, utilizing a secondary sup 1 sup 1 Be beam with an energy of 520 MeV/nucleon impinging on lead and carbon targets. All decay products, i.e. sup 1 sup 0 Be fragments, neutrons, and gamma-rays have been detected in coincidence. Partial cross sections for the population of ground and excited states in sup 1 sup 0 Be were determined for nuclear diffractive breakup as well as for electromagnetically induced breakup. The partial cross sections for ground-state transitions have been differentiated further with respect to excitation energy, and the dipole-strength function associated solely with transitions of the halo 2s sub 1 sub / sub 2 neutron to the continuum has been derived. The extracted dipole strength integrated from the neutron threshold up to 6.1 MeV excitation energy amounts to 0.90(6) e sup 2 fm sup 2. A spectroscopic factor for the nu 2s sub 1 su...

  13. Contour Detection of Leukocyte Cell Nucleus Using Morphological Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, R.; Satrio, G. P.; Ramadhani, Y.; Siswandari, W.

    2017-04-01

    Leukocytes are blood cells that do not contain color pigments. Leukocyte function to the tool body’s defenses. Abnormal forms of leukocytes can be a sign of serious diseases such example is leukemia. Most laboratories still use cell morphology examination to assist the diagnosis of illness associated with white blood cells such example is leukemia because of limited resources, both infrastructure, and human resources as happens in developing nations, such as Indonesia. This examination is less expensive and quicker process. However, morphological review requires the expertise of a specialist clinical pathology were limited. This process is sometimes less valid cause in some cases trying to differentiate morphology blast cells into the type of myoblasts, lymphoblast, monoblast, or erythroblast thus potentially misdiagnosis. The goal of this research is to develop a detection device types of blood cells automatically as lower-priced, easy to use and accurate so that the tool can be distributed across all units in existing health services throughout Indonesia and in particular for remote areas. However, because the variables used in the identification of abnormal leukocytes are very complex, in this paper, we emphasize on the contour detection of leukocyte cell nucleus using the morphological image. The results show that this method is promising for further development.

  14. Nucleus accumbens shell moderates preference bias during voluntary choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeran; Jung, Kanghoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang Ki; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-09-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell lies anatomically at a critical intersection within the brain's reward system circuitry, however, its role in voluntary choice behavior remains unclear. Rats with electrolytic lesions in the NAc shell were tested in a novel foraging paradigm. Over a continuous two-week period they freely chose among four nutritionally identical but differently flavored food pellets by pressing corresponding levers. We examined the lesion's effects on three behavioral dynamics components: motivation (when to eat), preference bias (what to choose) and persistence (how long to repeat the same choice). The lesion led to a marked increase in the preference bias: i.e., increased selection of the most-preferred choice option, and decreased selection of the others. We found no effects on any other behavioral measures, suggesting no effect on motivation or choice persistence. The results implicate the NAc shell in moderating the instrumental valuation process by inhibiting excessive bias toward preferred choice options. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Auditory information coding by modeled cochlear nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Isik, Michael; Borst, Alexander; Hemmert, Werner

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we use information theory to quantify the information in the output spike trains of modeled cochlear nucleus globular bushy cells (GBCs). GBCs are part of the sound localization pathway. They are known for their precise temporal processing, and they code amplitude modulations with high fidelity. Here we investigated the information transmission for a natural sound, a recorded vowel. We conclude that the maximum information transmission rate for a single neuron was close to 1,050 bits/s, which corresponds to a value of approximately 5.8 bits per spike. For quasi-periodic signals like voiced speech, the transmitted information saturated as word duration increased. In general, approximately 80% of the available information from the spike trains was transmitted within about 20 ms. Transmitted information for speech signals concentrated around formant frequency regions. The efficiency of neural coding was above 60% up to the highest temporal resolution we investigated (20 μs). The increase in transmitted information to that precision indicates that these neurons are able to code information with extremely high fidelity, which is required for sound localization. On the other hand, only 20% of the information was captured when the temporal resolution was reduced to 4 ms. As the temporal resolution of most speech recognition systems is limited to less than 10 ms, this massive information loss might be one of the reasons which are responsible for the lack of noise robustness of these systems.

  16. The thalamic reticular nucleus: structure, function and concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Didier

    2004-08-01

    On the basis of theoretical, anatomical, psychological and physiological considerations, Francis Crick (1984) proposed that, during selective attention, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls the internal attentional searchlight that simultaneously highlights all the neural circuits called on by the object of attention. In other words, he submitted that during either perception, or the preparation and execution of any cognitive and/or motor task, the TRN sets all the corresponding thalamocortical (TC) circuits in motion. Over the last two decades, behavioural, electrophysiological, anatomical and neurochemical findings have been accumulating, supporting the complex nature of the TRN and raising questions about the validity of this speculative hypothesis. Indeed, our knowledge of the actual functioning of the TRN is still sprinkled with unresolved questions. Therefore, the time has come to join forces and discuss some recent cellular and network findings concerning this diencephalic GABAergic structure, which plays important roles during various states of consciousness. On the whole, the present critical survey emphasizes the TRN's complexity, and provides arguments combining anatomy, physiology and cognitive psychology.

  17. ELAV proteins along evolution: back to the nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombrita, Claudia; Silani, Vincenzo; Ratti, Antonia

    2013-09-01

    The complex interplay of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBP) at different steps of RNA metabolism is pivotal for the development of the nervous system and the maintenance of adult brain activities. In this review, we will focus on the highly conserved ELAV gene family encoding for neuronal-specific RBPs which are necessary for proper neuronal differentiation and important for synaptic plasticity process. In the evolution from Drosophila to man, ELAV proteins seem to have changed their biological functions in relation to their different subcellular localization. While in Drosophila, they are localized in the nuclear compartment of neuronal cells and regulate splicing and polyadenylation, in mammals, the neuronal ELAV proteins are mainly present in the cytoplasm where they participate in regulating mRNA target stability, translation and transport into neurites. However, recent data indicate that the mammalian ELAV RBPs also have nuclear activities, similarly to their fly counterpart, being them able to continuously shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Here, we will review and comment on all the biological functions associated with neuronal ELAV proteins along evolution and will show that the post-transcriptional regulatory network mediated by these RBPs in the brain is highly complex and only at an initial stage of being fully understood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'RNA and splicing regulation in neurodegeneration'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nucleus accumbens core and pathogenesis of compulsive checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester González, Javier; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Silva, Charmaine; Foster, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) in the development of quinpirole-induced compulsive checking, rats received an excitotoxic lesion of NAc or sham lesion and were injected with quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg) or saline; development of checking behavior was monitored for 10 biweekly tests. The results showed that even after the NAc lesion, quinpirole still induced compulsive checking, suggesting that the pathogenic effects produced by quinpirole lie outside the NAc. Although the NAc lesion did not prevent the induction of compulsive checking, it altered how quickly it develops, suggesting that the NAc normally contributes toward the induction of compulsive checking. Saline-treated rats with an NAc lesion were hyperactive, but did not develop compulsive checking, indicating that hyperactivity by itself is not sufficient for the pathogenesis of compulsive checking. It is proposed that compulsive checking is the exaggerated output of a security motivation system and that the NAc serves as a neural hub for coordinating the orderly activity of neural modules of this motivational system. Evidence is considered suggesting that the neurobiological condition for the pathogenesis of compulsive checking is two-fold: activation of dopamine D2/D3 receptors without concurrent stimulation of D1-like receptors and long-term plastic changes related to quinpirole-induced sensitization. PMID:25426580

  19. Whole transcriptome organisation in the dehydrated supraoptic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.T. Hindmarch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The supraoptic nucleus (SON is part of the central osmotic circuitry that synthesises the hormone vasopressin (Avp and transports it to terminals in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Following osmotic stress such as dehydration, this tissue undergoes morphological, electrical and transcriptional changes to facilitate the appropriate regulation and release of Avp into the circulation where it conserves water at the level of the kidney. Here, the organisation of the whole transcriptome following dehydration is modelled to fit Zipf's law, a natural power law that holds true for all natural languages, that states if the frequency of word usage is plotted against its rank, then the log linear regression of this is -1. We have applied this model to our previously published euhydrated and dehydrated SON data to observe this trend and how it changes following dehydration. In accordance with other studies, our whole transcriptome data fit well with this model in the euhydrated SON microarrays, but interestingly, fit better in the dehydrated arrays. This trend was observed in a subset of differentially regulated genes and also following network reconstruction using a third-party database that mines public data. We make use of language as a metaphor that helps us philosophise about the role of the whole transcriptome in providing a suitable environment for the delivery of Avp following a survival threat like dehydration.

  20. Elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons on 238U nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capote R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced modelling of neutron induced reactions on the 238U nucleus is aimed at improving our knowledge of neutron scattering. Capture and fission channels are well constrained by available experimental data and neutron standard evaluation. A focus of this contribution is on elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. The employed nuclear reaction model includes – a new rotational-vibrational dispersive optical model potential coupling the low-lying collective bands of vibrational character observed in even-even actinides; – the Engelbrecht-Weidenmüller transformation allowing for inclusion of compound-direct interference effects; – and a multi-humped fission barrier with absorption in the secondary well described within the optical model for fission. Impact of the advanced modelling on elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections including angular distributions and emission spectra is assessed both by comparison with selected microscopic experimental data and integral criticality benchmarks including measured reaction rates (e.g. JEMIMA, FLAPTOP and BIG TEN. Benchmark calculations provided feedback to improve the reaction modelling. Improvement of existing libraries will be discussed.

  1. Fermi energy anomaly in the nucleon-nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlay, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Careful comparisons of the parameters of the nucleon-nucleus optical potential at energy (E 20 MeV) have revealed discrepancies. Commonly used ''global optical models'' tend to fail in one energy region or the other. Improved agreement with the data can be restored in phenomenological models in which certain geometrical parameters of the model are allowed to depend explicitly on neutron energy. The origin of this effect in the n+ 208 Pb system has been explained in terms of the dispersion correction to the real part of the standard local optical potential. In dispersion theory, the magnitude of this correction is obtained from the energy dependence of the phenomenological imaginary potential. The phenomenological parameters for n and p on 208 Pb are re-examined. The dispersion theory explanation of the low energy behaviour of the neutron potential is supported by the present analysis, but no similar analyses suggest that the Fermi energy anomaly for the p+ 208 Pb potential is located at energies well below the Coulomb barrier

  2. Associated charm production in neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Oenenguet, G. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey); van Dantzig, R.; de Jong, M. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldeman, R.G.C. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Universita di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Gueler, M.; Koese, U.; Tolun, P. [Physics Department of Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Catanesi, M.G.; Muciaccia, M.T. [Universita di Bari and INFN, Bari (Italy); Winter, K. [Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Van de Vyver, B. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies (ULB-VUB) Brussels, Brussels (Belgium)]|[SpinX Technologies, Geneva (Switzerland); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies (ULB-VUB) Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Saitta, B. [Universita di Cagliari and INFN, Cagliari (Italy); Di Capua, E. [Universita di Ferrara and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Hristova, I.R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kawamura, T.; Kolev, D.; Meinhard, H.; Panman, J.; Tsenov, R.; Uiterwijk, J.W.E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rozanov, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[CPPM CNRS-IN2P3, Marseille (France); Zucchelli, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[SpinX Technologies, Geneva (Switzerland); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Haifa (Israel); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, Higashiosaka (Japan); Song, J.S.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea); Kodama, K.; Ushida, N. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya (Japan); Aoki, S.; Hara, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Delbar, T.; Favart, D.; Gregoire, G.; Kalinin, S.; Makhlioueva, I. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Artamonov, A.; Khovansky, V.; Shamanov, V.; Tsukerman, I. [Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorbunov, P. [Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[SpinX Technologies, Geneva (Switzerland); Bruski, N.; Frekers, D. [and others

    2007-11-15

    In this paper a search for associated charm production both in neutral and charged current {nu}-nucleus interactions is presented. The improvement of automatic scanning systems in the CHORUS experiment allows an efficient search to be performed in emulsion for short-lived particles. Hence a search for rare processes, like the associated charm production, becomes possible through the observation of the double charm-decay topology with a very low background. About 130000 {nu} interactions located in the emulsion target have been analysed. Three events with two charm decays have been observed in the neutral-current sample with an estimated background of 0.18{+-}0.05. The relative rate of the associated charm cross-section in deep inelastic {nu} interactions, {sigma}(c anti c{nu})/{sigma}{sub NC}{sup DIS}=(3.62{sup +2.95}{sub -2.42}(stat){+-}0.54(syst)) x 10{sup -3} has been measured. One event with two charm decays has been observed in charged-current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions with an estimated background of 0.18{+-}0.06 and the upper limit on associated charm production in charged-current interactions at 90% C.L. has been found to be {sigma}(c anti c{mu}{sup -})/{sigma}{sub CC}<9.69 x 10{sup -4}. (orig.)

  3. Morphological differences in the lateral geniculate nucleus associated with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Giraldo-Chica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability characterized by normal intelligence but difficulty in skills associated with reading, writing and spelling. One of the most prominent, albeit controversial, theories of dyslexia is the magnocellular theory, which suggests that malfunction of the magnocellular system in the brain is responsible for the behavioral deficits. We sought to test the basis of this theory by directly measuring the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, the only location in the brain where the magnocellular and parvocellular streams are spatially disjoint. Using high-resolution proton-density weighted MRI scans, we precisely measured the anatomical boundaries of the LGN in 13 subjects with dyslexia (five female and 13 controls (three female, all 22–26 years old. The left LGN was significantly smaller in volume in subjects with dyslexia and also differed in shape; no differences were observed in the right LGN. The functional significance of this asymmetry is unknown, but these results are consistent with the magnocellular theory and support theories of dyslexia that involve differences in the early visual system.

  4. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis: Do both have a role in sustained attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latimer Mary P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NbM lesions impair performance on tests of sustained attention. Previous work from this laboratory has also demonstrated that pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg lesioned rats make more omissions on a test of sustained attention, suggesting that it might also play a role in mediating this function. However, the results of the PPTg study were open to alternative interpretation. We aimed to resolve this by conducting a detailed analysis of the effects of damage to each brain region in the same sustained attention task used in our previous work. Rats were trained in the task before surgery and post-surgical testing examined performance in response to unpredictable light signals of 1500 ms and 4000 ms duration. Data for PPTg lesioned rats were compared to control rats, and rats with 192 IgG saporin infusions centred on the NbM. In addition to operant data, video data of rats' performance during the task were also analysed. Results Both lesion groups omitted trials relative to controls but the effect was milder and transient in NbM rats. The number of omitted trials decreased in all groups when tested using the 4000 ms signal compared to the 1500 ms signal. This confirmed previous findings for PPTg lesioned rats. Detailed analysis revealed that the increase in omissions in PPTg rats was not a consequence of motor impairment. The video data (taken on selected days showed reduced lever orientation in PPTg lesioned rats, coupled with an increase in unconditioned behaviours such as rearing and sniffing. In contrast NbM rats showed evidence of inadequate lever pressing. Conclusion The question addressed here is whether the PPTg and NbM both have a role in sustained attention. Rats bearing lesions of either structure showed deficits in the test used. However, we conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the deficit observed in PPTg rats is inadequate response

  5. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2014: Workshop for young scientists on the physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The 6th edition of the Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks 2014) was held in Las Negras, Spain from 21-28 September 2014. Following the traditions of the conference, this meeting gathered more than 70 participants in the first years of their scientific careers. The present issue contains the proceedings of this workshop. As in the past, the Hot Quarks workshop offered a unique atmosphere for a lively discussion and interpretation of the current measurements from high energy nuclear collisions. Recent results and upgrades at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) were presented. Recent theoretical developments were also extensively discussed as well as the perspectives for future facilities such as the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt and the Electron-Ion Collider at Brookhaven. The conference's goal to provide a platform for young researchers to learn and foster their interactions was successfully met. We wish to thank the sponsors of the Hot Quarks 2014 Conference, who supported the authors of this volume: Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), CPAN (Spain), Czech Science Foundation (GACR) under grant 13-20841S (Czech Republic), European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Switzerland), European Research Council under grant 259612 (EU), ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI (Germany), Helmholtz Association and GSI under grant VH-NG-822, Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (Germany), National Science Foundation under grant No.1359622 (USA), Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR (Czech Republic), Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife (Spain) and the Universidad de Granada (Spain). Javier López Albacete, Universidad de Granada (Spain) Jana Bielcikova, Nuclear Physics Inst. and Academy of Sciences (Czech Republic) Rainer J. Fries, Texas A&M University (USA) Raphaël Granier de Cassagnac, CNRS-IN2P3 and École polytechnique (France

  6. Transition and Social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, N.

    2011-01-01

    School leavers with learning disabilities often face difficulties in making a smooth transition from school to college, employment or more broadly, to adult life. The transition phase is traumatic for the young person with learning disabilities and their families as it often results in the loss of friendships, relationships and social networks. The aim of this chapter is to explore the issues of transition from adolescence to adulthood for young people with learning disabilities and its effe...

  7. Nucleus fingerprinting for the unique identification of Feulgen-stained nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, David; Brozio, Matthias; Bell, André; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Böcking, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    DNA Image Cytometry is a method for non-invasive cancer diagnosis which measures the DNA content of Feulgen-stained nuclei. DNA content is measured using a microscope system equipped with a digital camera as a densitometer and estimating the DNA content from the absorption of light when passing through the nuclei. However, a DNA Image Cytometry measurement is only valid if each nucleus is only measured once. To assist the user in preventing multiple measurements of the same nucleus, we have developed a unique digital identifier for the characterization of Feulgen-stained nuclei, the so called Nucleus Fingerprint. Only nuclei with a new fingerprint can be added to the measurement. This fingerprint is based on basic nucleus features, the contour of the nucleus and the spatial relationship to nuclei in the vicinity. Based on this characterization, a classifier for testing two nuclei for identity is presented. In a pairwise comparison of ~40000 pairs of mutually different nuclei, 99.5% were classified as different. In another 450 tests, the fingerprints of the same nucleus recorded a second time were in all cases judged identical. We therefore conclude that our Nucleus Fingerprint approach robustly prevents the repeated measurement of nuclei in DNA Image Cytometry.

  8. Kleptochloroplast Enlargement, Karyoklepty and the Distribution of the Cryptomonad Nucleus in Nusuttodinium (= Gymnodinium) aeruginosum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Ryo; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-05-01

    The unarmoured freshwater dinoflagellate Nusuttodinium (= Gymnodinium) aeruginosum retains a cryptomonad-derived kleptochloroplast and nucleus, the former of which fills the bulk of its cell volume. The paucity of studies following morphological changes to the kleptochloroplast with time make it unclear how the kleptochloroplast enlarges and why the cell ultimately loses the cryptomonad nucleus. We observed, both at the light and electron microscope level, morphological changes to the kleptochloroplast incurred by the enlargement process under culture conditions. The distribution of the cryptomonad nucleus after host cell division was also investigated. The volume of the kleptochloroplast increased more than 20-fold, within 120h of ingestion of the cryptomonad. Host cell division was not preceded by cryptomonad karyokinesis so that only one of the daughter cells inherited a cryptomonad nucleus. The fate of all daughter cells originating from a single cell through five generations was closely monitored, and this observation revealed that the cell that inherited the cryptomonad nucleus consistently possessed the largest kleptochloroplast for that generation. Therefore, this study suggests that some important cryptomonad nucleus division mechanism is lost during ingestion process, and that the cryptomonad nucleus carries important information for the enlargement of the kleptochloroplast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of surgical and chemical lesions on neurotransmitter candidates in the nucleus accumbens of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.; Fonnum, F.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of fibers containing different neurotransmitter candidates in the nucleus accumbens of rat brain has been studied with surgical and chemical lesion techniques. Destruction of the medial forebrain bundle decreased the activity of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase by 80% in the nucleus. Cutting of the fornix or a hemitransection decreased the high affinity uptake of glutamate by 45% and the endogenous level of glutamate by 33%. The high affinity uptake of glutamate was concentrated in the synaptosomal fraction and the decrease after the lesion was most pronounced in this fraction. Restricted lesions indicated that fibers in the fimbria/fornix coming from the subiculum were responsible for this part of the glutamate uptake in the nucleus. Local injection of kainic acid into the nucleus was accompanied by a 75% decrease in choline acetyltransferase and a 35% decrease in acetylcholineserase activities, a 70% decrease in glutamate decarboxylase activity and a 60% decrease in the high affinity uptake of ..gamma..-aminobutyrate, a 45% decrease in high affinity glutamate uptake, and no change in aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity. Performing a lesion of the fornix after kainic acid injection led to an 85% decrease in high affinity glutamate uptake, without further affecting the other neuronal markers. The results indicate that all aminergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens are ascending in the medial forebrain bundle, that the subiculum-accumbens fibers are glutamergic and the nucleus also contains intrinsic glutamergic or aspartergic cells. Cholinergic and ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing cells are wholly intrinsic to the nucleus.

  10. The Energy Transition Chronicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelletti, Floriane; Vallar, Jean-Pierre; Wyssling, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Energy Cities provides local authorities with support for implementing their own energy transition process. The Proposals for the energy transition of cities and towns (www.energy-cities.eu/30proposals) are illustrated with around a hundred of inspirational examples from all over Europe. In this document composed of five case reports, Energy Cities goes further and tells the tale of energy transition success stories. Because it is important to show that energy transition is 'possible'. Why, how, with whom, for what results? We interviewed local players and decision-makers to find out more. Here are their stories

  11. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  12. Clinical evaluation of the Nucleus® 6 cochlear implant system: Performance improvements with SmartSound iQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Stefan J; Warren, Chris D; Knight, Michelle R; Goorevich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper provides a detailed description of the Nucleus 6 system, and clinically evaluates user performance compared to the previous Nucleus 5 system in cochlear implant recipients. Additionally, it clinically evaluates a range of Nucleus 6 and Nucleus 5 programs to determine the performance benefits provided by new input processing technologies available in SmartSound iQ. Design Speech understanding tests were used to clinically validate the default Nucleus 6 program, by comparing performance outcomes against up to five custom Nucleus 5 or Nucleus 6 programs in a range of listening environments. Clinical comparisons between programs were conducted across the following listening environments; quiet, speech weighted noise (co-located and spatially separated noise), and 4-talker babble (co-located and spatially separated noise). Study sample Twenty-one adult cochlear implant recipients participated. Results Significant speech understanding benefits were found with the default Nucleus 6 program compared to the participants’ preferred program using their Nucleus 5 processor and compared to a range of custom Nucleus 6 programs. All participants successfully accepted and upgraded to the new default Nucleus 6 SmartSound iQ program. Conclusion This study demonstrates the acceptance and clinical benefits of the Nucleus 6 cochlear implant system and SmartSound iQ. PMID:25005776

  13. The Efferent Connections Of The Nucleus Of The Optic Tract And The Superior Colliculus In The Rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Gert; Collewijn, Han

    1982-01-01

    3H-leucine injections were made in tectal and pretectal areas in the rabbit. After injections in the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) labeled fibers were distributed bilaterally to the superior colliculus, the dorsal part of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGd), and the pulvinar nucleus, and

  14. Bradycardic effects mediated by activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in rat nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Oprea, Tudor I; Chitravanshi, Vineet C; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-03-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been identified in several brain regions, including cholinergic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus, which are critical for parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Using calcium imaging and electrophysiological techniques, microinjection into the nucleus ambiguus and blood pressure measurement, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of GPER activation in nucleus ambiguus neurons. A GPER selective agonist, G-1, produced a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in a concentration-dependent manner in retrogradely labelled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. The increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) produced by G-1 was abolished by pretreatment with G36, a GPER antagonist. G-1 depolarized cultured cardiac vagal neurons of the nucleus ambiguus. The excitatory effect of G-1 was also identified by whole-cell visual patch-clamp recordings in nucleus ambiguus neurons, in medullary slices. To validate the physiological relevance of our in vitro studies, we carried out in vivo experiments. Microinjection of G-1 into the nucleus ambiguus elicited a decrease in heart rate; the effect was blocked by prior microinjection of G36. Systemic injection of G-1, in addition to a previously reported decrease in blood pressure, also reduced the heart rate. The G-1-induced bradycardia was prevented by systemic injection of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, or by bilateral microinjection of G36 into the nucleus ambiguus. Our results indicate that GPER-mediated bradycardia occurs via activation of cardiac parasympathetic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus and support the involvement of the GPER in the modulation of cardiac vagal tone.

  15. Visualizing cell state transition using Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ichimura

    Full Text Available System level understanding of the cell requires detailed description of the cell state, which is often characterized by the expression levels of proteins. However, understanding the cell state requires comprehensive information of the cell, which is usually obtained from a large number of cells and their disruption. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy, which can report changes in the cell state without introducing any label, as a non-invasive method with single cell capability. Significant differences in Raman spectra were observed at the levels of both the cytosol and nucleus in different cell-lines from mouse, indicating that Raman spectra reflect differences in the cell state. Difference in cell state was observed before and after the induction of differentiation in neuroblastoma and adipocytes, showing that Raman spectra can detect subtle changes in the cell state. Cell state transitions during embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation were visualized when Raman spectroscopy was coupled with principal component analysis (PCA, which showed gradual transition in the cell states during differentiation. Detailed analysis showed that the diversity between cells are large in undifferentiated ESC and in mesenchymal stem cells compared with terminally differentiated cells, implying that the cell state in stem cells stochastically fluctuates during the self-renewal process. The present study strongly indicates that Raman spectral morphology, in combination with PCA, can be used to establish cells' fingerprints, which can be useful for distinguishing and identifying different cellular states.

  16. Comparative differential gene expression analysis of nucleus-encoded proteins for Rafflesia cantleyi against Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siuk-Mun; Lee, Xin-Wei; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Regulation of functional nucleus-encoded proteins targeting the plastidial functions was comparatively studied for a plant parasite, Rafflesia cantleyi versus a photosynthetic plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. This study involved two species of different feeding modes and different developmental stages. A total of 30 nucleus-encoded proteins were found to be differentially-regulated during two stages in the parasite; whereas 17 nucleus-encoded proteins were differentially-expressed during two developmental stages in Arabidopsis thaliana. One notable finding observed for the two plants was the identification of genes involved in the regulation of photosynthesis-related processes where these processes, as expected, seem to be present only in the autotroph.

  17. Shape changes in the nucleus 180Os at high angular moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnare, H.

    1991-03-01

    For the study of the shape changes in the nucleus 180 Os at high angular momenta high-spin states were excited in a 150 Nd( 36 S,6n) compound-nucleus reaction. The emitted γ radiation was measured with the 12 anti-Compton spectrometers and the γ calorimeter of the OSIRIS apparature. In the EγEγ correlation matrices in the energy range 660-860 keV and above 900 keV peak structures were observed from which the dynamic moment of inertia of the nucleus could be derived. (orig./HSI) [de

  18. Inhibitor-induced oxidation of the nucleus and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana: implications for organelle to nucleus retrograde signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinska, Barbara; Alomrani, Sarah Owdah; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-09-26

    Concepts of organelle-to-nucleus signalling pathways are largely based on genetic screens involving inhibitors of chloroplast and mitochondrial functions such as norflurazon, lincomycin (LINC), antimycin A (ANT) and salicylhydroxamic acid. These inhibitors favour enhanced cellular oxidation, but their precise effects on the cellular redox state are unknown. Using the in vivo reduction-oxidation (redox) reporter, roGFP2, inhibitor-induced changes in the glutathione redox potentials of the nuclei and cytosol were measured in Arabidopsis thaliana root, epidermal and stomatal guard cells, together with the expression of nuclear-encoded chloroplast and mitochondrial marker genes. All the chloroplast and mitochondrial inhibitors increased the degree of oxidation in the nuclei and cytosol. However, inhibitor-induced oxidation was less marked in stomatal guard cells than in epidermal or root cells. Moreover, LINC and ANT caused a greater oxidation of guard cell nuclei than the cytosol. Chloroplast and mitochondrial inhibitors significantly decreased the abundance of LHCA1 and LHCB1 transcripts. The levels of WHY1 , WHY3 and LEA5 transcripts were increased in the presence of inhibitors. Chloroplast inhibitors decreased AOXA1 mRNA levels, while mitochondrial inhibitors had the opposite effect. Inhibitors that are used to characterize retrograde signalling pathways therefore have similar general effects on cellular redox state and gene expression.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Clinical Outcomes of the Cochlear™ Nucleus(®) 5 Cochlear Implant System and SmartSound™ 2 Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Christina L; Henion, Kathryn; Tarima, Sergey; Beiter, Anne; Zwolan, Teresa A

    2016-06-01

    While published data exist regarding cochlear implant (CI) outcomes from large academic programs, evidence of benefit based on national, multicenter clinical trials is needed for information regarding typical patient outcomes of devices implanted by U.S. centers representing larger academic to smaller hospital-based programs. This nationwide trial evaluated outcomes in a group of newly implanted adult recipients of the Cochlear™ Nucleus(®) 5 CI system and SmartSound™ 2 signal processing. Unlike previous clinical trials, the AzBio sentence test was used and represents recent transition in our field to use of more challenging test materials. It was hypothesized that (1) speech perception scores in quiet with SmartSound™ 2 signal processing would not be statistically different from previous-generation devices; (2) speech perception scores in noise with SmartSound™ 2 signal processing would be better with enhanced microphone directionality; (3) speech perception scores in noise will be better with the preferred SmartSound™ 2 program for listening in noise; and (4) cochlear implantation would improve quality of life as assessed by the updated Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3). A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships among the current and previously used speech perception tests of the Minimum Speech Test Battery (MSTB). It was hypothesized that speech perception scores within the same test interval would show predictive relationships. Prospective, single-arm, repeated-measures study across 13 CI centers in the United States between February 2010 and June 2012. The participating centers ranged from larger academic to smaller hospital-based programs to accurately represent the diversity of programs in the United States. Participants were 38 postlingually deafened adult CI candidates. Primary measures were Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) words in quiet and the AzBio Sentence Test in Quiet (AzBioQ) and in Noise (AzBioN) tested at preoperative, and

  20. Quantum Geometry: Relativistic energy approach to cooperative electron-nucleary-transition spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Хецелиус

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced relativistic energy approach is presented and applied to calculating parameters of electron-nuclear 7-transition spectra of nucleus in the atom. The intensities of the spectral satellites are defined in the relativistic version of the energy approach (S-matrix formalism, and gauge-invariant quantum-electrodynamical perturbation theory with the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density-functional zeroth approximation.

  1. Encoding of aversion by dopamine and the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Edgar Mccutcheon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive motivated behavior requires rapid discrimination between beneficial and harmful stimuli. Such discrimination leads to the generation of either an approach or rejection response, as appropriate, and enables organisms to maximize reward and minimize punishment. Classically, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the dopamine projection to it are considered an integral part of the brain’s reward circuit, i.e., they direct approach and consumption behaviors and underlie positive reinforcement. This reward-centered framing ignores important evidence about the role of this system in encoding aversive events. One reason for bias towards reward is the difficulty in designing experiments in which animals repeatedly experience punishments; another is the challenge in dissociating the response to an aversive stimulus itself from the reward/relief experienced when an aversive stimulus is terminated. Here, we review studies that employ techniques with sufficient time resolution to measure responses in ventral tegmental area (VTA and NAc to aversive stimuli as they are delivered. We also present novel findings showing that the same stimulus – intraoral infusion of sucrose – has differing effects on NAc shell dopamine release depending on the prior experience. Here, for some rats, sucrose was rendered aversive by explicitly pairing it with malaise in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Thereafter, sucrose infusions led to a suppression of dopamine with a similar magnitude and time course to intra-oral infusions of a bitter quinine solution. The results are discussed in the context of regional differences in dopamine signaling and the implications of a pause in phasic dopamine release within the NAc shell. Together with our data, the emerging literature suggests an important role for differential phasic dopamine signaling in aversion versus reward.

  2. Convergence of cranial visceral afferents within the solitary tract nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart J; Peters, James H; Andresen, Michael C

    2009-10-14

    Primary afferent axons within the solitary tract (ST) relay homeostatic information via glutamatergic synapses directly to second-order neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). These primary afferents arise from multiple organ systems and relay multiple sensory modalities. How this compact network organizes the flow of primary afferent information will shape central homeostatic control. To assess afferent convergence and divergence, we recorded ST-evoked synaptic responses in pairs of medial NTS neurons in horizontal brainstem slices. ST shocks activated EPSCs along monosynaptic or polysynaptic pathways. Gradations in shock intensity discriminated multiple inputs and stimulus recruitment profiles indicated that each EPSC was unitary. In 24 pairs, 75% were second-order neurons with 64% receiving one direct ST input with the remainder receiving additional convergent ST afferent inputs (22% two; 14% three monosynaptic ST-EPSCs). Some (34%) second-order neurons received polysynaptic EPSCs. Neurons receiving only higher-order inputs were uncommon (13%). Most ST-EPSCs were completely independent, but 4 EPSCs of a total of 81 had equal thresholds, highly correlated latencies, and synchronized synaptic failures consistent with divergence from a single source ST axon or from a common interneuron producing a pair of polysynaptic EPSCs. We conclude that ST afferent inputs are remarkably independent with little evidence of substantial shared information. Individual cells receive highly focused information from the viscera. Thus, afferent excitation of second-order NTS neurons is generally dominated by single visceral afferents and therefore focused on a single afferent modality and/or organ region.

  3. Histone arginine methylation in cocaine action in the nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, HaoSheng; Scobie, Kimberly N.; Shao, Ningyi; Rabkin, Jaclyn; Dias, Caroline; Calipari, Erin S.; Maze, Ian; Pena, Catherine J.; Walker, Deena M.; Cahill, Michael E.; Chandra, Ramesh; Gancarz, Amy; Landry, Joseph A.; Cates, Hannah; Lobo, Mary-Kay; Dietz, David; Allis, C. David; Guccione, Ernesto; Turecki, Gustavo; Defilippi, Paola; Neve, Rachael L.; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated cocaine exposure regulates transcriptional regulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and epigenetic mechanisms—such as histone acetylation and methylation on Lys residues—have been linked to these lasting actions of cocaine. In contrast to Lys methylation, the role of histone Arg (R) methylation remains underexplored in addiction models. Here we show that protein-R-methyltransferase-6 (PRMT6) and its associated histone mark, asymmetric dimethylation of R2 on histone H3 (H3R2me2a), are decreased in the NAc of mice and rats after repeated cocaine exposure, including self-administration, and in the NAc of cocaine-addicted humans. Such PRMT6 down-regulation occurs selectively in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2-MSNs), with opposite regulation occurring in D1-MSNs, and serves to protect against cocaine-induced addictive-like behavioral abnormalities. Using ChIP-seq, we identified Src kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (Srcin1; also referred to as p140Cap) as a key gene target for reduced H3R2me2a binding, and found that consequent Srcin1 induction in the NAc decreases Src signaling, cocaine reward, and the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Taken together, these findings suggest that suppression of Src signaling in NAc D2-MSNs, via PRMT6 and H3R2me2a down-regulation, functions as a homeostatic brake to restrain cocaine action, and provide novel candidates for the development of treatments for cocaine addiction. PMID:27506785

  4. Hypoxia Silences Retrotrapezoid Nucleus Respiratory Chemoreceptors via Alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basting, Tyler M.; Burke, Peter G.R.; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Daniel S.; Stornetta, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    In conscious mammals, hypoxia or hypercapnia stimulates breathing while theoretically exerting opposite effects on central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs). We tested this theory by examining how hypoxia and hypercapnia change the activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a putative CRC and chemoreflex integrator. Archaerhodopsin-(Arch)-transduced RTN neurons were reversibly silenced by light in anesthetized rats. We bilaterally transduced RTN and nearby C1 neurons with Arch (PRSx8-ArchT-EYFP-LVV) and measured the cardiorespiratory consequences of Arch activation (10 s) in conscious rats during normoxia, hypoxia, or hyperoxia. RTN photoinhibition reduced breathing equally during non-REM sleep and quiet wake. Compared with normoxia, the breathing frequency reduction (ΔfR) was larger in hyperoxia (65% FiO2), smaller in 15% FiO2, and absent in 12% FiO2. Tidal volume changes (ΔVT) followed the same trend. The effect of hypoxia on ΔfR was not arousal-dependent but was reversed by reacidifying the blood (acetazolamide; 3% FiCO2). ΔfR was highly correlated with arterial pH up to arterial pH (pHa) 7.5 with no frequency inhibition occurring above pHa 7.53. Blood pressure was minimally reduced suggesting that C1 neurons were very modestly inhibited. In conclusion, RTN neurons regulate eupneic breathing about equally during both sleep and wake. RTN neurons are the first putative CRCs demonstrably silenced by hypocapnic hypoxia in conscious mammals. RTN neurons are silent above pHa 7.5 and increasingly active below this value. During hyperoxia, RTN activation maintains breathing despite the inactivity of the carotid bodies. Finally, during hypocapnic hypoxia, carotid body stimulation increases breathing frequency via pathways that bypass RTN. PMID:25589748

  5. Histone arginine methylation in cocaine action in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez-Werno, Diane M; Sun, HaoSheng; Scobie, Kimberly N; Shao, Ningyi; Rabkin, Jaclyn; Dias, Caroline; Calipari, Erin S; Maze, Ian; Pena, Catherine J; Walker, Deena M; Cahill, Michael E; Chandra, Ramesh; Gancarz, Amy; Mouzon, Ezekiell; Landry, Joseph A; Cates, Hannah; Lobo, Mary-Kay; Dietz, David; Allis, C David; Guccione, Ernesto; Turecki, Gustavo; Defilippi, Paola; Neve, Rachael L; Hurd, Yasmin L; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-08-23

    Repeated cocaine exposure regulates transcriptional regulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and epigenetic mechanisms-such as histone acetylation and methylation on Lys residues-have been linked to these lasting actions of cocaine. In contrast to Lys methylation, the role of histone Arg (R) methylation remains underexplored in addiction models. Here we show that protein-R-methyltransferase-6 (PRMT6) and its associated histone mark, asymmetric dimethylation of R2 on histone H3 (H3R2me2a), are decreased in the NAc of mice and rats after repeated cocaine exposure, including self-administration, and in the NAc of cocaine-addicted humans. Such PRMT6 down-regulation occurs selectively in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2-MSNs), with opposite regulation occurring in D1-MSNs, and serves to protect against cocaine-induced addictive-like behavioral abnormalities. Using ChIP-seq, we identified Src kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (Srcin1; also referred to as p140Cap) as a key gene target for reduced H3R2me2a binding, and found that consequent Srcin1 induction in the NAc decreases Src signaling, cocaine reward, and the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Taken together, these findings suggest that suppression of Src signaling in NAc D2-MSNs, via PRMT6 and H3R2me2a down-regulation, functions as a homeostatic brake to restrain cocaine action, and provide novel candidates for the development of treatments for cocaine addiction.

  6. Weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2014-06-01

    Background: A model-independent formulation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon scattering was recently developed in Galilean-invariant effective field theory. Purpose: Here we complete the embedding of this effective interaction in the nucleus, constructing the most general elastic nuclear cross section as a factorized product of WIMP and nuclear response functions. This form explicitly defines what can and cannot be learned about the low-energy constants of the effective theory—and consequently about candidate ultraviolet theories of dark matter—from elastic scattering experiments. Results: We identify those interactions that cannot be reliably treated in a spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation: For derivative- or velocity-dependent couplings, the SI/SD formulation generally mischaracterizes the relevant nuclear operator and its multipolarity (e.g., scalar or vector) and greatly underestimates experimental sensitivities. This can lead to apparent conflicts between experiments when, in fact, none may exist. The new nuclear responses appearing in the factorized cross section are related to familiar electroweak nuclear operators such as angular momentum l⃗(i) and the spin-orbit coupling σ⃗(i).l⃗(i). Conclusions: To unambiguously interpret experiments and to extract all of the available information on the particle physics of dark matter, experimentalists will need to (1) do a sufficient number of experiments with nuclear targets having the requisite sensitivities to the various operators and (2) analyze the results in a formalism that does not arbitrarily limit the candidate operators. In an appendix we describe a code that is available to help interested readers implement such an analysis.

  7. Role of amygdala central nucleus in feature negative discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with a popular theory of associative learning, the Pearce-Hall (1980) model, the surprising omission of expected events enhances cue associability (the ease with which a cue may enter into new associations), across a wide variety of behavioral training procedures. Furthermore, previous experiments from this laboratory showed that these enhancements are absent in rats with impaired function of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA). A notable exception to these assertions is found in feature negative (FN) discrimination learning, in which a “target” stimulus is reinforced when it is presented alone but nonreinforced when it is presented in compound with another, “feature” stimulus. According to the Pearce-Hall model, reinforcer omission on compound trials should enhance the associability of the feature relative to control training conditions. However, prior experiments have shown no evidence that CeA lesions affect FN discrimination learning. Here we explored this apparent contradiction by evaluating the hypothesis that the surprising omission of an event confers enhanced associability on a cue only if that cue itself generates the disconfirmed prediction. Thus, in a FN discrimination, the surprising omission of the reinforcer on compound trials would enhance the associability of the target stimulus but not that of the feature. Our data confirmed this hypothesis, and showed this enhancement to depend on intact CeA function, as in other procedures. The results are consistent with modern reformulations of both cue and reward processing theories that assign roles for both individual and aggregate error terms in associative learning. PMID:22889308

  8. Isospin Symmetry of Transitions Probed by Weak and Strong Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Roeckl, E

    2002-01-01

    Under the assumption that isospin is a good quantum number, isospin symmetry is expected for the transitions from the ground states of the pair of T = 1, T$_{z}$ = $\\pm$ 1 nuclei to excited states of the T = 0 nucleus situated in between the pair. In order to study the isospin symmetry of these transitions, we propose to perform an accurate comparison of Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions for the A = 58 system. This system is the heaviest for which such a comparison is possible. The $^{58}$Ni(T$_{z}$ = 1 ) $\\rightarrow^{58}$Cu(T$_{z}$ = 0 ) GT transitions are presently studied by using high-resolution charge exchange reaction at RNCP Osaka, while those of $^{58}$Zn(T$_{z}$ = -1) $\\rightarrow^{58}$Cu will be investigated in the $\\beta$-decay study at ISOLDE. Due to the large $Q\\scriptstyle_\\textrm{EC}$-value of $^{58}$Zn, GT transitions can be observed up to high excitation energies in $^{58}$Cu. In order to reach this goal, it is proposed to measure $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\gamma$-rays by using a dedicated de...

  9. COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    transition during the past three decades — in transition from dictatorship to democratic ... research under the harshest conditions of danger and privation. This is research that can prepare a stronger ... any government, IDRC would be freer than most government agencies to work in territories that did not constitute a state.

  10. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail...

  11. Transitive probabilistic CLIR models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Transitive translation could be a useful technique to enlarge the number of supported language pairs for a cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) system in a cost-effective manner. The paper describes several setups for transitive translation based on probabilistic translation models. The

  12. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  13. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... was to define a major transition by identifying a pattern that is common across an otherwise diverse set of ... been many major evolutionary events that this definition of a transition excludes. The evolution of ...... fragmentation periodic, or brings it under endogenous con- trol. So the mechanisms are far from ...

  14. Triggering of 178Hfm2 by photoinduced electron transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Dzyublik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We considered the NEET (nuclear excitation by electron transition as a possible triggering mechanism of the isomer 178Hfm2 during ionization of the L3 atomic shell by x-rays. This isomer is assumed to be excited into an intermediate state by E1 electronic transition between M5 and L3 shells. Simple nonrelativistic formulas are derived for the NEET probability. The estimations show the probability to be less than the experimental data of [1] by one order of magnitude. The intermediate level is found to decay bypassing the isomeric level 16+, if the nucleus attributes a triaxial shape in the state and, besides, there exists a level 13- shifted with respect to 15- by 400 keV. We have shown also that the NEET cross section as a function of the energy of x-ray photons , has to accept constant value above the L photoionization threshold in contrast to narrow peak observed by [1].

  15. Lost in Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Lassen, Claus

    Thinking of Transit Places, the first sites that comes to mind will probably be airports, train stations and motorways. Such places are overall mono-functional with the embedded rationales of people's desires to move (themselves or goods) from one place to another. Often different service functions...... and commerce are added to such places facilitating the accomplishment of comfortable and easy transit. Apart from those being in transit, people do not visit these places and apart from those working at such transit places, people do not stay for longer periods. Certainly people do not live or spend the whole...... of their daily lives here. This is on the contrary what many people do in cities and towns - places where people live, work and stay, and that they purposefully visit in their spare times. The article addresses what happens, when an inhabited place obtain the properties normally connected with transit...

  16. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  17. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the juvenile rat contains transient- and repetitive-firing neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Rekling, J C

    2006-01-01

    that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus might also have non-ocular functions. To further characterize the function of this nucleus we studied the electrophysiological properties of Edinger-Westphal neurons in a slice preparation from juvenile rats. The position of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was determined using...... threshold Ca(2+) spikes were seen and these were blocked by nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate, suggesting that they are mediated via low voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. Some biocytin-labeled neurons had axons or axonal collaterals projecting laterally or dorsally, suggesting possible non-ocular targets....... In conclusion, the rat Edinger-Westphal nucleus contains two separate types of neurons with distinct electrophysiological properties....

  18. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa-resistant postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Allum, J.H.J.; Carpenter, M.G.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Speelman, J.D.; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on levodopa-resistant balance impairment in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease and 18 matched controls. Instability was quantitatively assessed using standardized multidirectional dynamic posturography. Patients were tested after

  19. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa-resistant postural instability in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jasper E.; Allum, John H. J.; Carpenter, Mark G.; Esselink, Rianne A.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Borm, George F.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on levodopa-resistant balance impairment in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease and 18 matched controls. Instability was quantitatively assessed using standardized multidirectional dynamic posturography. Patients were tested after

  20. Selective Stimulation and Measurement in the Cochlear Nucleus With the Spike Microelectrode Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mase, F

    2001-01-01

    Current prosthetic devices to restore hearing sense of patients with bilateral acoustic neuromas aren't always effective, because we don't have sufficient knowledge of the auditory pathways and the Cochlear Nucleus (CN...

  1. c-Met must translocate to the nucleus to initiate calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dawidson A; Rodrigues, Michele A; Leite, M Fatima; Gomez, Marcus V; Varnai, Peter; Balla, Tamas; Bennett, Anton M; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-02-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and related activities. HGF acts through its receptor c-Met, which activates downstream signaling pathways. HGF binds to c-Met at the plasma membrane, where it is generally believed that c-Met signaling is initiated. Here we report that c-Met rapidly translocates to the nucleus upon stimulation with HGF. Ca(2+) signals that are induced by HGF result from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation within the nucleus rather than within the cytoplasm. Translocation of c-Met to the nucleus depends upon the adaptor protein Gab1 and importin beta1, and formation of Ca(2+) signals in turn depends upon this translocation. HGF may exert its particular effects on cells because it bypasses signaling pathways in the cytoplasm to directly activate signaling pathways in the nucleus.

  2. Bilateral innervation of syringeal muscles by the hypoglossal nucleus in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Naoki; Kamata, Naoki; Nagasawa, Miyuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2009-08-01

    Bird vocalizations are produced by contractions of syringeal muscles, which are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus. In oscines, syringeal muscles are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus ipsilaterally, whereas syringeal innervation is bilateral in non-oscines. We have determined the course of hypoglossal nerves in the jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos. Our results indicate a cross-over of the hypoglossal nerve from the left side to the right side on the trachea 7 mm rostral to the Musculus sternotrachealis. We also investigated the innervation of the syringeal muscles of jungle crows from the hypoglossal nucleus using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method. After HRP was injected into the syringeal muscles on each side, HRP-labeled cells were found bilaterally in the hypoglossal nerve. These results suggest that the syringeal muscles of jungle crows are innervated bilaterally from the hypoglossal nucleus, although these birds are categorized as oscines.

  3. Immunogold localization of serotonin within synaptic terminals in the rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, RSB; Copray, JCVM

    1996-01-01

    With the use of postembedding electron-microscopic immunogold cytochemistry, the vesicular distribution of serotonin within serotonergic synaptic terminals in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus was determined in order to obtain further insight into the mechanisms and function, significance of

  4. Apathy is Associated With Volume of the Nucleus Accumbens in Patients Infected With HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Robert H.; Brickman, Adam M.; Navia, Bradford; Hinkin, Charles; Malloy, Paul F.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Tate, David F.; Flanigan, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Apathy refers to a reduction in self-initiated behavior, and it is commonly reported by patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It remains unclear whether apathy among HIV patients reflects a direct effect of the virus on subcortical brain circuits or a secondary neuropsychiatric symptom. In the present study we examined the relationship between ratings of apathy and quantitative analysis of the nucleus accumbens (NA), a subcortical brain structure that regulates initiation of behavioral activation. Twelve HIV-positive individuals without dementia were administered the Marin Apathy Scale and underwent neuroimaging. Voxel-based quantification of the nucleus accumbens was completed using a segmentation protocol. Results of our study revealed that increased ratings of apathy were significantly correlated with lower volume of the nucleus accumbens. By contrast, ratings of depression were unrelated to either apathy or nucleus accumbens volume. These findings provide preliminary evidence that apathy reflects direct involvement of the central nervous system in patients with HIV. PMID:15939969

  5. Proton-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC: Scientific Opportunities and Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Botje, M; Cacciari, M; Campbell, J; Carli, C; Cole, B; D'Enterria, D; Gelis, F; Guzey, V; Hencken, K; Jacobs, P; Jowett, J M; Klein, S R; Maltoni, F; Morsch, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Qiu, J W; Satogata, T; Sikler, F; Strikman, M; Takai, H; Vogt, R; Wessels, J P; White, S N; Wiedemann, U A; Wyslouch, B; Zhalov, M

    2012-01-01

    Proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions have long been recognized as a crucial component of the physics programme with nuclear beams at high energies, in particular for their reference role to interpret and understand nucleus-nucleus data as well as for their potential to elucidate the partonic structure of matter at low parton fractional momenta (small-x). Here, we summarize the main motivations that make a proton-nucleus run a decisive ingredient for a successful heavy-ion programme at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and we present unique scientific opportunities arising from these collisions. We also review the status of ongoing discussions about operation plans for the p+A mode at the LHC.

  6. Nucleus-independent chemical shift criterion for aromaticity in π-extended tetraoxa[8]circulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V.; Minaev, Boris F.; Pittelkow, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recently synthesized p-extended symmetrical tetraoxa[8]circulenes that exhibit electroluminescent properties were calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) approach to electron density distribution analysis. Nucleus-independent ...

  7. Atomic Poetry: Using Poetry To Teach Rutherford's Discovery of the Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisdris, Gil; Casuga, Adele

    2001-01-01

    Points out how Rutherford's discovery of the nucleus changed ideas about the structure of the atom and influenced poetry. Uses Robert Frost's poems "Version" and "The Secret Sits" to teach a physical science class about atomic theory. (YDS)

  8. Decreased number of oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the human hypothalamus in AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purba, J. S.; Hofman, M. A.; Portegies, P.; Troost, D.; Swaab, D. F.

    1993-01-01

    The number of immunocytochemically identified vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) neurons was determined morphometrically in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of 20 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and 10 controls. The AIDS group consisted of 14 homosexual males (age

  9. Facebook usage on smartphones and gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Markowetz, Alexander; Blaszkiewicz, Konrad; Andone, Ionut; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Trendafilov, Boris; Eibes, Mark; Kolb, Julia; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Markett, Sebastian

    2017-06-30

    A recent study has implicated the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum in explaining why online-users spend time on the social network platform Facebook. Here, higher activity of the nucleus accumbens was associated with gaining reputation on social media. In the present study, we touched a related research field. We recorded the actual Facebook usage of N=62 participants on their smartphones over the course of five weeks and correlated summary measures of Facebook use with gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens. It appeared, that in particular higher daily frequency of checking Facebook on the smartphone was robustly linked with smaller gray matter volumes of the nucleus accumbens. The present study gives additional support for the rewarding aspects of Facebook usage. Moreover, it shows the feasibility to include real life behavior variables in human neuroscientific research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of parity and time reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Yi-Fen; Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Crawford, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    The parity and time-reversal symmetries can be studies in neutron-nucleus interactions. Parity non-conserving asymmetries have been observed for many p-wave resonances in a compound nucleus and measurements were performed on several nuclei in the mass region of A∼100 and A∼230. The statistical model of the compound nucleus provides a theoretical basis for extracting mean-squared matrix elements from the experimental asymmetry data, and for interpreting the mean-squared matrix elements. The constraints on the weak meson-exchange couplings calculated from the compound-nucleus asymmetry data agree qualitatively with the results from few-body and light-nuclei experiments. The tests of time-reversal invariance in various experiments using thermal, epithermal and MeV neutrons are being developed

  11. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  12. Nucleon pairs as the building blocks of a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajdos, M.; Zajac, K.

    1989-01-01

    The effects induced by the interplay isovesctor and isoscalar components of the residual nucleon interactions were studied in the model based on six bosons: s μ + with J=0, T=1, μ=O,±1 and p μ + with J=1, μ=0, ±1, T=0. Low-lying energy levels, E2-transitions, p-boson structure of eigenstates, percentage of α clusters, (p,t) reactions and α elastic scattering were searched in even-even 156-166 Dy and N=92, Z=56-58 nuclei. 18 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Comparison of Hi-C results using in-solution versus in-nucleus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Takashi; Várnai, Csilla; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Wingett, Steven W; Fraser, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Chromosome conformation capture and various derivative methods such as 4C, 5C and Hi-C have emerged as standard tools to analyze the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the nucleus. These methods employ ligation of diluted cross-linked chromatin complexes, intended to favor proximity-dependent, intra-complex ligation. During development of single-cell Hi-C, we devised an alternative Hi-C protocol with ligation in preserved nuclei rather than in solution. Here we directly compare Hi-C methods employing in-nucleus ligation with the standard in-solution ligation. We show in-nucleus ligation results in consistently lower levels of inter-chromosomal contacts. Through chromatin mixing experiments we show that a significantly large fraction of inter-chromosomal contacts are the result of spurious ligation events formed during in-solution ligation. In-nucleus ligation significantly reduces this source of experimental noise, and results in improved reproducibility between replicates. We also find that in-nucleus ligation eliminates restriction fragment length bias found with in-solution ligation. These improvements result in greater reproducibility of long-range intra-chromosomal and inter-chromosomal contacts, as well as enhanced detection of structural features such as topologically associated domain boundaries. We conclude that in-nucleus ligation captures chromatin interactions more consistently over a wider range of distances, and significantly reduces both experimental noise and bias. In-nucleus ligation creates higher quality Hi-C libraries while simplifying the experimental procedure. We suggest that the entire range of 3C applications are likely to show similar benefits from in-nucleus ligation.

  14. Deep Impact Mission: Looking Beneath the Surface of a Cometary Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Christopher T

    2005-01-01

    Deep Impact, or at least part of the flight system, is designed to crash into comet 9P/Tempel 1. This bold mission design enables cometary researchers to peer into the cometary nucleus, analyzing the material excavated with its imagers and spectrometers. The book describes the mission, its objectives, expected results, payload, and data products in articles written by those most closely involved. This mission has the potential of revolutionizing our understanding of the cometary nucleus.

  15. Binaural response characteristics of single neurons in the medial superior olivary nucleus of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbody, S B; Feng, A S

    1981-04-06

    Binaural response properties of single neurons in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO) were investigated in the anesthetized rat. Stimulus parameters studied included interaural time difference and interaural intensity difference. In the present study, of the two cell types observed in the rat MSO nucleus, EE and EI, variations in the binaural response properties of the MSO neurons permitted further subclassifications, which may be related to the dendritic dominance of the MSO neurons.

  16. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.G.; Zhang, X.D.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries.......We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries....

  17. Cerebello-cortical heterotopia in dentate nucleus, and other microdysgeneses in trisomy D1 (Patau) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, A; Peiffer, J; Pfeiffer, R A; Iizuka, R

    1980-01-01

    Several new histological findings in six cases of the trisomy D1 syndrome are described: hyperplasia of fetal structures (indusium griseum, median raphe of the medulla oblongata) and completely developed cerebellar cortical heterotopia in the dentate nucleus. In one case, a heterotopic pontine nucleus was found within the cerebellar white matter. The coexistence of overdeveloped and remaining fetal structures is emphasized. Several hypotheses regarding cerebellar dysgenesis are discussed.

  18. Coordination of IVI and transit signal priority on transit evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    During an emergency evacuation, execution time is always critical to the evacuees who are : transit dependent. Transit Signal Priority (TSP) can speed up the transit services by prioritizing : the approaching bus at a signalized intersection. With th...

  19. Evidence of departure from transition-state statistical model in different mass regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Ray, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Mullick, K.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Banerjee, S.R.; Basu, D.N.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2000-01-01

    The emission of complex fragments from compound nucleus can be understood very well using transition-state method calculations, that have shown that for a large number of excitation functions of compound nuclei near A = 100, the reduced decay rates after the removal of phase space dependence are identical for all fragments, thus implying statistical emission. One can consider two scenarios for departure from statistical transition-state model. An experiment was performed to look for orbiting effect in 16 O+ 93 Nb reaction

  20. Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongbo; Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-11-15

    Subcellular Raman analysis is a promising clinic tool for cancer diagnosis, but constrained by the difficulty of deciphering subcellular spectra in actual human tissues. We report a label-free subcellular Raman analysis for use in cancer diagnosis that integrates subcellular signature spectra by subtracting cytoplasm from nucleus spectra (Nuc.-Cyt.) with a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. Raman mapping with the classical least-squares (CLS) model allowed direct visualization of the distribution of the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PLS-DA model was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five types of spectral datasets, including non-selective, nucleus, cytoplasm, ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (Nuc./Cyt.), and nucleus minus cytoplasm (Nuc.-Cyt.), resulting in diagnostic sensitivity of 88.3%, 84.0%, 98.4%, 84.5%, and 98.9%, respectively. Discriminating between normal and cancerous cells of actual human tissues through subcellular Raman markers is feasible, especially when using the nucleus-cytoplasm difference spectra. The subcellular Raman approach had good stability, and had excellent diagnostic performance for rectal as well as colon tissues. The insights gained from this study shed new light on the general applicability of subcellular Raman analysis in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.