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Sample records for transient electromagnetic response

  1. Electromagnetic Transient Response Analysis of DFIG under Cascading Grid Faults Considering Phase Angel Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper analysis the electromagnetic transient response characteristics of DFIG under symmetrical and asymmetrical cascading grid fault conditions considering phaseangel jump of grid. On deriving the dynamic equations of the DFIG with considering multiple constraints on balanced and unbalanced...... conditions, phase angel jumps, interval of cascading fault, electromagnetic transient characteristics, the principle of the DFIG response under cascading voltage fault can be extract. The influence of grid angel jump on the transient characteristic of DFIG is analyzed and electromagnetic response...

  2. LLL transient-electromagnetics-measurement facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Miller, E.K.; Hudson, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and hardware of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's transient-electromagnetics (EM)-measurement facility are described. The transient-EM range is useful for determining the time-domain transient responses of structures to incident EM pulses. To illustrate the accuracy and utility of the EM-measurement facility, actual experimental measurements are compared to numerically computed values

  3. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  4. Studies on an Electromagnetic Transient Model of Offshore Wind Turbines and Lightning Transient Overvoltage Considering Lightning Channel Wave Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of offshore wind turbines (WTs, the problem of lightning strikes has become more and more prominent. In order to reduce the failure rate caused by the transient overvoltage of lightning struck offshore WTs, the influencing factors and the response rules of transient overvoltage are analyzed. In this paper, a new integrated electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is established by using the numerical calculation method of the electromagnetic field first. Then, based on the lightning model and considering the impedance of the lightning channel, the transient overvoltage of lightning is analyzed. Last, the electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is simulated and analyzed by using the alternative transients program electro-magnetic transient program (ATP-EMTP software. The influence factors of lightning transient overvoltage are studied. The main influencing factors include the sea depth, the blade length, the tower height, the lightning flow parameters, the lightning strike point, and the blade rotation position. The simulation results show that the influencing factors mentioned above have different effects on the lightning transient overvoltage. The results of the study have some guiding significance for the design of the lightning protection of the engine room.

  5. Evidence of Hierarchy in the Complex Fractured System of Geropotamos (Crete, Greece), as Extracted from Transient Electromagnetic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianatos, Filippos; Kouli, Maria; Kalisperi, Despina

    2018-03-01

    The essential goals of this paper are to test the transient electromagnetic (TEM) response in a fractured geological complex medium and to better understand the physics introduced by associating a roughness parameter β to the geological formation. An anomalous fractional diffusion approach is incorporated to describe the electromagnetic induction in rough multi-scaled geological structures. The multi-scaling characteristics of Geropotamos basin in Crete are revealed through the analysis of transient step-off response of an EM loop antenna. The semi-empirical parameters derived from late-time TEM measurements are correlated with the multi-scale heterogeneities of the medium. Certain interesting properties of the late-time slope γ(β) and the power law of near surface resistivity distribution, as extracted from TEM inversion for different depth, are presented. The analysis of the parameter γ(β) which scales the induced voltage in the loop in the late stage of the electromagnetic response leads to a different view of the EM geophysical data interpretation. We show that it is strongly correlated with areas of high fracture density within the geological formations of the Geropotamos area. For that reason, it is proposed as a local multi-scaling empirical index. The results of this paper suggest that anomalous diffusion could be a viable physical mechanism for the fractal transport of charge carriers, explaining observed late-time TEM responses across a variety of natural geological settings.

  6. Three-dimensional transient electromagnetic modeling in the Laplace Domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizunaga, H.; Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    In modeling electromagnetic responses, Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain are popular and have been widely used (Nabighian, 1994; Newman and Alumbaugh, 1995; Smith, 1996, to list a few). Recently, electromagnetic modeling in the time domain using the finite difference (FDTD) method (Wang and Hohmann, 1993) has also been used to study transient electromagnetic interactions in the conductive medium. This paper presents a new technique to compute the electromagnetic response of three-dimensional (3-D) structures. The proposed new method is based on transforming Maxwell's equations to the Laplace domain. For each discrete Laplace variable, Maxwell's equations are discretized in 3-D using the staggered grid and the finite difference method (FDM). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the fields using the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) method. The new method is particularly effective in saving computer memory since all the operations are carried out in real numbers. For the same reason, the computing speed is faster than frequency domain modeling. The proposed approach can be an extremely useful tool in developing an inversion algorithm using the time domain data

  7. Transient electromagnetic scattering on anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation treats the problem of transient scattering of obliquely incident electromagnetic plane waves on a stratified anisotropic dielectric slab. Scattering operators are derived for the reflective response of the medium. The internal fields are calculated. Wave splitting and invariant imbedding techniques are used. These techniques are first presented for fields normally incident on a stratified, isotropic dielectric medium. The techniques of wave splitting and invariant imbedding are applied to normally incident plane waves on an anisotropic medium. An integro-differential equation is derived for the reflective response and the direct and inverse scattering problems are discussed. These techniques are applied to the case of obliquely incident plane waves. The reflective response is derived and the direct and inverse problems discussed and compared to those for the normal incidence case. The internal fields are investigated for the oblique incidence via a Green's function approach. A numerical scheme is presented to calculate the Green's function. Finally, symmetry relations of the reflective response are discussed

  8. Double-transmitting and Sextuple-receiving Borehole Transient Electromagnetic Method and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement of precision requirements for borehole geophysical exploration, the application of transient electromagnetic method (from now on referred to as TEM in a borehole has become a hot spot. The conventional borehole TEM can only determine the longitudinal depth of the geological anomaly, the radial azimuth and depth cannot be resolved. A double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM is proposed, through which the radial anomaly is excited by the electromagnetic field generated by the double-emitting loops, and the azimuth and depth of the anomaly will be identified by the difference characteristics of the six receiving loops signals. In this paper, the response equations of the transmitting-receiving mode of double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM are deduced, and the response characteristics of the induction segment and the attenuation segment of the receiving loops are obtained based on the response equations under ramp function turn-off condition, providing the basis for theoretical analysis. Due to the negative value of the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving transient electromagnetic response signals, a negative transformation algorithm under the double logarithmic coordinate system is proposed to provide the essential method for the analysis of two kinds of physical simulation experimental data of the radial azimuth and radial depth detection of the anomaly. The results show that the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM has decent resolution ability in detecting the radial azimuth of the anomaly, and the effective resolution is 30°. The geometric difference among induced voltages of different measuring points can be used to evaluate the radial depth of the anomaly qualitatively. It is expected that the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM can provide technical guidance for little borehole geophysical exploration in the fields of oil, natural

  9. The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.

  10. Transient electromagnetic analysis in tokamaks using TYPHOON code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.V.; Duke, A.E.; Korolkov, M.D.; Kotov, V.L.; Kukhtin, V.P.; Lamzin, E.A.; Sytchevsky, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The transient electromagnetic analysis of conducting structures in tokamaks is presented. This analysis is based on a three-dimensional thin conducting shell model. The finite element method has been used to solve the corresponding integrodifferential equation. The code TYPHOON has been developed to calculate transient processes in tokamaks. Calculation tests and the code verification have been carried out. The calculation results of eddy current and force distibution and a.c. losses for different construction elements for both ITER and TEXTOR tokamaks magnetic systems are presented. (orig.)

  11. Fast Turn-off Mine Transient Electromagnetic Transmitter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xiao-Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For solving problems such as short turn-off time, high linear degree of falling edge, measurement of turn-off time and influence of primary signals for transient electromagnetic transmitter, and restrictions because of the environmental conditions of underground coal mine, this thesis aims at designing a new transient electromagnetic transmitter system suitable for coal mine. Supported by damping absorption circuit, such system applies small volume, sectional transmitting coil, with features of short turn-off time, high linear degree of current falling edge. It uses the transmitter monitoring circuit, which accurately measures turn-off time and simultaneously records the current value changes after turn-off, thus to eliminate the influence of primary field as well as to restore earlier secondary field signals for reference and finally to improve the ability to detect the shallow structure. It turns out that the new system has a shorter turn-off time, a higher linear degree of current falling and more accurate data record of turn-off current.

  12. Implementation of SoC Based Real-Time Electromagnetic Transient Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Herrera-Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time electromagnetic transient simulators are important tools in the design stage of new control and protection systems for power systems. Real-time simulators are used to test and stress new devices under similar conditions that the device will deal with in a real network with the purpose of finding errors and bugs in the design. The computation of an electromagnetic transient is complex and computationally demanding, due to features such as the speed of the phenomenon, the size of the network, and the presence of time variant and nonlinear elements in the network. In this work, the development of a SoC based real-time and also offline electromagnetic transient simulator is presented. In the design, the required performance is met from two sides, (a using a technique to split the power system into smaller subsystems, which allows parallelizing the algorithm, and (b with specialized and parallel hardware designed to boost the solution flow. The results of this work have shown that for the proposed case studies, based on a balanced distribution of the node of subsystems, the proposed approach has decreased the total simulation time by up to 99 times compared with the classical approach running on a single high performance 32-bit embedded processor ARM-Cortex A9.

  13. Transient birefringence effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, O M

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of numerical modelling of transient birefringence that arises as a result of electromagnetically induced transparency on degenerate quantum transitions between the states with J = 0, 1 and 2 in the presence of the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. It is shown that in the case of a linearly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence leads to a decay of the input circularly polarised probe pulse into separate linearly polarised pulses inside a medium. In the case of a circularly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence manifests itself in a decay of the input linearly polarised probe pulse into separate circularly polarised pulses. It is shown that the distance that a probe pulse has to pass in a medium before decaying into subpulses is considerably greater in the first case than in the second. The influence of the input probe pulse power and duration on the process of spatial separation into individual pulses inside a medium is studied. A qualitative analysis of the obtained results is presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  14. A Effect discussion of transient electromagnetic sounding technique in paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianchun; Fang Genxian; Yang Yaxin

    2003-01-01

    On the base of the application of transient electromagnetic technique of paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in Tengchong region of Yunan Province, this paper analyses the detect example. It discusses the theory foundation of TEM, fieldwork means, data processing and interpret. By contrast with routine electricity farad, the transient electromagnetic technique have the special merit and favorable space resolve gender under conditions of intricacy terrain. This means can get good effect in detecting paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits space position. It is a good reference for other prospecting and exploration work

  15. A numerical algorithm to evaluate the transient response for a synchronous scanning streak camera using a time-domain Baum–Liu–Tesche equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); He, Jiai [School of Computer and Communication, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The transient response is of great influence on the electromagnetic compatibility of synchronous scanning streak cameras (SSSCs). In this paper we propose a numerical method to evaluate the transient response of the scanning deflection plate (SDP). First, we created a simplified circuit model for the SDP used in an SSSC, and then derived the Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT) equation in the frequency domain. From the frequency-domain BLT equation, its transient counterpart was derived. These parameters, together with the transient-BLT equation, were used to compute the transient load voltage and load current, and then a novel numerical method to fulfill the continuity equation was used. Several numerical simulations were conducted to verify this proposed method. The computed results were then compared with transient responses obtained by a frequency-domain/fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, and the accordance was excellent for highly conducting cables. The benefit of deriving the BLT equation in the time domain is that it may be used with slight modifications to calculate the transient response and the error can be controlled by a computer program. The result showed that the transient voltage was up to 1000 V and the transient current was approximately 10 A, so some protective measures should be taken to improve the electromagnetic compatibility.

  16. A numerical algorithm to evaluate the transient response for a synchronous scanning streak camera using a time-domain Baum–Liu–Tesche equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Wu, Shengli; He, Jiai; Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The transient response is of great influence on the electromagnetic compatibility of synchronous scanning streak cameras (SSSCs). In this paper we propose a numerical method to evaluate the transient response of the scanning deflection plate (SDP). First, we created a simplified circuit model for the SDP used in an SSSC, and then derived the Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT) equation in the frequency domain. From the frequency-domain BLT equation, its transient counterpart was derived. These parameters, together with the transient-BLT equation, were used to compute the transient load voltage and load current, and then a novel numerical method to fulfill the continuity equation was used. Several numerical simulations were conducted to verify this proposed method. The computed results were then compared with transient responses obtained by a frequency-domain/fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, and the accordance was excellent for highly conducting cables. The benefit of deriving the BLT equation in the time domain is that it may be used with slight modifications to calculate the transient response and the error can be controlled by a computer program. The result showed that the transient voltage was up to 1000 V and the transient current was approximately 10 A, so some protective measures should be taken to improve the electromagnetic compatibility.

  17. A comparison of two three-dimensional shell-element transient electromagnetics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugo, J.J.; Williamson, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic forces due to eddy currents strongly influence the design of components for the next generation of fusion devices. An effort has been made to benchmark two computer programs used to generate transient electromagnetic loads: SPARK and EddyCuFF. Two simple transient field problems were analyzed, both of which had been previously analyzed by the SPARK code with results recorded in the literature. A third problem that uses an ITER inboard blanket benchmark model was analyzed as well. This problem was driven with a self-consistent, distributed multifilament plasma model generated by an axisymmetric physics code. The benchmark problems showed good agreement between the two shell-element codes. Variations in calculated eddy currents of 1--3% have been found for similar, finely meshed models. A difference of 8% was found in induced current and 20% in force for a coarse mesh and complex, multifilament field driver. Because comparisons were made to results obtained from literature, model preparation and code execution times were not evaluated

  18. State, space relay modeling and simulation using the electromagnetic Transients Program and its transient analysis of control systems capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domijan, A.D. Jr.; Emami, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a simulation of a MHO distance relay developed to study the effect of its operation under various system conditions. Simulation is accomplished using a state space approach and a modeling technique using ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (Transient Analysis of Control Systems). Furthermore, simulation results are compared with those obtained in another independent study as a control, to validate the results. A data code for the practical utilization of this simulation is given

  19. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter V: transient electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Niikura, Setsuo; Ueda, Koju

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter V of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Simulation results are shown for feedback control of plasma position, electromagnetic forces at disruptions, penetration of electric and magnetic fields, and benchmark tests for transient electromagnetics. Design guide lines for feedback control system and database assessments are also reported. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic transients as triggers in searches for gravitational waves from compact binary mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Mandel, Ilya; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2013-06-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic transient which may originate from a binary neutron star merger can increase the probability that a given segment of data from the LIGO-Virgo ground-based gravitational-wave detector network contains a signal from a binary coalescence. Additional information contained in the electromagnetic signal, such as the sky location or distance to the source, can help rule out false alarms and thus lower the necessary threshold for a detection. Here, we develop a framework for determining how much sensitivity is added to a gravitational-wave search by triggering on an electromagnetic transient. We apply this framework to a variety of relevant electromagnetic transients, from short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to signatures of r-process heating to optical and radio orphan afterglows. We compute the expected rates of multimessenger observations in the advanced detector era and find that searches triggered on short GRBs—with current high-energy instruments, such as Fermi—and nucleosynthetic “kilonovae”—with future optical surveys, like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope—can boost the number of multimessenger detections by 15% and 40%, respectively, for a binary neutron star progenitor model. Short GRB triggers offer precise merger timing but suffer from detection rates decreased by beaming and the high a priori probability that the source is outside the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume. Isotropic kilonovae, on the other hand, could be commonly observed within the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume with an instrument roughly an order of magnitude more sensitive than current optical surveys. We propose that the most productive strategy for making multimessenger gravitational-wave observations is using triggers from future deep, optical all-sky surveys, with characteristics comparable to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which could make as many as ten such coincident observations a year.

  1. Effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in reversed field pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.C.; Chu, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas are studied. Most RFP machines are equipped with one or more metal shells outside of the vacuum vessel. These shells have finite resistivities. The eddy currents induced in each of the shells contribute to the braking electromagnetic (EM) torque which slows down the plasma rotation. In this work we study the electromagnetic torque acting on the plasma (tearing) modes produced by a system of resistive shells. These shells may consist of several nested thin shells or several thin shells enclosed within a thick shell. The dynamics of the plasma mode is investigated by balancing the EM torque from the resistive shells with the plasma viscous torque. Both the steady state theory and the time-dependent theory are developed. The steady state theory is shown to provide an accurate account of the resultant EM torque if (dω/dt)ω -2 <<1 and the time scale of interest is much longer than the response (L/R) time of the shell. Otherwise, the transient theory should be adopted. As applications, the steady state theory is used to evaluate the changes of the EM torque response from the resistive shells in two variants of two RFP machines: (1) modification from Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) [Gnesotto et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)] to the modified RFX: both of them are equipped with one thin shell plus one thick shell; (2) modification from Extrap T2 to Extrap T2R [Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]: both of them are equipped with two thin shells. The transient theory has been applied numerically to study the time evolution of the EM torque during the unlocking of a locked tearing mode in the modified RFX

  2. Apparent resistivity for transient electromagnetic induction logging and its correction in radial layer identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingxin; Hu, Xiangyun; Pan, Heping; Xi, Yufei

    2018-04-01

    We propose an algorithm for calculating all-time apparent resistivity from transient electromagnetic induction logging. The algorithm is based on the whole-space transient electric field expression of the uniform model and Halley's optimisation. In trial calculations for uniform models, the all-time algorithm is shown to have high accuracy. We use the finite-difference time-domain method to simulate the transient electromagnetic field in radial two-layer models without wall rock and convert the simulation results to apparent resistivity using the all-time algorithm. The time-varying apparent resistivity reflects the radially layered geoelectrical structure of the models and the apparent resistivity of the earliest time channel follows the true resistivity of the inner layer; however, the apparent resistivity at larger times reflects the comprehensive electrical characteristics of the inner and outer layers. To accurately identify the outer layer resistivity based on the series relationship model of the layered resistance, the apparent resistivity and diffusion depth of the different time channels are approximately replaced by related model parameters; that is, we propose an apparent resistivity correction algorithm. By correcting the time-varying apparent resistivity of radial two-layer models, we show that the correction results reflect the radially layered electrical structure and the corrected resistivities of the larger time channels follow the outer layer resistivity. The transient electromagnetic fields of radially layered models with wall rock are simulated to obtain the 2D time-varying profiles of the apparent resistivity and corrections. The results suggest that the time-varying apparent resistivity and correction results reflect the vertical and radial geoelectrical structures. For models with small wall-rock effect, the correction removes the effect of the low-resistance inner layer on the apparent resistivity of the larger time channels.

  3. Three-Component Forward Modeling for Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, the time derivative of vertical magnetic field is considered only in the data interpretation of transient electromagnetic (TEM method. However, to survey in the complex geology structures, this conventional technique has begun gradually to be unsatisfied with the demand of field exploration. To improve the integrated interpretation precision of TEM, it is necessary to study the three-component forward modeling and inversion. In this paper, a three-component forward algorithm for 2.5D TEM based on the independent electric and magnetic field has been developed. The main advantage of the new scheme is that it can reduce the size of the global system matrix to the utmost extent, that is to say, the present is only one fourth of the conventional algorithm. In order to illustrate the feasibility and usefulness of the present algorithm, several typical geoelectric models of the TEM responses produced by loop sources at air-earth interface are presented. The results of the numerical experiments show that the computation speed of the present scheme is increased obviously and three-component interpretation can get the most out of the collected data, from which we can easily analyze or interpret the space characteristic of the abnormity object more comprehensively.

  4. Transient reflection and transmission of E polarized electromagnetic waves at boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yukimasa

    1977-01-01

    The transient reflection and transmission waves of E polarized electromagnetic waves coming into the boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma were theoretically investigated. By using the Laplace transformation in the moving system, the formulae of Lorentz and inverse Lorentz transformations concerning electromagnetic field were transformed, thus the transient reflection and transmission waves were obtained. These waves were normalized with the angular frequency of the incident waves, and the variation of the wave form was obtained. Examples of the numerical calculation of reflected waves are shown for the plasma moving in parallel to the boundary surface. (Kato, T.)

  5. International and Domestic Development Trends of Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Programs for Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Taku

    Nowadays, there is quite high demand for electromagnetic transient (EMT) analysis programs and real-time simulators for power systems. In addition to the conventional demand such as overvoltage, over-current and oscillation simulations, the new demand that includes simulations of power-electronics circuits and power quality is increasing. With this background, development groups of EMT programs and real-time simulators have made progress in terms of computational performance and user experience. In Japan, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has newly developed an EMT analysis program called XTAP (eXpandable Transient Analysis Program). This article overviews these international and domestic development trends of EMT analysis programs and real-time simulators.

  6. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report observations of the dynamics of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Λ system when the ground states are Stark shifted. Interactions of this type exhibit large optical nonlinearities called Kerr nonlinearities, and have numerous applications. The EIT Kerr nonlinearity is relatively slow, which is a limiting factor that may make many potential applications impossible. Using rubidium atoms, we observe the dynamics of the EIT Kerr nonlinearity using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure phase modulation of the EIT fields resulting from a pulsed signal beam Stark shifting the ground state energy levels. The rise times and transients agree well with theory

  7. Resonant and off-resonant transients in electromagnetically induced transparency: Turn-on and turn-off dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Smith, T.B.; Echaniz, S.R. de; Durrant, A. V.; Marangos, J.P.; Segal, D.M.; Vaccaro, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a wide-ranging theoretical and experimental study of nonadiabatic transient phenomena in a Λ electromagnetically induced transparency system when a strong coupling field is rapidly switched on or off. The theoretical treatment uses a Laplace transform approach to solve the time-dependent density matrix equation. The experiments are carried out in a 87 Rb magneto-optical trap. The results show transient probe gain in parameter regions not previously studied, and provide insight into the transition dynamics between bare and dressed states

  8. Transient field behavior in an electromagnetic pulse from neutral-beam reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    A neutral beam of electrons and positrons catches up to an electromagnetic pulse moving in a medium with refractive index n. The neutral beam is reflected and deposits some of its energy in a current region in the tail of the pulse. The location, size, and shape of the transient-induced electric fields in the current region are modeled using current densities from uniform averaged fields. The electric field in the current region is predicted to rise linearly with time, with a doubling time determined by the beam parameters and the initial local electromagnetic field. A coordinate frame comoving with the pulse is used to determine the extent of and conditions within the current region. In this comoving frame the Lorentz-transformed electric field is zero, but there is an enhanced Lorentz-transformed magnetic field. The extent of the current region is found from the radius of the semicircular charged-particle orbits in the comoving frame

  9. FDTD modelling of induced polarization phenomena in transient electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commer, Michael; Petrov, Peter V.; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-04-01

    The finite-difference time-domain scheme is augmented in order to treat the modelling of transient electromagnetic signals containing induced polarization effects from 3-D distributions of polarizable media. Compared to the non-dispersive problem, the discrete dispersive Maxwell system contains costly convolution operators. Key components to our solution for highly digitized model meshes are Debye decomposition and composite memory variables. We revert to the popular Cole-Cole model of dispersion to describe the frequency-dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity. Its inversely Laplace-transformed Debye decomposition results in a series of time convolutions between electric field and exponential decay functions, with the latter reflecting each Debye constituents' individual relaxation time. These function types in the discrete-time convolution allow for their substitution by memory variables, annihilating the otherwise prohibitive computing demands. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and practicality of our algorithm.

  10. A study of transient variations in the Earth's electromagnetic field at equatorial electrojet latitudes in western Africa (Mali and the Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vassal

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the French-Ivorian participation to the IEEY, a network of 10 electromagnetic stations were installed at African longitudes. The aim of this experiment was twofold: firstly, to study the magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet on the one hand, and secondly, to characterize the induced electric field variations on the other hand. The first results of the magnetic field investigations were presented by Doumouya and coworkers. Those of the electric field experiment will be discussed in this study. The electromagnetic experiment will be described. The analysis of the electromagnetic transient variations was conducted in accordance with the classical distinction between quiet and disturbed magnetic situations. A morphological analysis of the recordings is given, taking into consideration successively quiet and disturbed magnetic situations, with the results interpreted in terms of the characterization of external and internal sources. Particular attention was paid to the effects of the source characteristics on the induced field of internal origin, and to the bias they may consequently cause to the results of electromagnetic probing of the Earth; the source effect in electromagnetic induction studies. During quiet magnetic situations, our results demonstrated the existence of two different sources. One of these, the SRE source, was responsible for most of the magnetic diurnal variation and corresponded to the well-known magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet. The other source (the SR*E source was responsible for most of the electric diurnal variation, and was also likely to be an ionospheric source. Electric and magnetic diurnal variations are therefore related to different ionospheric sources, and interpreting the electric diurnal variation as induced by the magnetic field diurnal variation is not relevant. Furthermore, the magnetotelluric probing of the upper mantle at dip equator latitudes with the

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the spectrum of transient electromagnetic field created by linac electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroyasu; Tomioka, Satoshi; Enoto, Takeaki

    1994-01-01

    Wave information about micro-pulses of electron beams is required in order to control an electron beam precisely, and it may be possible to obtain such information by analyzing the spectrum of the electromagnetic field created by a linac electron beam. In order to derive the spectrum, we measured the spatial distribution generated by a standing wave. Furthermore we calculated the transient electromagnetic field excited by a bunched electron beam, using the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method, and compared two spectra in the frequency domain, into which the calculated value in time variation and the measured values in spatial variation are transformed by using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) respectively. (author)

  12. Goaf water detection using the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Wu, Y.; Wang, A.

    2017-12-01

    To detect the geoelectric characteristic of goaf water, the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system (developed by Jilin University, China) is applied to the goaf water detection since its advantages of considerable prospecting depth, lateral resolution and detection efficiency. For the test of GREATEM system in goaf water detection, an experimental survey was conducted at Qinshui coal mine (Shanxi province, China). After data acquisition, noise reduction and inversion, the resistivity profiles of survey area is presented. The results highly agree the investigation information provided by Shanxi Coal Geology Geophysical Surveying Exploration Institute (China), conforming that the GREATEM system is an effective technique for resistivity detection of goaf water.

  13. Instrument response during overpower transients at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.C.; Bauer, T.H.; Hill, D.J.; Froehle, P.H.; Klickman, A.E.; Tylka, J.P.; Doerner, R.C.; Wright, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A program to empirically analyze data residuals or noise to determine instrument response that occurs during in-pile transient tests is out-lined. As an example, thermocouple response in the Mark III loop during a severe overpower transient in TREAT is studied both in frequency space and in real-time. Time intervals studied included both constant power and burst portions of the power transient. Thermocouple time constants were computed. Benefits and limitations of the method are discussed

  14. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by reinforcing intracellular calcium transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jie; Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Bin; Fan, Yun; Ma, Xingfeng; Yu, Liyin; Zhang, Jianbao

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can be used to treat bone-related diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially the process by which PEMFs initiate biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of PEMF on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using the model of calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium. Our results showed that PEMF can increase both the percentage of responding cells and amplitude of intracellular calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium stimulation. Compared with corresponding extracellular calcium levels, PEMF stimulation increased proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and related gene expressions, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OCN), which can be completely abolished by BAPTA-AM. Moreover, PEMF did not affect proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts if no intracellular calcium transient was present in osteoblasts during PEMF exposure. Our results revealed that PEMF affects osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through enhanced intracellular calcium transients, which provided a cue to treat bone-related diseases with PEMF. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:541-549, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Adaptive sampling of AEM transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Massa, Domenico; Florio, Giovanni; Viezzoli, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the sampling of the electromagnetic transient as acquired by airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems. Typically, the sampling of the electromagnetic transient is done using a fixed number of gates whose width grows logarithmically (log-gating). The log-gating has two main benefits: improving the signal to noise (S/N) ratio at late times, when the electromagnetic signal has amplitudes equal or lower than the natural background noise, and ensuring a good resolution at the early times. However, as a result of fixed time gates, the conventional log-gating does not consider any geological variations in the surveyed area, nor the possibly varying characteristics of the measured signal. We show, using synthetic models, how a different, flexible sampling scheme can increase the resolution of resistivity models. We propose a new sampling method, which adapts the gating on the base of the slope variations in the electromagnetic (EM) transient. The use of such an alternative sampling scheme aims to get more accurate inverse models by extracting the geoelectrical information from the measured data in an optimal way.

  16. Examples of digital simulation of AC-DC power converter with the Electromagnetic Transients Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahashi, Shugo; Yamada, Shuichi; Mugishima, Mituo; Kitagawa, Shiro.

    1989-03-01

    This article gives a practical guidance for analysis of power converter circuits using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). First how to use the program is shown with two simple examples; (1) a power supply with three-phase diode bridge and (2) a feedback system for current control. Then its application to more complicated system is shown with an example of a power supply for Compact Helical System (CHS), where a hybrid power supply with multi-phase diode and thyristor bridges, and two three-phase thyristor converters are driven by an AC generator. (author)

  17. Electromagnet Response Time Tests on Primary CRDM of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the electromagnetic response characteristics of the electromagnet of a primary control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) used for the reactor scram function. The test measures the electromagnet response time required to release an armature from a stator controlled by a loss of an electromagnetic force on an armature after shorting a power supply to an electromagnet coil. These tests are carried out while changing the electromagnet core material, an assist spring, and an armature holding current. The main factors influencing the test parameters on the response are found to be the armature holding current for holding the armature loads, and the material type of the electromagnet cores. The minimum response time is 0.13 seconds in the case of using SS410 material as an armature, while the S10C material as an armature has a response time of 0.21 seconds. Electromagnet response time characteristics from the test results will be evaluated by comparing the precise moving data of an electromagnet armature through the use of a high-speed camera and a potentiometer in the future

  18. Electromagnetic transient analysis and Novell protective relaying techniques for power transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X; Tian, Q; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the technical challenges of transformer malfunction analysis as well as protection. One of the current research directions is the malfunction mechanism analysis due to nonlinearity of transformer core and comprehensive countermeasures on improving the performance of transformer differential protection. Here, the authors summarize their research outcomes and present a set of recent research advances in the electromagnetic transient analysis, the application on power transformer protections, and present a more systematic investigation and review in this field. This research area is still progressing, especially with the fast development of Smart Grid. This book is an important addition to the literature and will enhance significant advancement in research. It is a good reference book for researchers in power transformer protection research and a good text book for graduate and undergraduate students in electrical engineering.

  19. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  20. A study of transient variations in the Earth's electromagnetic field at equatorial electrojet latitudes in western Africa (Mali and the Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vassal

    Full Text Available In the framework of the French-Ivorian participation to the IEEY, a network of 10 electromagnetic stations were installed at African longitudes. The aim of this experiment was twofold: firstly, to study the magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet on the one hand, and secondly, to characterize the induced electric field variations on the other hand. The first results of the magnetic field investigations were presented by Doumouya and coworkers. Those of the electric field experiment will be discussed in this study. The electromagnetic experiment will be described. The analysis of the electromagnetic transient variations was conducted in accordance with the classical distinction between quiet and disturbed magnetic situations. A morphological analysis of the recordings is given, taking into consideration successively quiet and disturbed magnetic situations, with the results interpreted in terms of the characterization of external and internal sources. Particular attention was paid to the effects of the source characteristics on the induced field of internal origin, and to the bias they may consequently cause to the results of electromagnetic probing of the Earth; the source effect in electromagnetic induction studies. During quiet magnetic situations, our results demonstrated the existence of two different sources. One of these, the SRE source, was responsible for most of the magnetic diurnal variation and corresponded to the well-known magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet. The other source (the SR*E source was responsible for most of the electric diurnal variation, and was also likely to be an ionospheric source. Electric and magnetic diurnal variations are therefore related to different ionospheric sources, and interpreting the electric diurnal variation as induced by the magnetic field diurnal variation is not relevant. Furthermore, the magnetotelluric probing of the upper mantle at

  1. Aerial Transient Electromagnetic Surveys of Alluvial Aquifers in Rural Watersheds of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D. R.; Callegary, J. B.; Groom, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Development in rural areas of Arizona has led the State of Arizona (Arizona Department of Water Resources), in cooperation with the Arizona Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, to sponsor investigations of the hydrogeologic framework of several alluvial-basin aquifers. An efficient method for mapping the aquifer extent and lithology was needed due to sparse subsurface information. Aerial Transient Electro-Magnetic (ATEM) methods were selected because they can be used to quickly survey large areas and with a great depth of investigation. Both helicopter and fixed-wing ATEM methods are available. A fixed-wing method (GEOTEM) was selected because of the potential for a depth of investigation of 300 m or more and because previous surveys indicated the method is useful in alluvial basins in southeastern Arizona. About 2,900 km of data along flight lines were surveyed across five alluvial basins, including the Middle San Pedro and Willcox Basins in southeastern Arizona, and Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Basins in northwestern Arizona. Data initially were analyzed by the contractor (FUGRO Airborne Surveys) to produce conductivity-depth-transforms, which approximate the general subsurface electrical-property distribution along profiles. Physically based two-dimensional physical models of the profile data were then developed by PetRos- Eikon by using EMIGMA software. Hydrologically important lithologies can have different electrical properties. Several types of crystalline and sedimentary rocks generally are poor aquifers that have low porosity and high electrical resistivity. Good alluvial aquifers of sand and gravel generally have an intermediate electrical resistivity. Poor aquifer materials, such as silt and clay, and areas of poor quality water have low electrical resistivity values. Several types of control data were available to constrain the models including drill logs, electrical logs, water levels , and water quality information from wells; and

  2. Transient dynamics in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency with ion Coulomb crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Magnus; Dantan, Aurélien; Drewsen, Michael

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the transient dynamics of an optical cavity field interacting with large ion Coulomb crystals in a situation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT is achieved by injecting a probe field at the single photon level and a more intense control field with opposite circular polarization into the same mode of an optical cavity to couple Zeeman substates of a metastable level in ? ions. The EIT interaction dynamics are investigated both in the frequency-domain - by measuring the probe field steady state reflectivity spectrum - and in the time-domain - by measuring the progressive buildup of transparency. The experimental results are observed to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions taking into account the inhomogeneity of the control field in the interaction volume, and confirm the high degree of control on light-matter interaction that can be achieved with ion Coulomb crystals in optical cavities.

  3. Off-shore wind power plant modelling precision and efficiency in electromagnetic transient simulation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaagac, U.; Saad, H.; Mahseredjian, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jensen, S.; Cai, L. [REpower Systems AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The large number of switching elements in the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a challenging problem for modeling the MMC-HVDC systems in electromagnetic transient type (EMT-type) programs. The modeling complexity increases even further when MMC-HVDC systems are used to integrate offshore wind farms (OWFs) with power electronics based wind energy converters, such as doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs). This paper compares the computational performances of various combinations of MMC-HVDC and OWF models. Practical onshore ac fault scenarios are simulated for an OWF composed of DFIG type wind turbines and connected to a practical ac grid through a point-to-point MMC-HVDC system. (orig.)

  4. Coil response inversion for very early time modelling of helicopter-borne time-domain electromagnetic data and mapping of near-surface geological layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence; Auken, Esben; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2014-01-01

    Very early times in the order of 2-3 μs from the end of the turn-off ramp for time-domain electromagnetic systems are crucial for obtaining a detailed resolution of the near-surface geology in the depth interval 0-20 m. For transient electromagnetic systems working in the off time, an electric cu...... resolution of shallow geological layers in the depth interval 0-20 m. This is proved by comparing results from the airborne electromagnetic survey to more than 100 km of Electrical Resistivity Tomography measured with 5 m electrode spacing.......Very early times in the order of 2-3 μs from the end of the turn-off ramp for time-domain electromagnetic systems are crucial for obtaining a detailed resolution of the near-surface geology in the depth interval 0-20 m. For transient electromagnetic systems working in the off time, an electric...

  5. Transient electromagnetic detecting technique for water hazard to the roof of fully mechanized sub-level caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jing-cun; Liu Zhi-xin; Tang Jin-yun; Wang Yang-zhou [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Resources and Geoscience Science

    2007-07-01

    In coal mining, with the popularization of fully mechanized equipment, the roof control becomes more and more important. The development of water body in roofs may seriously affect the efficiency of the fully mechanized mining, quite possible to cause an accident in working face. Therefore, to make clear the position of a water body located in roofs so as to provide a basis for water drainage borehole layout is an urgent problem to be solved by geophysical exploration. Based on the transient electromagnetic theory and the technique used on ground surface and on the actual situation in underground coal mines, a square superimposed loop device (2 m in side length) which is non-contact and multi-turns was developed to detect the water bodies in coal seam roofs. Based on the 'smoke ring effect' theory and the physical simulation criterion, the mathematical model for calculating the apparent resistivity of full space transient electromagnetism is deduced. In addition, the water detection technology for the roof of fully mechanized sub-level caving face was researched and applied in several coal mines, which has been verified by boreholes and mining practice, indicating that this method is very effective in detecting the water source in the roof of fully mechanized sub-level caving face. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    . The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element...... detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic example....

  7. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  8. Mapping saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne Aquifer, Miami-Dade County, Florida using transient electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion in southern Florida poses a potential threat to the public drinking-water supply that is typically monitored using water samples and electromagnetic induction logs collected from a network of wells. Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings are a complementary addition to the monitoring program because of their ease of use, low cost, and ability to fill in data gaps between wells. TEM soundings have been used to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer over a large part of south Florida including eastern Miami-Dade County and the Everglades. These two areas are very different with one being urban and the other undeveloped. Each poses different conditions that affect data collection and data quality. In the developed areas, finding sites large enough to make soundings is difficult. The presence of underground pipes further restricts useable locations. Electromagnetic noise, which reduces data quality, is also an issue. In the Everglades, access to field sites is difficult and working in water-covered terrain is challenging. Nonetheless, TEM soundings are an effective tool for mapping saltwater intrusion. Direct estimates of water quality can be obtained from the inverted TEM data using a formation factor determined for the Biscayne aquifer. This formation factor is remarkably constant over Miami-Dade County owing to the uniformity of the aquifer and the absence of clay. Thirty-six TEM soundings were collected in the Model Land area of southeast Miami-Dade County to aid in calibration of a helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) survey. The soundings and HEM survey revealed an area of saltwater intrusion aligned with canals and drainage ditches along U.S. Highway 1 and the Card Sound Road. These canals and ditches likely reduced freshwater levels through unregulated drainage and provided pathways for seawater to flow at least 12.4 km inland.

  9. A de-noising algorithm based on wavelet threshold-exponential adaptive window width-fitting for ground electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanju; Li, Dongsheng; Yu, Mingmei; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The ground electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic system (GREATEM) on an unmanned aircraft enjoys considerable prospecting depth, lateral resolution and detection efficiency, etc. In recent years it has become an important technical means of rapid resources exploration. However, GREATEM data are extremely vulnerable to stationary white noise and non-stationary electromagnetic noise (sferics noise, aircraft engine noise and other human electromagnetic noises). These noises will cause degradation of the imaging quality for data interpretation. Based on the characteristics of the GREATEM data and major noises, we propose a de-noising algorithm utilizing wavelet threshold method and exponential adaptive window width-fitting. Firstly, the white noise is filtered in the measured data using the wavelet threshold method. Then, the data are segmented using data window whose step length is even logarithmic intervals. The data polluted by electromagnetic noise are identified within each window based on the discriminating principle of energy detection, and the attenuation characteristics of the data slope are extracted. Eventually, an exponential fitting algorithm is adopted to fit the attenuation curve of each window, and the data polluted by non-stationary electromagnetic noise are replaced with their fitting results. Thus the non-stationary electromagnetic noise can be effectively removed. The proposed algorithm is verified by the synthetic and real GREATEM signals. The results show that in GREATEM signal, stationary white noise and non-stationary electromagnetic noise can be effectively filtered using the wavelet threshold-exponential adaptive window width-fitting algorithm, which enhances the imaging quality.

  10. Modeling of Transient Response of the Wickless Heat Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, A.K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermosyphons transient response for startup from ambient temperature to steady state until shutdown conditions, is considered a stringent necessity for applications such as electronic, solar, geothermal and even nuclear reactors safety systems. This typically returns to the need to keep the temperature within certain limits before reaching critical conditions. A simple network model is derived for describing the transient response of closed two-phase thermosyphon (CTPT) at startup and shutdown states. In addition, for predicting the effect of operational characteristics of water/copper closed two-phase thermosyphon such as thermal load, filling ratio, evaporator length, and thermosyphon tube diameter. The thermosyphons operation was considered a thermal network of various components with different thermal resistances and dynamic responses. The network model consists of six sub-models. These models are pure conduction in walls of evaporator, adiabatic and condenser, and convection in evaporator pool, evaporator film, and condenser film. So, an energy balance for each sub-model was done to estimate temperatures, heat transfer coefficients, thermal resistances, time constant, and other thermal characteristics that describe the required transient response of the closed two-phase thermosyphon. Governing equations of the transient thermosyphon behavior can be simplified into a set of first-order linear ordinary differential equations. The Runge-Kutta method can be used to obtain transient thermosyphon temperatures from these equations.

  11. Analysis of transient electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices using a quantum corrected integral equation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes

    2015-10-26

    Analysis of electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices can oftentimes be carried out accurately using “traditional” electromagnetic solvers. However, if a gap of sub-nanometer scale exists between any two surfaces of the device, quantum-mechanical effects including tunneling should be taken into account for an accurate characterization of the device\\'s response. Since the first-principle quantum simulators can not be used efficiently to fully characterize a typical-size nanodevice, a quantum corrected electromagnetic model has been proposed as an efficient and accurate alternative (R. Esteban et al., Nat. Commun., 3(825), 2012). The quantum correction is achieved through an effective layered medium introduced into the gap between the surfaces. The dielectric constant of each layer is obtained using a first-principle quantum characterization of the gap with a different dimension.

  12. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory describing the transients and rise times of the refractive Kerr nonlinearity which is enhanced using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We restrict our analysis to the case of a pulsed signal field with continuous-wave EIT fields, and all fields are well below saturation. These restrictions enable the reduction of an EIT Kerr, four-level, density-matrix equation to a two-level Bloch-vector equation which has a simple and physically intuitive algebraic solution. The physically intuitive picture of a two-level Bloch vector provides insights that are easily generalized to more complex and experimentally realistic models. We consider generalization to the cases of Doppler broadening, many-level EIT systems (we consider the D1 line of 87 Rb), and optically thick media. For the case of optically thick media we find that the rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect is proportional to the optical thickness. The rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect sets important limitations for potential few-photon applications

  13. Modelling structural systems for transient response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper introduces and reports success of a direct means of determining the time periods in which a structural system behaves as a linear system. Numerical results are based on post fracture transient analyses of simplified nuclear piping systems. Knowledge of the linear response ranges will lead to improved analysis-test correlation and more efficient analyses. It permits direct use of data from physical tests in analysis and simplication of the analytical model and interpretation of its behavior. The paper presents a procedure for deducing linearity based on transient responses. Given the forcing functions and responses of discrete points of the system at various times, the process produces evidence of linearity and quantifies an adequate set of equations of motion. Results of use of the process with linear and nonlinear analyses of piping systems with damping illustrate its success. Results cover the application to data from mathematical system responses. The process is successfull with mathematical models. In loading ranges in which all modes are excited, eight digit accuracy of predictions are obtained from the equations of motion deduced. Small changes (less than 0.01%) in the norm of the transfer matrices are produced by manipulation errors for linear systems yielding evidence that nonlinearity is easily distinguished. Significant changes (greater than five %) are coincident with relatively large norms of the equilibrium correction vector in nonlinear analyses. The paper shows that deducing linearity and, when admissible, quantifying linear equations of motion from transient response data for piping systems can be achieved with accuracy comparable to that of response data

  14. Geological Hypothesis Testing and Investigations of Coupling with Transient Electromagnetics (TEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. C.; Moeller, M. M.; Snyder, E.; Workman, E. J.; Urquhart, S.; Bedrosian, P.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in Borrego Canyon within the Santo Domingo Basin of the Rio Grande Rift, central New Mexico, during the 2014 Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) field program. TEM surveys were carried out in several regions both to investigate geologic structure and to illustrate the effects of coupling to anthropogenic structures. To determine an optimal survey configuration, 50, 100 and 200 m square transmitter loops were deployed; estimates of depth-of-investigation and logistical considerations determined that 50 m loops were sufficient for production-style measurements. A resistive (100s of ohm-m) layer was identified at a depth of 25-75 m at several locations, and interpreted as dismembered parts of one or more concealed volcanic flows, an interpretation consistent with Tertiary volcanic flows that cap the Santa Anna Mesa immediately to the south. TEM soundings were also made across an inferred fault to investigate whether fault offset is accompanied by lateral changes in electrical resistivity. Soundings within several hundred meters of the inferred fault strand were identical, indicating no resistivity contrast across the fault, and possibly an absence of recent activity. An old windmill and water tank, long-abandoned, offered an excellent laboratory to study the effect of coupling to metallic anthropogenic structures. The character of the measured data strongly suggests the water tank is in electrical contact with the earth (galvanic coupling), and an induced response was persistent to more than 1 second after current turn-off. Coupling effects could be identified at least 150 meters from the tank. Understanding the mechanism behind such coupling and the ability to identify coupled data are critical skills, as one-dimensional modeling of data is affected by such coupling producing artificial conductive layers at depth.

  15. Dynamic response of the JT-60 vacuum vessel under the electromagnetic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, H.; Shimizu, M.; Ohta, M.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic response analyses of the JAERI Tokamak 60 (JT-60) vacuum vessel were carried out under three kinds of saddle-like electromagnetic forces. In the analysis, the dynamic response of the bellows was obtained by dividing it into three components; the first, caused by the forced deflection due to the displacement of an adjacent rigid ring; the second, caused by inertia force; and the third, caused by a saddle-like electromagnetic force. Eigenvalue analyses showed that the 20th mode is a typical rotation mode of the rigid ring around the major radius with a natural frequency of 46.3 Hz. From the results of the dynamic response analyses, the maximum displacement response of the rigid ring was 3.1 mm and remarkable dynamic response was observed in the case of plasma disruption with a time constant of 1 ms. In cases of start-up of the plasma current and plasma disruption with a time constant of 50 ms, the rigid ring vibrates quasi-statically. It is clear that the dynamic behavior of the vacuum vessel is governed mainly by the saddle-like electromagnetic force, with a smaller effect of the inverse saddle-like electromagnetic force on the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel. (orig.)

  16. Transient identification system with noising data and 'don't know' response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio C. de A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In the last years, many different approaches based on neural network (NN) has been proposed for transient identification in nuclear power plants (NPP). Some of them focus the dynamic identification using recurrent neural networks however, they are not able to deal with unrecognized transients. Other kind of solution uses competitive learning in order to allow the 'don't know' response. In this case dynamic, dynamic features are not well represented. This work presents a new approach for neural network based transient identification which allows either dynamic identification and 'don't know'response. Such approach uses two multilayer neural networks trained with backpropagation algorithm. The first one is responsible for the dynamic identification. This NN uses, a short set (in a movable time window) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The other one is used to validate the instantaneous identification (from the first net) through the validation of each variable. This net is responsible for allowing the system to provide 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method a NPP transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents, simulated for a pressurized water reactor, was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noising data in other to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method, a NPP transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents simulated for a pressurized water reactor, was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noising data in order to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. (author)

  17. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  18. Lithium Battery Transient Response as a Diagnostic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, E.; Nigmatullin, R.; Evdokimov, Y.; Timergalina, G.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium batteries are currently used as the main energy storage for electronic devices. Progress in the field of portable electronic devices is significantly determined by the improvement of their weight/dimensional characteristics and specific capacity. In addition to the high reliability required of lithium batteries, in some critical applications proper diagnostics are required. Corresponding techniques allow prediction and prevention of operation interruption and avoidance of expensive battery replacement, and also provide additional benefits. Many effective diagnostic methods have been suggested; however, most of them require expensive experimental equipment, as well as interruption or strong perturbation of the operating mode. In the framework of this investigation, a simple diagnostic method based on analysis of transient processes is proposed. The transient response is considered as a reaction to an applied load variation that typically corresponds to normal operating conditions for most real applications. The transient response contains the same information as the impedance characteristic for the system operating in linear mode. Taking into account the large number of publications describing the impedance response associated with diagnostic methods, it can be assumed that the transient response contains a sufficient amount of information for creation of effective diagnostic systems. The proposed experimental installation is based on a controlled load, providing current variation, measuring equipment, and data processing electronics. It is proposed to use the second exponent parameters U 2 and β to estimate the state of charge for secondary lithium batteries. The proposed method improves the accuracy and reliability of a set of quantitative parameters associated with electrochemical energy sources.

  19. Transient interaction model of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iváncsy, T; Kiss, I; Tamus, Z Á; Szücs, L

    2015-01-01

    The lightning current generates time-varying magnetic field near the down-conductor and the down-conductors are mounted on the wall of the buildings where residential places might be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields can generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body.The higher duration and gradient of the magnetic field can cause potentially life threatening cardiac stimulation. The coupling mechanism between the electromagnetic field and the human body is based on a well-known physical phenomena (e.g. Faradays law of induction). However, the calculation of the induced current is very complicated because the shape of the organs is complex and the determination of the material properties of living tissues is difficult, as well. Our previous study revealed that the cardiac stimulation is independent of the rising time of the lightning current and only the peak of the current counts.In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near down-conductor and human body. Our previous models are based on the quasi stationer field calculations, the new improved model is a transient model. This is because the magnetic field around the down-conductor and in the human body can be determined more precisely, therefore the dangerous currents in the body can be estimated. (paper)

  20. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

  1. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  3. An efficient hybrid scheme for fast and accurate inversion of airborne transient electromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders Vest; Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper

    2016-01-01

    Airborne transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods target a range of applications that all rely on analysis of extremely large datasets, but with widely varying requirements with regard to accuracy and computing time. Certain applications have larger intrinsic tolerances with regard to modelling...... inaccuracy, and there can be varying degrees of tolerance throughout different phases of interpretation. It is thus desirable to be able to tune a custom balance between accuracy and compute time when modelling of airborne datasets. This balance, however, is not necessarily easy to obtain in practice....... Typically, a significant reduction in computational time can only be obtained by moving to a much simpler physical description of the system, e.g. by employing a simpler forward model. This will often lead to a significant loss of accuracy, without an indication of computational precision. We demonstrate...

  4. Transient electromagnetic mapping of clay units in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic soundings were used to obtain information needed to refine hydrologic models of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The soundings were able to map an aquitard called the blue clay that separates an unconfined surface aquifer from a deeper confined aquifer. The blue clay forms a conductor with an average resistivity of 6.9 ohm‐m. Above the conductor are found a mixture of gray clay and sand. The gray clay has an average resistivity of 21 ohm‐m, while the sand has a resistivity of greater than 100 ohm‐m. The large difference in resistivity of these units makes mapping them with a surface geophysical method relatively easy. The blue clay was deposited at the bottom of Lake Alamosa which filled most of the San Luis Valley during the Pleistocene. The geometry of the blue clay is influenced by a graben on the eastern side of the valley. The depth to the blue clay is greater over the graben. Along the eastern edge of valley the blue clay appears to be truncated by faults.

  5. Fast-responding property of electromagnetically induced transparency in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the transient optical response property of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a cold Rydberg atomic gas. We show that both the transient behavior and the steady-state EIT spectrum of the system depend strongly on Rydberg interaction. Especially, the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT can be five times faster (and even higher) than the conventional EIT without the Rydberg interaction. For comparison, two different theoretical approaches (i.e., two-atom model and many-atom model) are considered, revealing that Rydberg blockade effect plays a significant role for increasing the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT. The fast-responding Rydberg-EIT by using the strong, tunable Rydberg interaction uncovered here is not only helpful for enhancing the understanding of the many-body dynamics of Rydberg atoms but also useful for practical applications in quantum information processing by using Rydberg atoms.

  6. Mapping of the freshwater lens in a coastal aquifer on the Keta Barrier (Ghana) by transient electromagnetic soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Gelting, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of the freshwater lens and saltwater intrusion in a 1000 m wide and 2500 m long portion of the Keta Barrier, Ghana, based on 96 transient electromagnetic (TEM) measurements. Saltwater intrusions from the Gulf of Guinea to the south of the barrier and from the Keta Lagoon...... interpret the existence of a mixing zone with brackish water between the freshwater lens and the layers with saline pore water. This mixing zone varies in thickness from 0-5 m close to the coastlines to  10-20 m in the central part of the barrier....

  7. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  8. Response of steam-water mixtures to pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the transition phase of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, melting fuel-steel mixtures may begin to boil, resulting in a two-phase mixture of molten reactor fuel and steel vapor. Dispersal of this mixture by pressure transients may prevent recriticality of the fuel material. This paper describes the results of a series of experiments that investigated the response of two-phase mixtures to pressure transients. Simulant fluids (steam/water) were used in a transparent 10.2-cm-dia, 63.5-cm-long acrylic tube. The pressure transient was provided by releasing pressurized nitrogen from a supply tank. The data obtained are in the form of pressure-time records and high-speed movies. The varied parameters are initial void fraction (10% and 40%) and transient pressure magnitude (3.45 and 310 kPa)

  9. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  10. 3-D Forward modeling of Induced Polarization Effects of Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Li, D.; Wang, A.

    2017-12-01

    In transient electromagnetic (TEM) detection, Induced polarization (IP) effects are so important that they cannot be ignored. The authors simulate the three-dimensional (3-D) induced polarization effects in time-domain directly by applying the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) based on Cole-Cole model. Due to the frequency dispersion characteristics of the electrical conductivity, the computations of convolution in the generalized Ohm's law of fractional order system makes the forward modeling particularly complicated. Firstly, we propose a method to approximate the fractional order function of Cole-Cole model using a lower order rational transfer function based on error minimum theory in the frequency domain. In this section, two auxiliary variables are introduced to transform nonlinear least square fitting problem of the fractional order system into a linear programming problem, thus avoiding having to solve a system of equations and nonlinear problems. Secondly, the time-domain expression of Cole-Cole model is obtained by using Inverse Laplace transform. Then, for the calculation of Ohm's law, we propose an e-index auxiliary equation of conductivity to transform the convolution to non-convolution integral; in this section, the trapezoid rule is applied to compute the integral. We then substitute the recursion equation into Maxwell's equations to derive the iterative equations of electromagnetic field using the FDTD method. Finally, we finish the stimulation of 3-D model and evaluate polarization parameters. The results are compared with those obtained from the digital filtering solution of the analytical equation in the homogeneous half space, as well as with the 3-D model results from the auxiliary ordinary differential equation method (ADE). Good agreements are obtained across the three methods. In terms of the 3-D model, the proposed method has higher efficiency and lower memory requirements as execution times and memory usage were reduced by 20

  11. Transient Response Analysis of Metropolis Learning in Games

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-10-19

    The objective of this work is to provide a qualitative description of the transient properties of stochastic learning dynamics like adaptive play, log-linear learning, and Metropolis learning. The solution concept used in these learning dynamics for potential games is that of stochastic stability, which is based on the stationary distribution of the reversible Markov chain representing the learning process. However, time to converge to a stochastically stable state is exponential in the inverse of noise, which limits the use of stochastic stability as an effective solution concept for these dynamics. We propose a complete solution concept that qualitatively describes the state of the system at all times. The proposed concept is prevalent in control systems literature where a solution to a linear or a non-linear system has two parts, transient response and steady state response. Stochastic stability provides the steady state response of stochastic learning rules. In this work, we study its transient properties. Starting from an initial condition, we identify the subsets of the state space called cycles that have small hitting times and long exit times. Over the long time scales, we provide a description of how the distributions over joint action profiles transition from one cycle to another till it reaches the globally optimal state.

  12. Transient Response Analysis of Metropolis Learning in Games

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a qualitative description of the transient properties of stochastic learning dynamics like adaptive play, log-linear learning, and Metropolis learning. The solution concept used in these learning dynamics for potential games is that of stochastic stability, which is based on the stationary distribution of the reversible Markov chain representing the learning process. However, time to converge to a stochastically stable state is exponential in the inverse of noise, which limits the use of stochastic stability as an effective solution concept for these dynamics. We propose a complete solution concept that qualitatively describes the state of the system at all times. The proposed concept is prevalent in control systems literature where a solution to a linear or a non-linear system has two parts, transient response and steady state response. Stochastic stability provides the steady state response of stochastic learning rules. In this work, we study its transient properties. Starting from an initial condition, we identify the subsets of the state space called cycles that have small hitting times and long exit times. Over the long time scales, we provide a description of how the distributions over joint action profiles transition from one cycle to another till it reaches the globally optimal state.

  13. Linear population allocation by bistable switches in response to transient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Yao, Guang; Neu, John; Tanouchi, Yu; Lee, Tae Jun; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Many cellular decision processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and phenotypic switching, are controlled by bistable signaling networks. In response to transient or intermediate input signals, these networks allocate a population fraction to each of two distinct states (e.g. OFF and ON). While extensive studies have been carried out to analyze various bistable networks, they are primarily focused on responses of bistable networks to sustained input signals. In this work, we investigate the response characteristics of bistable networks to transient signals, using both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. We find that bistable systems exhibit a common property: for input signals with short durations, the fraction of switching cells increases linearly with the signal duration, allowing the population to integrate transient signals to tune its response. We propose that this allocation algorithm can be an optimal response strategy for certain cellular decisions in which excessive switching results in lower population fitness.

  14. A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of tactical shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.; Mckenna, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The internal response (electromagnetic fields and cable responses) of tactical shelters is addressed. Tactical shelters are usually well-shielded systems. Apart from penetrations by signal and power lines, the main leakage paths to the interior are via seams and the environment control unit (ECU) honeycomb filter. The time domain in three-dimensional finite-difference technique is employed to determine the external and internal coupling to a shelter excited by nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP) and attached lightning. The responses of interest are the internal electromagnetic fields and the voltage, current, power, and energy coupled to internal cables. Leakage through the seams and ECU filter is accomplished by their transfer impedances which relate internal electric fields to external current densities. Transfer impedances which were experimentally measured are used in the analysis. The internal numerical results are favorably compared to actual shelter test data under simulated NEMP illumination.

  15. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Bing; Chen Chao; Zhao Chunsheng

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitan

    2008-01-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen

  17. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  18. Comparison of pressure transient response in intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, R.T.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive analytical model is presented to study the pressure transient behavior of a naturally fractured reservoir with a continuous matrix block size distribution. Geologically realistic probability density functions of matrix block size are used to represent reservoirs of varying fracture intensity and uniformity. Transient interporosity flow is assumed and interporosity skin is incorporated. Drawdown and interference pressure transient tests are investigated. The results show distinctions in the pressure response from intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs in the absence of interporosity skin. Also, uniformly and nonuniformly fractured reservoirs exhibit distinct responses, irrespective of the degree of fracture intensity. The pressure response in a nonuniformly fractured reservoir with large block size variability, approaches a nonfractured (homogeneous) reservoir response. Type curves are developed to estimate matrix block size variability and the degree of fracture intensity from drawdown and interference well tests.

  19. Calculation of Lightning Transient Responses on Wind Turbine Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method is proposed in this paper for calculating lightning transient responses on wind turbine towers. In the proposed method, the actual tower body is simplified as a multiconductor grid in the shape of cylinder. A set of formulas are given for evaluating the circuit parameters of the branches in the multiconductor grid. On the basis of the circuit parameters, the multiconductor grid is further converted into an equivalent circuit. The circuit equation is built in frequency-domain to take into account the effect of the frequency-dependent characteristic of the resistances and inductances on lightning transients. The lightning transient responses can be obtained by using the discrete Fourier transform with exponential sampling to take the inverse transform of the frequency-domain solution of the circuit equation. A numerical example has been given for examining the applicability of the proposed method.

  20. Advanced hybrid transient stability and EMT simulation for VSC-HVDC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Meer, A.A.; Gibescu, M.; Van Der Meijden, M.A.M.M.; Kling, W.L.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with advanced hybrid transient stability and electromagnetic-transient (EMT) simulation of combined ac/dc power systems containing large amounts of renewable energy sources interfaced through voltage-source converter-high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). The concerning transient

  1. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K; Endo, M [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fractional Calculus Based FDTD Modeling of Layered Biological Media Exposure to Wideband Electromagnetic Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mescia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are involved in several therapeutic and diagnostic applications such as hyperthermia and electroporation. For these applications, pulsed electric fields (PEFs and transient phenomena are playing a key role for understanding the biological response due to the exposure to non-ionizing wideband pulses. To this end, the PEF propagation in the six-layered planar structure modeling the human head has been studied. The electromagnetic field and the specific absorption rate (SAR have been calculated through an accurate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD dispersive modeling based on the fractional derivative operator. The temperature rise inside the tissues due to the electromagnetic field exposure has been evaluated using both the non-thermoregulated and thermoregulated Gagge’s two-node models. Moreover, additional parametric studies have been carried out with the aim to investigate the thermal response by changing the amplitude and duration of the electric pulses.

  3. Transient electromagnetic and dynamic structural analyses of a blanket structure with coupling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganezawa, K. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Kushiyama, M. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Niikura, S. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Kudough, F. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Koizumi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Transient electromagnetic and dynamic structural analyses of a blanket structure in the fusion experimental reactor (FER) under a plasma disruption event and a vertical displacement event (VDE) have been performed to investigate the dynamic structural characteristics and the feasibility of the structure. Coupling effects between eddy currents and dynamic deflections have also been taken into account in these analyses. In this study, the inboard blanket was employed because of our computer memory limitation. A 1/192 segment model of a full torus was analyzed using the analytical code, EDDYCUFF. In the plasma disruption event, the maximum magnetic pressure caused by eddy currents and poloidal fields was 1.2MPa. The maximum stress intensity by this magnetic pressure was 114MPa. In the VDE, the maximum magnetic pressure was 2.4MPa and the maximum stress intensity was 253MPa. This stress was somewhat beyond the allowable stress limit. Therefore, the blanket structure and support design should be reviewed to reduce the stress to a suitable value. In summary, the dynamic structural characteristics and design issues of the blanket structure have been identified. (orig.).

  4. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  5. Newborn hearing screening with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and automatic auditory brainstem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mota Mamede de Carvallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to check Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response tests applied together in regular nurseries and Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICU, as well as to describe and compare the results obtained in both groups. Methods: We tested 150 newborns from regular nurseries and 70 from NICU. Rresults: The newborn hearing screening results using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response tests could be applied to all babies. The “pass” result for the group of babies from the nursery was 94.7% using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and 96% using Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response. The newborn intensive care unit group obtained 87.1% on Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and 80% on the Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response, and there was no statistical difference between the procedures when the groups were evaluated individually. However, comparing the groups, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions were presented in 94.7% of the nursery babies and in 87.1% in the group from the newborn intensive care unit. Considering the Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response, we found 96 and 87%, respectively. Cconclusions: Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response had similar “pass” and “fail” results when the procedures were applied to neonates from the regular nursery, and the combined tests were more precise to detect hearing impairment in the newborn intensive care unit babies.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transient responses induced by hypercapnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    CSF transient responses to CO 2 inhalation were measured before and after facilitated perfusate flow through subarachnoid spaces of anesthetized cats during ventriculocisternal perfusion with artificial CSF containing 14 C-dextran. Convective mixing of perfusate in subarachnoid spaces was augmented while infusion constant, either by impeding cisternal efflux of perfusate by raising the cisternal outflow cannula (high CSF pressure), or by preventing CSF outflow by clamping the cisternal outflow cannula (stopflow; S-F). CSF transients were also measured before and after systemic administration of phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) in order to evaluate the contribution of sympatho-adrenergic activity to craniospinal CSF redistribution and mixing. Results from high CSF pressure and S-F experiments indicate that unequilibrated CSF contributes significantly to the reduced tracer concentration in CSF volume (Vd) since SCF effluent tracer concentration (Cd) was decreased after subarachnoid facilitated flow. Further, results from S-F studies indicate that at least 50% of Cd is due to craniospinal fluid redistribution, a process which, along with CSF outflow transients, was unaffected by PBZ. Conversely, PBZ administration decreased steady state SCF formation and absorption through alpha-mediated cerebrovascular responses and/or through beta-adrenoceptor inhibition of metabolism of CSF secretory epithelium

  7. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  8. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  9. Response of the human tympanic membrane to transient acoustic and mechanical stimuli: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Payam; Ravicz, Michael E.; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    The response of the tympanic membrane (TM) to transient environmental sounds and the contributions of different parts of the TM to middle-ear sound transmission were investigated by measuring the TM response to global transients (acoustic clicks) and to local transients (mechanical impulses) applied to the umbo and various locations on the TM. A lightly-fixed human temporal bone was prepared by removing the ear canal, inner ear, and stapes, leaving the incus, malleus, and TM intact. Motion of nearly the entire TM was measured by a digital holography system with a high speed camera at a rate of 42 000 frames per second, giving a temporal resolution of <24 μs for the duration of the TM response. The entire TM responded nearly instantaneously to acoustic transient stimuli, though the peak displacement and decay time constant varied with location. With local mechanical transients, the TM responded first locally at the site of stimulation, and the response spread approximately symmetrically and circumferentially around the umbo and manubrium. Acoustic and mechanical transients provide distinct and complementary stimuli for the study of TM response. Spatial variations in decay and rate of spread of response imply local variations in TM stiffness, mass, and damping. PMID:26880098

  10. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  11. Transient voltage response of a superconducting strip to a supercritical current pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.Th.M. van; Wouters, M.C.H.M.; Wolter, J.; Horstman, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A superconductor subject to a supercritical current pulse displays a delay time between the onset of the current pulse and the onset of the corresponding voltage response. From the onset of the voltage response it takes a second (transient) time to reach the stationary state. It is shown that the transient time can be explained with inhomogeneities in the strip which give rise to a distribution of delay times. The transient time is thus not related to a characteristic time in the superconductor. For small supercritical currents also heating effects show up. (author)

  12. Improving the transient response of a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer using a parallel resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo Tsi

    2003-08-01

    This paper suggests a parallel resistor to reduce DC time constant and DC response time of the transient response, induced immediately after an AC voltage connected to a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) is switched off. An equivalent circuit is first expressed. Then, an open-circuit transient response at the terminals induced by initial states is derived and measured, and thus parameters for losses of the BLT device are estimated by DC and AC time constants of the transient response. Moreover, a driving and measuring system is designed to determine transient response and steady-state responses of the BLT device, and a parallel resistor is connected to the BLT device to reduce the DC time constant. Experimental results indicate that the DC time constant greatly exceeds the AC time constant without the parallel resistor, and greatly decreases from 42 to 1 ms by a 100-kOmega parallel resistor.

  13. Implementation and Testing of the First Prompt for Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec 17 2009 to Jan 8 2010 and Sep 2 to Oct 20 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW-event candidates and to reconstruct-maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and Milky Way globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline s ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  14. simulation of electromagnetic transients in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1996-09-01

    Sep 1, 1996 ... Transients in power systems are initiated by abrupt changes to otherwise steady operating conditions. These changes would .... The method is applicable both to single transmission in real time. The method is applicable both ...

  15. PASP Plus Transient Pulse Monitor (TPM) - Data Analysis and Interpretation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamo, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The Transient Pulse Monitor (TPM), part of the PASP Plus experiment aboard the APEX spacecraft, is designed to detect and characterize electromagnetic transient signals produced by electrostatic discharges on the solar array test modules...

  16. Transient response of the 'multiple water-bag' plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Cheeseng

    1989-01-01

    A charge activates impulsively and then decays temporally within a MWB (multiple water-bag)-modelled warm plasma. The transient problem is formulated and asymptotically resolved for large time. The response potential comprises two characteristically distinct quantities W and W N : W is a superposition of spherically expanding, moderately attenuated Kelvin waves contributed by certain points on a subset of dispersion curves; W N is a superposition, associated with two other dispersion curves, of three spherical wavefunctions, one of which incorporates the Fresnel integrals. A transient state feature of the MWB discretization is the partitioning of the response field by growing (fast) fronts, (trailing) slow caustics and a j -surfaces, the fastest among these being an a N- surface (thermal front) which pushes back a quasi-static exterior. Contrary to expectations, there is no response jump across any of those growing partitions. Wavefunctions near the slow caustics possess Airy factors. A rest state ultimately develops behind the slowest slow caustic. An application is made to the fluid plasma. (author)

  17. Transient rheology of stimuli responsive hydrogels: Integrating microrheology and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have diverse potential applications in the field of drug delivery, tissue engineering, agriculture, cosmetics, gene therapy, and as sensors and actuators due to their unique responsiveness to external signals, such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength. Understanding the responsiveness of hydrogel structure and rheology to these stimuli is essential for designing materials with desirable performance. However, no instrumentation and well-defined methodology are available to characterize the structural and rheological responses to rapid solvent changes. In this thesis, a new microrheology set-up is described, which allows us to quantitatively measure the transient rheological properties and microstructure of a variety of solvent-responsive complex fluids. The device was constructed by integrating particle tracking microrheology and microfluidics and offers unique experimental capabilities for performing solvent-reponse measurements on soft fragile materials without applying external shear forces. Transient analysis methods to quantitatively obtain rheological properties were also constructed, and guidelines for the trade-off between statistical validity and temporal resolution were developed to accurately capture physical transitions. Employing the new device and methodology, we successfully quantified the transient rheological and microstructural responses during gel formation and break-up, and viscosity changes of solvent-responsive complex fluids. The analysis method was expanded for heterogeneous samples, incorporating methods to quantify the microrheology of samples with broad distributions of individual particle dynamics. Transient microrheology measurements of fragile, heterogeneous, self-assembled block copolypeptide hydrogels revealed that solvent exchange via convective mixing and dialysis can lead to significantly different gel properties and that commonly applied sample preparation protocols for the characterization of soft

  18. Transient ElectroMagnetic and Electric Self-Potential survey in the TAG hydrothermal field in MAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, C.; Deng, X.; Wu, G.; Xi, Z.; Zhou, D.; Zuo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The TAG hydrothermal field is one of the most studied hydrothermal fields. This field covers an area of 5km×5km, which includes low-temperature Mn- and Fe-oxides and nontronites zone, relict massive sulfide mounds as well as active hydrothermal mound(TAG mound) [Thompson, 1985, Rona, 1993]. Drilling program was performed in the ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Leg 158 in the TAG mound [Humphris, 1996]. In 1996, electrical resistivity survey in the TAG mound was conducted using innovative transient electric dipole-dipole instruments which was carried by DSV 'Alvin' [Cairns et al., 1996, Von Herzen et al., 1996]. In June 2012, the 2nd Leg of the Chinese 26th cruise was carried out in the TAG hydrothermal field at Mid Atlantic Ridge by R/V DAYANGYIHAO. Six TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) survey lines were deployed, with four of which across the ODP Leg 158 drilling area. Besides, two SP (Electric Self-Potential) survey lines were across the ODP drilling area. The survey results of TEM preliminary revealed the vertical structure of the TAG hydrothermal field. The survey results of both TEM and SP are consistent with the ODP drilling result, and also agree well with the temperature and water-column anomalies obtained in this leg. Preliminary results show that the TEM and SP methods are capable of revealing the horizontal and vertical distribution of the hydrothermal sulfide fields.

  19. A High-Performance Portable Transient Electro-Magnetic Sensor for Unexploded Ordnance Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofeng; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiwen; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Dong; Zhu, Jun

    2017-11-17

    Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM) systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO). As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil. A higher mass-power product and a larger diameter causes a stronger primary field. Reducing the number of turns and increasing the clamp voltage reduces the switch-off time of the transmitting current effectively. Increasing the cross-section of the wire reduces the power consumption, but greatly increases the coil's weight. The study of the receiving coil shows that the internal noise of the sensor is dominated by the thermal noise of the damping resistor. Reducing the bandwidth of the system and increasing the size of the coil reduces the internal noise effectively. The cross-sectional area and the distance between the sections of the coil have little effect on the internal noise. A less damped state can effectively reduce signal distortion. Finally, a portable TEM sensor with both a transmitting coil (constructed with a diameter, number of turns, and transmitting current of 0.5 m, 30, and 5 A, respectively) and a receiving coil (constructed with a length and resonant frequency of 5.6 cm and 50 kHz, respectively) was built. The agreement between experimental and calculated results confirms the theory used in the sensor design. The responses of an 82 mm mortar shell at different distances were measured and inverted by the differential evolution (DE) algorithm to verify system performance. Results show that the sensor designed in this study can not only

  20. Computational models for electromagnetic transients in ITER vacuum vessel, cryostat and thermal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.; Arslanova, D.; Belov, A.; Belyakov, V.; Gapionok, E.; Gornikel, I.; Gribov, Y.; Ioki, K.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Sugihara, M.; Sychevsky, S.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A set of detailed computational models are reviewed that covers integrally the system “vacuum vessel (VV), cryostat, and thermal shields (TS)” to study transient electromagnetics (EMs) in the ITER machine. The models have been developed in the course of activities requested and supervised by the ITER Organization. EM analysis is enabled for all ITER operational scenarios. The input data are derived from results of DINA code simulations. The external EM fields are modeled accurate to the input data description. The known magnetic shell approach can be effectively applied to simulate thin-walled structures of the ITER machine. Using an integral–differential formulation, a single unknown is determined within the shells in terms of the vector electric potential taken only at the nodes of a finite-element (FE) mesh of the conducting structures. As a result, the FE mesh encompasses only the system “VV + Cryostat + TS”. The 3D model requires much higher computational resources as compared to a shell model based on the equivalent approximation. The shell models have been developed for all principal conducting structures in the system “VV + Cryostat + TS” including regular ports and neutral beam ports. The structures are described in details in accordance with the latest design. The models have also been applied for simulations of EM transients in components of diagnostic systems and cryopumps and estimation of the 3D effects of the ITER structures on the plasma performance. The developed models have been elaborated and applied for the last 15 years to support the ITER design activities. The finalization of the ITER VV design enables this set of models to be considered ready to use in plasma-physics computations and the development of ITER simulators

  1. Response of air cleaning system dampers and blowers to simulated tornado transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Idar, E.; Smith, P.; Hensel, E.; Smith, E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of tornado-like pressure transients upon dampers and blowers in nuclear air cleaning systems were studied. For the dampers pressure drop as a function of flow rate was obtained and an empirical relationship developed. Transient response was examined for several types of dampers, as was structural integrity. Both centrifugal and axi-vane blowers were tested and transient characteristic curves were generated in outrunning and backflow situations. The transient characteristic curves do not necessarily match the quasi-steady characteristic curves

  2. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  3. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.

    2010-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  4. Effect of automatic recirculation flow control on the transient response for Lungmen ABWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzang, Y.-C., E-mail: yctzang@aec.gov.t [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiang, R.-F.; Ferng, Y.-M.; Pei, B.-S. [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    In this study the automatic mode of the recirculation flow control system (RFCS) for the Lungmen ABWR plant has been modeled and incorporated into the basic RETRAN-02 system model. The integrated system model is then used to perform the analyses for the two transients in which the automatic RFCS is involved. The two transients selected are: (1) one reactor internal pump (RIP) trip, and (2) loss of feedwater heating. In general, the integrated system model can predict well the response of key system parameters, including neutron flux, steam dome pressure, heat flux, RIP flow, core inlet flow, feedwater flow, steam flow, and reactor water level. The transients are also analyzed for manual RFCS case, between the automatic RFCS and the manual RFCS cases, comparisons of the transient response for the key system parameter show that the difference of transient response can be clearly identified. Also, the results show that the DELTACPR (delta critical power ratio) for the transients analyzed may not be less limiting for the automatic RFCS case under certain combination of control system settings.

  5. Electrical and optical response of a laser diode to transient ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggio, J.; Brisset, C.; Sommer, J.L.; D'hose, C.; Lalande, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied transient irradiation effects on the optical and electrical responses of a laser diode. The influence of dose rate, ranging from 10 9 to 10 12 rad(Si)/s, has been investigated through a complete experimental study. Dose rate vulnerability of the laser diode has been observed. Electrical and optical transient responses are determined by the dose rate, the diode structure, and its operating point

  6. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Y.; Feder, R.; Brooks, A.; Ulrickson, M.; Pitcher, C.S.; Loesser, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disruption loads on ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs are extracted. ► Upward major disruption produces the largest radial moment and radial force on diagnostic first walls and diagnostic shield modules. ► Large eddy currents on supporting rails, keys and water pipes are observed during disruption. -- Abstract: ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the diagnostic first walls (DFWs), diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed

  7. A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of a helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, C. C.; Perala, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical modeling technique is utilized to investigate the response of a UH-60A helicopter to both lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The analytical approach involves the three-dimensional time domain finite-difference solutions of Maxwell's equations. Both the external currents and charges as well as the internal electromagnetic fields and cable responses are computed. Results of the analysis indicate that, in general, the short circuit current on internal cables is larger for lightning, whereas the open-circuit voltages are slightly higher for NEMP. The lightning response is highly dependent upon the rise time of the injected current as was expected. The analysis shows that a coupling levels to cables in a helicopter are 20 to 30 dB larger than those observed in fixed-wing aircraft.

  8. Quantum-corrected transient analysis of plasmonic nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Sajjad, Muhammad; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    A time domain surface integral equation (TD-SIE) solver is developed for quantum-corrected analysis of transient electromagnetic field interactions on plasmonic nanostructures with sub-nanometer gaps. “Quantum correction” introduces an auxiliary

  9. Electromagnetic response of the protective pellicle of Euglenoids: influence of the surface profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E.; Gigli, Miriam L.; Skigin, Diana C.; Tolivia, Analía.; Conforti, Visitación

    2015-03-01

    In a recent paper we have investigated, from an electromagnetic point of view, the role played by the pellicle of Euglenoids -unicellular aquatic organisms- in the protection of the cell against UV radiation.14 By modelling the pellicle as a diffraction grating, we computed the electromagnetic response of different species that exhibit different behaviors against UV radiation. In this previous study, the pellicle profile was approximated by a sinusoidal grating. However, it has been observed in the transversal cut images that the profiles are not exactly sinusoidal, and also vary from sample to sample. Since the electromagnetic response depends on the geometry of the grating, reflectance calculations that take into account a more accurate representation of the actual profile could provide more insight into this problem. In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic response of the pellicle of Euglenoids for different grating profiles. The diffraction problem is solved by using the Chandezon method, which has demonstrated a successful performance for deep gratings of arbitrary profiles. We analyze the influence of the shape, depth and period of the grating on the UV reflectance. We show that the pellicle characteristics are critical parameters to increase the reflectance, thus reducing the penetration of the UV radiation within the cell and therefore, minimizing the damage and increasing the survival of these organisms.

  10. Electromagnetic analysis of transient disruption forces on the ITER shield modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulski, J.D.; Coats, R.S.; Pasik, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are potential abnormal operating environments where the disruption of the plasma currents inside a tokamak induce eddy currents in the shield modules. These currents interact with the large magnetic fields to produce forces in the modules which could potentially cause mechanical failure in the modules and vacuum vessel. For this reason the design and qualification of the ITER shield modules requires appropriate high-fidelity electromagnetic simulations that capture the physics of these situations. These simulations need to include an accurate representation of the disruption currents as well as an accurate electromagnetic model of the shield modules. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the electromagnetic analysis that has been completed using the OPERA-3D product to characterize the forces on the shield modules allocated to the US. We first describe the electromagnetic model of the system which consists of the disruption currents and the shield modules attached to the vacuum vessel. The disruption currents are represented in OPERA-3D using superposition of a large number of solenoids with independent time variation to account for the spatial and temporal variation of the plasma current and position. In addition, the simplified electromagnetic model of the shield modules will be described and discussed. Once the modeling has been described the simulation results are presented. The force computation are also presented and the results discussed. These forces are then used by a mechanical analysis program to compute stresses and torques on a module during the disruption of the plasma currents. (orig.)

  11. Effects of nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.R.; Manweiler, R.W.; Davis, R.R.

    1977-09-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a high-altitude nuclear detonation consists of a transient pulse of high intensity electromagnetic fields. These intense fields induce current and voltage transients in electrical conductors. Although most nuclear power plant cables are not directly exposed to these fields, the attenuated EMP fields that propagate into the plant will couple some EMP energy to these cables. The report predicts the probable effects of the EMP transients that could be induced in critical circuits of safety-related systems. It was found that the most likely consequence of EMP for nuclear plants is an unscheduled shutdown. EMP could prolong the shutdown period by the unnecessary actuation of certain safety systems. In general, EMP could be a nuisance to nuclear power plants, but it is not considered a serious threat to plant safety

  12. Implementation and Testing of the First Prompt Search for Gravitational Wave Transients with Electromagnetic Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec. 17, 2009 to Jan. 8, 2010 and Sep. 2 to Oct. 20, 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and MilkyWay globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  13. 2D Inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Luís Porsani, Jorge; Acácio Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    A new methodology was developed for 2D inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM). The methodology consists in the elaboration of a set of routines in Matlab code for modeling and inversion of TEM data and the determination of the most efficient field array for the problem. In this research, the 2D TEM modeling uses the finite differences discretization. To solve the inversion problem, were applied an algorithm based on Marquardt technique, also known as Ridge Regression. The algorithm is stable and efficient and it is widely used in geoelectrical inversion problems. The main advantage of 1D survey is the rapid data acquisition in a large area, but in regions with two-dimensional structures or that need more details, is essential to use two-dimensional interpretation methodologies. For an efficient field acquisition we used in an innovative form the fixed-loop array, with a square transmitter loop (200m x 200m) and 25m spacing between the sounding points. The TEM surveys were conducted only inside the transmitter loop, in order to not deal with negative apparent resistivity values. Although it is possible to model the negative values, it makes the inversion convergence more difficult. Therefore the methodology described above has been developed in order to achieve maximum optimization of data acquisition. Since it is necessary only one transmitter loop disposition in the surface for each series of soundings inside the loop. The algorithms were tested with synthetic data and the results were essential to the interpretation of the results with real data and will be useful in future situations. With the inversion of the real data acquired over the Paraná Sedimentary Basin (PSB) was successful realized a 2D TEM inversion. The results indicate a robust geoelectrical characterization for the sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the PSB. Therefore, using a new and relevant approach for 2D TEM inversion, this research effectively contributed to map the most

  14. Dose-dependent suppression by ethanol of transient auditory 40-Hz response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, I P; Hirvonen, J; Saher, M; Pekkonen, E; Sillanaukee, P; Näätänen, R; Tiitinen, H

    2000-02-01

    Acute alcohol (ethanol) challenge is known to induce various cognitive disturbances, yet the neural basis of the effect is poorly known. The auditory transient evoked gamma-band (40-Hz) oscillatory responses have been suggested to be associated with various perceptual and cognitive functions in humans; however, alcohol effects on auditory 40-Hz responses have not been investigated to date. The objective of the study was to test the dose-related impact of alcohol on auditory transient evoked 40-Hz responses during a selective-attention task. Ten healthy social drinkers ingested, in four separate sessions, 0.00, 0. 25, 0.50, or 0.75 g/kg of 10% (v/v) alcohol solution. The order of the sessions was randomized and a double-blind procedure was employed. During a selective attention task, 300-Hz standard and 330-Hz deviant tones were presented to the left ear, and 1000-Hz standards and 1100-Hz deviants to the right ear of the subjects (P=0. 425 for each standard, P=0.075 for each deviant). The subjects attended to a designated ear, and were to detect the deviants therein while ignoring tones to the other ear. The auditory transient evoked 40-Hz responses elicited by both the attended and unattended standard tones were significantly suppressed by the 0.50 and 0.75 g/kg alcohol doses. Alcohol suppresses auditory transient evoked 40-Hz oscillations already with moderate blood alcohol concentrations. Given the putative role of gamma-band oscillations in cognition, this finding could be associated with certain alcohol-induced cognitive deficits.

  15. Electromagnetic validation of fault-ride through capabilities of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Sharma, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Scope of the present project is the development and validation of electro-magnetic transient model of fixed-speed wind turbines. The research work is focused on the development of a fixed-speed wind turbine model with fault-ride through capabilities during transient over-voltages. The model is de...

  16. Electromagnetic response in kinetic energy driven cuprate superconductors: Linear response approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyzosiak, Mateusz; Huang, Zheyu; Feng, Shiping; Gonczarek, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the kinetic energy driven superconductivity, the electromagnetic response in cuprate superconductors is studied in the linear response approach. The kernel of the response function is evaluated and employed to calculate the local magnetic field profile, the magnetic field penetration depth, and the superfluid density, based on the specular reflection model for a purely transverse vector potential. It is shown that the low temperature magnetic field profile follows an exponential decay at the surface, while the magnetic field penetration depth depends linearly on temperature, except for the strong deviation from the linear characteristics at extremely low temperatures. The superfluid density is found to decrease linearly with decreasing doping concentration in the underdoped regime. The problem of gauge invariance is addressed and an approximation for the dressed current vertex, which does not violate local charge conservation is proposed and discussed.

  17. Numerical results for near surface time domain electromagnetic exploration: a full waveform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Li, K.; Li, X., Sr.; Liu, Y., Sr.; Wen, J., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Time domain or Transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey including types with airborne, semi-airborne and ground play important roles in applicants such as geological surveys, ground water/aquifer assess [Meju et al., 2000; Cox et al., 2010], metal ore exploration [Yang and Oldenburg, 2012], prediction of water bearing structures in tunnels [Xue et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2012], UXO exploration [Pasion et al., 2007; Gasperikova et al., 2009] etc. The common practice is introducing a current into a transmitting (Tx) loop and acquire the induced electromagnetic field after the current is cut off [Zhdanov and Keller, 1994]. The current waveforms are different depending on instruments. Rectangle is the most widely used excitation current source especially in ground TEM. Triangle and half sine are commonly used in airborne and semi-airborne TEM investigation. In most instruments, only the off time responses are acquired and used in later analysis and data inversion. Very few airborne instruments acquire the on time and off time responses together. Although these systems acquire the on time data, they usually do not use them in the interpretation.This abstract shows a novel full waveform time domain electromagnetic method and our recent modeling results. The benefits comes from our new algorithm in modeling full waveform time domain electromagnetic problems. We introduced the current density into the Maxwell's equation as the transmitting source. This approach allows arbitrary waveforms, such as triangle, half-sine, trapezoidal waves or scatter record from equipment, being used in modeling. Here, we simulate the establishing and induced diffusion process of the electromagnetic field in the earth. The traditional time domain electromagnetic with pure secondary fields can also be extracted from our modeling results. The real time responses excited by a loop source can be calculated using the algorithm. We analyze the full time gates responses of homogeneous half space and two

  18. Summary of the CTS Transient Event Counter data after one year of operation. [Communication Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Klinect, V. W.; Gore, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental charging of satellite surfaces during geomagnetic substorms is the apparent cause of a significant number of anomalous events occurring on geosynchronous satellites since the early 1970's. Electromagnetic pulses produced in connection with the differential charging of insulators can couple into the spacecraft harness and cause electronic switching anomalies. An investigation conducted to determine the response of the spacecraft surfaces to substorm particle fluxes makes use of a harness transient detector. The harness transient detector, called the Transient Event Counter (TEC) was built and integrated into the Canadian-American Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). A description of the TEC and its operational characteristics is given and the obtained data are discussed. The data show that the satellite surfaces appear to be charged to the point that discharges occur and that the discharge-induced transients couple into the wire harnesses.

  19. Atmospheric CO2 and climate: Importance of the transient response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.H.; Thompson, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that the thermal inertia of the upper layers of the oceans, combined with vertical mixing of deeper oceanic waters, could delay the response of the globally averaged surface temperature to an increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration by a decade or so relative to equilibrium calculations. This study extends the global analysis of the transient response to zonal averages, using a hierarchy of simple energy balance models and vertical mixing assumptions for water exchange between upper and deeper oceanic layers. It is found that because of the latitudinal dependence of both thermal inertia and radiative and dynamic energy exchange mechanisms, the approach toward equilibrium of the surface temperature of various regions of the earth will be significantly different from the global average approach. This suggests that the actual time evolution of the horizontal surface temperature gradients--and any associated regional climatic anomalies-may well be significantly different from that suggested by equilibrium climatic modeling simulations (or those computed with a highly unrealistic geographic distribution of ocean thermal capacity). Also, the transient response as a function of latitude is significantly different between globally equivalent CO 2 and solar constant focusing runs. It is suggested that the nature of the transient response is a major uncertainty in characterizing the CO 2 problem and that study of this topic should become a major priority for future research. An appendix puts this issue in the context of the overall CO 2 problem

  20. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on plasmonic nanostructures using a surface integral equation solver

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes

    2016-08-09

    Transient electromagnetic interactions on plasmonic nanostructures are analyzed by solving the Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai (PMCHWT) surface integral equation (SIE). Equivalent (unknown) electric and magnetic current densities, which are introduced on the surfaces of the nanostructures, are expanded using Rao-Wilton-Glisson and polynomial basis functions in space and time, respectively. Inserting this expansion into the PMCHWT-SIE and Galerkin testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved for the current expansion coefficients by a marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. The resulting MOT-PMCHWT-SIE solver calls for computation of additional convolutions between the temporal basis function and the plasmonic medium\\'s permittivity and Green function. This computation is carried out with almost no additional cost and without changing the computational complexity of the solver. Time-domain samples of the permittivity and the Green function required by these convolutions are obtained from their frequency-domain samples using a fast relaxed vector fitting algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed MOT-PMCHWT solver. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  1. Auxiliary Sensor-Based Borehole Transient Electromagnetic System for the Nondestructive Inspection of Multipipe Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient electromagnetic (TEM techniques are widely used in the field of geophysical prospecting. In borehole detection, the nondestructive inspection (NDI of a metal pipe can be performed efficiently using the properties of eddy currents. However, with increasing concern for safety in oil and gas production, more than one string of pipe is used to protect wellbores, which complicates data interpretation. In this paper, an auxiliary sensor-based borehole TEM system for the NDI of multipipe strings is presented. On the basis of the characteristics of the borehole TEM model, we investigate the principle behind the NDI of multipipe strings using multiple time slices of induced electromotive force (EMF in a single sensor. The results show that the detection performance of NDI is strongly influenced by eddy-current diffusion in the longitudinal direction. To solve this problem, we used time slices of the induced EMF in both the main and auxiliary sensors. The performance of the proposed system was verified by applying it to an oil well with a production casing and liner. Moreover, field experiments were conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Low-loss metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetic, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.

  3. Nonstationary Transient Vibroacoustic Response of a Beam Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, R. E.; Margasahayam, R. N.; Nayfeh, Jamal F.

    1997-01-01

    This study consists of an investigation into the nonstationary transient response of the Verification Test Article (VETA) when subjected to random acoustic excitation. The goal is to assess excitation models that can be used in the design of structures and equipment when knowledge of the structure and the excitation is limited. The VETA is an instrumented cantilever beam that was exposed to acoustic loading during five Space Shuttle launches. The VETA analytical structural model response is estimated using the direct averaged power spectral density and the normalized pressure spectra methods. The estimated responses are compared to the measured response of the VETA. These comparisons are discussed with a focus on prediction conservatism and current design practice.

  4. Analysis of piping response to thermal and operational transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The reactor piping system is an extremely complex three-dimensional structure. Maintaining its structural integrity is essential to the safe operation of the reactor and the steam-supply system. In the safety analysis, various transient loads can be imposed on the piping which may cause plastic deformation and possible damage to the system, including those generated from hydrodynamic wave propagations, thermal and operational transients, as well as the seismic events. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a three-dimensional (3-D) piping code, SHAPS, aimed for short-duration transients due to wave propagation, has been developed. Since 1984, the development work has been shifted to the long-duration accidents originating from the thermal and operational transient. As a result, a new version of the code, SHAPS-2, is being established. This paper describes many features related to this later development. To analyze piping response generated from thermal and operational transients, a 3-D implicit finite element algorithm has been developed for calculating the hoop, flexural, axial, and torsional deformations induced by the thermomechanical loads. The analysis appropriately accounts for stresses arising from the temperature dependence of the elastic material properties, the thermal expansion of the materials, and the changes in the temperature-dependent yield surface. Thermal softening, failure, strain rate, creep, and stress ratching can also be considered

  5. A High-Performance Portable Transient Electro-Magnetic Sensor for Unexploded Ordnance Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofeng Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO. As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil. A higher mass–power product and a larger diameter causes a stronger primary field. Reducing the number of turns and increasing the clamp voltage reduces the switch-off time of the transmitting current effectively. Increasing the cross-section of the wire reduces the power consumption, but greatly increases the coil’s weight. The study of the receiving coil shows that the internal noise of the sensor is dominated by the thermal noise of the damping resistor. Reducing the bandwidth of the system and increasing the size of the coil reduces the internal noise effectively. The cross-sectional area and the distance between the sections of the coil have little effect on the internal noise. A less damped state can effectively reduce signal distortion. Finally, a portable TEM sensor with both a transmitting coil (constructed with a diameter, number of turns, and transmitting current of 0.5 m, 30, and 5 A, respectively and a receiving coil (constructed with a length and resonant frequency of 5.6 cm and 50 kHz, respectively was built. The agreement between experimental and calculated results confirms the theory used in the sensor design. The responses of an 82 mm mortar shell at different distances were measured and inverted by the differential evolution (DE algorithm to verify system performance. Results show that the sensor designed in this

  6. Novel Approach for Electromagnetic Actuators Analysis in Transient Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIRBU, I. G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new model of the actuator is proposed in this paper. It considers the nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena in the ferromagnetic core, as well as the influence of the mechanical load during the plunger movement. According to our approach, the entire system that includes the magnetic circuit, the electric circuit and the mechanical parts is mathematically modeled through a differential algebraic equation system (DAE. Therefore, a corresponding analog nonlinear electric circuit described by a similar mathematical model is conceived and implemented in an electric circuit simulation program capable to analyze its behavior in steady state or dynamic regimes. The SPICE simulator has been chosen as implementation platform and a case study has been performed to prove the feasibility and efficiency of our approach. The simulation result contains electromagnetic and mechanical quantities that were represented as time-domain functions. The method is remarkable through an extremely short computation time when compared with the classical methods based on the discretization of the domain.

  7. Impact evaluation of conducted UWB transients on loads in power-line networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Månsson, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, faced with the ever-increasing dependence on diverse electronic devices and systems, the proliferation of potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) becomes a critical threat for reliable operation. A typical issue is the electronics working reliably in power-line networks when exposed to electromagnetic environment. In this paper, we consider a conducted ultra-wideband (UWB) disturbance, as an example of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) source, and perform the impact evaluation at the loads in a network. With the aid of fast Fourier transform (FFT), the UWB transient is characterized in the frequency domain. Based on a modified Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT) method, the EMI received at the loads, with complex impedance, is computed. Through inverse FFT (IFFT), we obtain time-domain responses of the loads. To evaluate the impact on loads, we employ five common, but important quantifiers, i.e., time-domain peak, total signal energy, peak signal power, peak time rate of change and peak time integral of the pulse. Moreover, to perform a comprehensive analysis, we also investigate the effects of the attributes (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) of other loads connected to the network, the rise time and pulse width of the UWB transient, and the lengths of power lines. It is seen that, for the loads distributed in a network, the impact evaluation of IEMI should be based on the characteristics of the IEMI source, and the network features, such as load impedances, layout, and characteristics of cables.

  8. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  9. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Zhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  10. Benzodiazepine temazepam suppresses the transient auditory 40-Hz response amplitude in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, I P; Hirvonen, J; Saher, M; Pekkonen, E; Sillanaukee, P; Näätänen, R; Tiitinen, H

    1999-06-18

    To discern the role of the GABA(A) receptors in the generation and attentive modulation of the transient auditory 40-Hz response, the effects of the benzodiazepine temazepam (10 mg) were studied in 10 healthy social drinkers, using a double-blind placebo-controlled design. Three hundred Hertz standard and 330 Hz rare deviant tones were presented to the left, and 1000 Hz standards and 1100 Hz deviants to the right ear of the subjects. Subjects attended to a designated ear and were to detect deviants therein while ignoring tones to the other. Temazepam significantly suppressed the amplitude of the 40-Hz response, the effect being equal for attended and non-attended tone responses. This suggests involvement of GABA(A) receptors in transient auditory 40-Hz response generation, however, not in the attentive modulation of the 40-Hz response.

  11. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  12. Electromagnetic effects on the NET first wall caused by a plasma disruption event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.R.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1987-01-01

    During the event of a major plasma disruption, the structural components of the NET fusion reactor, such as the First Wall (FW), are subjected to strong electromagnetic transients arising from the interaction of the induced eddy currents with the large magnetic field which confines and equilibrates the plasma ring. Finite element structural analyses (static, vibration, transient dynamic) have been performed to examine stresses, deformations and reactions, generated by the electromagnetic loads, in the modular blanket-enveloping box outboard FW segment. Considering the last three engineering design variations of the outboard FW module, an improvement is obtained for the new Double Null FW configuration because of the drastic reduction of electromagnetic effects and induced stresses, mainly due to increased segmentation of the internal components

  13. A 3D resistivity model derived from the transient electromagnetic data observed on the Araba fault, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödder, A.; Tezkan, B.

    2013-01-01

    72 inloop transient electromagnetic soundings were carried out on two 2 km long profiles perpendicular and two 1 km and two 500 m long profiles parallel to the strike direction of the Araba fault in Jordan which is the southern part of the Dead Sea transform fault indicating the boundary between the African and Arabian continental plates. The distance between the stations was on average 50 m. The late time apparent resistivities derived from the induced voltages show clear differences between the stations located at the eastern and at the western part of the Araba fault. The fault appears as a boundary between the resistive western (ca. 100 Ωm) and the conductive eastern part (ca. 10 Ωm) of the survey area. On profiles parallel to the strike late time apparent resistivities were almost constant as well in the time dependence as in lateral extension at different stations, indicating a 2D resistivity structure of the investigated area. After having been processed, the data were interpreted by conventional 1D Occam and Marquardt inversion. The study using 2D synthetic model data showed, however, that 1D inversions of stations close to the fault resulted in fictitious layers in the subsurface thus producing large interpretation errors. Therefore, the data were interpreted by a 2D forward resistivity modeling which was then extended to a 3D resistivity model. This 3D model explains satisfactorily the time dependences of the observed transients at nearly all stations.

  14. A review of electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Shen, H.M.; Myers, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical results are reviewed pertaining to the behavior of transient electromagnetic fields in the limit of great distances from their sources. In 1985 it was shown that pulses of finite total radiated energy could propagate to a distant receiver, delivering energy that decreases much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Such pulses have been referred to as electromagnetic (EM) missiles. The types first discovered propagate along a straight line with a monotonically (though slowly) decreasing time-integrated flux. Other types are now known. One type can be made to rise and fall with increasing distance; another is the curved EM missile. Early efforts to classify EM missiles are reviewed

  15. Preliminary study of airborne electromagnetic survey using grounded source; Chihyo source gata kuchu denji tansa no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shimoizumi, M [Kitakyushu Polytechnic College, Kitakyushu (Japan); Kusunoki, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, T [Dowa Engineering Co. Ltd., Okayama (Japan); Jomori, N [Chiba Electronics Research Institute, Chiba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the development of an airborne electromagnetic prospecting method capable of deeper exploration, a basic study was made about a system wherein a transmitter (source) is positioned on the ground and the receiving is done in the sky. Even in case of this airborne electromagnetic method, the TDEM method is supposedly advantageous over others as in case of groundborne exploration. In the study, the transient response of an airborne vertical magnetic field to a horizontal layered structure was calculated. The current source was 2000m long with a capacity of 30A. The one-layer structure was a 10 Ohm m semi-infinite ground, and the two-layer structure had a 100 Ohm m structure just under the one-layer structure. The result of the calculation suggests that, in the absence of a layer of extremely low resistivity, observation of an approximately 1 second long transient response aboard a helicopter flying at approximately 50km/h will enable an approximately 1000m deep exploration. Problems to affect airborne observation, such as swinging, natural magnetic field fluctuation, and artificially produced noises were investigated by use of a magnetometer suspended from a helicopter in flight. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Transient cardio-respiratory responses to visually induced tilt illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Oman, C. M.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Although the orthostatic cardio-respiratory response is primarily mediated by the baroreflex, studies have shown that vestibular cues also contribute in both humans and animals. We have demonstrated a visually mediated response to illusory tilt in some human subjects. Blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, and lung volume were monitored in 16 supine human subjects during two types of visual stimulation, and compared with responses to real passive whole body tilt from supine to head 80 degrees upright. Visual tilt stimuli consisted of either a static scene from an overhead mirror or constant velocity scene motion along different body axes generated by an ultra-wide dome projection system. Visual vertical cues were initially aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Subjective tilt and self-motion were reported verbally. Although significant changes in cardio-respiratory parameters to illusory tilts could not be demonstrated for the entire group, several subjects showed significant transient decreases in mean blood pressure resembling their initial response to passive head-up tilt. Changes in pulse pressure and a slight elevation in heart rate were noted. These transient responses are consistent with the hypothesis that visual-vestibular input contributes to the initial cardiovascular adjustment to a change in posture in humans. On average the static scene elicited perceived tilt without rotation. Dome scene pitch and yaw elicited perceived tilt and rotation, and dome roll motion elicited perceived rotation without tilt. A significant correlation between the magnitude of physiological and subjective reports could not be demonstrated.

  17. Real-Time Gas Identification by Analyzing the Transient Response of Capillary-Attached Conductive Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Bahraminejad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ability of the Capillary-attached conductive gas sensor (CGS in real-time gas identification was investigated. The structure of the prototype fabricated CGS is presented. Portions were selected from the beginning of the CGS transient response including the first 11 samples to the first 100 samples. Different feature extraction and classification methods were applied on the selected portions. Validation of methods was evaluated to study the ability of an early portion of the CGS transient response in target gas (TG identification. Experimental results proved that applying extracted features from an early part of the CGS transient response along with a classifier can distinguish short-chain alcohols from each other perfectly. Decreasing time of exposition in the interaction between target gas and sensing element improved the reliability of the sensor. Classification rate was also improved and time of identification was decreased. Moreover, the results indicated the optimum interval of the early transient response of the CGS for selecting portions to achieve the best classification rates.

  18. Transient identification system with noising data and 'don't know' response; Sistema de identificacao de transientes com inclusao de ruidos e indicacao de eventos desconhecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio C. de A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Confiabilidade Humana; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In the last years, many different approaches based on neural network (NN) has been proposed for transient identification in nuclear power plants (NPP). Some of them focus the dynamic identification using recurrent neural networks however, they are not able to deal with unrecognized transients. Other kind of solution uses competitive learning in order to allow the 'don't know' response. In this case dynamic, dynamic features are not well represented. This work presents a new approach for neural network based transient identification which allows either dynamic identification and 'don't know'response. Such approach uses two multilayer neural networks trained with backpropagation algorithm. The first one is responsible for the dynamic identification. This NN uses, a short set (in a movable time window) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The other one is used to validate the instantaneous identification (from the first net) through the validation of each variable. This net is responsible for allowing the system to provide 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method a NPP transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents, simulated for a pressurized water reactor, was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noising data in other to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method, a NPP transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents simulated for a pressurized water reactor, was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noising data in order to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know

  19. The optimal digital filters of sine and cosine transforms for geophysical transient electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-wei; Zhu, Zi-qiang; Lu, Guang-yin; Han, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The sine and cosine transforms implemented with digital filters have been used in the Transient electromagnetic methods for a few decades. Kong (2007) proposed a method of obtaining filter coefficients, which are computed in the sample domain by Hankel transform pair. However, the curve shape of Hankel transform pair changes with a parameter, which usually is set to be 1 or 3 in the process of obtaining the digital filter coefficients of sine and cosine transforms. First, this study investigates the influence of the parameter on the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms based on the digital filter algorithm of Hankel transform and the relationship between the sine, cosine function and the ±1/2 order Bessel function of the first kind. The results show that the selection of the parameter highly influences the precision of digital filter algorithm. Second, upon the optimal selection of the parameter, it is found that an optimal sampling interval s also exists to achieve the best precision of digital filter algorithm. Finally, this study proposes four groups of sine and cosine transform digital filter coefficients with different length, which may help to develop the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms, and promote its application.

  20. Simulation of Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transients in power systems are initiated by abrupt changes to otherwise steady operating conditions. These changes would be as a result of any of the following: opening or closing of circuit breakers, switching conditions, lightning or any other fault condition. For purposes of power system analysis these conditions are ...

  1. Efficient frequency-transient co-simulation of coupled heat-electromagnetic problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, C.; Günther, M.; Klagges, D.; Knorrenschild, M.; Richwin, M.; Schöps, S.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background With the recent advent of inductive charging systems all major automotive manufacturers develop concepts to wirelessly charge electric vehicles. Efficient designs require virtual prototyping that accounts for electromagnetic and thermal fields. The coupled simulations can be

  2. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves stimulated by modest magnetospheric compressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    AMPTE/CCE magnetic field and particle data are used to test the suggestion that increased hot proton temperature anisotropy resulting from convection during magnetospheric compression is responsible for the enhancement in Pc 1 emission via generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the dayside outer equatorial magnetosphere. The relative increase in magnetic field is used to gauge the strength of the compression, and an image dipole model is used to estimate the motion of the plasma during compression. Proton data are used to analyze the evolution of the proton distribution and the corresponding changes in EMIC wave activity expected during the compression. It is suggested that enhancements in dynamic pressure pump the energetic proton distributions in the outer magnetosphere, driving EMIC waves. Waves are expected to be generated most readily close to the magnetopause, and transient pressure pulses may be associated with bursts of EMIC waves, which would be observed on the ground in association with ionospheric transient signatures.

  3. Improved Transient Response Estimations in Predicting 40 Hz Auditory Steady-State Response Using Deconvolution Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The auditory steady-state response (ASSR is one of the main approaches in clinic for health screening and frequency-specific hearing assessment. However, its generation mechanism is still of much controversy. In the present study, the linear superposition hypothesis for the generation of ASSRs was investigated by comparing the relationships between the classical 40 Hz ASSR and three synthetic ASSRs obtained from three different templates for transient auditory evoked potential (AEP. These three AEPs are the traditional AEP at 5 Hz and two 40 Hz AEPs derived from two deconvolution algorithms using stimulus sequences, i.e., continuous loop averaging deconvolution (CLAD and multi-rate steady-state average deconvolution (MSAD. CLAD requires irregular inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs in the sequence while MSAD uses the same ISIs but evenly-spaced stimulus sequences which mimics the classical 40 Hz ASSR. It has been reported that these reconstructed templates show similar patterns but significant difference in morphology and distinct frequency characteristics in synthetic ASSRs. The prediction accuracies of ASSR using these templates show significant differences (p < 0.05 in 45.95, 36.28, and 10.84% of total time points within four cycles of ASSR for the traditional, CLAD, and MSAD templates, respectively, as compared with the classical 40 Hz ASSR, and the ASSR synthesized from the MSAD transient AEP suggests the best similarity. And such a similarity is also demonstrated at individuals only in MSAD showing no statistically significant difference (Hotelling's T2 test, T2 = 6.96, F = 0.80, p = 0.592 as compared with the classical 40 Hz ASSR. The present results indicate that both stimulation rate and sequencing factor (ISI variation affect transient AEP reconstructions from steady-state stimulation protocols. Furthermore, both auditory brainstem response (ABR and middle latency response (MLR are observed in contributing to the composition of ASSR but

  4. Efficient frequency-transient co-simulation of coupled heat-electromagnetic problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, C.; Günther, M.; Klagges, D.; Knorrenschild, M.; Richwin, M.; Schöps, S.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With the recent advent of inductive charging systems all major automotive manufacturers develop concepts to wirelessly charge electric vehicles. E¿cient designs require virtual prototyping that accounts for electromagnetic and thermal ¿elds. The coupled simulations can be computationally

  5. Electromagnetic mapping of buried paleochannels in eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Menges, C.M.; Al Kamali, A.M.; Essa, Jama F.

    1991-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic soundings and terrain conductivity meter measurements were used to map paleochannel geometry in the Al Jaww Plain of eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E. as part of an integrated hydrogeologic study of the Quaternary alluvial aquifer system. Initial interpretation of the data without benefit of well log information was able to map the depth to a conductive clay layer of Tertiary age that forms the base of the aquifer. Comparison of the results with induction logs reveals that a resistive zone exists that was incorporated into the interpretation and its lateral extent mapped with the transient electromagnetic sounding data. ?? 1991.

  6. Impact evaluation of conducted UWB transients on loads in power-line networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, faced with the ever-increasing dependence on diverse electronic devices and systems, the proliferation of potential electromagnetic interference (EMI becomes a critical threat for reliable operation. A typical issue is the electronics working reliably in power-line networks when exposed to electromagnetic environment. In this paper, we consider a conducted ultra-wideband (UWB disturbance, as an example of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI source, and perform the impact evaluation at the loads in a network. With the aid of fast Fourier transform (FFT, the UWB transient is characterized in the frequency domain. Based on a modified Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT method, the EMI received at the loads, with complex impedance, is computed. Through inverse FFT (IFFT, we obtain time-domain responses of the loads. To evaluate the impact on loads, we employ five common, but important quantifiers, i.e., time-domain peak, total signal energy, peak signal power, peak time rate of change and peak time integral of the pulse. Moreover, to perform a comprehensive analysis, we also investigate the effects of the attributes (capacitive, resistive, or inductive of other loads connected to the network, the rise time and pulse width of the UWB transient, and the lengths of power lines. It is seen that, for the loads distributed in a network, the impact evaluation of IEMI should be based on the characteristics of the IEMI source, and the network features, such as load impedances, layout, and characteristics of cables.

  7. Analysis of transient electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices using a quantum corrected integral equation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices can oftentimes be carried out accurately using “traditional” electromagnetic solvers. However, if a gap of sub-nanometer scale exists between any two surfaces of the device

  8. Equatorial electrojet and its response to external electromagnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Savina, O. N.

    2012-09-01

    In the quiet low-latitude Earth's ionosphere, a sufficiently developed current system that is responsible for the Sq magnetic-field variations is formed in quiet Sun days under the action of tidal streams. The density of the corresponding currents is maximum in the midday hours at the equatorial latitudes, where the so-called equatorial electrojet is formed. In this work, we discuss the nature of the equatorial electrojet. This paper studies the value of its response to external effects. First of all, it is concerned with estimating the possibility of using the equatorial electrojet for generating low-frequency electromagnetic signals during periodic heating of the ionosphere by the heating-facility radiation. The equatorial electrojet can also produce electrodynamic response to the natural atmospheric processes, e.g., an acoustic-gravity wave.

  9. Transient FDTD simulation validation

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui Tellería, Ricardo; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In computational electromagnetic simulations, most validation methods have been developed until now to be used in the frequency domain. However, the EMC analysis of the systems in the frequency domain many times is not enough to evaluate the immunity of current communication devices. Based on several studies, in this paper we propose an alternative method of validation of the transients in time domain allowing a rapid and objective quantification of the simulations results.

  10. A neural model for transient identification in dynamic processes with 'don't know' response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio C. de A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an approach for neural network based transient identification which allows either dynamic identification or a 'don't know' response. The approach uses two 'jump' multilayer neural networks (NN) trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The 'jump' network is used because it is useful to dealing with very complex patterns, which is the case of the space of the state variables during some abnormal events. The first one is responsible for the dynamic identification. This NN uses, as input, a short set (in a moving time window) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The other one is used to validate the instantaneous identification (from the first net) through the validation of each variable. This net is responsible for allowing the system to provide a 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method, a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents, simulated for a pressurized water reactor (PWR), was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noisy data in order to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. Another important point studied in this work is that the system has shown to be independent of a trigger signal which indicates the beginning of the transient, thus making it robust in relation to this limitation

  11. Reducing Conservatism of Analytic Transient Response Bounds via Shaping Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Aiyueh; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jan, Jiann-Woei; Grigoriadis, Karolos; Hua, Tuyen (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Recent results show that the peak transient response of a linear system to bounded energy inputs can be computed using the energy-to-peak gain of the system. However, analytically computed peak response bound can be conservative for a class of class bounded energy signals, specifically pulse trains generated from jet firings encountered in space vehicles. In this paper, shaping filters are proposed as a Methodology to reduce the conservatism of peak response analytic bounds. This Methodology was applied to a realistic Space Station assembly operation subject to jet firings. The results indicate that shaping filters indeed reduce the predicted peak response bounds.

  12. Experimental evaluation of structural integrity of scram release electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patri, Sudheer; Ruhela, S.P.; Punniyamoorthy, R.; Vijayashree, R.; Chandramouli, S.; Kumar, P. Madan; Rajendraprasad, R.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Narmadha, S.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The structural integrity of scram release electromagnet is evaluated against thermal shocks. • A simple test facility, employed for simulating the thermal shocks in a typical FBR, is presented. • The cold shock experienced by electromagnet during scram is simulated. • The testing qualified electromagnet for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), under construction at Kalpakkam, India, plays an important role in the commercialisation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in India. It consists of two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems. An electromagnet (EM) immersed in sodium acts as scram release device for the second shutdown system of prototype fast breeder reactor. The inside of EM is sealed from the sodium to achieve the required response time and to prevent the exposure of EM coil to sodium. As the EM response time is an important parameter for reactor safety, the integrity of EM is to be maintained under all anticipated loadings. The EM experiences thermal shocks and thermal stresses during reactor transients such as scram. The dissimilar weld joint present in EM is more susceptible to fatigue failure due to these thermal stresses. Failure of weld joint results in the entry of sodium into the EM, increasing its response time with associated safety implications. In this connection, the structural integrity of EM against thermal shocks was experimentally evaluated in Thermal Shock Test Facility. The EM was subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal shocks, which constitutes 29% of total number of shocks required to qualify the EM for 40 years of reactor operation, thus qualifying it for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. The testing has enhanced the confidence level for safe and reliable operation of EM of DSRDM in PFBR. The testing not only qualified the EM for use in reactor but also provided input for licensing the erection of DSRDM on reactor pile. Moreover, it provided a direction for

  13. Complete wind farm electromagnetic transient modelling for grid integration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubia, I.; Ostolaza, X.; Susperregui, A.; Tapia, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling methodology to analyse the impact of wind farms in surrounding networks. Based on the transient modelling of the asynchronous generator, the multi-machine model of a wind farm composed of N generators is developed. The model incorporates step-up power transformers, distribution lines and surrounding loads up to their connection to the power network. This model allows the simulation of symmetric and asymmetric short-circuits located in the distribution network and the analysis of transient stability of wind farms. It can be also used to study the islanding operation of wind farms

  14. Electromagnetic and structural analyses of the vacuum vessel and plasma facing components for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Xufeng; Song, Yuntao; Li, Jun; Lu, Mingxuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromagnetic and structural responses of VV and PFCs for EAST are analyzed. • A detailed finite element model of the VV including PFCs is established. • The two most dangerous scenarios, major disruptions and downward VDEs are considered. • The distribution patterns of eddy currents, EMFs and torques on PFCs are analyzed. -- Abstract: During plasma disruptions, time-varying eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel (VV) and Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of EAST. Additionally, halo currents flow partly through these structures during the vertical displacement events (VDEs). Under the high magnetic field circumstances, the resulting electromagnetic forces (EMFs) and torques are large. In this paper, eddy currents and EMFs on EAST VV, PFCs and their supports are calculated by analytical and numerical methods. ANSYS software is employed to evaluate eddy currents on VV, PFCs and their structural responses. To learn the electromagnetic and structural response of the whole structure more accurately, a detailed finite element model is established. The two most dangerous scenarios, major disruptions and downward VDEs, are examined. It is found that distribution patterns of eddy currents for various PFCs differ greatly, therefore resulting in different EMFs and torques. It can be seen that for certain PFCs the transient reaction force are severe. Results obtained here may set up a preliminary foundation for the future dynamic response research of EAST VV and PFCs which will provide a theoretical basis for the future engineering design of tokamak devices

  15. Grounding modelling for transient overvoltage simulation in electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno O, German; Valencia V, Jaime A; Villada, Fernando

    1992-01-01

    Grounding plays an important role in transmission line outages and consequently on electric energy transmission quality indexes. Fundamentals of an accurate modelling for transient behaviour analysis, particularly for the response of transmission lines to lightning, are presented. Also, a method to take into account the electromagnetic propagation guided by the grounding electrodes and finally to assess the grounding impedance in order to simulate the transmission line behaviour under lightning is presented. Analysis of impedance behaviour for diverse configurations and simulation results of over voltages on a real 220 kV line are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the method and of the computational program developed

  16. Transformer modeling for low- and mid-frequency electromagnetic transients simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Mathieu

    In this work, new models are developed for single-phase and three-phase shell-type transformers for the simulation of low-frequency transients, with the use of the coupled leakage model. This approach has the advantage that it avoids the use of fictitious windings to connect the leakage model to a topological core model, while giving the same response in short-circuit as the indefinite admittance matrix (BCTRAN) model. To further increase the model sophistication, it is proposed to divide windings into coils in the new models. However, short-circuit measurements between coils are never available. Therefore, a novel analytical method is elaborated for this purpose, which allows the calculation in 2-D of short-circuit inductances between coils of rectangular cross-section. The results of this new method are in agreement with the results obtained from the finite element method in 2-D. Furthermore, the assumption that the leakage field is approximately 2-D in shell-type transformers is validated with a 3-D simulation. The outcome of this method is used to calculate the self and mutual inductances between the coils of the coupled leakage model and the results are showing good correspondence with terminal short-circuit measurements. Typically, leakage inductances in transformers are calculated from short-circuit measurements and the magnetizing branch is calculated from no-load measurements, assuming that leakages are unimportant for the unloaded transformer and that magnetizing current is negligible during a short-circuit. While the core is assumed to have an infinite permeability to calculate short-circuit inductances, and it is a reasonable assumption since the core's magnetomotive force is negligible during a short-circuit, the same reasoning does not necessarily hold true for leakage fluxes in no-load conditions. This is because the core starts to saturate when the transformer is unloaded. To take this into account, a new analytical method is developed in this

  17. Regularization of a massless dirac model to describe anomalous electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takane, Yoshitake

    2016-01-01

    An unbounded massless Dirac model with two nondegenerate Dirac cones is the simplest model for Weyl semimetals, which show the anomalous electromagnetic response of chiral magnetic effect (CME) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE). However, if this model is naively used to analyze the electromagnetic response within a linear response theory, it gives the result apparently inconsistent with the persuasive prediction based on a lattice model. We show that this serious difficulty is related to the breaking of current conservation in the Dirac model due to quantum anomaly and can be removed if current and charge operators are redefined to include the contribution from the anomaly. We demonstrate that the CME as well as the AHE can be properly described using newly defined operators, and clarify that the CME is determined by the competition between the contribution from the anomaly and that from low-energy electrons. (author)

  18. Transient temperature response of in-vessel components due to pulsed operation in tokamak fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akio; Tone, Tatsuzo

    1985-12-01

    A transient temperature response of the in-vessel components (first wall, blanket, divertor/limiter and shielding) surrounding plasma in Tokamak Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) has been analysed. Transient heat load during start up/shut down and pulsed operation cycles causes the transient temperature response in those components. The fatigue lifetime of those components significantly depends upon the resulting cyclic thermal stress. The burn time affects the temperature control in the solid breeder (Li 2 O) and also affects the thermo-mechanical design of the blanket and shielding which are constructed with thick structure. In this report, results of the transient temperature response obtained by the heat transfer and conduction analyses for various pulsed operation scenarios (start up, shut down, burn and dwell times) have been investigated in view of thermo-mechanical design of the in-vessel components. (author)

  19. Abnormal autonomic cardiac response to transient hypoxia in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangkatumvong, S; Khoo, M C K; Coates, T D

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to non-invasively assess cardiac autonomic control in subjects with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by tracking the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) that occur following brief exposure to a hypoxic stimulus. Five African–American SCA patients and seven healthy control subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Each subject was exposed to a controlled hypoxic stimulus consisting of five breaths of nitrogen. Time-varying spectral analysis of HRV was applied to estimate the cardiac autonomic response to the transient episode of hypoxia. The confounding effects of changes in respiration on the HRV spectral indices were reduced by using a computational model. A significant decrease in the parameters related to parasympathetic control was detected in the post-hypoxic responses of the SCA subjects relative to normal controls. The spectral index related to sympathetic activity, on the other hand, showed a tendency to increase the following hypoxic stimulation, but the change was not significant. This study suggests that there is some degree of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in SCA that is revealed by the response to transient hypoxia

  20. Strategy for solving a coupled problem of the electromagnetic load analysis and design optimization for local conducting structures to support the ITER blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, Vladimir; Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail

  1. Strategy for solving a coupled problem of the electromagnetic load analysis and design optimization for local conducting structures to support the ITER blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozov, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.rozov@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail.

  2. Newborn hearing screening with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and automatic auditory brainstem response

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Mota Mamede de Carvallo; Carla Gentile Matas; Isabela de Souza Jardim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to check Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem Response tests applied together in regular nurseries and Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICU), as well as to describe and compare the results obtained in both groups. Methods: We tested 150 newborns from regular nurseries and 70 from NICU. Rresults: The newborn hearing screening results using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Automatic Auditory Brainstem...

  3. Electromagnetic response of a conductor with complex conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylekian, L.; Ocio, M.; Hammann, J.

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the electromagnetic response of a conductor with complex conductivity. We will show how the geometry of the measuring apparatus can modify the amplitude of this response. We will particularly emphasize the role that plays a complex conductivity, as we can find in granular superconductors, on the mesured magnetic susceptibility of the sample. Cet article a pour but de décrire la réponse électromagnétique d'un conducteur muni d'une conductivité complexe. Nous montrerons comment la géométrie du dispositif de mesure peut modifier l'amplitude de cette réponse. Nous insisterons particulièrement sur le rôle que joue une conductivité complexe, comme nous pouvons en trouver dans les supraconducteurs granulaires, sur la susceptibilité magnétique mesurée de l'échantillon.

  4. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  5. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Terminal load response law of coaxial cable to continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaodong; Wei Guanghui; Li Xinfeng; Lu Xinfu

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the coupling response law of continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation to coaxial cable, the typical RF coaxial cable is selected as the object under test. The equipment or subsystem connected by coaxial cable is equivalent to a lumped load. Continuous wave irradiation effect experiments under different conditions are carried out to analyze the terminal load response law of coaxial cable. The results indicate that the coaxial cable has a frequency selecting characteristic under electromagnetic irradiation, and the terminal load response voltage peak appears at a series of discrete frequency points where the test cable's relative lengths equal to semi-integers. When the coaxial cable is irradiated by continuous wave, the induced sheath current converts to the differential-mode induced voltage between inner conductor and shielding layer through transfer impedance, and the internal resistance of induced voltage source is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable. The change in terminal load value has no influence on the response curve. The voltages on the terminal load and the internal resistance of equivalent induced voltage source obey the principle of voltage division. Moreover, when the sheath current on the coaxial cable is in resonance, the distributed induced voltage between adjacent current nodes is in the same polarity, which can be equivalent to a single induced voltage source. The induced voltage source which is adjacent to the terminal load plays the leading role in the irradiation response process. (authors)

  7. Transient response of nonideal ion-selective microchannel-nanochannel devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Neta; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2018-04-01

    We report evidence of variation in ion selectivity of a fabricated microchannel-nanochannel device resulting in the appearance of a distinct local maximum in the overlimiting chronopotentiometric response. In this system consisting of shallow microchannels joined by a nanochannel, viscous shear at the microchannel walls suppresses the electro-osmotic instability and prevents any associated contribution to the nonmonotonic response. Thus, this response is primarily electrodiffusive. Numerical simulations indicate that concentration polarization develops not only within the microchannel but also within the nanochannel itself, with a local voltage maximum in the chronopotentiometric response correlated with interfacial depletion and having the classic i-2 Sands time dependence. Furthermore, the occurrence of the local maxima is correlated with the change in selectivity due to internal concentration polarization. Understanding the transient nonideal permselective response is essential for obtaining fundamental insight and for optimizing efficient operation of practical fabricated nanofluidic and membrane devices.

  8. Response of the CALICE Si-W Electromagnetic Calorimeter Physics Prototype to Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Hawkes, C.M.; Mikami, Y.; Miller, O.; Watson, N.K.; Wilson, J.A.; Goto, T.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Krim, M.; Benyamna, M.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, N.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Morisseau, F.; Blazey, G.C.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Lima, G.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Jung, T.; Karstensen, S.; Korbel, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lutz, B.; Meyer, N.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Groll, M.; Haller, J.; Heuer, R.-D.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kim, E.J.; Baek, N.I.; Kim, D-W.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.C.; Kawagoe, K.; Tamura, Y.; Bowerman, D.A.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Yilmaz, H.; Zorba, O.; Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Green, M.G.; Salvatore, F.; Bedjidian, M.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Bailey, D.S.; Barlow, R.J.; Kelly, M.; Thompson, R.J.; Danilov, M.; Tarkovsky, E.; Baranova, N.; Karmanov, D.; Korolev, M.; Merkin, M.; Voronin, A.; Frey, A.; Lu, S.; Prothmann, K.; Simon, F.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Ruan, M.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Gaycken, G.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Rouge, A.; Vanel, J-Ch.; Videau, H.; Park, K-H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belmir, M.; Nam, S.W.; Park, I.H.; Yang, J.; Chai, J.-S.; Kim, J.-T.; Kim, G.-B.; Kang, J.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    A prototype Silicon-Tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) for an International Linear Collider (ILC) detector was installed and tested during summer and autumn 2006 at CERN. The detector had 6480 silicon pads of dimension 1x1 cm^2. Data were collected with electron beams in the energy range 6 to 45 GeV. The analysis described in this paper focuses on electromagnetic shower reconstruction and characterises the ECAL response to electrons in terms of energy resolution and linearity. The detector is linear to within approximately the 1% level and has a relative energy resolution of (16.6 +- 0.1)/ \\sqrt{E(GeV}) + 1.1 +- 0.1 (%). The spatial uniformity and the time stability of the ECAL are also addressed.

  9. The transient response of a quantum wave to an instantaneous potential step switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, F [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Cruz, H [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (Spain); Muga, J G [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-12-06

    The transient response of a stationary state of a quantum particle in a step potential to an instantaneous change in the step height (a simplified model for a sudden bias switch in an electronic semiconductor device) is solved exactly by means of a semianalytical expression. The characteristic times for the transient process up to the new stationary state are identified. A comparison is made between the exact results and an approximate method.

  10. Mathematical Model and Computational Analysis of Selected Transient States of Cylindrical Linear Induction Motor Fed via Frequency Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rusek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of cylindrical linear induction motor (C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. The model was developed in order to analyze numerically the transient states. Problems concerning dynamics of ac-machines especially linear induction motor are presented in [1 – 7]. Development of C-LIM mathematical model is based on circuit method and analogy to rotary induction motor. The analogy between both: (a stator and rotor windings of rotary induction motor and (b winding of primary part of C-LIM (inductor and closed current circuits in external secondary part of C-LIM (race is taken into consideration. The equations of C-LIM mathematical model are presented as matrix together with equations expressing each vector separately. A computational analysis of selected transient states of C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. Two typical examples of C-LIM operation are considered for the analysis: (a starting the motor at various static loads and various synchronous velocities and (b reverse of the motor at the same operation conditions. Results of simulation are presented as transient responses including transient electromagnetic force, transient linear velocity and transient phase current.

  11. System transient response to loss of off-site power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozer, A.

    1990-01-01

    A simultaneous trip of the reactor, main circulation pumps, secondary coolant pumps, and pressurizer pump due to loss of off-site power at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been analyzed to estimate available safety margin. A computer model based on the Modular Modeling System code has been used to calculate the transient response of the system. The reactor depressurizes from 482.7 psia down to about 23 psia in about 50 seconds and remains stable thereafter. Available safety margin has been estimated in terms of the incipient boiling heat flux ratio. It is a conservative estimate due to assumed less than available primary and secondary flows and higher than normal depressurization rate. The ratio indicates no incipient boiling conditions at the hot spot. No potential damage to the fuel is likely to occur during this transient. 2 refs., 6 figs

  12. Surge protective device response to steep front transient in low voltage circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuz, J.; Binczak, S.; Bilbault, J.M. [Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)], Emails: jerome.marcuz@ laposte.net, stbinc@u-bourgogne.fr, bilbault@u-bourgogne.fr; Girard, F. [ADEE Electronic, Pont de Pany (France)

    2007-07-01

    Surge propagation on cables of electrical or data lines leads to a major protection problem as the number of equipment based on solid-state circuits or microprocessors increases. Sub-microsecond components of real surge waveform has to be taken into account for a proper protection even in the case of surges caused by indirect lightning effects. The response of a model of transient voltage suppressor diode based surge protection device (SPD) to fast front transient is analytically studied, then compared to simulations, including the lines connected to the SPD and to the protected equipment. (author)

  13. Interpreting signals from astrophysical transient experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul T; Smartt, Stephen J

    2013-06-13

    Time-domain astronomy has come of age with astronomers now able to monitor the sky at high cadence, both across the electromagnetic spectrum and using neutrinos and gravitational waves. The advent of new observing facilities permits new science, but the ever-increasing throughput of facilities demands efficient communication of coincident detections and better subsequent coordination among the scientific community so as to turn detections into scientific discoveries. To discuss the revolution occurring in our ability to monitor the Universe and the challenges it brings, on 25-26 April 2012, a group of scientists from observational and theoretical teams studying transients met with representatives of the major international transient observing facilities at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, UK. This immediately followed the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'New windows on transients across the Universe' held in London. Here, we present a summary of the Kavli meeting at which the participants discussed the science goals common to the transient astronomy community and analysed how to better meet the challenges ahead as ever more powerful observational facilities come on stream.

  14. CR1Dmod: A Matlab program to model 1D complex resistivity effects in electrical and electromagnetic surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Baumgartner, François

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed a forward modelling code in Matlab, capable of handling several commonly used electrical and electromagnetic methods in a 1D environment. We review the implemented electromagnetic field equations for grounded wires, frequency and transient soundings and present new solutions...

  15. Imaging Quaternary glacial deposits and basement topography using the transient electromagnetic method for modeling aquifer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Patrick Tremblay; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain; Daigneault, Réal; Cousineau, Pierre A.; Roy, Denis W.; Lambert, Mélanie; Poirier, Brigitte; Poignant-Molina, Léo

    2015-08-01

    Aquifer formations along the northern shore of the Saint-Lawrence River in Quebec (Canada) mainly consist of glacial and coastal deposits of variable thickness overlying Precambrian bedrock. These deposits are important because they provide the main water supply for many communities. As part of a continuing project aimed at developing an inventory of the groundwater resources in the Charlevoix and Haute-Côte-Nord (CHCN) regions of the province of Quebec in Canada, the central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method was used to map the principal hydrogeological environments in these regions. One-dimensional smooth inversion models of the TEM soundings have been used to construct two-dimensional electrical resistivity sections, which provided images for hydrogeological validation. Electrical contour lines of aquifer environments were compared against available well logs and Quaternary surface maps in order to interpret TEM soundings. A calibration table was achieved to represent common deposits and basements. The calibration table was then exported throughout the CHCN region. This paper presents three case studies; one in the Forestville site, another in the Les Escoumins site and the other in the Saint-Urbain site. These sites were selected as targets for geophysical surveys because of the general lack of local direct hydrogeological data related to them.

  16. New analytical results in the electromagnetic response of composite superconducting wire in parallel fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, E.M.J.; Niessen, E.M.J.; Zandbergen, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical results are presented concerning the electromagnetic response of a composite superconducting wire in fields parallel to the wire axis, using the Maxwell equations supplemented with constitutive equations. The problem is nonlinear due to the nonlinearity in the constitutive equation

  17. The Terminal Responses of the Two-Wire Line in Multiaperture Cavities Based on Electromagnetic Topology and Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation technique based on electromagnetic topology (EMT theory is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic interference (EMI coupling through apertures onto the two-transmission line enclosed within metallic structures. The electromagnetic interactions between apertures and the external-internal interactions were treated through the topological decomposition and the multistep iterative method. Then, the load responses of the two-wire transmission line are resolved by the the Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT equation. The simulation results both without and with the electromagnetic interaction are presented for the frequency range from 100 MHz to 3 GHz. These numerical results obtained by two methods imply that the electromagnetic interaction cannot be simply ignored, especially for the frequency range up to 1 GHz.

  18. Transient response of nonlinear polymer networks: A kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.

    2018-06-01

    Dynamic networks are found in a majority of natural materials, but also in engineering materials, such as entangled polymers and physically cross-linked gels. Owing to their transient bond dynamics, these networks display a rich class of behaviors, from elasticity, rheology, self-healing, or growth. Although classical theories in rheology and mechanics have enabled us to characterize these materials, there is still a gap in our understanding on how individuals (i.e., the mechanics of each building blocks and its connection with others) affect the emerging response of the network. In this work, we introduce an alternative way to think about these networks from a statistical point of view. More specifically, a network is seen as a collection of individual polymer chains connected by weak bonds that can associate and dissociate over time. From the knowledge of these individual chains (elasticity, transient attachment, and detachment events), we construct a statistical description of the population and derive an evolution equation of their distribution based on applied deformation and their local interactions. We specifically concentrate on nonlinear elastic response that follows from the strain stiffening response of individual chains of finite size. Upon appropriate averaging operations and using a mean field approximation, we show that the distribution can be replaced by a so-called chain distribution tensor that is used to determine important macroscopic measures such as stress, energy storage and dissipation in the network. Prediction of the kinetic theory are then explored against known experimental measurement of polymer responses under uniaxial loading. It is found that even under the simplest assumptions of force-independent chain kinetics, the model is able to reproduce complex time-dependent behaviors of rubber and self-healing supramolecular polymers.

  19. Electromagnetic response of non-trivially shaped superconductors in external magnetic fields and with applied currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Leonardo Ribeiro Eulalio; Aguiar, Jose Albino Oliveira de

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The study of the electromagnetic response of high-T c superconductors is essential for future technological applications. Such materials are hard type II superconductors, where the mixed state (a state characterized by quantized normal flux tubes - also called vortices - immersed in a superconductor phase) occupies most of the phase diagram. Therefore, the electromagnetic properties are dictated by the vortex dynamics in these materials. One has also to consider the presence of structural defects and thermal effects, which turn the vortex dynamics very complex. These difficulties may be overcome throughout a macroscopic description, also known as continuum approximation, of the electromagnetic fields in superconductors, obtained from critical state models and constitutive relations E = E(j) and H = H(B) (where E is the electric field generated by moving vortices, j the current density, B the induction - related to the local density of vortices - and H the reversible magnetic field that is in equilibrium with B). In superconductors with negligible demagnetization factors, such as long cylinders and bars with applied magnetic fields and/or currents along their longer dimensions, the Meissner state and the flux penetration is quite well understood. However, the actual specimen shape plays an important role on the electromagnetic behavior of superconductors. Numerical methods are often employed, since such cases are hard to treat analytically. In this work we studied the electromagnetic response of superconductors with various shapes. The Meissner state is obtained for thin curved strips and long cylinders with arbitrary cross-section, in perpendicular field and with applied currents. The flux penetration is numerically calculated for thin curved strips for the Bean (j c =const.) and the Kim (j c (B) = j c0 /(1 + βB)) models. (author)

  20. A possibilistic approach for transient identification with 'don't know' response capability optimized by genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Jose Carlos S. de; Schirru, Roberto; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a possibilistic approach for transient identification based on the minimum centroids set method, proposed in previous work, optimized by genetic algorithm. The idea behind this method is to split the complex classification problem into small and simple ones, so that the performance in the classification can be increased. In order to accomplish that, a genetic algorithm is used to learn, from realistic simulated data, the optimized time partitions, which the robustness and correctness in the classification are maximized. The use of a possibilistic classification approach propitiates natural and consistent classification rules, leading naturally to a good heuristic to handle the 'don't know 'response, in case of unrecognized transient, which is fairly desirable in transient classification systems where safety is critical. Application of the proposed approach to a nuclear transient indentification problem reveals good capability of the genetic algorithm in learning optimized possibilistic classification rules for efficient diagnosis including 'don't know' response. Obtained results are shown and commented. (author)

  1. Coupling of electromagnetic and structural dynamics for a wind turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, D; Rick, S; Schelenz, R; Jacobs, G; Hameyer, K; Hollas, S

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents a model interface of a wind turbine generator to represent the reciprocal effects between the mechanical and the electromagnetic system. Therefore, a multi-body-simulation (MBS) model in Simpack is set up and coupled with a quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) model of the generator in Matlab/Simulink via co-simulation. Due to lack of data regarding the structural properties of the generator the modal properties of the MBS model are fitted with respect to results of an experimental modal analysis (EMA) on the reference generator. The used method and the results of this approach are presented in this paper. The MB S model and the interface are set up in such a way that the EM forces can be applied to the structure and the response of the structure can be fed back to the EM model. The results of this cosimulation clearly show an influence of the feedback of the mechanical response which is mainly damping in the torsional degree of freedom and effects due to eccentricity in radial direction. The accuracy of these results will be validated via test bench measurements and presented in future work. Furthermore it is suggested that the EM model should be adjusted in future works so that transient effects are represented. (paper)

  2. Electromagnetically powered electrolytic pump and thermo-responsive valve for drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Zaher, Amir; Yassine, Omar; Buttner, Ulrich; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel drug delivery device is presented, implementing an electrolytic pump and a thermo-responsive valve. The device is remotely operated by an AC electromagnetic field (40.5∼58.5 mT, 450 kHz) that provides the power for the pump and the valve. It is suitable for long-term therapy applications, which use a solid drug in reservoir (SDR) approach and avoids unwanted drug diffusion. When the electromagnetic field is on, the electrolytic pump drives the drug towards the valve. The valve is made of a magnetic composite consisting of a smart hydrogel: Poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and iron powder. The heat generated in the iron powder via magnetic losses causes the PNIPAm to shrink, allowing the drug to flow past it. When the electromagnetic field is off, the PNIPAm swells, sealing the outlet. In the meantime, the bubbles generated by electrolysis recombine into water, causing a pressure reduction in the pumping chamber. This draws fresh fluid from outside the pump into the drug reservoir before the valve is fully sealed. The recombination can be accelerated by a platinum (Pt) coated catalytic reformer, allowing more fluid to flow back to the drug reservoir and dissolve the drug. By repeatedly turning on and off the magnetic field, the drug solution can be delivered cyclically. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Electromagnetically powered electrolytic pump and thermo-responsive valve for drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2015-04-01

    A novel drug delivery device is presented, implementing an electrolytic pump and a thermo-responsive valve. The device is remotely operated by an AC electromagnetic field (40.5∼58.5 mT, 450 kHz) that provides the power for the pump and the valve. It is suitable for long-term therapy applications, which use a solid drug in reservoir (SDR) approach and avoids unwanted drug diffusion. When the electromagnetic field is on, the electrolytic pump drives the drug towards the valve. The valve is made of a magnetic composite consisting of a smart hydrogel: Poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and iron powder. The heat generated in the iron powder via magnetic losses causes the PNIPAm to shrink, allowing the drug to flow past it. When the electromagnetic field is off, the PNIPAm swells, sealing the outlet. In the meantime, the bubbles generated by electrolysis recombine into water, causing a pressure reduction in the pumping chamber. This draws fresh fluid from outside the pump into the drug reservoir before the valve is fully sealed. The recombination can be accelerated by a platinum (Pt) coated catalytic reformer, allowing more fluid to flow back to the drug reservoir and dissolve the drug. By repeatedly turning on and off the magnetic field, the drug solution can be delivered cyclically. © 2015 IEEE.

  4. Nuclear responses in INTOR plasma stabilization elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Gilligan, J.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Miley, G.H.; Wiffen, F.W.; Yang, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear responses in the plasma stabilization elements were studied in a parametric fashion as a part of the transient electromagnetics critical issue C of ETR/INTOR activity. The main responses are neutron fluence and radiation dose in the insulator material, induced resistivity and atomic displacement in the conductor material, nuclear heating and life analysis for the elements. Copper and aluminum conductors with either MgAl 2 O 4 or MgO insulating material were investigated. Radiation damage and life analysis for these elements were also discussed

  5. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    The upper Santa Cruz Basin is an important groundwater basin containing the regional aquifer for the city of Nogales, Arizona. This report provides data and interpretations of data aimed at better understanding the bedrock morphology and structure of the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area which encompasses the Rio Rico and Nogales 1:24,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles. Data used in this report include the Arizona Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data referred to here as the 1996 Patagonia Aeromagnetic survey, Bouguer gravity anomaly data, and conductivity-depth transforms (CDTs) from the 1998 Santa Cruz transient electromagnetic survey (whose data are included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this report).Analyses based on magnetic gradients worked well to identify the range-front faults along the Mt. Benedict horst block, the location of possibly fault-controlled canyons to the west of Mt. Benedict, the edges of buried lava flows, and numerous other concealed faults and contacts. Applying the 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey data using the horizontal gradient method produced results that were most closely correlated with the observed geology.The 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey was used to estimate depth to bedrock in the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area. Three different depth estimation methods were applied to the data: Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient magnitude, and analytic signal. The final depth to bedrock map was produced by choosing the maximum depth from each of the three methods at a given location and combining all maximum depths. In locations of rocks with a known reversed natural remanent magnetic field, gravity based depth estimates from Gettings and Houser (1997) were used.The depth to bedrock map was supported by modeling aeromagnetic anomaly data along six profiles. These cross sectional models demonstrated that by using the depth to bedrock map generated in this study, known and concealed faults, measured and estimated magnetic

  6. Intense electromagnetic outbursts from collapsing hypermassive neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Liebling, Steven L.; Thompson, Christopher; Hanna, Chad

    2012-11-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of a magnetized neutron star using a novel numerical approach able to capture both the dynamics of the star and the behavior of the surrounding plasma. In this approach, a fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics implementation models the collapse of the star and provides appropriate boundary conditions to a force-free model which describes the stellar exterior. We validate this strategy by comparing with known results for the rotating monopole and aligned rotator solutions and then apply it to study both rotating and nonrotating stellar collapse scenarios and contrast the behavior with what is obtained when employing the electrovacuum approximation outside the star. The nonrotating electrovacuum collapse is shown to agree qualitatively with a Newtonian model of the electromagnetic field outside a collapsing star. We illustrate and discuss a fundamental difference between the force-free and electrovacuum solutions, involving the appearance of large zones of electric-dominated field in the vacuum case. This provides a clear demonstration of how dissipative singularities appear generically in the nonlinear time evolution of force-free fluids. In both the rotating and nonrotating cases, our simulations indicate that the collapse induces a strong electromagnetic transient, which leaves behind an uncharged, unmagnetized Kerr black hole. In the case of submillisecond rotation, the magnetic field experiences strong winding, and the transient carries much more energy. This result has important implications for models of gamma-ray bursts. Even when the neutron star is surrounded by an accretion torus (as in binary merger and collapsar scenarios), a magnetosphere may emerge through a dynamo process operating in a surface shear layer. When this rapidly rotating magnetar collapses to a black hole, the electromagnetic energy released can compete with the later output in a Blandford-Znajek jet. Much less electromagnetic energy is

  7. The effects of air stoichiometry and air excess ratio on the transient response of a PEMFC under load change conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bosung; Cha, Dowon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC are studied. • The transient response is measured by varying air stoichiometry and air excess ratio. • Voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation are analyzed under the load change. • Optimal air stoichiometry and air excess ratio are suggested for stable operation. - Abstract: The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an important issue for transportation applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of operating and controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC for achieving more stable cell performance under load change conditions. The transient response of a PEMFC was measured and analyzed by varying air stoichiometry, air humidity, and air excess ratio (AER). The optimal air stoichiometry and AER were determined to minimize the voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation under the load change, while maintaining high cell performance. Based on the present data, the optimal air stoichiometry was determined to be between 2.0 and 2.5, and the optimal AER was suggested to be between 1.65 and 2.0

  8. Analysis of transient thermal response in the outlet plenum of an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.W.

    1976-05-01

    A two-zone mixing model based on the lumped-parameter approach was developed for the analysis of transient thermal response in the upper outlet plenum of an LMFBR. The one-dimensional turbulent jet flow equations were solved to determine the maximum penetration of the core flow. The maximum penetration is used as the criterion for dividing the sodium region into two mixing zones. The lumped-parameter model considers the transient sodium temperature affected by the thermal expansion of sodium, heat transfer with cover gas, heat capacity of different sections of metal and the addition of bypass flow into the plenum. Numerical calculations were performed for two cases. The first case corresponds to a normal scram followed by flow coast-down. The second case represents the double-ended pipe rupture at the inlet of cold leg followed by reactor scram. The results indicate that effects of flow stratification, chimney height, metal heat capacity and bypass flow are important for transient sodium temperature calculation. Thermal expansion of sodium and heat transfer with the cover gas does not play any significant role on sodium temperature. This two-zone mixing model will be a part of the thermohydraulic transient code SSC

  9. Peculiar transient events in the Schumann resonance band and their possible explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrásková, Adriena; Bór, József; S[Breve]Evcík, Sebastián; Kostecký, Pavel; Rosenberg, Ladislav

    2008-04-01

    Superimposed on the continuous Schumann resonance (SR) background in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, transient signals (e.g. bursts) can be observed, which originate from intense lightning discharges occurring at different locations on the globe. From the many transients that were observed at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory (AGO) of Comenius University near Modra, western Slovakia, in the vertical electric field component mainly during May and June of 2006, a peculiar group of events could be recognized. According to the waveform analysis, these peculiar events in most cases consist of two overlapping transients with a characteristic time difference of 0.13-0.15 s between the onsets. On the other hand, the spectrum of these peculiar transients showed discernible SR peaks for higher modes as well (n>7). The same events could be found in the records of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory of the Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences near Nagycenk, Hungary (NCK). The natural origin of the peculiar events was verified from the NCK data and the source location was determined from the second transient. The results suggest that the two consecutive transients originated in the same thunderstorm. Furthermore, the phase spectrum analysis indicates that the sources have coherently excited the Earth-ionosphere cavity. These findings seem to support the idea that electromagnetic waves orbiting the Earth might trigger lightning discharges. The possibility that electromagnetic waves may trigger discharges was first considered by Nikola Tesla.

  10. Fuel pin response to an overpower transient in an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosberg, A.J.; Head, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a method by which the ability of a whole-core code accurately to predict the time and location of the first fuel pin failures may be tested. The method involves the use of a relatively simple whole-core code to 'drive' a sophisticated fuel pin code, which is far too complex to be used within a whole-core code but which is potentially capable of modelling reliably the response of an individual fuel pin. The method cannot follow accurately the subsequent course of the transient because the simple whole-core code does not model the reactivity effects of events which may follow pin failure. The codes used were the simple whole-core code FUTURE and the fuel pin behaviour code FRUMP. The paper describes an application of the method to analyse a hypothetical LMFBR accident in which the control rods were assumed to be driven from the core at maximum speed, with all trip circuits failed. Taking 0.5% clad strain as a clad failure criterion, failure was predicted to occur at the top of the active core at about 10s into the transient. A repeat analysis, using an alternative clad yield criterion which is thought to be more realistic, indicated failure at the same position but 24s into the transient. This is after the onset of sodium boiling. Pin failure at the top of the core are likely to cause negative reactivity changes. In this hypothetical accident, pin failures are likely, therefore, to have a moderating effect on the course of the transient. (orig.)

  11. A simulation model for transient response of a gas separation module using a hollow fiber membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takahiko, E-mail: t-sugiyama@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Fro-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Miyahara, Naoya [Nagoya University, Fro-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, Masahiro [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Munakata, Kenzo [Akita University, Tegata Gakuen-cho 1-1, Akita-shi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Ichiro [Nagoya University, Fro-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    A simulation model has been developed for transient response of a gas separation module using a hollow fiber membrane for the removal of tritium from the atmosphere of the confinement space. The mass transfer process such as sorption and desorption of gases at the surface of the dense layer and the porous support layer, diffusive transfer in the both layers are treated in the model. Sorption isotherm, mass transfer rate and permeance are estimated through step-wise transient response experiments. The present model represents well not only separation factors and recovery ratio at the steady state but also responses to the multi-step wise change in the sweep gas rate.

  12. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  13. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  14. Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; De Vries, Fred; De Croock, Marcel; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sloep, P.B., Kester, L., Brouns, F., Van Rosmalen, P., De Vries, F., De Croock, M., Koper, R. (2007). Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities. Presentation given at the Sixth IASTED International Conference on Web-based Education, 14-16 March,

  15. Inverse transformation algorithm of transient electromagnetic field and its high-resolution continuous imaging interpretation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhipeng; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xushan; Zhang, Yingying; Yao, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new and potentially useful method for wave field inverse transformation and its application in transient electromagnetic method (TEM) 3D interpretation. The diffusive EM field is known to have a unique integral representation in terms of a fictitious wave field that satisfies a wave equation. The continuous imaging of TEM can be accomplished using the imaging methods in seismic interpretation after the diffusion equation is transformed into a fictitious wave equation. The interpretation method based on the imaging of a fictitious wave field could be used as a fast 3D inversion method. Moreover, the fictitious wave field possesses some wave field features making it possible for the application of a wave field interpretation method in TEM to improve the prospecting resolution.Wave field transformation is a key issue in the migration imaging of a fictitious wave field. The equation in the wave field transformation belongs to the first class Fredholm integration equation, which is a typical ill-posed equation. Additionally, TEM has a large dynamic time range, which also facilitates the weakness of this ill-posed problem. The wave field transformation is implemented by using pre-conditioned regularized conjugate gradient method. The continuous imaging of a fictitious wave field is implemented by using Kirchhoff integration. A synthetic aperture and deconvolution algorithm is also introduced to improve the interpretation resolution. We interpreted field data by the method proposed in this paper, and obtained a satisfying interpretation result. (paper)

  16. Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; De Vries, Fred; De Croock, Marcel; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sloep, P.B., Kester, L. Brouns, F., Van Rosmalen, P., De Vries, F., De Croock, M., Koper, R. (2007) Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities. In V. Uskov (Ed.) The Sixth IASTED International Conference on Web-based Education WBE 2007, March 14-16,

  17. Transient response simulation of gas separation membrane module for an atmosphere detritiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Takahiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Munakata, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Transient response of a gas separation membrane module for the atmosphere detritiation system was numerically simulated with a mass transfer model. The module contains thousands of hollow fiber type polyimide membranes. The simulation model took into account permeation of water vapor through the dense layer of the membrane, diffusive transfer through the porous support layer and adsorption/desorption of water vapor into the matrix of the porous layer. The slow responses of the water vapor concentration in the retentate and the permeation rate were well reproduced by the present simulation, and transient changes in a follow fiber membrane were investigated in detail. The inventory and the mean residence time of water vapor at 303 K were estimated for the commercial membrane module (UMS-B2, Ube industries, Ltd.) as 5.7 × 10 −3 mol and 380 s, respectively.

  18. Analysis of transient pressure response near a horizontal well - a coupled diffusion-deformation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Wong, R. K. C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Yeung, K. C. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Results of an analysis of transient pressure near a horizontal well using a coupled diffusion-deformation method are discussed. The results are compared with those obtained from the single diffusivity equation. Implications for practical applications such as well testing are addressed. Results indicate that the diffusion-deformation behaviour of porous material affects the transient pressure response near a horizontal well. Evaluation by conventional well testing, based as it is on the single diffusion equation, would likely result in an overestimate of the permeability value. Comparison of results between the coupled diffusion-deformation approach and the single diffusion equation suggests that a better prediction of pressure response could be derived from total compressibility than by using only fluid compressibility. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Quantum noise on a point charge from electromagnetic squeezed vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tai-Hung; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Lee, Da-Shin

    2010-01-01

    The effect of quantum noises on a point charge from electromagnetic squeezed vacuum fluctuations is studied. Here a novel reduction phenomenon in velocity dispersion is found in the situation when the particle barely moves. It shows that the velocity dispersion of the charge can be reduced below the value solely given by the normal vacuum states of the electromagnetic fields by using an appropriate choice of the squeeze parameters. This may be viewed as a transient phenomenon. Optimally utilizing this reduction scheme for gravitational wave detection is possible, but challenging.

  20. Quantum noise on a point charge from electromagnetic squeezed vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tai-Hung; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Lee, Da-Shin [National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    The effect of quantum noises on a point charge from electromagnetic squeezed vacuum fluctuations is studied. Here a novel reduction phenomenon in velocity dispersion is found in the situation when the particle barely moves. It shows that the velocity dispersion of the charge can be reduced below the value solely given by the normal vacuum states of the electromagnetic fields by using an appropriate choice of the squeeze parameters. This may be viewed as a transient phenomenon. Optimally utilizing this reduction scheme for gravitational wave detection is possible, but challenging.

  1. A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving transient Maxwell equations with nonlinear material properties

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2014-07-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method (DGTD) has been used extensively in computational electromagnetics for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on structures described with linear constitutive relations. DGTD expands unknown fields independently on disconnected mesh elements and uses numerical flux to realize information exchange between fields on different elements (J. S. Hesthaven and T. Warburton, Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, 2008). The numerical flux of choice for \\'linear\\' Maxwell equations is the upwind flux, which mimics accurately the physical behavior of electromagnetic waves on discontinuous boundaries. It is obtained from the analytical solution of the Riemann problem defined on the boundary of two neighboring mesh elements.

  2. A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving transient Maxwell equations with nonlinear material properties

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Asirim, Ozum Emre; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method (DGTD) has been used extensively in computational electromagnetics for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on structures described with linear constitutive relations. DGTD expands unknown fields independently on disconnected mesh elements and uses numerical flux to realize information exchange between fields on different elements (J. S. Hesthaven and T. Warburton, Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, 2008). The numerical flux of choice for 'linear' Maxwell equations is the upwind flux, which mimics accurately the physical behavior of electromagnetic waves on discontinuous boundaries. It is obtained from the analytical solution of the Riemann problem defined on the boundary of two neighboring mesh elements.

  3. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  4. Dual Transformer Model based on Standard Circuit Elements for the Study of Low- and Mid-frequency Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebi, Saeed

    iron core magnetizing characteristic is modified with the accurate measurement of the air-core inductance. The air-core inductance is measured using a non-ideal low-power rectifier. Its dc output serves to drive the transformer into deep saturation, and its ripple provides low-amplitude variable excitation. The principal advantage of this method is its simplicity. To model the eddy current effects in the windings, a novel equivalent circuit is proposed. The circuit is derived from the principle of duality and therefore, matches the electromagnetic physical behavior of the transformer windings. It properly models the flux paths and current distribution from dc to MHz. The model is synthesized from a non-uniform concentric discretization of the windings. Concise guidelines are given to optimally calculate the width of the sub-divisions for various transient simulations. To compute the circuit parameters only information about the geometry of the windings and about their material properties is needed. The calculation of the circuit parameters does not require an iterative process. Therefore, the parameters are always real, positive, and free from convergence problems. The proposed model is tested with single-phase transformers for the calculation of magnetizing inrush currents, series ferroresonance, and Geomagnetic Induced Currents (GIC). The electromagnetic transient response of the model is compared to laboratory measurements for validation. Also, 3D finite element simulations are used to validate the electromagnetic behavior of the transformer model. Large manufacturer of transformers, power system designers, and electrical utility companies can benefit from the new model. It simplifies the design and optimization of the transformers' insulation, thereby reducing cost, and enhancing reliability of the system. The model could also be used for inrush current and differential protection studies, geomagnetic induced current studies, harmonic penetration studies, and

  5. Modeling electromagnetic rail launchers at speed using 3D finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, D.; Leonard, P.J.; Eastham, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a new finite element technique for modelling 3D transient eddy currents in moving conductors is described. This has been implemented in the MEGA software package for 2 and 3D electromagnetic field analysis. The application of the technique to railgun launchers is illustrated

  6. Transient response of a cylindrical cavity in viscoelastic saturated porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on dynamic characteristics for fluid-solid coupling system in saturated porous medium is of significant academic value and potential application foreground.In this paper,the transient response of a cylindrical cavity in infinite viscoelastic saturated porous medium with the circular lining is studied,and the corresponding results can be used in the design of foundation engineering,such as the tunnel analyses in saturated soil,the nuclear waste disposal engineering,and the exploitation and utilization of geothermal reservoirs and so on.Firstly,based on the porous media theory,the governing equations of coupled system are presented,and the corresponding boundary conditions,initial conditions as well as the joint conditions are derived.Then,the differential quadrature element method and the second-order backward difference scheme are applied to discretize the governing differential equations of the coupled system on the spatial and temporal domains,respectively.Finally,the Newton-Raphson method is adopted to solve the discretization equations with the initial conditions,the transient responses of the coupled system are analyzed,the effects of the parameters are considered,and the validity of the numerical method is verified.

  7. Proceedings of transient thermal-hydraulics and coupled vessel and piping system responses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.Y.; Shin, Y.W.; Moody, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on transient thermal-hydraulics and coupled vessel and piping system responses. Topics covered include: nuclear power plant containment designs; analysis of control rods; gate closure of hydraulic turbines; and shock wave solutions for steam water mixtures in piping systems

  8. A neural model for transient identification in dynamic processes with 'don't know' response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio C. de A. E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br; Martinez, Aquilino S. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br; Schirru, Roberto E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br

    2003-09-01

    This work presents an approach for neural network based transient identification which allows either dynamic identification or a 'don't know' response. The approach uses two 'jump' multilayer neural networks (NN) trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The 'jump' network is used because it is useful to dealing with very complex patterns, which is the case of the space of the state variables during some abnormal events. The first one is responsible for the dynamic identification. This NN uses, as input, a short set (in a moving time window) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The other one is used to validate the instantaneous identification (from the first net) through the validation of each variable. This net is responsible for allowing the system to provide a 'don't know' response. In order to validate the method, a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) transient identification problem comprising 15 postulated accidents, simulated for a pressurized water reactor (PWR), was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noisy data in order to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the method in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. Another important point studied in this work is that the system has shown to be independent of a trigger signal which indicates the beginning of the transient, thus making it robust in relation to this limitation.

  9. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks. (review article)

  10. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  11. Study on the adjustment capability of the excitation system located inside superconducting machine electromagnetic shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, D.; Xia, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The ability for the excitation system to adjust quickly plays a very important role in maintaining the normal operation of superconducting machines and power systems. However, the eddy currents in the electromagnetic shield of superconducting machines hinder the exciting magnetic field change and weaken the adjustment capability of the excitation system. To analyze this problem, a finite element calculation model for the transient electromagnetic field with moving parts is established. The effects of three different electromagnetic shields on the exciting magnetic field are analyzed using finite element method. The results show that the electromagnetic shield hinders the field changes significantly, the better its conductivity, the greater the effect on the superconducting machine excitation.

  12. Quantum-corrected transient analysis of plasmonic nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes

    2017-03-08

    A time domain surface integral equation (TD-SIE) solver is developed for quantum-corrected analysis of transient electromagnetic field interactions on plasmonic nanostructures with sub-nanometer gaps. “Quantum correction” introduces an auxiliary tunnel to support the current path that is generated by electrons tunneled between the nanostructures. The permittivity of the auxiliary tunnel and the nanostructures is obtained from density functional theory (DFT) computations. Electromagnetic field interactions on the combined structure (nanostructures plus auxiliary tunnel connecting them) are computed using a TD-SIE solver. Time domain samples of the permittivity and the Green function required by this solver are obtained from their frequency domain samples (generated from DFT computations) using a semi-analytical method. Accuracy and applicability of the resulting quantum-corrected solver scheme are demonstrated via numerical examples.

  13. Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.

  14. Transient Model Validation of Fixed-Speed Induction Generator Using Wind Farm Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogdakis, Georgios; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic transient model for fixed-speed wind turbines equipped with induction generators is developed and implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC. The model is comprised by: an induction generator, aerodynamic rotor, and a two-mass representation of the shaft system. Model validation...

  15. Correlated terahertz acoustic and electromagnetic emission in dynamically screened InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Capel, P. J. S.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Porte, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    signals and THz electromagnetic radiation signals demonstrates that transient strain generation in InGaN/GaN MQWs is correlatedwith electromagnetic THz generation, and both types of emission find their origin in ultrafast dynamical screening of the built-in piezoelectric field in the MQWs. The measured......We investigate acoustic and electromagnetic emission from optically excited strained piezoelectric In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy, time-resolved Brillouin scattering, and THz emission spectroscopy. A direct comparison of detected acoustic...

  16. EDDYTRAN program system for eddy current, electromagnetic force and structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameari, A.; Nikura, S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program system (EDDYTRAN), which is applicable to torus structures of magnetic fusion devices, has been developed to calculate the eddy current, electromagnetic force and structural analysis. The program system is designed to perform the following functions sequentially: 1) generation of model mesh and other data such as electromagnetic and mechanical properties of finite elements and boundary conditions, 2) calculations of eddy currents and electromagnetic forces, 3) transformation of the resultant force to load data fit to the structural analysis program, 4) structural analysis and 5) post-processing of the results. The EDDYTRAN utilizes the EDDYCUFF (EDDY CUrrent, magnetic Field and electromagnetic Force) program and the NASTRAN (NASA STRuctural ANalysis) program. Here, the EDDYCUFF program which has been developed by the authors is a generalized computer program to calculate transient eddy currents, resultant magnetic fields and electromagnetic forces in the conductive components. This paper describes the outline of the EDDYTRAN program system and preliminary results obtained through the application to the Tokamak reactor design which was performed for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

  17. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  18. Electromagnetic Saturation of Angstrom-Sized Quantum Barriers at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Young-Mi; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Yong Seung; Kim, Joon-Yeon; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Tae Yun; Kang, Taehee; Rhie, Jiyeah; Han, Sanghoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Metal-graphene-metal hybrid structures allow angstrom-scale van der Waals gaps, across which electron tunneling occurs. We squeeze terahertz electromagnetic waves through these λ /10 000 000 gaps, accompanied by giant field enhancements. Unprecedented transmission reduction of 97% is achieved with the transient voltage across the gap saturating at 5 V. Electron tunneling facilitated by the transient electric field strongly modifies the gap index, starting a self-limiting process related to the barrier height. Our work enables greater interplay between classical optics and quantum tunneling, and provides optical indices to the van der Waals gaps.

  19. Electromagnetic Saturation of Angstrom-Sized Quantum Barriers at Terahertz Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Young-Mi; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Yong Seung; Kim, Joon-Yeon; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Tae Yun; Kang, Taehee; Rhie, Jiyeah; Han, Sanghoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2015-09-18

    Metal-graphene-metal hybrid structures allow angstrom-scale van der Waals gaps, across which electron tunneling occurs. We squeeze terahertz electromagnetic waves through these λ/10 000 000 gaps, accompanied by giant field enhancements. Unprecedented transmission reduction of 97% is achieved with the transient voltage across the gap saturating at 5 V. Electron tunneling facilitated by the transient electric field strongly modifies the gap index, starting a self-limiting process related to the barrier height. Our work enables greater interplay between classical optics and quantum tunneling, and provides optical indices to the van der Waals gaps.

  20. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER generic equatorial port plug designs during three plasma current disruption cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirao, J.; Rodríguez, E.; Ordieres, J.; Cabanas, M.F.; García, C.H. Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electromagnetic transient performance evaluation of the GEPP structure. ► Three different plasma current disruption cases: MD UP LIN36, VDE UP LIN36 and VDE DW LIN36 were analyzed. ► Three DSM-First Wall (FW) designs (horizontal and vertical drawers and monoblock) were compared. - Abstract: Electromagnetic phenomena due to plasma current disruptions are the cause for the main mechanical operation loads over the ITER equatorial level port plug structures. This paper presents a detailed finite element simulation and analysis of the transient electromagnetic effects of three different plasma current disruption cases over three designs of diagnostic shielding module (DSM) structure. The DSMs are contained into and supported by the generic equatorial port plug (GEPP) analyzed structure. The three plasma disruption cases studied were: major disruption upwards linear decay in 36 ms (MD UP LIN36), vertical displacements events, upwards and downwards linear decay in 36 ms (VDE UP LIN36 and VDE DW LIN36). A detailed analysis for GEPP structure and three DSM-first wall (FW) designs (horizontal and vertical drawers and monoblock) is also presented in order to extract the Eddy current distribution on these devices and thus the resultant electromagnetic forces and moments acting on them.

  1. Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; De Vries, Fred; De Croock, Marcel; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sloep, P.B., Kester, L. Brouns, F., Van Rosmalen, P., De Vries, F., De Croock, M., Koper, R. (2007) Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities. In V. Uskov (Ed.) The Sixth IASTED International Conference on Web-based Education WBE 2007, March 14-16, Chamonix, France (pp. 549-554). Calgary, Canada: Acta Press.

  2. Proposing Wavelet-Based Low-Pass Filter and Input Filter to Improve Transient Response of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.

  3. Transient Electromagnetic Modelling and Imaging of Thin Resistive Structures: Applications for Gas Hydrate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    Gas hydrates are a solid, ice-like mixture of water and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. They are found under the permafrost and to a far greater extent under the ocean, usually at water depths greater than 300m. Hydrates are a potential energy resource, a possible factor in climate change, and a geohazard. For these reasons, it is critical that gas hydrate deposits are quantitatively assessed so that their concentrations, locations and distributions may be established. Due to their ice-like nature, hydrates are electrically insulating. Consequently, a method which remotely detects changes in seafloor electrical conductivity, such as marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM), is a useful geophysical tool for marine gas hydrate exploration. Hydrates are geometrically complex structures. Advanced electromagnetic modelling and imaging techniques are crucial for proper survey design and data interpretation. I develop a method to model thin resistive structures in conductive host media which may be useful in building approximate geological models of gas hydrate deposits using arrangements of multiple, bent sheets. I also investigate the possibility of interpreting diffusive electromagnetic data using seismic imaging techniques. To be processed in this way, such data must first be transformed into its non-diffusive, seismic-like counterpart. I examine such a transform from both an analytical and a numerical point of view, focusing on methods to overcome inherent numerical instabilities. This is the first step to applying seismic processing techniques to CSEM data to rapidly and efficiently image resistive gas hydrate structures. The University of Toronto marine electromagnetics group has deployed a permanent marine CSEM array offshore Vancouver Island, in the framework of the NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory, for the purposes of monitoring gas hydrate deposits. In this thesis I also propose and examine a new CSEM survey technique for gas hydrate which would

  4. Probabilistic estimates of 1.5-degree carbon budgets based on uncertainty in transient climate response and aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, A. I.; Mengis, N.; Jalbert, J.; Matthews, D.

    2017-12-01

    Nations agreed to limit the increase in global mean surface temperature relative to the preindustrial era below 2 degrees Celsius and pursue efforts to a more ambitious goal of 1.5 degrees Celsius. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to assess the amount of cumulative carbon emissions compatible with these temperature targets, i.e. so called carbon budgets. In this work, we use the intermediate complexity University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) to assess how uncertainty in aerosol forcing and transient climate response transfers to uncertainty in future carbon budgets for burning fossil fuels. We create a perturbed parameter ensemble of model simulations by scaling aerosol forcing and transient climate response, and assess the likelihood of each simulation by comparing the simulated historical cumulative carbon emissions, CO2 concentration and radiative balance to observations. By weighting the results of each simulation with the likelihood of the simulation, the preliminary results give a carbon budget of 48 Pg C to reach 1.5 degree Celsius temperature increase. The small weighted mean is due to large fraction of simulations with strong aerosol forcing and transient climate response giving negative carbon budgets for this time period. The probability of the carbon budget being over 100 Pg C was 38% and 23% for over 200 Pg carbon budget. The carbon budgets after temperature stabilization at 1.5 degrees are even smaller with a weighted mean of -100 Pg C until the year 2200. The main reason for the negative carbon budgets after temperature stabilization is an assumed strong decrease in aerosol forcing in the 21st century. Conversely, simulations with weak aerosol forcing and transient climate response give positive carbon budgets. Our results highlight both the importance of reducing uncertainty in aerosol forcing and transient climate response, and of taking the non-CO2 forcers into account when estimating carbon budgets.

  5. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  6. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  7. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes.

  8. Basic features of electromagnetic pulse generated in a laser-target chamber at 3-TW laser facility PALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M; Pfeifer, M; Krousky, E; Krasa, J; Cikhardt, J; Klir, D; Nassisi, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe the radiofrequency emission taking place when 300 ps laser pulses irradiate various solid targets with an intensity of 10 16 W/cm 2 . The emission of intense electromagnetic pulses was observed outside the laser target chamber by two loop antennas up to 1 GHz. Electromagnetic pulses can be 800 MHz transients, which decay from a peak electromagnetic field of E 0 ≊ 7 kV/m and H 0 ≊ 15 A/m. The occurrence of these electromagnetic pulses is associated with generation of hard x-rays with photon energies extending beyond 1 MeV. This contribution reports the first observation of this effect at the PALS facility.

  9. The transient electric field measurement system for EAST device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wayong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Ji, Z.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Zhu, C.M. [The Experiment & Verification Center of State Grid Electric Power Research Institute (The Automation Equipment EMC Lab. of State Grid Co.), Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Z.C.; Ma, T.F.; Xu, Z.H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    The electromagnetic environment around the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) device is very complex during plasma discharge experiment. In order to fully monitor the changes of electric field around the EAST device during plasma discharge, a transient electric field measurement system based on PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) platform has been designed. A digitizer is used for high-speed data acquisition of raw signals from electric field sensors, and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module is used for realizing an on-the-fly fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) algorithm including a beforehand identified antenna factor (AF) to achieve finally a calibrated and filtered electric field measurement, then these signals can be displayed and easily analyzed. The raw signals from electric field sensors are transferred through optical fiber by optical isolation to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). The high speed data streaming technology is used for data storage. A prototype of this system has been realized to measure the transient electric field strength, with the real-time processing and continuous acquisition ability of one channel of 14-bit resolution and up to 50 MHz sampling rate, and 6 KHz FFT frequency resolution.

  10. The importance of resolution on the response of mid-latitude transients to enhanced CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of global warming on the activity of the mid-latitude transients is not well understood. Work with simple models suggests that there will be two competing effects on transient activity. Firstly, there will be a reduction in the baroclinicity due to a smaller pole-equator temperature gradient and secondly there will be increased moisture availability in a warmer atmosphere. A comparison of the mid-latitude transients from two versions of the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM run at different resolutions is presented and the importance of resolution on the simulation of the high and low frequency variability is discussed. At higher resolution, one of the largest responses of the model to a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 is an enhancement of the westerly flow in the North Atlantic, but this is much reduced at lower resolution. Consistency is sort between changes in the time mean flow and the transient behavior

  11. Mapping localised freshwater anomalies in the brackish paleo-lake sediments of the Machile–Zambezi Basin with transient electromagnetic sounding, geoelectrical imaging and induced polarisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    A recent airborne TEM survey in the Machile–Zambezi Basin of south western Zambia revealed high electrical resistivity anomalies (around 100 Ωm) in a low electrical resistivity (below 13 Ωm) background. The near surface (0–40 m depth range) electrical resistivity distribution of these anomalies...... appeared to be coincident with superficial features related to surface water such as alluvial fans and flood plains. This paper describes the application of transient electromagnetic soundings (TEM) and continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES) using geo-electrics and time domain induced polarisation...... thins out and deteriorates in water quality further inland. It is postulated that the freshwater lens originated as a result of interaction between the Zambezi River and the salty aquifer in a setting in which evapotranspiration is the net climatic stress. Similar high electrical resistivity bodies were...

  12. A portable high-efficiency electromagnetic energy harvesting system using supercapacitors for renewable energy applications in railroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingtian; Zhang, Zutao; Pan, Hongye; Salman, Waleed; Yuan, Yanping; Liu, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study, we develop a portable high-efficiency electromagnetic energy harvesting system with supercapacitors that converts the energy of track vibrations into electricity. The generated electricity is stored in the supercapacitors and used in remote areas for safety facilities or in standby power supplies for rail-side equipment. The proposed system consists of a mechanical transmission and a rectifier. Acting as the energy input and transmission, Gears and a rack amplify the small vibrations of the track, and one-way bearings enhance efficiency by transforming bidirectional motion to unidirectional rotation. Supercapacitors are used in the energy harvesting system for the first time. The supercapacitors permit the storage of energy from rapidly changing transient currents and a steady power supply for external loads. The proposed system is demonstrated through dynamic simulations, which show the rapid response of the system. An efficiency of 55.5% is demonstrated in bench tests, verifying that the proposed electromagnetic energy harvesting system is effective and practical in renewable energy applications for railroads. - Highlights: • A frequently ignored source of energy, railroad track vibrations, is harvested. • A novel conversion mechanism is designed to maximize efficiency. • Supercapacitors are included in the electromagnetic energy harvesting system. • A portable design is proposed for wider application. - Abstract: As the demand for alternative sources of energy has increased, harvesting abundant environmental energy such as vibration energy including track vibrations in railway systems has attracted greater attention. In this study, we develop a portable high-efficiency electromagnetic energy harvesting system with supercapacitors that converts the energy of track vibrations into electricity. The generated electricity is stored in the supercapacitors and used in remote areas for safety facilities or in standby power

  13. Modeling and characterization of an electromagnetic system for the estimation of Frequency Response Function of spindle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlalolini, David; Ritou, Mathieu; Rabréau, Clément; Le Loch, Sébastien; Furet, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents an electromagnetic system that has been developed to measure the quasi-static and dynamic behavior of machine-tool spindle, at different spindle speeds. This system consists in four Pulse Width Modulation amplifiers and four electromagnets to produce magnetic forces of ± 190 N for the static mode and ± 80 N for the dynamic mode up to 5 kHz. In order to measure the Frequency Response Function (FRF) of spindle, the applied force is required, which is a key issue. A dynamic force model is proposed in order to obtain the load from the measured current in the amplifiers. The model depends on the exciting frequency and on the magnetic characteristics of the system. The predicted force at high speed is validated with a specific experiment and the performance limits of the experimental device are investigated. The FRF obtained with the electromagnetic system is compared to a classical tap test measurement.

  14. Transient response in granular bounded heap flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  15. University students’ understanding of the electromotive force concept in the context of electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; De Cock, Mieke; Bollen, Laurens; Van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present research on university students’ understanding of the concept of electromotive force (emf). The work presented here is a continuation of previous research by Garzón et al (2014 Am. J. Phys. 82 72–6) in which university students’ understanding of emf in the contexts of transient current and direct current circuits was analyzed. In the work we present here the investigation focuses on electromagnetic induction phenomena. Three open-ended questions from a broader questionnaire were analyzed in depth. We used phenomenography to define categories and detect lines of reasoning and difficulties in conceptual understanding. Very few students showed a good understanding of the emf concept in electromagnetic induction circuits or an ability to distinguish it from potential difference. Although the prevalences of the responses in the different categories are different, we find that the difficulties are the same in the three universities. Standard instruction does not allow most students to analyze unfamiliar contexts where the answer requires a systemic explanatory model. (paper)

  16. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Dong Won; Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon

    2016-01-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  17. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  18. Analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on graphene-based devices using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifei

    2015-10-26

    Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms structured in the form of a honeycomb lattice. Recent experimental studies have revealed that it can support surface plasmons at Terahertz frequencies thanks to its dispersive conductivity. Additionally, characteristics of these plasmons can be dynamically adjusted via electrostatic gating of the graphene sheet (K. S. Novoselov, et al., Science, 306, 666–669, 2004). These properties suggest that graphene can be a building block for novel electromagnetic and photonic devices for applications in the fields of photovoltaics, bio-chemical sensing, all-optical computing, and flexible electronics. Simulation of electromagnetic interactions on graphene-based devices is not an easy task. The thickness of the graphene sheet is orders of magnitude smaller than any other geometrical dimension of the device. Consequently, discretization of such a device leads to significantly large number of unknowns and/or ill-conditioned matrix systems.

  19. Shock-induced thermal wave propagation and response analysis of a viscoelastic thin plate under transient heating loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenlin; Guo, Huili; Tian, Xiaogeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the thermal shock analysis for viscoelastic materials under transient heating loads. The governing coupled equations with time-delay parameter and nonlocal scale parameter are derived based on the generalized thermo-viscoelasticity theory. The problem of a thin plate composed of viscoelastic material, subjected to a sudden temperature rise at the boundary plane, is solved by employing Laplace transformation techniques. The transient responses, i.e. temperature, displacement, stresses, heat flux as well as strain, are obtained and discussed. The effects of time-delay and nonlocal scale parameter on the transient responses are analyzed and discussed. It can be observed that: the propagation of thermal wave is dynamically smoothed and changed with the variation of time-delay; while the displacement, strain, and stress can be rapidly reduced by nonlocal scale parameter, which can be viewed as an important indicator for predicting the stiffness softening behavior for viscoelastic materials.

  20. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T.-W.; Jerkstrand, A.; Coughlin, M.; Kankare, E.; Sim, S. A.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Maguire, K.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Magee, M.; Shingles, L. J.; Smith, K. W.; Young, D. R.; Tonry, J.; Kotak, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lyman, J. D.; Homan, D. S.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, J. P.; Angus, C. R.; Ashall, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Berton, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Bulla, M.; Bulger, J.; Cannizzaro, G.; Cano, Z.; Cartier, R.; Cikota, A.; Clark, P.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Denneau, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Dessart, L.; Dimitriadis, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Firth, R. E.; Flewelling, H.; Flörs, A.; Franckowiak, A.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Greiner, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Guelbenzu, A. Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hamanowicz, A.; Hanlon, L.; Harmanen, J.; Heintz, K. E.; Heinze, A.; Hernandez, M.-S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Hook, I. M.; Izzo, L.; James, P. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Kerzendorf, W. E.; Klose, S.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Kowalski, M.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lawrence, A.; Lowe, T. B.; Magnier, E. A.; Manulis, I.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Mattila, S.; McBrien, O.; Müller, A.; Nordin, J.; O'Neill, D.; Onori, F.; Palmerio, J. T.; Pastorello, A.; Patat, F.; Pignata, G.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Pumo, M. L.; Prentice, S. J.; Rau, A.; Razza, A.; Rest, A.; Reynolds, T.; Roy, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Salmon, L.; Schady, P.; Schultz, A. S. B.; Schweyer, T.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sullivan, M.; Szegedi, H.; Taddia, F.; Taubenberger, S.; Terreran, G.; van Soelen, B.; Vos, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Walton, N. A.; Waters, C.; Weiland, H.; Willman, M.; Wiseman, P.; Wright, D. E.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yaron, O.

    2017-11-01

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  1. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S J; Chen, T-W; Jerkstrand, A; Coughlin, M; Kankare, E; Sim, S A; Fraser, M; Inserra, C; Maguire, K; Chambers, K C; Huber, M E; Krühler, T; Leloudas, G; Magee, M; Shingles, L J; Smith, K W; Young, D R; Tonry, J; Kotak, R; Gal-Yam, A; Lyman, J D; Homan, D S; Agliozzo, C; Anderson, J P; Angus, C R; Ashall, C; Barbarino, C; Bauer, F E; Berton, M; Botticella, M T; Bulla, M; Bulger, J; Cannizzaro, G; Cano, Z; Cartier, R; Cikota, A; Clark, P; De Cia, A; Della Valle, M; Denneau, L; Dennefeld, M; Dessart, L; Dimitriadis, G; Elias-Rosa, N; Firth, R E; Flewelling, H; Flörs, A; Franckowiak, A; Frohmaier, C; Galbany, L; González-Gaitán, S; Greiner, J; Gromadzki, M; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C P; Hamanowicz, A; Hanlon, L; Harmanen, J; Heintz, K E; Heinze, A; Hernandez, M-S; Hodgkin, S T; Hook, I M; Izzo, L; James, P A; Jonker, P G; Kerzendorf, W E; Klose, S; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Kuncarayakti, H; Lawrence, A; Lowe, T B; Magnier, E A; Manulis, I; Martin-Carrillo, A; Mattila, S; McBrien, O; Müller, A; Nordin, J; O'Neill, D; Onori, F; Palmerio, J T; Pastorello, A; Patat, F; Pignata, G; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Pumo, M L; Prentice, S J; Rau, A; Razza, A; Rest, A; Reynolds, T; Roy, R; Ruiter, A J; Rybicki, K A; Salmon, L; Schady, P; Schultz, A S B; Schweyer, T; Seitenzahl, I R; Smith, M; Sollerman, J; Stalder, B; Stubbs, C W; Sullivan, M; Szegedi, H; Taddia, F; Taubenberger, S; Terreran, G; van Soelen, B; Vos, J; Wainscoat, R J; Walton, N A; Waters, C; Weiland, H; Willman, M; Wiseman, P; Wright, D E; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Yaron, O

    2017-11-02

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  2. Electromagnetic response of the protective pellicle of different unicellular microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E.; Skigin, Diana C.; Tolivia, Analía.; Fuertes Vila, Isabel; Conforti, Visitación

    2014-03-01

    Euglenoids are unicellular aquatic organisms. These microalgae show a typical surface structure that distinguishes them from the other protists. Most cells are naked and bounded by a plasma membrane surrounded by a pellicle formed by overlapping bands. It is well known that all terrestrial and aquatic organisms are exposed to UV-A and UV-B radiation. This radiation is potentially harmful to life and since it can penetrate up to 12 meters in the water, it can reduce survival, growth and production of phytoplankton. However, the organisms have developed numerous protection mechanisms intended to reduce such damage, such as the production of pigments and other repair mechanisms. However, the possible protection that could provide the first barriers before entering into the cell has not been explored yet. In this paper we investigate, from an electromagnetic point of view, the role played by the pellicle of euglenoids in the protection of the cell against UV radiation. To do so, we investigate the electromagnetic response of different species that exhibit different behaviors against the UV radiation. We solve the diffraction problem by using the Chandezon Method and obtain the reflectance of the pellicle for the UV wavelengths. The results show that the corrugated pellicle could contribute to increase the reflectance, thus reducing the penetration of the UV radiation within the cell and therefore, minimizing the damage and increasing the survival of these organisms.

  3. Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Sylvain; Alessi, Antonino; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Y.; Marcandella, Claude; Richard, Nicolas; Paillet, Philippe; Gaillardin, Marc; Raine, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    A dedicated set of fibers elaborated via the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) technique is used to study the influence of composition and drawing parameters on their responses to an X-ray pulse representative of the radiation environments associated with Megajoule class lasers. These canonical fibers were designed to highlight the impact of these parameters on the amplitude and kinetics of the transient pulsed X-ray Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) at room temperature. From pre-forms differing by their core composition, three optical fibers were elaborated by varying the tension and speed during the drawing process. No or only slight RIA change results from the tested variations in drawing process parameters of Ge-doped, F-doped, and pure-silica-core fibers. This study reveals that the drawing process is not the main parameter to be optimized in order to enhance the radiation tolerance of MCVD specialty optical fibers for the LMJ harsh environment. From the hardness assurance point of view, a specialty fiber sufficiently tolerant to this environment should be robust against changes in the drawing process. The origins of the RIA observed in the different fibers are discussed on the basis of spectral decomposition of their measured RIA spectra, using sets of defects from the literature and related to the different core dopants. This analysis highlights the limits of the well-known defect set to reproduce the RIA above 1 for Ge-doped fibers whereas self-trapped holes and chlorine-related species seem responsible for the transient responses of pure-silica-core and F-doped fibers. (authors)

  4. Susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to fast transient threats: new challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sabath

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to transient threats has experienced a significant growth during the past ten years. Driven by the development in the area of non-lethal electromagnetic weapons it has become necessary to extend the classical set of transient threats, consisting of LEMP, ESD and NEMP, by a fast transient threat with an extreme bandwidth. The investigation of the susceptibility to those UWB threats, characterized by a bandwidth of more than a quarter of the center frequency, rise times of less than 200 ps and pulse durations in the ns regime, is of special interest. This paper presents an overview of current challenges of the hardening against UWB threats. It discusses recent research trends in transient susceptibility measurements, protection concepts and methods of analysis.

  5. Possible application of transient electromagnetic pulses to high brightness e-guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnit, N.A.; Benicewicz, P.K.; Taylor, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A number of groups have recently demonstrated the production of freely propagating, focusable pulses of terahertz radiation, consisting of essentially a single subpicosecond cycle of a baseband electromagnetic field. We discuss the possible application of these techniques to the production of strong fields at photocathode surfaces, in a manner analogous to radial-line switched-power concepts. Experimental status in production of these pulses in our laboratory and elsewhere is reviewed, and recent progress in development of short-pulse solid-state lasers useful for this technology is summarized

  6. Transient response of level instruments in a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lap Y.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate the dynamics of water level instruments in a research nuclear reactor. A bubble device, with helium gas as the working fluid, is used to monitor liquid level by sensing the static head pressure due to the height of liquid in the reactor vessel. A finite-difference model is constructed to study the transient response of the water level instruments to pressure perturbations. The field equations which describe the hydraulics of the helium gas in the bubbler device are arranged in the form of a tridiagonal matrix and the field variables are solved at each time step by the Thomas algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the dynamic response of the helium gas depends mainly on the volume and the inertia of the gas in the level instrument tubings. The anomalies in the simulated level indication are attributed to the inherent lag in the level instrument due to the hydraulics of the system. 1 ref., 5 figs

  7. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  8. Transient analysis of cutoff waveguide antenna in three-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwa, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Norinobu; Fukai, Ichiro

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the exciting system for electric power heating as seen in nuclear fusion plasma heating and medical purpose has been actively studied and developed. Since such system treats basically a neighborhood field, various problems unlike conventional exciting system for communication arise. In such situation, the structure having the waveguides of simple and robust construction as the main body has been proposed. In this exciting system including the condition of media, the complex distribution of a neighborhood field based on a three-dimensional structure exerts an important effect on the characteristics. Especially in large power excitation, the higher mode of relatively small power distribution cannot be neglected. Besides, also a transient field distribution exerts an important effect on the characteristics, and the time response analysis is required. In this analysis, by the three-dimensional time response analysis method using Bergeron method, the unified analysis of the total system comprising a cutoff waveguide, a coaxial exciting part and a heating region was carried out for determining a radiation neighborhood electromagnetic field by a cutoff waveguide antenna. (Kako, I.)

  9. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs

  10. The electromagnetic response in a layered vertical transverse isotropic medium : A new look at an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Slob, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We determined that the electromagnetic vertical transverse isotropic response in a layered earth can be obtained by solving two equivalent scalar equations, which were for the vertical electric field and for the vertical magnetic field, involving only a scalar global reflection coefficient. Besides

  11. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  12. Investigation on Electromagnetic Models of High-Speed Solenoid Valve for Common Rail Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel formula easily applied with high precision is proposed in this paper to fit the B-H curve of soft magnetic materials, and it is validated by comparison with predicted and experimental results. It can accurately describe the nonlinear magnetization process and magnetic saturation characteristics of soft magnetic materials. Based on the electromagnetic transient coupling principle, an electromagnetic mathematical model of a high-speed solenoid valve (HSV is developed in Fortran language that takes the saturation phenomena of the electromagnetic force into consideration. The accuracy of the model is validated by the comparison of the simulated and experimental static electromagnetic forces. Through experiment, it is concluded that the increase of the drive current is conducive to improving the electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency of the HSV at a low drive current, but it has little effect at a high drive current. Through simulation, it is discovered that the electromagnetic energy conversion characteristics of the HSV are affected by the drive current and the total reluctance, consisting of the gap reluctance and the reluctance of the iron core and armature soft magnetic materials. These two influence factors, within the scope of the different drive currents, have different contribution rates to the electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency.

  13. Interactions of Low-Frequency, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Living Tissue: Biochemical Responses and Clinical Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulrik L.; Tritsaris, Katerina; Dissing, Steen

    2005-01-01

    In recent years many studies have demonstrated stimulatory effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on biological tissue. However, controversies have also surrounded the research often due to the lack of knowledge of the different physical consequences of static versus pulsed electromagnetic......, are still lacking. Despite the apparent success of the PEMF technology very little is known regarding the coupling between pulsed electrical fields and biochemical events leading to cellular responses. Insight into this research area is therefore of great importance. In this review we describe the physical...... properties of PEMF-induced electrical fields and explain the typical set up for coils and pulse patterns. Furthermore, we discuss possible models that can account for mechanisms by which induced electric fields are able to enhance cellular signaling. We have emphasized the currently well-documented effects...

  14. Grounding line transient response in marine ice sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Drouet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine ice-sheet stability is mostly controlled by the dynamics of the grounding line, i.e. the junction between the grounded ice sheet and the floating ice shelf. Grounding line migration has been investigated within the framework of MISMIP (Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, which mainly aimed at investigating steady state solutions. Here we focus on transient behaviour, executing short-term simulations (200 yr of a steady ice sheet perturbed by the release of the buttressing restraint exerted by the ice shelf on the grounded ice upstream. The transient grounding line behaviour of four different flowline ice-sheet models has been compared. The models differ in the physics implemented (full Stokes and shallow shelf approximation, the numerical approach, as well as the grounding line treatment. Their overall response to the loss of buttressing is found to be broadly consistent in terms of grounding line position, rate of surface elevation change and surface velocity. However, still small differences appear for these latter variables, and they can lead to large discrepancies (> 100% observed in terms of ice sheet contribution to sea level when cumulated over time. Despite the recent important improvements of marine ice-sheet models in their ability to compute steady state configurations, our results question the capacity of these models to compute short-term reliable sea-level rise projections.

  15. Influence of magnetic fields on the response of a uranium scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainusch, J.; Corriveau, F.; Klanner, R.

    1991-04-01

    The response of a uranium scintillator sampling calorimeter to incident electrons and to the uranium radioactivity was measured in transverse magnetic fields up to 1.4 Tesla. The signal from electrons rises by as much as 9% due to the expected increase in light output of plastic scintillators in magnetic fields. For fields below 0.3 Tesla the response to the uranium radioactivity tracks the electron signal to within about 0.5%. At higher fields it drops sharply, reaching -1.5% at 1.4 Tesla. The consequences for the calibration of the ZEUS uranium scintillator calorimeter are discussed. We found no evidence for a change in the electromagnetic sampling fraction for fields below 0.3 Tesla. (orig.)

  16. Application of ADINA fluid element for transient response analysis of fluid-structure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Kodama, T.; Shiraishi, T.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure propagation and Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) in 3D space were simulated by general purpose finite element program ADINA using the displacement-based fluid element which presumes inviscid and compressible fluid with no net flow. Numerical transient solution was compared with the measured data of an FSI experiment and was found to fairly agree with the measured. In the next step, post analysis was conducted for a blowdown experiment performed with a 1/7 scaled reactor pressure vessel and a flexible core barrel and the code performance was found to be satisfactory. It is concluded that the transient response of the core internal structure of a PWR during the initial stage of LOCA can be analyzed by the displacement-based finite fluid element and the structural element. (orig.)

  17. DEFORM-4: fuel pin characterization and transient response in the SAS4A accident analysis code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.J.; Hill, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The DEFORM-4 module is the segment of the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code System that calculates the fuel pin characterization in response to a steady state irradiation history, thereby providing the initial conditions for the transient calculation. The various phenomena considered include fuel porosity migration, fission gas bubble induced swelling, fuel cracking and healing, fission gas release, cladding swelling, and the thermal-mechanical state of the fuel and cladding. In the transient state, the module continues the thermal-mechanical response calculation, including fuel melting and central cavity pressurization, until cladding failure is predicted and one of the failed fuel modules is initiated. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated the validity of the modeling approach

  18. Radio interference and transient field from gas-insulated substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, S.M.; Wong, P.S.; Balma, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas-insulated substations (GIS), owing to their compact nature, offer an attractive alternative to conventional substations in areas where space is limited, such as in urban areas. Consequently, it is important to address the issue of environmental conditions within the substation and in the surrounding areas. This paper reports the result of radio interference (RI) and transient field measurements at two GIS in Ontario, Canada. For comparison with RI levels taken at the GIS, RI levels outside two hospitals in the Toronto area were also measured. The transient field study covers electromagnetic interference (EMI) levels generated during switching operations, and includes measurements inside and outside the GIS. Measurements show that RI levels from the GIS were either below background levels, or contributed little to the background. RI levels outside the GIS and the hospitals were similar. Peak transient field values up to 580 V/m were measured inside the station building, and dropped to background values of 10 V/m at about 120 m from the station. The transient field (E) dropped off at a rate of 3/2 power with distance (d) from the air-insulated 115 kV bus, i.e. E ∝ d -1.5

  19. Explicit solution of the Volterra integral equation for transient fields on inhomogeneous arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    A new predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation to analyze transient electromagnetic wave interactions with arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous dielectric bodies is considered. Numerical results demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed method are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Extraction of diagnostic parameters from the transient response of a porous electro ceramic gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein-Babaei, F.; Orvatinia, M.

    2004-01-01

    A novel concept for the diagnosis of a pure target gas in air is presented. The method employs a resistive gas sensor with a mm-thick highly porous electro ceramic gas sensitive body. The diagnosis is based on the fact that the diffusion time of the target gas through the porous body would depend on its molecular properties. The transient response of the device was analyzed based on a diffusion reaction equation. The solutions of the equation were shown to be of diagnostic merits. Such a device was fabricated by partial sintering of a Zn O body formed by low pressure pressing. The transient responses of the device to methanol, ethanol, poropanol and butanol were recorded. The analytical data, and the diagnostic parameters were resulted as the fitting parameters. Comparison of the parameters obtained with those available from the calibration experiments afforded target gas identification

  1. Electromagnetic and thermal history during microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.; Valente, M.A.; Monteiro, J.; Sousa, J.; Costa, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    In microwave heating, the energy is directly introduced into the material resulting in a rapid and volumetric heating process with reduced thermal gradients, when the electromagnetic field is homogeneous. From those reasons, the microwave technology has been widely used in the industry to process dielectric materials. The capacity to heat with microwave radiation is related with the dielectric properties of the materials and the electromagnetic field distribution. The knowledge of the permittivity dependence with the temperature is essential to understand the thermal distribution and to minimize the non-homogeneity of the electromagnetic field. To analyse the history of the heating process, the evolution of the electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth, were simulated dynamically in a ceramic sample. The evaluation of the thermal runaway has also been made. This is the most critical phenomenon observed in the sintering of ceramic materials because it causes deformations, or even melting on certain points in the material, originating the destruction of it. In our study we show that during the heating process the hot spot's have some dynamic, and at high temperatures most of the microwave energy is absorbed at the surface of the material. We also show the existence of a time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes. - Highlights: → Electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth were simulated dynamically. → The evaluation of the thermal runaway has been made. → A time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes exists.

  2. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  3. Performance Tests on the Electromagnet of Secondary CRA Gripper System of the PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature in an emergency condition of the reactor, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power. This paper describes the design of a passive shutdown system consisted of a thermal expansion device and an electromagnet. The electromagnet design concept for gripping and releasing the secondary control rod assembly is also suggested, and the several functional tests of the electromagnet are performed in the high temperature environment condition, and the test results are presented. The application feasibility of the electromagnet of a passive shutdown system was verified based on several test results in point of view of the electromagnetic force and the response time. In future, the thermal expansion device system integrated with this electromagnet will be verified. The electromagnet trigger-off time was tested for the several cases in Table 4 using the same method. The average response time is 0.184 seconds in the case of using SS410 material as an armature, while the 2.25Cr-1Mo material as an armature has a response time of 0.16 seconds as shown in Figure 6. The final acceptability of the electromagnetic response time data obtained by these tests will be evaluated with CRA drop test results because the control rod drop time should be within 1 - 2 seconds including the electromagnetic response time

  4. Mode selection in electrical activities of myocardial cell exposed to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ya; Wang, Chunni; Xu, Ying; Ren, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neuronal model under electromagnetic induction and radiation is set up; • The transition of electrical activities under electromagnetic radiation is discussed; • Dynamical response of encoding of neuron is discussed for possible mechanism of heart disease. - Abstract: Based on the Fitzhugh–Nagumo neuron model, the effect of electromagnetic induction is considered and external electromagnetic radiation is imposed to detect the mode transition of electrical activities in a myocardial cell. Appropriate dynamical and functional responses can be observed in the sampled series for membrane potentials by setting different feedback modulation on the membrane potential in presence of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation is described by a periodical forcing on the magnetic flux, and it is found that the response frequency can keep pace with the frequency of external forcing. However, mismatch of frequency occurs by further increasing the frequency of external forcing, it could account for the information encoding of neuron. The dynamical response could be associated with the magnetization and polarization of the media, thus the outputs of membrane potential can become quiescent and/or bursting as well.

  5. A Multiple-Channel Sub-Band Transient Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Smith

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a unique multiple-channel sub-band transient detection system to record transient electromagnetic signals in carrier-dominated radio environments; the system has been used to make unique observations of weak, transient HF signals. The detection system has made these observations possible through improved sensitivity compared to conventional broadband transient detection systems; the sensitivity improvement is estimated to be at least 20 dB. The increase in sensitivity has been achieved through subdivision of the band of interest (an 18 MHz tunable bandwidth) into eight sub-band independent detection channels, each with a 400 kHz bandwidth and its own criteria. The system generates a system trigger signal when a predetermined number of channels (typically five) trigger within a predetermined window of time (typically 100 ~s). Events are recorded with a broadband data acquisition system sampling at 50 or 100 Msample/s, so despite the fact that the detection system operates on portions of the signal confined to narrow bands, data acquisition is broadband. Between May and September of 1994, the system was used to detect and record over six thousand transient events in the frequency band from 3 to 30 MHz. Approximately 500 of the events have been characterized as paired bursts of radio noise with individual durations of 2 to 10 ps and separations between the bursts of 5 to 160 ps. The paired transients are typically 5 to 40 dB brighter than the background electromagnetic spectrum between carrier signals. We have termed these events SubIonospheric Pulse Pairs (SIPPS) and presently have no explanation as to their source. Our observations of SIPPS resemble observations of TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs (TIPPs) recorded by the Blackboard instrument on the ALEXIS satellite; the source of TIPP events is also unknown. Most of the recorded SIPP events do not exhibit frequency dispersion, implying propagation along a line-of-sight (groundwave) path; but seven of

  6. Electromagnetic velocity gauge: use of multiple gauges, time response, and flow perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, L.M.; Johnson, C.B.; Parker, N.L.; Vantine, H.C.; Weingart, R.C.; Lee, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ electromagnetic velocity (EMV) gauge system for use in multiple-gauge studies of initiating and detonating explosives. We have also investigated the risetime of the gauge and the manner in which it perturbs a reactive flow. We report on the special precautions that are necessary in multiple gauge experiments to reduce lead spreading, simplify target fabrication problems and minimize cross talk through the conducting explosive. Agreement between measured stress records and calculations from multiple velocity gauge data give us confidence that our velocity gauges are recording properly. We have used laser velocity interferometry to measure the gauge risetime in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). To resolve the difference in the two methods, we have examined hydrodynamic and material rate effects. In addition, we considered the effects of shock tilt, electronic response and magntic diffusion on the gauge's response time

  7. Transient analysis on the SMART-P anticipated transients without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S. H.; Bae, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Zee, S. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) are anticipated operational occurrences accompanied by a failure of an automatic reactor trip when required. Although the occurrence probability of the ATWS events is considerably low, these events can result in unacceptable consequences, i.e. the pressurization of the reactor coolant system (RCS) up to an unacceptable range and a core-melting situation. Therefore, the regulatory body requests the installation of a protection system against the ATWS events. According to the request, a diverse protection system (DPS) is installed in the SMART-P (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-Pilot). This paper presents the results of the transient analysis performed to identify the performance of the SMART-P against the ATWS. In the analysis, the TASS/SMR (Transients And Setpoint Simulation/Small and Medium Reactor) code is applied to identify the thermal hydraulic response of the RCS during the transients

  8. On the electric field transient anomaly observed at the time of the Kythira M=6.9 earthquake on January 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Varley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Earth's electromagnetic fields prior to the occurrence of strong seismic events has repeatedly revealed cases were transient anomalies, often deemed as possible earthquake precursors, were observed on electromagnetic field recordings of surface, atmosphere and near space carried out measurements. In an attempt to understand the nature of such signals several models have been proposed based upon the exhibited characteristics of the observed anomalies and different possible generation mechanisms, with electric earthquake precursors (EEP appearing to be the main candidates for short-term earthquake precursors. This paper discusses the detection of a ULF electric field transient anomaly and its identification as a possible electric earthquake precursor accompanying the Kythira M=6.9 earthquake occurred on the 8 January 2006.

  9. Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Teste, A.; Wilber, M.; Lin, N.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Reme, H.; Fu, S. Y.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    An important problem in space physics still not understood well is how the solar wind enters the Earth's magnetosphere. Evidence is presented that transient solar wind particles produced by solar disturbances can appear in the Earth's mid-altitude (∼5 R E geocentric) cusps with densities nearly equal to those in the magnetosheath. That these are magnetosheath particles is established by showing they have the same ''flattop'' electron distributions as magnetosheath electrons behind the bow shock. The transient ions are moving parallel to the magnetic field (B) toward Earth and often coexist with ionospheric particles that are flowing out. The accompanying waves include electromagnetic and broadband electrostatic noise emissions and Bernstein mode waves. Phase-space distributions show a mixture of hot and cold electrons and multiple ion species including field-aligned ionospheric O + beams

  10. Functional difference between sustained and transient modulations of cognitive control in the simon task: evidence from false alarm responses on no-go trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Shin'ya

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control in response compatibility tasks is modulated by the task context. Two types of contextual modulations have been demonstrated; sustained (block-wise) and transient (trial-by-trial). Recent research suggests that these modulations have different underlying mechanisms. This study presents new evidence supporting this claim by comparing false alarm (FA) responses on no-go trials of the Simon task between the sustained and transient contexts. In Experiment 1, the sustained context was manipulated so that a block included a larger number of incongruent trials. Results showed that participants made more FA responses by the hand opposite to the stimulus location. This suggests a generation of response bias in which the task-irrelevant location information is utilized in a reversed manner (i.e., to respond with the right hand to a stimulus presented on the left side and vice versa). Next, Experiment 2 examined the effect of the transient context and found that overall FA rate was lower when a no-go trial was preceded by an incongruent trial than by a congruent trial, whereas such response bias as that shown in Experiment 1 was not demonstrated. This suggests that the transient conflict context enhances inhibition of the task-irrelevant process but does not make the task-irrelevant information actively usable. Based on these results, we propound two types of cognitive control modulations as adaptive behaviors: response biasing based on utilization of the task-irrelevant information under the sustained conflict context and transient enhancement of inhibition of the task-irrelevant process based on the online conflict monitoring.

  11. A Capacitor-Free, Fast Transient Response Linear Voltage Regulator In a 180nm CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Alexander N.; Lindbjerg, Nicklas; Pedersen, Martin K.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.8 V capacitor-free linear regulator with fast transient response based on a new topology with a fast and slow regulation loop is presented. The design has been laid out and simulated in a 0.18 µm CMOS process. The design has a low component count and is tailored for system-on-chip integration...

  12. Simulation methods of nuclear electromagnetic pulse effects in integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jili; Liu Yuan; En Yunfei; Fang Wenxiao; Wei Aixiang; Yang Yuanzhen

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the ways to compute the response of transmission line (TL) illuminated by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) were introduced firstly, which include finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and trans-mission line matrix (TLM); then the feasibility of electromagnetic topology (EMT) in ICs nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) effect simulation was discussed; in the end, combined with the methods computing the response of TL, a new method of simulate the transmission line in IC illuminated by NEMP was put forward. (authors)

  13. Transient magnetoviscosity of dilute ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Aquino, Denisse; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field induced change in the viscosity of a ferrofluid, commonly known as the magnetoviscous effect and parameterized through the magnetoviscosity, is one of the most interesting and practically relevant aspects of ferrofluid phenomena. Although the steady state behavior of ferrofluids under conditions of applied constant magnetic fields has received considerable attention, comparatively little attention has been given to the transient response of the magnetoviscosity to changes in the applied magnetic field or rate of shear deformation. Such transient response can provide further insight into the dynamics of ferrofluids and find practical application in the design of devices that take advantage of the magnetoviscous effect and inevitably must deal with changes in the applied magnetic field and deformation. In this contribution Brownian dynamics simulations and a simple model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations are applied to explore the dependence of the transient magnetoviscosity for two cases: (I) a ferrofluid in a constant shear flow wherein the magnetic field is suddenly turned on, and (II) a ferrofluid in a constant magnetic field wherein the shear flow is suddenly started. Both simulations and analysis show that the transient approach to a steady state magnetoviscosity can be either monotonic or oscillatory depending on the relative magnitudes of the applied magnetic field and shear rate. - Research Highlights: →Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to study the transient behavior of the magnetoviscosity of ferrofluids. →Damped and oscillatory approach to steady state magnetoviscosity was observed for step changes in shear rate and magnetic field. →A model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations qualitatively captured the damped and oscillatory features of the transient response →The transient behavior is due to the interplay of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and Brownian torques on the suspended particles.

  14. Optimizing searches for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael W.; Tao, Duo; Chan, Man Leong; Chatterjee, Deep; Christensen, Nelson; Ghosh, Shaon; Greco, Giuseppe; Hu, Yiming; Kapadia, Shasvath; Rana, Javed; Salafia, Om Sharan; Stubbs11, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    With the detection of a binary neutron star system and its corresponding electromagnetic counterparts, a new window of transient astronomy has opened. Due to the size of the sky localization regions, which can span hundreds to thousands of square degrees, there are significant benefits to optimizing tilings for these large sky areas. The rich science promised by gravitational-wave astronomy has led to the proposal for a variety of proposed tiling and time allocation schemes, and for the first time, we make a systematic comparison of some of these methods. We find that differences of a factor of 2 or more in efficiency are possible, depending on the algorithm employed. For this reason, with future surveys searching for electromagnetic counterparts, care should be taken when selecting tiling, time allocation, and scheduling algorithms to optimize counterpart detection.

  15. Electromagnetic processes in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Campos, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    With the framework of the cluster model within the supermultiplet scheme is developed algebra for oscillator cluster configurations. With this algebra and the selection rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions we calculate transition matrix elements and radiative widths. The electromagnetic transition probabilities show big differences. Responsible for this are the exchange terms of the orbital partitions of our oscillator cluster configurations. Detailed calculations are presented for the case of γ-radiative capture transitions in 6 Li nucleus. (orig.) [de

  16. Applicability of the grounded-source airborne electromagnetics to coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Koichi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kiho, Kenzo; Mogi, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Understanding geological and hydrogeological characteristics in coastal areas is an issue of paramount importance especially with regard to siting of geological disposal of nuclear wastes, whereas conventional airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys can reveal an electrical resistivity structure to a depth of only ∼200 m. In order to enhance the depth of investigation, we have developed a new type of AEM, grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM). Here we have applied GREATEM to two coastal areas in Japan; Kujukuri, an alluvial coastal plain where thick Quaternary sediments prevail, and northwestern part of Awaji Island, where granitic rocks are dominant. It was found that the GREATEM system can reveal resistivity structure to a depth of ∼500 m and also high quality data are available just beneath the shoreline where shallow water prevails. (author)

  17. Effect of axial stress on the transient mechanical response of 20%, cold-worked Type 316 stainless-steel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.

    1979-01-01

    To understand the effects of the fuel-cladding mechanical interaction on the failure of 20% cold-worked Type 316 stainless-steel cladding during anticipated nuclear reactor transients, the transient mechanical response of the cladding was investigated using a transient tube burst method at a heating rate of 5.6 0 C/s and axial-to-hoop-stress ratios in the range of 1/2 to 2. The failure temperatures were observed to remain essentially constant for the transient tests at axial-to-hoop-stress ratios between 1/2 and 1, but to decrease with an increase in axial-to-hoop-stress ratios above unity. The uniform diametral strains to failure were observed to decrease monotonically with an increase in axial-to-hoop-stress ratio from 1/2 to 2, and in general, the uniform axial strains to failure were observed to increase with an increase in axial-to-hoop-stress ratio. The fracture of the cladding during thermal transients was found to be strongly affected by the maximum principal stress but not by the effective stress

  18. Comparison of Measured Transient Overvoltages in the Collection Grid of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm with EMT Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between GPS synchronized measurements of two switching operations in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm (NOWF) in Denmark, and results from electromagnetic transient (emt) simulations of these switching events using Power Factory/DIgSILENT and PSCAD/EMTDC. The collection g...

  19. Construction and response of a highly granular scintillator-based electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repond, J.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N. K.; Winter, A.; Thomson, M. A.; Cârloganu, C.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Hartbrich, O.; Kotera, K.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Sudo, Y.; Tran, H. L.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Bilki, B.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sekiya, I.; Suehara, T.; Yamashiro, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Alamillo, E. Calvo; Fouz, M. C.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Pelayo, J. Puerta; Verdugo, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Graf, C.; Israeli, Y.; Kolk, N. Van Der; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Windel, H.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Pöschl, R.; Thiebault, A.; Richard, F.; Zerwas, D.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Cvach, J.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Polak, I.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Zuklin, J.; Choi, W.; Kotera, K.; Nishiyama, M.; Sakuma, T.; Takeshita, T.; Tozuka, S.; Tsubokawa, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Ootani, W.; Liu, L.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Ikuno, T.; Sudo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Götze, M.; Calice Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter with scintillator strip readout is being developed for future linear collider experiments. A prototype of 21.5 X0 depth and 180 × 180mm2 transverse dimensions was constructed, consisting of 2160 individually read out 10 × 45 × 3mm3 scintillator strips. This prototype was tested using electrons of 2-32 GeV at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in 2009. Deviations from linear energy response were less than 1.1%, and the intrinsic energy resolution was determined to be (12 . 5 ± 0 . 1(stat.) ± 0 . 4(syst.)) % /√{ E [ GeV ] } ⊕(1.2 ± 0.1 (stat.)-0.7+0.6 (syst.)) %, where the uncertainties correspond to statistical and systematic sources, respectively.

  20. Initial Results from Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding with ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua, H.; Fatemi, S.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.; Grimm, R. E.; De Pater, I.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding constrains conducting layers of the lunar interior by observing variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. Here, we focus our analysis on the time domain transfer function method locating transient events observed by two magnetometers near the Moon. We analyze ARTEMIS and Apollo magnetometer data. This analysis assumes the induced field responds undisturbed in a vacuum. In actuality, the dynamic plasma environment interacts with the induced field. Our models indicate distortion but not confinement occurs in the nightside wake cavity. Moreover, within the deep wake, near-vacuum region, distortion of the induced dipole fields due to the interaction with the wake is minimal depending on the magnitude of the induced field, the geometry of the upstream fields, and the upstream plasma parameters such as particle densities, solar wind velocity, and temperatures. Our results indicate the assumption of a vacuum dipolar response is reasonable within this minimally disturbed zone. We then interpret the ATEMIS magnetic field signal through a geophysical forward model capturing the induced response based on prescribed electrical conductivity models. We demonstrate our forward model passes benchmarking analyses and solves the magnetic induction response for any input signal as well as any 2 or 3 dimensional conductivity profile. We locate data windows according to the following criteria: (1) probe locations such that the wake probe is within 500km altitude within the wake cavity and minimally disturbed zone, and the second probe is in the free streaming solar wind; (2) a transient event consisting of an abrupt change in the magnetic field occurs enabling the observation of induction; (3) cross correlation analysis reveals the magnetic field signals are well correlated between the two probes and distances observed. Here we present initial ARTEMIS results providing further insight into the lunar interior structure. This method and modeling results

  1. Sustained and transient oscillations and chaos induced by delayed antiviral immune response in an immunosuppressive infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hongying; Wang, Lin; Watmough, James

    2014-01-01

    Sustained and transient oscillations are frequently observed in clinical data for immune responses in viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. To account for these oscillations, we incorporate the time lag needed for the expansion of immune cells into an immunosuppressive infection model. It is shown that the delayed antiviral immune response can induce sustained periodic oscillations, transient oscillations and even sustained aperiodic oscillations (chaos). Both local and global Hopf bifurcation theorems are applied to show the existence of periodic solutions, which are illustrated by bifurcation diagrams and numerical simulations. Two types of bistability are shown to be possible: (i) a stable equilibrium can coexist with another stable equilibrium, and (ii) a stable equilibrium can coexist with a stable periodic solution.

  2. Dayside magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to a foreshock transient on June 25, 2008: 2. 2-D evolution based on dayside auroral imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Boyi; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Hietala, Heli; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Shi, Quanqi; Zhang, Hui; Lyons, Larry; Zou, Ying; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Ebihara, Yusuke; Weatherwax, Allan

    2018-01-01

    The foreshock region involves localized and transient structures such as foreshock cavities and hot flow anomalies due to solar wind-bow shock interactions, and foreshock transients have been shown to lead to magnetospheric and ionospheric responses. In this paper, the interaction between a foreshock transient and the magnetosphere-ionosphere system is investigated using dayside aurora imagers revealing structures and propagation in greater detail than previously possible. A foreshock transie...

  3. Acute exposure to high‐induction electromagnetic field affects activity of model peripheral sensory neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průcha, J.; Krůšek, Jan; Dittert, Ivan; Sinica, Viktor; Kádková, Anna; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2018), s. 1355-1362 ISSN 1582-4934 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28784A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : electromagnetic field * primary sensory neuron * ion channel * bradykinin receptor * transient receptor potential channel Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.499, year: 2016

  4. The Firework of Electromagnetic Counterparts from GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The gravitational-wave signal of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 was followed by a firework of electromagnetic transients across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The gamma-ray emission has provided strong evidence for the association of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with binary neutron star mergers and the ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared emission is consistent with a kilonova indicative of the formation of heavy elements in the merger ejecta by the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). In this talk, I will discuss and review theoretical scenarios to interpret the gamma-ray, X-ray, and radio observations. I will present recent results from general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and discuss possible scenarios and mass ejection mechanisms that can give rise to the observed kilonova features. In particular, I will argue that massive winds from neutrino-cooled post-merger accretion disks most likely synthesized the heavy r-process elements in GW170817.

  5. External electromagnetic transient sources: analysis of its effect in underground power cables; Fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas: analisis de su efecto en los cables de potencia subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla Paz, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    In most of the electrical power systems that operate at present, the subterranean cables are only a complement. The cost of these cables is generally higher than the one of the aerial power lines, thus its use is restricted only to those areas where the construction of the aerial power lines is not feasible. It is estimated that for voltages lower than 110 kV this cost is up to seven times greater than the one of an aerial power line and for voltages higher than 380 kV it can be up to twenty times greater. Nevertheless, important reasons exist to construct a subterranean cable system such as: a) the fast growth of the urban centers and the industrial zones, which brings about restrictions of the rights of way for the construction of aerial power lines, b) the crossing of large water bodies, c) the congestion of aerial power lines near the generating substations or power plants, d) the crossing of air lines and e) the laws and the regulations, to mention some of them. The importance of the underground transmission systems of high and extra high voltage will be increased in the medium and the long term, therefore, it is considered that the effects of the external phenomena in these systems, like the inductions produced by the electromagnetic transient sources, will be more severe. In this research work the atmospheric discharges are defined as the external electromagnetic transient sources. The large dimension cables such as the power cables, behave as large collectors of the interferences produced by the atmospheric discharges, which can bring about damages in the components of a system. In order to avoid the damages and to increase the reliability of the subterranean cable systems it is necessary to use protective devices and appropriate insulation levels, mainly. If the phenomenon and the behavior of the system are properly represented, it is possible to more accurately determine the characteristics that the equipment must have to resist the over voltages and the

  6. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  7. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  8. Parallel time domain solvers for electrically large transient scattering problems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2014-09-26

    Marching on in time (MOT)-based integral equation solvers represent an increasingly appealing avenue for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions with large and complex structures. MOT integral equation solvers for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from perfect electrically conducting objects are obtained by enforcing electric field boundary conditions and implicitly time advance electric surface current densities by iteratively solving sparse systems of equations at all time steps. Contrary to finite difference and element competitors, these solvers apply to nonlinear and multi-scale structures comprising geometrically intricate and deep sub-wavelength features residing atop electrically large platforms. Moreover, they are high-order accurate, stable in the low- and high-frequency limits, and applicable to conducting and penetrable structures represented by highly irregular meshes. This presentation reviews some recent advances in the parallel implementations of time domain integral equation solvers, specifically those that leverage multilevel plane-wave time-domain algorithm (PWTD) on modern manycore computer architectures including graphics processing units (GPUs) and distributed memory supercomputers. The GPU-based implementation achieves at least one order of magnitude speedups compared to serial implementations while the distributed parallel implementation are highly scalable to thousands of compute-nodes. A distributed parallel PWTD kernel has been adopted to solve time domain surface/volume integral equations (TDSIE/TDVIE) for analyzing transient scattering from large and complex-shaped perfectly electrically conducting (PEC)/dielectric objects involving ten million/tens of millions of spatial unknowns.

  9. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Picture Various Electromagnetic Phenomenon? A Qualitative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Fundamental Electromagnetic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the nature of pre-service teachers' conceptual models of various electromagnetic phenomena, specifically electrical current, electrical resistance, and light/matter interactions. This is achieved through the students answering the three questions on electromagnetism using a free response approach including both verbal and…

  10. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  11. Elastic metamaterials for tuning circular polarization of electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Yair; Babaee, Sahab; Kang, Sung H; Neshev, Dragomir N; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Bertoldi, Katia; Powell, David A

    2016-06-20

    Electromagnetic resonators are integrated with advanced elastic material to develop a new type of tunable metamaterial. An electromagnetic-elastic metamaterial able to switch on and off its electromagnetic chiral response is experimentally demonstrated. Such tunability is attained by harnessing the unique buckling properties of auxetic elastic materials (buckliballs) with embedded electromagnetic resonators. In these structures, simple uniaxial compression results in a complex but controlled pattern of deformation, resulting in a shift of its electromagnetic resonance, and in the structure transforming to a chiral state. The concept can be extended to the tuning of three-dimensional materials constructed from the meta-molecules, since all the components twist and deform into the same chiral configuration when compressed.

  12. Conjugate observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves associated with traveling convection vortex events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin; Clauer, C. Robert; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Hartinger, Michael D.; Lessard, Marc R.; Matzka, Jürgen; Sibeck, David G.; Singer, Howard J.; Stolle, Claudia; Weimer, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    We report on simultaneous observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves associated with traveling convection vortex (TCV) events caused by transient solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) impulse events. The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft located near the magnetopause observed radial fluctuations of the magnetopause, and the GOES spacecraft measured sudden compressions of the magnetosphere in response to sudden increases in Pd. During the transient events, EMIC waves were observed by interhemispheric conjugate ground-based magnetometer arrays as well as the GOES spacecraft. The spectral structures of the waves appear to be well correlated with the fluctuating motion of the magnetopause, showing compression-associated wave generation. In addition, the wave features are remarkably similar in conjugate hemispheres in terms of bandwidth, quasiperiodic wave power modulation, and polarization. Proton precipitation was also observed by the DMSP spacecraft during the wave events, from which the wave source region is estimated to be 72°-74° in magnetic latitude, consistent with the TCV center. The confluence of space-borne and ground instruments including the interhemispheric, high-latitude, fluxgate/induction coil magnetometer array allows us to constrain the EMIC source region while also confirming the relationship between EMIC waves and the TCV current system.

  13. Transient response of Babcock and Wilcox-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    On February 26, 1980, the Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, designed by the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), experienced an incident involving a malfunction in an instrumentation and control system power supply. Faced with the Crystal River Unit 3 incident and the apparently high frequency of such near similar types of transients in other B and W designed plants, a special Task Force was established within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation to provide an assessment of the apparent sensitivity of the B and W designed plants to such transients and the consequences of malfunctions and failures of the integrated control system and non-nuclear instrumentation. This report provides an assessment of these issues

  14. A Numerical Method for Analyzing Electromagnetic Scattering Properties of a Moving Conducting Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel numerical approach is developed to analyze electromagnetic scattering properties of a moving conducting object based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD algorithm. Relativistic boundary conditions are implemented into the FDTD algorithm to calculate the electromagnetic field on the moving boundary. An improved technique is proposed to solve the scattered field in order to improve the computational efficiency and stability of solutions. The time-harmonic scattered field from a one-dimensional moving conducting surface is first simulated by the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the amplitude and frequency of the scattered field suffer a modulation shift. Then the transient scattered field is calculated, and broadband electromagnetic scattering properties of the moving conducting surface are obtained by the fast Fourier transform (FFT. Finally, the scattered field from a two-dimensional moving square cylinder is analyzed. The numerical results demonstrate the Doppler effect of a moving conducting object. The simulated results agree well with analytical results.

  15. Transient thermal response of a packed bed for energy storage unit utilizing phase change material: experimental and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemansour, A.

    2006-01-01

    The present work concerns the numerical and experimental study of the transient response of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage system. Experiments were carried out to measures the transient temperature distributions inside a cylindrical bed, which is randomly packed with spheres having uniform sizes and encapsulated the paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM), with air as a working fluid. A two-dimensional separate phases formulation is used to develop a numerical analysis of the transient response of the bed, considering the influence of both axial and radial thermal dispersion. The fluid energy equation was transformed by finite difference approximation and solved by alternating direction implicit scheme, while the PCM energy equation was solved using fully explicit scheme. This analysis can be applied for both charging and recovery modes and a broad range of Reynolds numbers. Measurements of both fluid and PCM temperature were conducted at different axial and radial positions and at different operating parameters. Experimental measurements of temperature distribution compare favorably with the numerical results over a broad range of Reynolds numbers.(Author)

  16. PWR [pressurized water reactor] pressurizer transient response: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, S.I.

    1987-08-01

    To predict PWR pressurizer transients, Ahl proposed a three region model with a universal coefficient to represent condensation on the water surface. Specifically, this work checks the need for three regions and the modeling of the interfacial condensation coefficient. A computer model has been formulated using the basic mass and energy conservation laws. A two region vapor and liquid model was first used to predict transients run on a one-eleventh scale Freon pressurizer. These predictions verified the need for a second liquid region. As a result, a three region model was developed and used to predict full-scale pressurizer transients at TMI-2, Shippingport, and Stade. Full-scale pressurizer predictions verified the three region model and pointed out the shortcomings of Ahl's universal condensation coefficient. In addition, experiments were run using water at low pressure to study interface condensation. These experiments showed interface condensation to be significant only when spray flow is turned on; this result was incorporated in the final three region model

  17. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  18. Gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1980-01-01

    An SU 2 x U 1 algebra, in addition to the ordinary electric charge, also establishes the existence of the dual electric charge. This is taken as an indication of the existence of dual electromagnetic interactions in nature. Here, the unification of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions is performed. The Yang-Mills-type group which contains the electromagnetic, dual electromagnetic and weak currents is SUsub(L,2) x U 1 x U' 1 . The masses of vector mesons are generated through the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. A simple consistency requirement suggests that dual electromagnetism and ordinary electromagnetism have the same strengths, leading the theory to a rather good agreement with experiments. (author)

  19. Modelling of Moving Coil Actuators in Fast Switching Valves Suitable for Digital Hydraulic Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    an estimation of the eddy currents generated in the actuator yoke upon current rise, as they may have significant influence on the coil current response. The analytical model facilitates fast simulation of the transient actuator response opposed to the transient electro-magnetic finite element model which......The efficiency of digital hydraulic machines is strongly dependent on the valve switching time. Recently, fast switching have been achieved by using a direct electromagnetic moving coil actuator as the force producing element in fast switching hydraulic valves suitable for digital hydraulic...... machines. Mathematical models of the valve switching, targeted for design optimisation of the moving coil actuator, are developed. A detailed analytical model is derived and presented and its accuracy is evaluated against transient electromagnetic finite element simulations. The model includes...

  20. Understanding Epileptiform After-Discharges as Rhythmic Oscillatory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Gerold; Taylor, Peter N; Wang, Yujiang

    2017-01-01

    Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. Even when using the same stimulation parameters in the same patient, wide variability in the duration of transient response has been reported. These transients have long been considered important for the mapping of the excitability levels in the epileptic brain but their dynamic mechanism is still not well understood. To investigate the occurrence of abnormal transients dynamically, we use a thalamo-cortical neural population model of epileptic spike-wave activity and study the interaction between slow and fast subsystems. In a reduced version of the thalamo-cortical model, slow wave oscillations arise from a fold of cycles (FoC) bifurcation. This marks the onset of a region of bistability between a high amplitude oscillatory rhythm and the background state. In vicinity of the bistability in parameter space, the model has excitable dynamics, showing prolonged rhythmic transients in response to suprathreshold pulse stimulation. We analyse the state space geometry of the bistable and excitable states, and find that the rhythmic transient arises when the impending FoC bifurcation deforms the state space and creates an area of locally reduced attraction to the fixed point. This area essentially allows trajectories to dwell there before escaping to the stable steady state, thus creating rhythmic transients. In the full thalamo-cortical model, we find a similar FoC bifurcation structure. Based on the analysis, we propose an explanation of why stimulation induced epileptiform activity may vary between trials, and predict how the variability could be related to ongoing oscillatory background activity. We compare our dynamic mechanism with other mechanisms (such as a slow parameter change) to generate excitable transients, and we discuss the proposed excitability mechanism in the context of stimulation responses in the epileptic cortex.

  1. Effect of helium pressure on the response of unirradiated UO2 subjected to thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Chapello, P.M.; Emerson, J.E.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of helium pressure on the transient response of unirradiated depleted UO 2 subjected to simulated hypothetical loss-of-flow accidents in a gas-cooled fast reactor was examined by use of the direct electrical heating technique. Transient tests were performed at pressures ranging from 7 to 10 X 10 5 Pa(7 to 10 atm) to 7 to 8 MPa (70 to 80 atm) on radially restrained and unrestrained fuel segments. The average heating rates ranged from about17 to 240 J/g x s. The results indicate that while the mechanical integrity of the fuel segment was independent of the test pressure, the rapid ejection of molten fuel from pellet interfaces of unrestrained fuel, observed at the lower pressures, was delayed or suppressed at the higher pressures

  2. A seafloor electromagnetic receiver for marine magnetotellurics and marine controlled-source electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wei, Wen-Bo; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhong-Liang; Yu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    In planning and executing marine controlled-source electromagnetic methods, seafloor electromagnetic receivers must overcome the problems of noise, clock drift, and power consumption. To design a receiver that performs well and overcomes the abovementioned problems, we performed forward modeling of the E-field abnormal response and established the receiver's characteristics. We describe the design optimization and the properties of each component, that is, low-noise induction coil sensor, low-noise Ag/AgCl electrode, low-noise chopper amplifier, digital temperature-compensated crystal oscillator module, acoustic telemetry modem, and burn wire system. Finally, we discuss the results of onshore and offshore field tests to show the effectiveness of the developed seafloor electromagnetic receiver and its performance: typical E-field noise of 0.12 nV/m/rt(Hz) at 0.5 Hz, dynamic range higher than 120 dB, clock drift lower than 1 ms/day, and continuous operation of at least 21 days.

  3. Electromagnetic loads and structural response of the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] vacuum vessel to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.L.; Listvinsky, G.; Lee, M.Y.; Bailey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the electromagnetic loads produced by a variety of plasma disruptions, and the resulting structural effects on the compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) vacuum vessel (VV), have been performed to help optimize the VV design. A series of stationary and moving plasmas, with disruption rates from 0.7--10.0 MA/ms, have been analyzed using the EMPRES code to compute eddy currents and electromagnetic pressures, and the NASTRAN code to evaluate the structural response of the vacuum vessel. Key factors contributing to the magnitude of EM forces and resulting stresses on the vessel have been found to include disruption rate, and direction and synchronization of plasma motion with the onset of plasma current decay. As a result of these analyses, a number of design changes have been made, and design margins for the present 1.75 meter design have been improved over the original CIT configuration. 1 ref., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  5. Electromagnetic Pulse of a Vertical Electric Dipole in the Presence of Three-Layered Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximate formulas are obtained for the electromagnetic pulses due to a delta-function current in a vertical electric dipole on the planar surface of a perfect conductor coated by a dielectric layer. The new approximated formulas for the electromagnetic field in time domain are retreated analytically and some new results are obtained. Computations and discussions are carried out for the time-domain field components radiated by a vertical electric dipole in the presence of three-layered region. It is shown that the trapped-surface-wave terms should be included in the total transient field when both the vertical electric dipole and the observation point are on or near the planar surface of the dielectric-coated earth.

  6. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using

  7. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetics to characterise water distribution beneath an ice covered volcanic crater: the case of Sherman Crater Mt. Baker Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Trevor P.; Martin, Kathryn; Finn, Carol A.; Bloss, Benjamin; Horton, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Surface and laboratory Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements combined with transient electromagnetic (TEM) data are powerful tools for subsurface water detection. Surface NMR (sNMR) and TEM soundings, laboratory NMR, complex resistivity, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis were all conducted to characterise the distribution of water within Sherman Crater on Mt. Baker, WA. Clay rich rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken volcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-travelled, destructive debris flows. Detecting the presence and volume of shallow groundwater is critical for evaluating these landslide hazards. The TEM data identified a low resistivity layer (conditions which would allow for sNMR detection of the clay layer are investigated. Using current instrumentation the combined analysis of the TEM and sNMR data allow for valuable characterisation of the groundwater system in the crater. The sNMR is able to reduce the uncertainty of the TEM in regards to the presence of a bulk water layer, a valuable piece of information in hazard assessment.

  8. The Multiscale Material Point Method for Simulating Transient Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Su, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Hetao; Jiang, Shan; Sewell, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    To effectively simulate multiscale transient responses such as impact and penetration without invoking master/slave treatment, the multiscale material point method (Multi-MPM) is being developed in which molecular dynamics at nanoscale and dissipative particle dynamics at mesoscale might be concurrently handled within the framework of the original MPM at microscale (continuum level). The proposed numerical scheme for concurrently linking different scales is described in this paper with simple examples for demonstration. It is shown from the preliminary study that the mapping and re-mapping procedure used in the original MPM could coarse-grain the information at fine scale and that the proposed interfacial scheme could provide a smooth link between different scales. Since the original MPM is an extension from computational fluid dynamics to solid dynamics, the proposed Multi-MPM might also become robust for dealing with multiphase interactions involving failure evolution. This work is supported in part by DTRA and NSFC.

  9. 3D modelling of the electromagnetic response of geophysical targets using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debroux, P.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Mining and Geological Engineering Dept.

    1996-05-01

    A publicly available and maintained electromagnetic finite-difference time domain (FDTD) code has been applied to the forward modelling of the response of 1D, 2D and 3D geophysical targets to a vertical magnetic dipole excitation. The FDTD method is used to analyze target responses in the 1 MHz to 100 MHz range, where either conduction or displacement currents may have the controlling role. The response of the geophysical target to the excitation is presented as changes in the magnetic field ellipticity. The results of the FDTD code compare favorably with previously published integral equation solutions of the response of 1D targets, and FDTD models calculated with different finite-difference cell sizes are compared to find the effect of model discretization on the solution. The discretization errors, calculated as absolute error in ellipticity, are presented for the different ground geometry models considered, and are, for the most part, below 10% of the integral equation solutions. Finally, the FDTD code is used to calculate the magnetic ellipticity response of a 2D survey and a 3D sounding of complicated geophysical targets. The response of these 2D and 3D targets are too complicated to be verified with integral equation solutions, but show the proper low- and high-frequency responses.

  10. Static Tensile and Transient Dynamic Response of Cracked Aluminum Plate Repaired with Composite Patch - Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S. M. R.; Shariyat, M.; Mokhtari, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the central cracked aluminum plates repaired with two sided composite patches are investigated numerically for their response to static tensile and transient dynamic loadings. Contour integral method is used to define and evaluate the stress intensity factors at the crack tips. The reinforcement for the composite patches is carbon fibers. The effect of adhesive thickness and patch thickness and configuration in tensile loading case and pre-tension, pre-compression and crack length effect on the evolution of the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) (KI) of the repaired structure under transient dynamic loading case are examined. The results indicated that KI of the central cracked plate is reduced by 1/10 to 1/2 as a result of the bonded composite patch repair in tensile loading case. The crack length and the pre-loads are more effective in repaired structure in transient dynamic loading case in which, the 100 N pre-compression reduces the maximum KI for about 40 %, and the 100 N pre-tension reduces the maximum KI after loading period, by about 196 %.

  11. Phenomena of synchronized response in biosystems and the possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Yang, Fan; Han, Danhong; Xu, Shengyong

    2018-02-05

    Phenomena of synchronized response is common among organs, tissues and cells in biosystems. We have analyzed and discussed three examples of synchronization in biosystems, including the direction-changing movement of paramecia, the prey behavior of flytraps, and the simultaneous discharge of electric eels. These phenomena and discussions support an electrical communication mechanism that in biosystems, the electrical signals are mainly soliton-like electromagnetic pulses, which are generated by the transient transmembrane ionic current through the ion channels and propagate along the dielectric membrane-based softmaterial waveguide network to complete synchronized responses. This transmission model implies that a uniform electrical communication mechanism might have been naturally developed in biosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).

  13. Proton moire fringes for diagnosing electromagnetic fields in opaque materials and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.; Patel, P.K.; Price, D.W.; Hicks, D.; Romagnani, L.; Borghesi, M.

    2003-01-01

    High contrast proton moire fringes have been obtained in a laser-produced proton beam. Moire fringes with modulation of 20%-30% were observed in protons with energies in the range of 4-7 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations with simple test fields showed that shifts in the moire fringes can be used to give quantitative information on the strength of transient electromagnetic fields inside plasmas and materials that are opaque to conventional probing methods

  14. Application of computer picture processing to dynamic strain measurement under electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Soneda, N.

    1987-01-01

    For the structural design of fusion reactors, it is very important to ensure the structural integrity of components under various dynamic loading conditions due to a solid-electromagnetic field interaction, an earthquake, MHD effects and so on. As one of the experimental approaches to assess the dynamic fracture, we consider the strain measurement near a crack tip under a transient electromagnetic field, which in general involves several experimental difficulties. The authors have developed a strain measurement method using a picture processing technique. In this method, locations of marks printed on a surface of specimen are determined by the picture processing. The displacement field is interpolated using the mark displacements and finite elements. Finally the strain distribution is calculated by differentiating the displacement field. In the present study, the method is improved and automated apply to the measurement of dynamic strain distribution under an electromagnetic field. Then the effects of dynamic loading on the strain distribution are investigated by comparing the dynamic results with the static ones. (orig./GL)

  15. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  16. Mimicking mechanical response of natural tissues. Strain hardening induced by transient reticulation in lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Michela; Sacco, Pasquale; Porrelli, Davide; Travan, Andrea; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Donati, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The effect of transient cross-links has been explored on a lactose-modified chitosan, which previously had shown interesting biological features. The presence of galactose side chains and of the polyol spacer resulted particularly appealing for the reticulation by borate ions. The interaction between chitlac and borax was investigated by means of 11 B NMR while rheology pointed to a marked non-linear behavior depending on the amount of borax added to the system. The presence of limited amount of cross-linking ion led to dilatant behavior when the steady flow curve was measured. In addition, strain stiffening was noticed on elastic response upon exceeding a critical stress, indicating a transient nature in the formation of the cross-links. The non-linear response of chitlac in the presence of borax compared surprisingly well with the one showed by proteins composing the natural ECM pointing at a possible role of mechanotransduction in the biological significance of the modified chitosan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency-dependent transient response of an oscillating electrically actuated droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, S; Kumari, N; Garimella, S V

    2012-01-01

    The transient response of a millimeter-sized sessile droplet under electrical actuation is experimentally investigated. Under dc actuation, the droplet spreading rate increases as the applied voltage is increased due to the higher electrical forces induced. At sufficiently high dc voltages, competition between the electrical actuation force, droplet inertia, the retarding surface tension force and contact line friction leads to droplet oscillation. The timescale for the droplet to attain its maximum wetted diameter during step actuation is analyzed. Systematic experiments are conducted over a frequency range of 5–200 Hz and actuation voltages of 40–80 V rms to determine the dependence of droplet oscillation on these parameters. The response of the droplet to different actuation frequencies and voltages is determined in terms of its contact angle and contact radius variation. The frequency of the driving force (equal to twice the frequency of the applied electrical signal) determines the mode of oscillation of the droplet which, together with its resonance characteristics, governs whether the droplet contact angle and contact radius vary in phase or out of phase with each other. In addition to the primary frequency response at the electrical forcing frequency, the droplet oscillation exhibits sub-harmonic oscillation at half of the forcing frequency that is attributed to the parametric nature of the electrical force acting on the triple contact line of the droplet. (paper)

  18. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Vance, E.F. (Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation's power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation's electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  19. Genetic and neural approaches to nuclear transient identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de; Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu; Pereira, Claudio Marcio Nascimento Abreu; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin

    2005-01-01

    This work presents two approaches for pattern recognition to the same set of reactor signals. The first one describes a possibilistic approach optimized by genetic algorithm. The use of a possibilistic classification provides a natural and consistent classification rules, leading naturally to a good heuristic to handle the 'don't know' response, in case of unrecognized transient, which is fairly desirable in transient classification systems where safety is critical, since wrong or not reliable classifications can be catastrophic. Application of the proposed approach to a nuclear transient identification problem reveals good capability of the genetic algorithm in learning optimized possibilistic classification rules for efficient diagnosis including 'don't know' response. The second one uses two multilayer neural networks (NN). The first NN is responsible for the dynamic identification. This NN uses, as input, a short set (in a moving time window) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The second NN is used to validate the instantaneous identification (from the first net) through the validation of each variable. This net is responsible for allowing the system to provide a 'don't know' response. In order to validate both methods, a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) transient identification problem comprising postulated accidents, simulated for a pressurized water reactor, was proposed in the validation process it has been considered noisy data in order to evaluate the method robustness. Obtained results reveal the ability of the methods in dealing with both dynamic identification of transients and correct 'don't know' response. (author)

  20. Theoretical Modeling and Electromagnetic Response of Complex Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Controlling Sound with Acoustic Metamaterials,” Nature Reviews Materials, Vol. 1, No. 16001, February 16, 2016, (invited paper). DISTRIBUTION A...Khanikaev*, and A. Alù, “Floquet Topological Insulators for Sound ,” Nature Communications, Vol. 7, No. 11744 (11 pages), June 17, 2016, online at...topological insulators for photons and phonons, new concepts based on parity-time symmetric metasurfaces, and various advances in electromagnetic and acoustic

  1. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  2. SUPPLEMENT: "LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914" (2016, ApJL, 826, L13)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palliyaguru, N.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tpai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Tyr, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H. -F.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Allison, J.; Bannister, K.; Bell, E.M.; Chatterjee, S.; Chippendale, A. P.; Edwards, P. G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, Ian; Hotan, A.; Indermuehle, B.; Marvil, J.; McConnell, D.; Murphy, Michael T.; Popping, A.; Reynolds, J.; Sault, R. J.; Voronkov, M. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Jelinek, M.; Tello, J. C.; Oates, S. R.; Hu, Y. M.; Kubanek, P.; Guziy, S.; Castellon, A.; Garcia-Cerezo, A.; Munoz, V. F.; Perez del Pulgar, C.; Castillo-Carrion, S.; Castro Ceron, J. M.; Hudec, R.; Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Pata, P.; Vitek, S.; Adame, J. A.; Konig, S.; Rendon, F.; Mateo Sanguino, T. de J.; Munoz-Fernandez, R.; Yock, P. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Allen, W. H.; Querel, R.; Jeong, S.; Park, I. H.; Bai, J.C.; Cui, Ch.; Fan, Y.; Wang, Ch.; Hiriart, D.; Lee, W. H.; Claret, A.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.; Pandey, S. B.; Mediavilla, T.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Berger, Charles E H; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W. -F.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Frieman, J.; Fryer, C. L.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, A.G.; Herner, K.; Honscheid, K.; James, J.D.M.; Johnson, M.D.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A. G.; Kind, M. C.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. G. F.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Margutti, R.; Marriner, J.; San Martini, P.; Matheson, T.; Melchior, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Roe, N. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rosell, A. C.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R. H.; Schubnell, M.; Scolnic, D.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, N.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Stebbins, A.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, C.R.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.; Connaughton, V.; Burns, J.E.; Goldstein, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Zhang, B.; Hui, C. M.; Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Giles, M. M.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Mailyan, B.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Roberts, W.O.; Sparke, L.; Stanbro, M.; Toelge, K.; Veres, P.; Yu, H. -F.; Blackburn, L.; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M.; Albert, M.A.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Dominguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; DuBois, RN; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Marelli, M.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Raino, S.; Rando, R.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; op Reimer, W.S.; Salvetti, D.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Sgro, C.; Di Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D.J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Venters, T. M.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.D.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zimmer, S.; Brocato, E.; Cappellaro, E.; Covino, S.; Grado, A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Amati, L.; Antonelli, L. A.; Capaccioli, M.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Getman, F.; Giuffrida, G.; Iannicola, G.; Limatola, L.; Lisi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Possenti, A.; Pulone, L.; Rossi, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stella, L.; Testa, V.; Tomasella, L.; Yang, S.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, K.S.; Courvoisier, T. J. -L.; Ferrigno, C.; Hanlon, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Laurent, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J. P.; Savchenko, V.; Ubertini, P.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Singer, L. P.; Cao, Y.; Duggan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bhalerao, V.; Miller, A. L.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Manulis, I.; Rana, J.; Laher, R.; Masci, F.; Surace, J.; Rebbapragada, U.; Cook, D.; Van Sistine, A.; Sesar, B.; Perley, D.; Ferreti, R.; Thivichon-Prince, Béatrice; Kendrick, R.; Horesh, A.; Hurley, K.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Aptekar, R. L.; Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.; Smith, M.D.; Cline, T.; Krimm, H.; Abe, F.; Doi, Masao; Fujisawa, K.; Kawabata, K. S.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Ohta, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yoshida, M; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, J.D.; Ellman, N.; Rostami, S.; Bersier, D. F.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mazzali, P.; Mundell, C. G.; Piascik, A. S.; Pollacco, Don; Steele, I. A.; Ulaczyk, K.; Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Rowlinson, A.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tyurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, Y.A.; Buckley, C.D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelian, G.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, M.K.; Poleshuk, V.; Tlatov, A.; Yurkov, V.; Kawai, N.; Serino, M.; Negoro, H.; Nakahira, S.; Mihara, T.; Tomida, H.; Ueno, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Matsuoka, M.; Croft, S.; Feng, L.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Williams, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Young, D. R.; Wright, D.E.; Schultz, A.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Magnier, E. A.; Primak, N.; Rest, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Willman, M.; Olivares E, F.; Campbell, H.; Kotak, R.; Sollerman, J.; Smith, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Anderson, J. P.; Botticella, M. T.; Chen, T. -W.; Valle, M. D.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, R.M.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kupfer, T.; Harmanen, J.; Galbany, L.; Le Guillou, L.; Lyman, J. D.; Maguire, K.; Mitra, A.; Nicholl, M.; Razza, A.; Terreran, G.; Valenti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Cwiek, A.; Cwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Opiela, R.; Zaremba, M.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Onken, C. A.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Wolf, C.; Yuan, F.; Evans, P.A.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Giommi, P.; Marshall, F. E.; Nousek, J.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Palmer, D.; Perri, L. M.; Siegel, M.J.; Tagliaferri, G.; Klotz, A.; Turpin, D.; Laugier, R.; Beroiz, M.; Penuela, T.; Macri, L. M.; Oelkers, R. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Vrech, R.; Cabral, J.; Colazo, C.; Dominguez, M.; Sanchez, B.; Gurovich, S.; Lares, M.; Marshall, J.L.; Depoy, D. L.; Padilla, N.D.; Pereyra, N. A.; Benacquista, M.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Levan, A. J.; Steeghs, D.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Watson, D.; Irwin, M.; Fernandez, G.C.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Schulze-Topphoff, U.; Postigo, A. de U.; Thoene, C. C.; Cano, Z.; Rosswog, S.

    This Supplement provides supporting material for Abbott et al. (2016a). We briefly summarize past electromagnetic (EM) follow-up efforts as well as the organization and policy of the current EM follow-up program. We compare the four probability sky maps produced for the gravitational-wave transient

  3. Monitoring and Correcting for Response Changes in the CMS Lead-tungstate Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) comprises 75848 lead-tungstate scintillating crystals. Changes in the ECAL response, due to crystal radiation damage or changes in photo-detector output, are monitored in real time with a sophisticated system of lasers to allow corrections to the energy measurements to be calculated and used. The excellent intrinsic resolution of the CMS ECAL requires the monitoring system itself to be calibrated to a high precision and its stability to be controlled and understood. The components of the CMS ECAL monitoring system, and how it has evolved to include modern solid-state lasers, are described. Several physics channels are exploited to normalise the ECAL response to the changes measured by the monitoring system. These include low energy diphoton resonances, electrons from W and Z decays (using shower energy versus track momentum measurements), and the azimuthal symmetry of low energy deposits in minimum bias events. This paper describes how the monitoring system is operated, how the corrections are obtained, and the resulting ECAL performance.

  4. Improving the Hydro-stratigraphic Model of the Oxnard Forebay, Ventura County, California, using Transient Electromagnetic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quady, Maura Colleen

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the hydro-stratigraphy of an area, drilling and well logs provide high resolution electrical resistivity data, albeit for limited areas (points). The expense of drilling indirectly leads to sparse data and it is necessary to assume lateral homogeneity between wells when creating stratigraphic maps. Unfortunately, this assumption may not apply to areas in complex depositional and tectonically active settings. The goal of this study is to fill in data gaps between wells in a groundwater basin in order to better characterize the hydro-stratigraphy under existing and potential sites for managed aquifer recharge. Basins in the southern California study area have been used for decades to recharge surface water to an upper aquifer system; this work also addresses whether the local hydro-stratigraphy favors surface infiltration as a means to recharge water to the lower aquifer system. Here, soundings of transient electromagnetism (TEM), a surface geophysical method, are correlated with nearby down-hole resistivity and lithology well logs for grain size interpretations of the subsurface in unsaturated conditions. Grain size is used as a proxy for permeability (hydraulic conductivity), with resistivity contrasts highlighting variations in the media, which would affect groundwater flow in both vertical and horizontal directions. Results suggest a nearly horizontal, extensive, low permeability layer exists in the area and only a few noted locations are favorable for surface -to-lower aquifer system recharge. Furthermore, zones of higher permeability deeper than the upper aquifer system are discontinuous and isolated among lower permeability zones. However, the TEM profiles show areas where lower permeability zones are thin, and where alternatives to surface percolation methods could be explored. In addition, the survey adds information about the transition between the upper and lower aquifer systems, and adds detail to the topography of the base of freshwater

  5. PWR systems transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.F.; Peeler, G.B.; Abramson, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of transients in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems involves the assessment of the response of the total plant, including primary and secondary coolant systems, steam piping and turbine (possibly including the complete feedwater train), and various control and safety systems. Transient analysis is performed as part of the plant safety analysis to insure the adequacy of the reactor design and operating procedures and to verify the applicable plant emergency guidelines. Event sequences which must be examined are developed by considering possible failures or maloperations of plant components. These vary in severity (and calculational difficulty) from a series of normal operational transients, such as minor load changes, reactor trips, valve and pump malfunctions, up to the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary reactor coolant system pipe known as a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA). The focus of this paper is the analysis of all those transients and accidents except loss of coolant accidents

  6. THE EFFECT OF TRANSIENT ACCRETION ON THE SPIN-UP OF MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Chakrabarty, Deepto, E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.in [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2017-01-20

    A millisecond pulsar is a neutron star that has been substantially spun up by accretion from a binary companion. A previously unrecognized factor governing the spin evolution of such pulsars is the crucial effect of nonsteady or transient accretion. We numerically compute the evolution of accreting neutron stars through a series of outburst and quiescent phases, considering the drastic variation of the accretion rate and the standard disk–magnetosphere interaction. We find that, for the same long-term average accretion rate, X-ray transients can spin up pulsars to rates several times higher than can persistent accretors, even when the spin-down due to electromagnetic radiation during quiescence is included. We also compute an analytical expression for the equilibrium spin frequency in transients, by taking spin equilibrium to mean that no net angular momentum is transferred to the neutron star in each outburst cycle. We find that the equilibrium spin rate for transients, which depends on the peak accretion rate during outbursts, can be much higher than that for persistent sources. This explains our numerical finding. This finding implies that any meaningful study of neutron star spin and magnetic field distributions requires the inclusion of the transient accretion effect, since most accreting neutron star sources are transients. Our finding also implies the existence of a submillisecond pulsar population, which is not observed. This may point to the need for a competing spin-down mechanism for the fastest-rotating accreting pulsars, such as gravitational radiation.

  7. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  8. Localization and Broadband Follow-Up of the Gravitational-Wave Transient GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser InterferometerGravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior...... of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger,there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadbandcampaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broadcapabilities...... of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursueneutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-upcampaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams....

  9. A Decentralized Current-Sharing Controller Endows Fast Transient Response to Parallel DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haojie; Han, Minxiao; Han, Renke

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized current-sharing control strategy to endow fast transient response to paralleled DC-DC converters systems, such as DC microgrids or distributed power systems. The proposed controller consist of two main control loops: an external voltage droop control for current......-sharing proposes and an internal current loop. The external droop control loop is designed as a voltage loop with embedded virtual impedance, which avoids the use of a slow voltage loop and a separate extra virtual impedance loop that may limit the system bandwidth. The internal current loop, thanks...... and the proposed embedded-virtual-impedance based I-V droop. In order to compare the dynamic response performances between two droop controllers, their state-space models have been developed and analyzed in this paper. The results show that the dynamic response of the I-V droop control is faster than...

  10. Optimum Depth of Investigation and Conductivity Response Rejection of the Different Electromagnetic Devices Measuring Apparent Magnetic Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Benech , Christophe; Marmet , Eric

    1999-01-01

    International audience; Electromagnetic susceptibility surveys are valuable for archaeological prospection owing to their ability to cover large areas of land. Their use, however, is often compromised by the conductivity influence of the soil and the limited investigation depth of the susceptibility response. To examine these constraints further, we compared the characteristics of two types of apparatus: coincident loop (e.g. Bartington MS2 field coil) and 'Slingram' instruments (EM38, SH3, C...

  11. NALAP: an LMFBR system transient code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Albright, D.C.; Epel, L.G.; Maise, G.

    1975-07-01

    NALAP is a LMFBR system transient code. This code, adapted from the light water reactor transient code RELAP 3B, simulates thermal-hydraulic response of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors when subjected to postulated accidents such as a massive pipe break as well as a variety of other upset conditions that do not disrupt the system geometry. Various components of the plant are represented by control volumes. These control volumes are connected by junctions some of which may be leak or fill junctions. The fluid flow equations are modeled as compressible, single-stream flow with momentum flux in one dimension. The transient response is computed by integrating the thermal-hydraulic conservation equations from user-initialized operating conditions by an implicit numerical scheme. Point kinetics approximation is used to represent the time dependent heat generation in the reactor core

  12. Electromagnetic interactions between antibiotics and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Moqueet, Mohammad M.

    The effect of weak electromagnetic fields on the interaction of the antibiotic erythromycin on E.coli has been studied. Erythromycin is a first derivative antibiotic which is bacteriostatic in nature. E.coli's structure has been well studied and provides a baseline for understanding the interaction. Electromagnetic fields are shown to influence the growth curve of bacterium depending on the field's geometry. The theoretical model discussed in this thesis describes the interaction using a two-fluid model. The basis of this two-fluid model has been tested and shown that the concentration of antibiotics in the fluid environment is proportional to the response seen by the bacterium. The response of the bacterium has been determined using optical density measurements from which the behavior of the antibiotic-cell system has been studied.

  13. Focused cognitive control in dishonesty: Evidence for predominantly transient conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Anna; Pfister, Roland; Schmidts, Constantin; Dignath, David; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-04-01

    Giving a dishonest response to a question entails cognitive conflict due to an initial activation of the truthful response. Following conflict monitoring theory, dishonest responding could therefore elicit transient and sustained control adaptation processes to mitigate such conflict, and the current experiments take on the scope and specificity of such conflict adaptation in dishonesty. Transient adaptation reduces differences between honest and dishonest responding following a recent dishonest response. Sustained adaptation has a similar behavioral signature but is driven by the overall frequency of dishonest responding. Both types of adaptation to recent and frequent dishonest responses have been separately documented, leaving open whether control processes in dishonest responding can flexibly adapt to transient and sustained conflict signals of dishonest and other actions. This was the goal of the present experiments which studied (dis)honest responding to autobiographical yes/no questions. Experiment 1 showed robust transient adaptation to recent dishonest responses whereas sustained control adaptation failed to exert an influence on behavior. It further revealed that transient effects may create a spurious impression of sustained adaptation in typical experimental settings. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether dishonest responding can profit from transient and sustained adaption processes triggered by other behavioral conflicts. This was clearly not the case: Dishonest responding adapted markedly to recent (dis)honest responses but not to any context of other conflicts. These findings indicate that control adaptation in dishonest responding is strong but surprisingly focused and they point to a potential trade-off between transient and sustained adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureau, A., E-mail: laureau.axel@gmail.com; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  15. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureau, A.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  16. Energetic and metabolic transient response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M T A P; van Winden, W A; van Gulik, W M; Heijnen, J J

    2008-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be able to adapt to the presence of the commonly used food preservative benzoic acid with a large energy expenditure. Some mechanisms for the adaptation process have been suggested, but its quantitative energetic and metabolic aspects have rarely been discussed. This study discusses use of the stimulus response approach to quantitatively study the energetic and metabolic aspects of the transient adaptation of S. cerevisiae to a shift in benzoic acid concentration, from 0 to 0.8 mM. The information obtained also serves as the basis for further utilization of benzoic acid as a tool for targeted perturbation of the energy system, which is important in studying the kinetics and regulation of central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Using this experimental set-up, we found significant fast-transient (< 3000 s) increases in O(2) consumption and CO(2) production rates, of approximately 50%, which reflect a high energy requirement for the adaptation process. We also found that with a longer exposure time to benzoic acid, S. cerevisiae decreases the cell membrane permeability for this weak acid by a factor of 10 and decreases the cell size to approximately 80% of the initial value. The intracellular metabolite profile in the new steady-state indicates increases in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes, which are in agreement with the observed increases in specific glucose and O(2) uptake rates.

  17. Electromagnetic and neutral-weak response functions of 4He and 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, A.; Gandolfi, S.; Carlson, J.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.

    2015-06-01

    Background: A major goal of nuclear theory is to understand the strong interaction in nuclei as it manifests itself in terms of two- and many-body forces among the nuclear constituents, the protons and neutrons, and the interactions of these constituents with external electroweak probes via one- and many-body currents. Purpose: The objective of the present work is to calculate the quasielastic electroweak response functions in light nuclei within the realistic dynamical framework outlined above. These response functions determine the inclusive cross section as function of the lepton momentum and energy transfers. Methods: Their ab initio calculation is a very challenging quantum many-body problem, since it requires summation over the entire excitation spectrum of the nucleus and inclusion in the electroweak currents of one- and many-body terms. Green's functions Monte Carlo methods allow one to circumvent both difficulties by computing the response in imaginary time (the so-called Euclidean response) and hence summing implicitly over the bound and continuum states of the nucleus, and by implementing specific algorithms designed to deal with the complicated spin-isospin structure of nuclear many-body operators. Results: Theoretical predictions for 4He and 12C, confirmed by experiment in the electromagnetic case, show that two-body currents generate excess transverse strength from threshold to the quasielastic to the dip region and beyond. Conclusions: These results challenge the conventional picture of quasielastic inclusive scattering as being largely dominated by single-nucleon knockout processes.

  18. A simplified model for equilibrium and transient swelling of thermo-responsive gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, A D; deClaville Christiansen, J

    2017-11-01

    A simplified model is developed for the elastic response of thermo-responsive gels subjected to swelling under an arbitrary deformation with finite strains. The constitutive equations involve five adjustable parameters that are determined by fitting observations in equilibrium water uptake tests and T-jump transient tests on thin gel disks. Two scenarios for water release under heating are revealed by means of numerical simulation. When the final temperature in a T-jump test is below the volume-phase transition temperature, deswelling is characterized by smooth distribution of water molecules and small tensile stresses. When the final temperature exceeds the critical temperature, a gel disk is split into three regions (central part with a high concentration of water molecules and two domains near the boundaries with low water content) separated by sharp interfaces, whose propagation is accompanied by development of large (comparable with the elastic modulus) tensile stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A computational procedure for coupled electromagnetic-structural dynamic problems and its application to a fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.

    1993-09-01

    A method is presented in order to couple quasistationary electromagnetics and the dynamics of structure and fluid. This method allows to compute forces, strains and stresses in structures subjected to transient magnetic fields. An important application was to determine the dynamic loading of the self-cooled liquid metal blanket during a plasma distruption. (orig./HP) [de

  20. FDTD analysis of reflection of electromagnetic wave from a conductive plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2003-01-01

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is applied to study the electro-magnetic reflection of conduction plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma, homogeneous plasma and inhomogeneous plasma. The collisions frequency of plasma is a function of electron density and plasma temperature. The number density profile follows a parabolic function. A discussion on the effect of various plasma parameters on the reflection coefficient is presented. Under the one-dimensional case, transient electromagnetic propagation through various plasmas has been obtained, and the reflection coefficients of EM wave through various plasma are calculated under different conditions. The results illustrate that a plasma cloaking system can successfully absorb the incident EM wave

  1. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  2. Calculation of electromagnetic force in electromagnetic forming process of metal sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Da; Liu Xuesong; Fang Kun; Fang Hongyuan

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a forming process that relies on the inductive electromagnetic force to deform metallic workpiece at high speed. Calculation of the electromagnetic force is essential to understand the EMF process. However, accurate calculation requires complex numerical solution, in which the coupling between the electromagnetic process and the deformation of workpiece needs be considered. In this paper, an appropriate formula has been developed to calculate the electromagnetic force in metal work-piece in the sheet EMF process. The effects of the geometric size of coil, the material properties, and the parameters of discharge circuit on electromagnetic force are taken into consideration. Through the formula, the electromagnetic force at different time and in different positions of the workpiece can be predicted. The calculated electromagnetic force and magnetic field are in good agreement with the numerical and experimental results. The accurate prediction of the electromagnetic force provides an insight into the physical process of the EMF and a powerful tool to design optimum EMF systems.

  3. On transient events in the upper atmosphere generated away of thunderstorm regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozenko, V.; Garipov, G.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Panasyuk, M.; Sharakin, S.; Zotov, M.

    2011-12-01

    origin may be related to electromagnetic pulses (EMP) or waves (whistler, EMW) generated by lightning. The EMP-EMW is transmitted in the ionosphere- ground channel to large distances R with low absorption. The part of EMP-EMW "visible" in the detector aperture diminishes with distance as R-1 due to observation geometry. The EMP-EMW triggers the electric discharge in the upper atmosphere (lower ionosphere, ~70 km). Estimates of resulting transients luminosity and their correlation with geomagnetic field are in progress.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation and behavioural response of ticks: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, Blažena; Majláth, Igor; Kurimský, Juraj; Cimbala, Roman; Kosterec, Michal; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Jankowiak, Łukasz; Raši, Tomáš; Majláthová, Viktória

    2018-05-01

    Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment. Our main objective was to determine the affinity of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks towards RF-EMF exposure. Originally designed and constructed radiation-shielded tube (RST) test was used to test the affinity of ticks under controlled laboratory conditions. All test were performed in an electromagnetic compatibility laboratory in an anechoic chamber. Ticks were irradiated using a Double-Ridged Waveguide Horn Antenna to RF-EMF at 900 and 5000 MHz, 0 MHz was used as control. The RF-EMF exposure to 900 MHz induced a higher concentration of ticks on irradiated arm of RST as opposed to the RF-EMF at 5000 MHz, which caused an escape of ticks to the shielded arm. This study represents the first experimental evidence of RF-EMF preference in D. reticulatus. The projection of obtained results to the natural environment could help assess the risk of tick borne diseases and could be a tool of preventive medicine.

  5. Experimental studies on thermal hydraulic responses for transient operations of the SMART-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.Y.; Park, H.S.; Cho, S.; Park, C.K.; Lee, S.J.; Song, C.H.; Chung, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Thermal hydraulic responses for transient operations of the SMART-P are experimentally investigated by using a integral effect test facility. This test facility (VISTA) has been constructed to simulate the SMART-P, which is a pilot plant of the SMART. The SMART-P is an advanced modular integral type pressurized water reactor (65 MWt) whose major RCS components, such as main coolant pumps, helical-coiled tube bundle steam generators and pressurizers, are contained in a reactor vessel. This integral design approach eliminates the large coolant loop piping, thus eliminates the occurrence of a large break LOCA. Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) is installed to prevent overheating and over-pressurization of the primary system during accidental conditions. The PRHRS of the SMART-P removes the core decay heat by natural circulation of the two-phase fluid. The VISTA facility is a full height and 1/96 volume scaled test facility with respect to the SMART-P and will be used to understand the thermal-hydraulic responses following transients and finally to verify the system design of the SMART-P. The experimental data from the VISTA facility will be essential to system designers to resolve open issues relevant to the design of the SMART-P. The full functional control logics are implanted into the VISTA facility to cope with abnormal transients. The core of the facility can be selectively controlled by either a T-control or a T+N control method. The T-control method is a control method to adjust the core power according to the core exit coolant temperature and is designed to be used for high primary coolant flow conditions. On the other hand, the T+N control method is for low primary coolant flow conditions and it uses core exit temperature as well as core power itself as control inputs. The thermal hydraulic responses are carefully investigated according to different core control methods. Several experiments have been performed to

  6. A distributed parameter wire model for transient electrical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.B. II; Kadish, A.; Sutherland, C.D.; Robiscoe, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    A model for freely propagating transient electrical discharges, such as lightning and punch-through arcs, is developed in this paper. We describe the electromagnetic fields by Maxwell's equations and we represent the interaction of electric fields with the medium to produce current by ∂J/∂t=ω 2 (E-E*J)/4π, where ω and E* are parameters characteristic of the medium, J≡current density, and J≡J/|J|. We illustrate the properties of this model for small-diameter, guided, cylindrically symmetric discharges. Analytic, numerical, and approximate solutions are given for special cases. The model describes, in a new and comprehensive fashion, certain macroscopic discharge properties, such as threshold behavior, quenching and reignition, path tortuosity, discharge termination with nonzero charge density remaining along the discharge path, and other experimentally observed discharge phenomena. Fields, current densities, and charge densities are quantitatively determined from given boundary and initial conditions. We suggest that many macroscopic discharge properties are properly explained by the model as electromagnetic phenomena, and we discuss extensions of the model to include chemistry, principally ionization and recombination

  7. Study on coupled shock absorber system using four electromagnetic dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Y; Hayashi, R; Okano, H; Suda, Y; Nakano, K

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the electromagnetic damper, which is composed of an electric motor, a ball screw, and a nut, was proposed. The electromagnetic damper has high responsiveness, controllability, and energy saving performance. It has been reported that it improved ride comfort and drivability. In addition, the authors have proposed a coupling method of two electromagnetic dampers. The method enables the characteristics of bouncing and rolling or pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. In this study, the authors increase the number of coupling of electromagnetic dampers from two to four, and propose a method to couple four electromagnetic dampers. The proposed method enables the characteristics of bouncing, rolling and pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. Basic experiments using proposed circuit and motors and numerical simulations of an automobile equipped with the proposed coupling electromagnetic damper are carried out. The results indicate the proposed method is effective. (paper)

  8. Lagrangian and energy forms for retrieving the impulse response of the Earth due to random electromagnetic forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slob, Evert; Weiss, Chester J

    2011-08-01

    We distinguish between trivial and nontrivial differences in retrieving the real or imaginary parts of the Green's function. Trivial differences come from different Green's function definitions. The energy and lagrangian forms constitute nontrivial differences. Magnetic noise sources suffice to extract the quasistatic electromagnetic-field Earth impulse response in the lagrangian form. This is of interest for Earth subsurface imaging. A numerical example demonstrates that all source vector components are necessary to extract a single-field vector component.

  9. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  10. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  11. Analysis of Transient Phenomena Due to a Direct Lightning Strike on a Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Catalão

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the protection of wind energy systems against the direct effects of lightning. As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, lightning damages involving wind turbines have come to be regarded as a serious problem. Nevertheless, very few studies exist yet in Portugal regarding lightning protection of wind energy systems using numerical codes. A new case study is presented in this paper, based on a wind turbine with an interconnecting transformer, for the analysis of transient phenomena due to a direct lightning strike to the blade. Comprehensive simulation results are provided by using models of the Restructured Version of the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP, and conclusions are duly drawn.

  12. HECTR [Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response] analyses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) premixed combustion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.C.

    1988-11-01

    The HECTR (Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response) computer code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to predict the transient pressure and temperature responses within reactor containments for hypothetical accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen. Although HECTR was designed primarily to investigate these phenomena in LWRs, it may also be used to analyze hydrogen transport and combustion experiments as well. It is in this manner that HECTR is assessed and empirical correlations, such as the combustion completeness and flame speed correlations for the hydrogen combustion model, if necessary, are upgraded. In this report, we present HECTR analyses of the large-scale premixed hydrogen combustion experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comparison with the test results. The existing correlations in HECTR version 1.0, under certain conditions, have difficulty in predicting accurately the combustion completeness and burn time for the NTS experiments. By combining the combustion data obtained from the NTS experiments with other experimental data (FITS, VGES, ACUREX, and Whiteshell), a set of new and better combustion correlations was generated. HECTR prediction of the containment responses, using a single-compartment model and EPRI-provided combustion completeness and burn time, compares reasonably well against the test results. However, HECTR prediction of the containment responses using a multicompartment model does not compare well with the test results. This discrepancy shows the deficiency of the homogeneous burning model used in HECTR. To overcome this deficiency, a flame propagation model is highly recommended. 16 refs., 84 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and esophageal motor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joachim H; Küper, Markus A; Königsrainer, Alfred; Brücher, Björn L D M

    2010-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is caused by transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in healthy individuals and in most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Refluxate is normally propelled by pharyngeally induced swallowing events, but TLESRs may also be accompanied by retrograde esophageal motor responses (EMRs). These contractions have not previously been investigated and their effect on esophageal clearance is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of EMRs after TLESR in healthy individuals and GERD patients and to develop an animal model for further investigation of EMRs. The frequency of TLESRs and esophageal body contractions after TLESRs was assessed using ambulatory manometry in five healthy individuals and five GERD patients. An animal model was developed for reproducible provocation of TLESRs and subsequent EMRs. Patients with GERD have significantly more TLESRs than healthy individuals. However, post-TLESR EMRs were not more frequent in the GERD group. All post-TLESR EMRs presented as simultaneous contractions of the esophagus. The feline model allowed reproducible initiation of the esophageal motor response after TLESR, showing that EMRs can be induced by external mechanoreceptor stimulation simultaneously with LES relaxation. This experimental design imitates the conditions after fundoplication in humans. The study demonstrated that GERD patients have significantly more TLESRs in comparison with healthy individuals, but these were only incidental to EMRs. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of esophageal motility disorders. The animal model presented offers a feasible tool for investigating TLESR-induced esophageal motility.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Wen, Kunhua; Guo, Zhen; Luo, Xiangang

    2012-10-22

    We investigate a plasmonic waveguide system based on side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR), which exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission. LC resonance model is utilized to explain the electromagnetic responses of CSRR, which is verified by simulation results of finite difference time domain method. The electromagnetic responses of CSRR can be flexible handled by changing the asymmetry degree of the structure and the width of the metallic baffles. Cascaded CSRRs also have been studied to obtain EIT-like transmission at visible and near-infrared region, simultaneously.

  15. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  16. Isolating and Discriminating Overlapping Signatures in Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Lin-Ping Song, Douglas W. Oldenburg, Leonard R. Pasion , and Stephen D. Billings. Transient electromagnetic inversion for multiple targets. SPIE...and Remote Sensing, 39(6):1294 – 1298, 2001. ISSN 0196-2892. 33, 34 [52] L. R. Pasion and D. W. Oldenburg. A discrimination algorithm for UXO using...R. Pasion , Douglas W. Oldenburg, and Stephen D. Billings. Com- puting transient electromagnetic response of a metallic object with a spheroidal

  17. Transient response of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell subjected to time-varying modulating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noorani, S.; Shamim, T. [Michigan-Dearborn Univ., Dearborn, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order for fuel cells to compete with internal combustion engines, they must have significant advantages in terms of overall efficiency, weight, packaging, safety and cost. A key requirement is its ability to operate under highly transient conditions during start-up, acceleration, and deceleration with stable performance. Therefore, a better understanding of fuel cell dynamic behaviour is needed along with better water management and distributions inside the cell. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of transient conditions on water distribution inside a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cell. A macroscopic single-fuel cell based, one-dimensional, isothermal mathematical model was used to study the effect of modulating cell voltage on the water distribution of anode, cathode, catalyst layers, and membrane. Compared to other existing models, this model did not rely on the non-physical assumption of the uptake curve equilibrium between the pore vapour and ionomer water in the catalyst layers. Instead, the transition between the two phases was modeled as a finite-rate equilibration process. The modulating conditions were simulated by forcing the temporal variations in fuel cell voltage. The results revealed that cell voltage modulations cause a departure in the cell behaviour from its steady behaviour, and the finite-rate equilibration between the catalyst vapour and liquid water can be a factor in determining the cell response. The cell response is also affected by the modulating frequency and amplitude. The peak cell response was observed at low frequencies. Keywords: fuel cell, water transport, dynamic behaviour, numerical simulations. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  19. The transient transpiration heat flux meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.; Calisto, H.; Afgan, N.; Leontiev, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    A new heat flux measurement principle, based on the transient response of a transpiration radiometer, is proposed. The measurement principle of current transpiration radiometers is based on a steady-state temperature measurement in a porous element. Since it may typically take several seconds to reach these conditions, there are obvious benefits in reducing the instrument response time. This can be achieved through the analysis of its transient response in order to predict the incident heat flux. In addition, the proposed methodology enables the separate measurement of the radiative and convective components of incident heat fluxes, without compromising the known advantages of transpiration radiometers. The availability of such an instrument may enable the development of advanced monitoring, diagnostic and control systems for thermal equipment

  20. Recent developments in transient magneto-structural integrated analysis for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.; Papadopoulos, S.; Richard, N.; Siakavellas, N.; Wu, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper three different numerical approaches modelling the mutual field-structure interactions during transient electromagnetic events are presented. The application of these approaches to simple plate models, simulating flexible conducting components of fusion devices, show that a magnetic damping is encountered when coupling effects between eddy currents and plate motion are taken into account. This damping increases with the applied magnetic field, modifying the mechanical behavior. An Integrated Design/Analysis System is also proposed, in order to combine different computer codes, obtaining performing computational schemes, in the field of 3D electromagneto-mechanical analyses

  1. Transient and stationary eddies in differing GCM climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.M.J.; Valdes, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The response of transients to changing forcing/boundary conditions can be just as striking as the response of mean fields such as surface temperature. Indeed the two are intimately linked and the extent to which the transients are either controlled by, or shape the mean flow is difficult to quantify. Diagnostics are presented from several GCM equilibrium climate simulations using the UGAMP GCM. These include representations of the present climate: The Last Glacial Maximum and the Jurassic climate (150 M years ago). Changes in the distribution of transient eddy activity are compared with changes in low level baroclinicity to assess the direct response of the storm tracks to local conditions. Budget calculations are also presented to identify the changing roles of different components of the atmospheric circulation in transporting heat and moisture from equator to pole

  2. Lightning transient analysis in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find

    2013-01-01

    The transient behavior of lightning surges in the lightning protection system of wind turbine blades has been investigated in this paper. The study is based on PSCAD models consisting of electric equivalent circuits with lumped and distributed parameters involving different lightning current...... waveforms. The aim of the PSCAD simulations is to study the voltages induced by the lightning current in the blade that may cause internal arcing. With this purpose, the phenomenon of current reflections in the lightning down conductor of the blade and the electromagnetic coupling between the down conductor...... and other internal conductive elements of the blade is studied. Finally, several methods to prevent internal arcing are discussed in order to improve the lightning protection of the blade....

  3. Dynamic fracture mechanics with electromagnetic force and its application to fracture toughness and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.

    1986-01-01

    This study is concerned with the application of the electromagnetic force to the determination of the dynamic fracture toughness of materials. Taken is an edge-cracked specimen which carries a transient electric current I and is simply supported in a uniform and steady magnetic field B. As a result of their interaction, the dynamic electromagnetic force occurs in the whole body of the specimen, which is then deformed to fracture in the opening mode of cracking. For the evaluation of dynamic fracture toughness, the extended J integral with the effects of the electromagnetic force and inertia is calculated using the dynamic finite-element method. To determine the dynamic crack-initiation point in the experiment, the electric potential method is used in the case of brittle fracture, and the electric potential and the J-R curve methods in the case of ductile fracture, respectively. Using these techniques, the dynamic fracture toughness values of nuclear pressure vessel steel A508 class 3 are evaluated over a wide temperature range. (author)

  4. Comparing and characterizing transient and steady-state tests of the peripheral chemoreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfoh, Jamie R; Tymko, Michael M; Abrosimova, Maria; Boulet, Lindsey M; Foster, Glen E; Bain, Anthony R; Ainslie, Philip N; Steinback, Craig D; Bruce, Christina D; Day, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? We aimed to characterize the cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular responses to transient and steady-state tests of the peripheral chemoreflex and to compare the hypoxic ventilatory responses (HVRs) between these tests. What is the main finding and its importance? The cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to transient tests were small in magnitude and short in duration. The steady-state isocapnic hypoxia test elicited a larger HVR than the transient 100% N(2) test, but the response magnitudes were correlated within individuals. The transient test of the HVR elicits fewer systemic effects than steady-state techniques and may have greater experimental utility than previously appreciated. Carotid chemoreceptors detect changes in arterial PO(2) and PCO(2), eliciting a peripheral chemoreflex (PCR). Steady-state (SS) hypoxia tests using dynamic end-tidal forcing (DEF) have been used to assess the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) but may be confounded by concomitant systemic effects. Transient tests of the PCR have also been developed but are not widely used, nor have the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses been characterized. We characterized the cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular responses to transient tests of the PCR and compared the HVR between transient and SS-DEF tests. We hypothesized that the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to the transient tests would be minimal and that the respiratory responses elicited from the transient and SS-DEF tests would be different in magnitude and not well correlated within individuals. Participants underwent five consecutive trials of two transient tests [three-breath 100% N(2) (TT-N(2)) and a single-breath 13% CO(2), in air] and two 10 min SS-DEF tests [isocapnic (SS-ISO) and poikilocapnic (SS-POI) hypoxia]. In response to the transient tests, heart rate, mean arterial pressure and the middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity increased (all P

  5. Measurements of reactor-relevant electromagnetic effects with the FELIX facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Hua, T.Q.; Knott, M.J.; Lee, S.Y.; McGhee, D.G.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    In predicting the electromagnetic consequences of a plasma disruption in a tokamak reactor design, a two-dimensional electromagnetic model of the first wall, blanket, and shield (FWBS) system is typically used. The response to a decaying plasma current is then found to be dominated by a single eddy-current mode, with a single L/R time. Recent experiments with the Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment (FELIX) facility at Argonne National Laboratory suggest that such modeling can be used to design against electromagnetic forces and torques, but only if a range of values is used for both tau, the plasma decay time, and tau 0 , the L/R time of the FWBS system

  6. Direct time-domain techniques for transient radiation and scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.K.; Landt, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to transient electromagnetics, focusing on direct time-domain techniques, is presented. Physical, mathematical, numerical, and experimental aspects of time-domain methods, with emphasis on wire objects excited as antennas or scatters are examined. Numerous computed examples illustrate the characteristics of direct time-domain procedures, especially where they may offer advantages over procedures in the more familiar frequency domain. These advantages include greater solution efficiency for many types of problems, the ability to handle nonlinearities, improved physical insight and interpretability, availability of wide-band information from a single calculation, and the possibility of isolating interactions among various parts of an object using time-range gating

  7. Test of the Weak Equivalence Principle using LIGO observations of GW150914 and Fermi observations of GBM transient 150914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molin Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available About 0.4 s after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO detected a transient gravitational-wave (GW signal GW150914, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM also found a weak electromagnetic transient (GBM transient 150914. Time and location coincidences favor a possible association between GW150904 and GBM transient 150914. Under this possible association, we adopt Fermi's electromagnetic (EM localization and derive constraints on possible violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP from the observations of two events. Our calculations are based on four comparisons: (1 The first is the comparison of the initial GWs detected at the two LIGO sites. From the different polarizations of these initial GWs, we obtain a limit on any difference in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN parameter Δγ≲10−10. (2 The second is a comparison of GWs and possible EM waves. Using a traditional super-Eddington accretion model for GBM transient 150914, we again obtain an upper limit Δγ≲10−10. Compared with previous results for photons and neutrinos, our limits are five orders of magnitude stronger than those from PeV neutrinos in blazar flares, and seven orders stronger than those from MeV neutrinos in SN1987A. (3 The third is a comparison of GWs with different frequencies in the range [35 Hz, 250 Hz]. (4 The fourth is a comparison of EM waves with different energies in the range [1 keV, 10 MeV]. These last two comparisons lead to an even stronger limit, Δγ≲10−8. Our results highlight the potential of multi-messenger signals exploiting different emission channels to strengthen existing tests of the WEP.

  8. The properties of electromagnetic responses and optical modulation in terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shi, Yulei; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qingli; Zhang, Cunlin

    2016-11-01

    Metamaterials with subwavelength structural features show unique electromagnetic responses that are unattainable with natural materials. Recently, the research on these artificial materials has been pushed forward to the terahertz (THz) region because of potential applications in biological fingerprinting, security imaging, and high frequency magnetic and electric resonant devices. Furthermore, active control of their properties could further facilitate and open up new applications in terms of modulation and switching. In our work, we will first present our studies of dipole arrays at terahertz frequencies. Then in experimental and theoretical studies of terahertz subwavelength L-shaped structure, we proposed an unusual-mode current resonance responsible for low-frequency characteristic dip in transmission spectra. Comparing spectral properties of our designed simplified structures with that of split-ring resonators, we attribute this unusual mode to the resonance coupling and splitting under the broken symmetry of the structure. Finally, we use optical pump-terahertz probe method to investigate the spectral and dynamic behaviour of optical modulation in the split-ring resonators. We have observed the blue-shift and band broadening in the spectral changes of transmission under optical excitation at different delay times. The calculated surface currents using finite difference time domain simulation are presented to characterize these resonances, and the blue-shift can be explained by the changed refractive index and conductivity in the photoexcited semiconductor substrate.

  9. Simplified method for measuring the response time of scram release electromagnet in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patri, Sudheer, E-mail: patri@igcar.gov.in; Mohana, M.; Kameswari, K.; Kumar, S. Suresh; Narmadha, S.; Vijayshree, R.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Venkatesan, A.; Palanisami, K.; Murthy, D. Thirugnana; Babu, B.; Prakash, V.; Rajan, K.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • An alternative method for estimating the electromagnet clutch release time. • A systematic approach to develop a computer based measuring system. • Prototype tests on the measurement system. • Accuracy of the method is ±6% and repeatability error is within 2%. - Abstract: The delay time in electromagnet clutch release during a reactor trip (scram action) is an important safety parameter, having a bearing on the plant safety during various design basis events. Generally, it is measured using current decay characteristics of electromagnet coil and its energising circuit. A simplified method of measuring the same in a Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) is proposed in this paper. The method utilises the position data of control rod to estimate the delay time in electromagnet clutch release. A computer based real time measurement system for measuring the electromagnet clutch delay time is developed and qualified for retrofitting in prototype fast breeder reactor. Various stages involved in the development of the system are principle demonstration, experimental verification of hardware capabilities and prototype system testing. Tests on prototype system have demonstrated the satisfactory performance of the system with intended accuracy and repeatability.

  10. Electromagnetic Properties Analysis on Hybrid-driven System of Electromagnetic Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Han, Bingyuan; Bei, Shaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid-driven system made of permanent-and electromagnets applied in the electromagnetic motor was analyzed, equivalent magnetic circuit was used to establish the mathematical models of hybrid-driven system, based on the models of hybrid-driven system, the air gap flux, air-gap magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force was proposed. Taking the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force as main research object, the hybrid-driven system was researched. Electromagnetic properties of hybrid-driven system with different working current modes is studied preliminary. The results shown that analysis based on hybrid-driven system can improve the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force more effectively and can also guarantee the output stability, the effectiveness and feasibility of the hybrid-driven system are verified, which proved theoretical basis for the design of hybrid-driven system.

  11. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  12. Heavy Ion Microbeam- and Broadbeam-Induced Current Transients in SiGe HBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, R. A.; McMorrow, D.; Vizkelethy, G.; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Baggio, J.; Duhamel, O.; Moen, K. A.; Phillips, S. D.; Diestelhorst, R. M.; hide

    2009-01-01

    IBM 5AM SiGe HBT is device-under-test. High-speed measurement setup. Low-impedance current transient measurements. SNL, JYFL, GANIL. Microbeam to broadbeam position inference. Improvement to state-of-the-art. Microbeam (SNL) transients reveal position dependent heavy ion response, Unique response for different device regions Unique response for different bias schemes. Similarities to TPA pulsed-laser data. Broadbeam transients (JYFL and GANIL) provide realistic heavy ion response. Feedback using microbeam data. Overcome issues of LET and ion range with microbeam. **Angled Ar-40 data in full paper. Data sets yield first-order results, suitable for TCAD calibration feedback.

  13. VO2 OFF TRANSIENT KINETICS IN EXTREME INTENSITY SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistencies about dynamic asymmetry between the on- and off- transient responses in oxygen uptake are found in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the oxygen uptake off-transient kinetics during a maximal 200-m front crawl effort, as examining the degree to which the on/off regularity of the oxygen uptake kinetics response was preserved. Eight high level male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl at maximal speed during which oxygen uptake was directly measured through breath-by-breath oxymetry (averaged every 5 s. This apparatus was connected to the swimmer by a low hydrodynamic resistance respiratory snorkel and valve system. Results: The on- and off-transient phases were symmetrical in shape (mirror image once they were adequately fitted by a single-exponential regression models, and no slow component for the oxygen uptake response was developed. Mean (± SD peak oxygen uptake was 69.0 (± 6.3 mL·kg-1·min-1, significantly correlated with time constant of the off- transient period (r = 0.76, p < 0.05 but not with any of the other oxygen off-transient kinetic parameters studied. A direct relationship between time constant of the off-transient period and mean swimming speed of the 200-m (r = 0.77, p < 0.05, and with the amplitude of the fast component of the effort period (r = 0.72, p < 0.05 were observed. The mean amplitude and time constant of the off-transient period values were significantly greater than the respective on- transient. In conclusion, although an asymmetry between the on- and off kinetic parameters was verified, both the 200-m effort and the respectively recovery period were better characterized by a single exponential regression model

  14. Modeling of environmentally induced transients within satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. John; Barbay, Gordon J.; Jones, Michael R.; Viswanathan, R.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is described that allows an estimation of possible spacecraft charging hazards. This technique, called SCREENS (spacecraft response to environments of space), utilizes the NASA charging analyzer program (NASCAP) to estimate the electrical stress locations and the charge stored in the dielectric coatings due to spacecraft encounter with a geomagnetic substorm environment. This information can then be used to determine the response of the spacecraft electrical system to a surface discharge by means of lumped element models. The coupling into the electronics is assumed to be due to magnetic linkage from the transient currents flowing as a result of the discharge transient. The behavior of a spinning spacecraft encountering a severe substorm is predicted using this technique. It is found that systems are potentially vulnerable to upset if transient signals enter through the ground lines.

  15. RETRAN sensitivity studies of light water reactor transients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, N.S.; Gose, G.C.; Harrison, J.F.; Sawtelle, G.R.

    1977-06-01

    This report presents the results of sensitivity studies performed using the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient analysis code to identify critical parameters and models which influence light water reactor transient predictions. Various plant transients for both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are examined. These studies represent the first detailed evaluation of the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient code capability in predicting a variety of plant transient responses. The wide range of transients analyzed in conjunction with the parameter and modeling studies performed identify several sensitive areas as well as areas requiring future study and model development

  16. Modeling ferrite electromagnetic response in the time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.; DeFord, J.F.; Craig, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of ferrite loads commonly found in induction accelertors has important consequences for the performance of these accelerators. Previous work by the authors on modeling the electromagnetic fields in induction cavities has focussed upon use of a simple, phenomenological model for the process of magnetization reversal in these ferrite loads. In this paper we consider a model for magnetization reversal which is more deeply rooted in theory, and present a simulation of the reversal process based upon this model for an idealized set of boundary conditions. 7 refs., 3 figs

  17. Transient analysis for PWR reactor core using neural networks predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueray, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, transient analysis for a Pressurized Water Reactor core has been performed. A lumped parameter approximation is preferred for that purpose, to describe the reactor core together with mechanism which play an important role in dynamic analysis. The dynamic behavior of the reactor core during transients is analyzed considering the transient initiating events, wich are an essential part of Safety Analysis Reports. several transients are simulated based on the employed core model. Simulation results are in accord the physical expectations. A neural network is developed to predict the future response of the reactor core, in advance. The neural network is trained using the simulation results of a number of representative transients. Structure of the neural network is optimized by proper selection of transfer functions for the neurons. Trained neural network is used to predict the future responses following an early observation of the changes in system variables. Estimated behaviour using the neural network is in good agreement with the simulation results for various for types of transients. Results of this study indicate that the designed neural network can be used as an estimator of the time dependent behavior of the reactor core under transient conditions

  18. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  19. Transient response of rotating laminated functionally graded cylindrical shells in thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, P.; Heydarpour, Y.; Haghighi, M.R. Golbahar; Vaghefi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the elasticity theory, the transient analysis of dynamically pressurized rotating multi-layered functionally graded (FG) cylindrical shells in thermal environment is presented. The variations of the field variables across the shell thickness are accurately modeled by dividing the shell into a set of co-axial mathematical layers in the radial direction. The initial thermo-mechanical stresses are obtained by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations. The differential quadrature method and Newmark's time integration scheme are employed to discretize the obtained governing equations of each mathematical layer. After performing the convergence and comparison studies, parametric studies for two common types of FG sandwich shells, namely, the shell with homogeneous inner/outer layers and FG core and the shell with FG inner/outer layers and homogeneous core are carried out. The influences of the temperature dependence of material properties, material graded index, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the angular velocity, the boundary condition and the geometrical parameters (length and thickness to outer radius ratios) on the dynamic response of the FG shells are investigated. Highlights: ► As a first endeavor, transient analysis of rotating laminated functionally graded cylinders. ► Employing an elasticity based discrete layer-differential quadrature method. ► Evaluating and including the initial thermo-mechanical stresses accurately. ► Considering the temperature-dependence of the material properties. ► Presenting some new results, which can be used as benchmark solution for future works.

  20. Quantum resonances of Landau damping in the electromagnetic response of metallic nanoslabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-López, S G; Makarov, N M; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2018-05-15

    The resonant quantization of Landau damping in far-infrared absorption spectra of metal nano-thin films is predicted within the Kubo formalism. Specifically, it is found that the discretization of the electromagnetic and electron wave numbers inside a metal nanoslab produces quantum nonlocal resonances well-resolved at slab thicknesses smaller than the electromagnetic skin depth. Landau damping manifests itself precisely as such resonances, tracing the spectral curve obtained within the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. For slab thicknesses much greater than the skin depth, the classical regime emerges. Here the results of the quantum model and the Boltzmann approach coincide. Our analytical study is in perfect agreement with corresponding numerical simulations.

  1. Three dimensional transient electromagnetic model study for fracture prediction from tunnel face; Sanjigen model keisan ni yoru TEM ho no tunnel zenpo tansa eno tekiyosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K; Tsutsui, T; Saito, A [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan); Zhdanov, M [University of Utah, UT (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In order to apply TEM model to fracture prediction at tunnel face, 3-D TEM model computation by FEM was conducted by installing a transmission loop on a tunnel face. MT field responses diffusing into the 3-D model were computed by time-domain difference calculus, and analytical precision was improved by introducing a staggered grid method. In the case where a low resistive zone exists before a tunnel face, time variance in diffused eddy current and induction current in the low resistive zone could be obtained. The difference in tunnel-axial transient curve (transient phenomenon curve in magnetic field) between uniform medium and low resistive zone models was based on the absorption process of diffused eddy current into the low resistive zone, and the expanding process of it toward the outside. Change in background condition could be predicted from the background and the ratio of transient curves every measurement. The detection limit of the low resistive zone was dependent on resistivity contrast, distance and geometry. Fluctuation in measurement due to noises and S/N ratio were also essential. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Transient analysis of DTT rakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.S.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model for the determination of the cross-sectionally averaged transient mass flux of a two-phase fluid flowing in a conduit instrumented by a Drag-Disk Turbine Transducer (DTT) Rake and a multibeam gamma densitometer. Parametric studies indicate that for a typical blowdown transient, dynamic effects such as rotor inertia can be important for the turbine-meter. In contrast, for the drag-disk, a frequency response analysis showed that the quasisteady solution is valid below a forcing frequency of about 10 Hz, which is faster than the time scale normally encountered during blowdowns. The model showed reasonably good agreement with full scale transient rake data, where the flow regimes were mostly homogeneous or stratified, thus indicating that the model is suitable for the analysis of a DTT rake. (orig.)

  3. Transient hardened power FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable

  4. Simulation of Transient Response of Ir-TES for Position-Sensitive TES with Waveform Domain Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Y.; Sato, H.; Mori, F.; Damayanthi, R. M. T.; Takahashi, H.; Ohno, M.

    2008-04-01

    We are developing a new x-ray microcalorimeter based on a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) as an imaging sensor. Our measurement shows unique waveforms which we consider as an expression of thermal nonuniformity of TES films. This arises from the different thermal responses, so that response signal shapes would vary according to the position of the incident x-ray. This position dependency deteriorate the measured energy resolution, but with appropriate waveform analysis, this would be useful for imaging device. For more inspection, we have developed a simulation code which enables a dynamic simulation to obtain a transient response of the TES by finite differential method. Temperature and electric current distributions are calculated. As a result, we successfully obtained waveform signals. The calculated signal waveforms have similar characteristics to the measured signals. This simulation visualized the transition state of the device and will help to design better detector.

  5. Transient particle emission measurement with optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Luján, José M.; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Particulate matter is responsible for some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it is one of the most important pollutants of high-speed direct injection (HSDI) passenger car engines. Current legislation requires particulate dilution tunnels for particulate matter measuring. However for development work, dilution tunnels are expensive and sometimes not useful since they are not able to quantify real-time particulate emissions during transient operation. In this study, the use of a continuous measurement opacimeter and a fast response HFID is proven to be a good alternative to obtain instantaneous particle mass emissions during transient operation (due to particulate matter consisting mainly of soot and SOF). Some methods and correlations available from literature, but developed for steady conditions, are evaluated during transient operation by comparing with mini-tunnel measurements during the entire MVEG-A transient cycle. A new correlation was also derived from this evaluation. Results for soot and SOF (obtained from the new correlation proposed) are compared with soot and SOF captured with particulate filters, which have been separated by means of an SOF extraction method. Finally, as an example of ECU design strategies using these sort of correlations, the EGR valve opening is optimized during transient operation. The optimization is performed while simultaneously taking into account instantaneous fuel consumption, particulate emissions (calculated with the proposed correlation) and other regulated engine pollutants.

  6. PC operated acoustic transient spectroscopy of deep levels in MIS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, P.; Jamnicky, I.

    1996-01-01

    A new version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy is presented to study the traps at the insulator-semiconductor interface. The acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy uses an acoustoelectric response signal produced by the MIS structure interface when a longitudinal acoustic wave propagates through a structure. The acoustoelectric response signal is extremely sensitive to external conditions of the structure and reflects any changes in the charge distribution, connected also with charged traps. In comparison with previous version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy that closely coincides with the principle of the original deep-level transient spectroscopy technique, the present technique is based on the computer-evaluated isothermal transients and represents an improved, more efficient and time saving technique. Many tests on the software used for calculation as well as on experimental setup have been performed. The improved acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy method has been applied for the Si(p) MIS structures. The deep-level parameters as activation energy and capture cross-section have been determined. (authors)

  7. Electromagnetic analysis on Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM during plasma major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be installed at the #18 equatorial port of the Vaccum Vessel in order to test the feasibility of the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant in the ITER TBM Program. Since ITER tokamak contains Vaccum Vessel and set of electromagnetic coils, the TBM as well as other components is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. By the electromagnetic (EM) fast transient events such as major disruption (MD), vertical displacement event (VDE) or magnet fast discharge (MFD) occurred in tokamak system, the eddy current can be induced eventually in the conducting components. As a result, the magnetic field and induced eddy current produce extremely huge EM load (force and moment) on the TBM. Therefore, EM load calculation is one of the most important analyses for optimized design of TBM. In this study, a 20-degree sector model for tokamak system including central solenoid (CS) coil, poloidal field (PF) coil, toroidal field (TF) coil, vaccum vessel, shield blankets and TBM set (TBM, TBM key, TBM shield, TBM frame) is prepared for analysis by ANSYS-EMAG tool. Concerning the installation location of the TBM, a major disruption scenario is particularly applied for fast transient analysis. The final goal of this study is to evaluate the EM load on HCCR TBM during plasma major disruption.

  8. Electromagnetic analysis on Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM during plasma major disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be installed at the #18 equatorial port of the Vaccum Vessel in order to test the feasibility of the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant in the ITER TBM Program. Since ITER tokamak contains Vaccum Vessel and set of electromagnetic coils, the TBM as well as other components is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. By the electromagnetic (EM) fast transient events such as major disruption (MD), vertical displacement event (VDE) or magnet fast discharge (MFD) occurred in tokamak system, the eddy current can be induced eventually in the conducting components. As a result, the magnetic field and induced eddy current produce extremely huge EM load (force and moment) on the TBM. Therefore, EM load calculation is one of the most important analyses for optimized design of TBM. In this study, a 20-degree sector model for tokamak system including central solenoid (CS) coil, poloidal field (PF) coil, toroidal field (TF) coil, vaccum vessel, shield blankets and TBM set (TBM, TBM key, TBM shield, TBM frame) is prepared for analysis by ANSYS-EMAG tool. Concerning the installation location of the TBM, a major disruption scenario is particularly applied for fast transient analysis. The final goal of this study is to evaluate the EM load on HCCR TBM during plasma major disruption.

  9. Thermal-structural response of EBR-II major components under reactor operational transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, the LMFBR safety research has been focused primarily on severe but highly unlikely accident, such as hypothetical-core-disruptive accidents (HCDA's), and not enough attention has been given to accident prevention, which is less severe but more likely sequence. The objective of the EBR-II operational reliability testing (ORT) is to demonstrate that the reactor can be designed and operated to prevent accident. A series of mild duty cycles and overpower transients were designed for accident prevention tests. An assessment of the EBR-II major plant components has been performed to assure structural integrity of the reactor plant for the ORT program. In this paper, the thermal-structural response and structural evaluation of the reactor vessel, the reactor-vessel cover, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the superheater are presented

  10. Transient Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation In Vivo in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Susanne R.; Rocke, David M.; Dai Jian; Schwietert, Chad W.; Santana, Alison; Stern, Robin L.; Lehmann, Joerg; Hartmann Siantar, Christine L.; Goldberg, Zelanna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The in vivo effects of low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation on healthy human skin are largely unknown. Using a patient-based tissue acquisition protocol, we have performed a series of genomic analyses on the temporal dynamics over a 24-hour period to determine the radiation response after a single exposure of 10 cGy. Methods and Materials: RNA from each patient tissue sample was hybridized to an Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array. Data analysis was performed on selected gene groups and pathways. Results: Nineteen gene groups and seven gene pathways that had been shown to be radiation responsive were analyzed. Of these, nine gene groups showed significant transient transcriptional changes in the human tissue samples, which returned to baseline by 24 hours postexposure. Conclusions: Low doses of ionizing radiation on full-thickness human skin produce a definable temporal response out to 24 hours postexposure. Genes involved in DNA and tissue remodeling, cell cycle transition, and inflammation show statistically significant changes in expression, despite variability between patients. These data serve as a reference for the temporal dynamics of ionizing radiation response following low-dose exposure in healthy full-thickness human skin

  11. Time-dependent entropy evolution in microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Jarvis, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a study of entropy and its evolution in the time and frequency domains upon application of electromagnetic fields to materials. An understanding of entropy and its evolution in electromagnetic interactions bridges the boundaries between electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The approach used here is a Liouville-based statistical-mechanical theory. I show that the microscopic entropy is reversible and the macroscopic entropy satisfies an H theorem. The spectral entropy development can be very useful for studying the frequency response of materials. Using a projection-operator based nonequilibrium entropy, different equations are derived for the entropy and entropy production and are applied to the polarization, magnetization, and macroscopic fields. I begin by proving an exact H theorem for the entropy, progress to application of time-dependent entropy in electromagnetics, and then apply the theory to relevant applications in electromagnetics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the frequency-domain form of the entropy to the permittivity, permeability, and impedance

  12. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  13. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 3. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and system generated EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 3 deals with the following topics: selected fundamentals of electromagnetic theory; EMP induced currents on antennas and cables; the EMP response of electronics; EMP hardening; EMP testing; injection currents; internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP); replacement currents; and system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) hardening

  14. Electromagnetic and thermal analysis of electromagnet for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical electromagnetic and thermal analysis was performed for the electromagnet which is installed in the control element drive mechanism(CEDM) of the integral reactor SMART. A model for the electromagnetic analysis of the electromagnet was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to thrust force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the magnetic saturation with finite element method. Also It is important that the temperature of the electomagnet windings be maintained within the allowable limit of the insulation, since the electromagnet of CEDM is always supplied with current during the reactor operation. So the thermal analysis of the winding insulation which is composed of polyimide and air were performed by finite element method. The electromagnetic and thermal properties obtained here will be used as input for the optimization analysis of the electromagnet

  15. Inhibition of P2X7 receptor ameliorates transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulating inflammatory responses in the rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Ketan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R has been reported to be involved in the inflammatory response of many central nervous system diseases. However, the role of P2X7Rs in transient global cerebral I/R injury remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of inhibiting the P2X7R in a rat model of transient global cerebral I/R injury, and then to explore the association between the P2X7R and neuroinflammation after transient global cerebral I/R injury. Methods Immediately after infusion with the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant blue G (BBG, adenosine 5′-triphosphate-2′,3′-dialdehyde (OxATP or A-438079, 20 minutes of transient global cerebral I/R was induced using the four-vessel occlusion (4-VO method in rats. Survival rate was calculated, neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region was observed using H & E staining, and DNA cleavage was observed by deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end labeling TUNEL. In addition, behavioral deficits were measured using the Morris water maze, and RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining were performed to measure the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6, and to identify activated microglia and astrocytes. Results The P2X7R antagonists protected against transient global cerebral I/R injury in a dosage-dependent manner. A high dosage of BBG (10 μg and A-0438079 (3 μg, and a low dosage of OxATP (1 μg significantly increased survival rates, reduced I/R-induced learning memory deficit, and reduced I/R-induced neuronal death, DNA cleavage, and glial activation and inflammatory cytokine overexpression in the hippocampus. Conclusions Our study indicates that inhibiting P2X7Rs protects against transient global cerebral I/R injury by reducing the I/R-induced inflammatory response, which suggests inhibition of P2X7Rs may be a promising therapeutic strategy for clinical treatment of

  16. Improved methods for nightside time domain Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua-Haviland, H.; Poppe, A. R.; Fatemi, S.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.

    2017-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Sounding isolates induced magnetic fields to remotely deduce material properties at depth. The first step of performing TDEM Sounding at the Moon is to fully characterize the dynamic plasma environment, and isolate geophysically induced currents from concurrently present plasma currents. The transfer function method requires a two-point measurement: an upstream reference measuring the pristine solar wind, and one downstream near the Moon. This method was last performed during Apollo assuming the induced fields on the nightside of the Moon expand as in an undisturbed vacuum within the wake cavity [1]. Here we present an approach to isolating induction and performing TDEM with any two point magnetometer measurement at or near the surface of the Moon. Our models include a plasma induction model capturing the kinetic plasma environment within the wake cavity around a conducting Moon, and a geophysical forward model capturing induction in a vacuum. The combination of these two models enable the analysis of magnetometer data within the wake cavity. Plasma hybrid models use the upstream plasma conditions and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to capture the wake current systems formed around the Moon. The plasma kinetic equations are solved for ion particles with electrons as a charge-neutralizing fluid. These models accurately capture the large scale lunar wake dynamics for a variety of solar wind conditions: ion density, temperature, solar wind velocity, and IMF orientation [2]. Given the 3D orientation variability coupled with the large range of conditions seen within the lunar plasma environment, we characterize the environment one case at a time. The global electromagnetic induction response of the Moon in a vacuum has been solved numerically for a variety of electrical conductivity models using the finite-element method implemented within the COMSOL software. This model solves for the geophysically induced response in vacuum to

  17. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  19. Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branscome, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies

  20. Modelling of transient electromagnetics in Tokamaks during off-normal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J. H.; Crutzen, Y. R.; Papadopoulos, S.; Richard, N.

    1993-03-01

    During plasma disruption events in Tokamaks, a considerable amount of magnetic and thermal energy is associated to the transfer of plasma current into eddy and Halo currents. In this paper, a predictive numerical modelling is described concerning plasma-wall interactions during disruptive instabilities. Preliminary results are presented, giving an estimation of heat transfer interaction with electromagnetic phenomena. Eddy currents and heat deposition increase significantly with decreasing disruption time. An estimation of the order of magnitude of Halo currents and associated forces on plasma-facing conducting components is also presented. Durant une disruption de plasma dans les Tokamaks, une quantité considérable d'énergie magnétique et thermique est associée au transfert de courant de plasma sous forme de courants de Foucault et de “Halo”. Cette contribution décrit un modèle numérique capable de prédire les interactions plasma-première paroi durant ces instabilités disruptives. La présentation de résultats préliminaires comprend une estimation de l'interaction entre le phénomène électromagnétique et le transfert de chaleur. Les courants de Foucault et les pertes Joule augmentent fortement quand la durée de disruption devient plus brève. Une évaluation de l'ordre de grandeur des courants de “Halo” et des forces résultantes, appliqués aux composants métalliques placés face au plasma, est également illustrée.

  1. The response of nuclei to electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to give a general introduction to intermediate energy electromagnetic physics at the graduate student level. The aim is to convey physical insight, to attempt to explain the motivation for the measurements, what the results are, what has been understood, and what puzzles remain for the future. The author hopes to give a panorama and to convey the present sense of excitement in this very active and developing field. The topics which are treated include: elastic and quasi-elastic electron scattering, electro excitation of the Δ in nuclei, (γ,π) reactions and a brief introduction to hypernuclear production by the (γ,Κ/sup +/) reaction. Time doses not allow the coverage of many important topics such as coincidence reactions, polarization phenomena, and inelastic scattering to discrete nuclear states

  2. Transient response of a five-region nonequilibrium real-time pressurizer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakory, M.R.; Seifaee, F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent accidents at nuclear power plants in the US and abroad have prompted accurate analysis and simulation of the plant systems and the training of reactor operators on plant-specific simulators that are equipped with the simulation models. Consequently, several models for real-time and off-time simulation of nuclear reactor systems, with various levels of accuracy and simulation fidelity, have been introduced. Experience with power plant simulation demonstrates that in order to realistically predict and simulate reactor responses during unanticipated transients, it is necessary to equip the simulation model with a multielement pressurizer model. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a five-region drift-flux-based pressurizer model, which has been developed for integration with real-time training simulators. A comparison between the plant data and the results of the nonequilibrium pressurizer model demonstrates that the model is well capable of close simulation of dynamic behavior of the pressurizer system

  3. Digitally Controlled Point of Load Converter with Very Fast Transient Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    voltage mode control and very fast transient response. The DiSOM modulator is combined with a digital PID compensator algorithm is implemented in a hybrid CPLD/FPGA and is used to control a synchronous Buck converter, which is used in typical Point of Load applications. The computational time is only......This paper presents a new Digital Self-Oscillating Modulator (DiSOM) that allows the duty cycle to be changed instantly. The DiSOM modulator is shown to have variable switching that is a function of the duty cycle. Compared to a more traditional digital PWM modulator based on a counter...... and comparator the DiSOM modulator allows the sampling frequency of the output voltage control loop to be higher than the switching frequency of the power converter, typically a DC/DC converter. The features of the DiSOM modulator makes it possible to design a digitally controlled DC/DC converter with linear...

  4. Analysis of the FFTF primary pipe rupture transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K.R.; Bari, R.A.; Chen, L.C.; Albright, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    The response of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to hypothetical ruptures of the high pressure primary piping has been analyzed using two LMFBR plant systems codes, namely IANUS and DEMO. Comparisons of the average channel temperatures predicted by the two codes show good agreement for identical transients. However, the hot channel temperatures predicted by DEMO are about 60K higher than the corresponding IANUS predictions for severe transients. This difference is attributed to the dynamic hot channel factors employed in DEMO which discount the thermal inertia of the duct walls for rapid transients. DEMO also predicts more severe transients for hot-leg ruptures in FFTF than previously reported analyses for the CRBR

  5. Observations of the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source by the TOROS Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M. C.; Macri, L. M.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Nilo Castellón, J. L.; Ribeiro, T.; Sánchez, B.; Schoenell, W.; Abramo, L. R.; Akras, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Artola, R.; Beroiz, M.; Bonoli, S.; Cabral, J.; Camuccio, R.; Castillo, M.; Chavushyan, V.; Coelho, P.; Colazo, C.; Costa-Duarte, M. V.; Cuevas Larenas, H.; DePoy, D. L.; Domínguez Romero, M.; Dultzin, D.; Fernández, D.; García, J.; Girardini, C.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Gurovich, S.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Kanaan, A.; Lares, M.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; López-Cruz, O.; Marshall, J. L.; Melia, R.; Molino, A.; Padilla, N.; Peñuela, T.; Placco, V. M.; Quiñones, C.; Ramírez Rivera, A.; Renzi, V.; Riguccini, L.; Ríos-López, E.; Rodriguez, H.; Sampedro, L.; Schneiter, M.; Sodré, L.; Starck, M.; Torres-Flores, S.; Tornatore, M.; Zadrożny, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of prompt optical follow-up of the electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational-wave event GW170817 by the Transient Optical Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration. We detected highly significant dimming in the light curves of the counterpart ({{Δ }}g=0.17+/- 0.03 mag, {{Δ }}r=0.14+/- 0.02 mag, {{Δ }}I=0.10+/- 0.03 mag) over the course of only 80 minutes of observations obtained ˜35 hr after the trigger with the T80-South telescope. A second epoch of observations, obtained ˜59 hr after the event with the EABA 1.5 m telescope, confirms the fast fading nature of the transient. The observed colors of the counterpart suggest that this event was a “blue kilonova” relatively free of lanthanides.

  6. Electromagnetic and structural coupled analysis with the effect of large deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Niho, Tomoya

    1997-01-01

    In the designs of future fusion reactors and magnetic levitated vehicles, thin shell conducting structures are located in a high electromagnetic field. The transient magnetic field induces the eddy current on the conductive structure. While the Lorentz force by the eddy current and the magnetic field is loaded to the thin shell structure, the electromotive force by the deflection velocity and magnetic field reduces the eddy current. Therefore, the electromagnetic and structural coupled analysis is required for the design of these components. This paper describes a coupled finite element analysis for the eddy current and the structure. A formulation is presented considering the effect of the large deflection of shell structures by the total Lagrangian formulation. Both matrix equations for the eddy current and the structure are solved simultaneously using coupling sub-matrices. A coupled problem of a cantilever bending plate is analyzed. Based on the analysis results, the influence of the large deflection on the coupling effect is discussed. The condition that the large deflection analysis is required is examined through some parametric analyses

  7. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  8. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  9. Possible role of magnetic reconnection in the electromagnetic counterpart of binary black hole merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a qualitative scenario to interpret the argued association between the direct measurement of the gravitational wave event GW150914 by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO)-Virgo collaborations and the hard X-ray transient detected by Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) 0.4 sec after. In a binary system of two gravitationally collapsing objects with a non-vanishing electric charge, the compenetration of the two magnetospheres occurring during the coalescence, through magnetic reconnection, produces a highly collimated relativistic outflow that becomes optically thin and shines in the GBM field of view. We propose that this process should be expected as a commonplace in the future joint gravitational/electromagnetic detections and, in case of neutron star-neutron star merger event, might lead to detectable X- or γ-ray precursors to, or transients associated with, the gravitational bursts.

  10. Software Tools for Measuring and Calculating Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tesny, Neal

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation and the analysis of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse response of shielded enclosures require the availability of software tools able to acquire data and calculate shielding effectiveness...

  11. Effects of an electromagnetic shield and armature teeth on the short-circuit performance of a direct drive superconducting generator for 10 MW wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2015-01-01

    reactance. An electromagnetic (EM) shield between the rotor and the stator as well as iron or non-magnetic composite (NMC) armature teeth affects the sub-transient reactance of a superconducting machine so that they play a role in the short-circuit performance of a superconducting wind generator. This paper...

  12. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Vance, E.F. [Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  13. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan

    2008-01-01

    Response of PEM fuel cells to a step-change in load is investigated experimentally in this work. Voltage undershoot, a characteristic feature of such transient response, is shown to be due to transients of water distribution in membrane phase occurring at sub-second time scales. Use of humidified reactants as a means to control magnitude of voltage undershoot has been demonstrated. Constant stoichiometry operation under certain current-step conditions is found to result in reactant starvation, potentially leading to cell shut down. Further, response under step decrease in current density has been explored to determine existence of hysteresis. Under sufficiently humidified conditions, response under forward and reverse step changes are found to be symmetric, but under low RH conditions, voltage undershoot is found to be twice as large as the overshoot. © The Electrochemical Society.

  14. Calculation of transient overvoltages in a 145-kV-cable termination by using the FDTD-method; Feldstaerkenberechnung bei transienten Spannungen an einem 145-kV-Endverschluss mit Hilfe des FDTD-Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard, G.; Ioffe, A. [Gerhard-Mercator-Univ.-GH Duisburg (Germany). Fachgebiet Elektrische Energieuebertragung

    1997-10-20

    The transient electromagnetic field occured from the overvoltages in a slip-on cable termination was calculated by using the FDTD-method. The electric field strength in a gap between the cable shield and the stress cone was studied. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe des FDTD-Feldberechnungsverfahrens wird das transiente elektromagnetische Feld in einem Aufschiebeendverschluss untersucht, wobei ein Luftspalt zwischen den leitenden Teilen der Kabelader und dem Feldsteuerelement beruecksichtigt wird. (orig.)

  15. Electromagnetic excitation of a generic cavity with a variable e-beam pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, R.; Kerris, K.; Merkel, G.; Roberts, H.; Smith, M.

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic electron-beam nose-erosion techniques have been employed to produce an electron beam with variable pulse shape and bremsstrahlung capability (''dial a pulse''). This capability has been employed to excite a large number of electromagnetic fields inside a canonical cavity. Electron-beam and bremsstrahlung pulse-shape parameters have been varied to produce changes in the electromagnetic cavity response. For example, generic cavity test parameters such as displacement currents or conduction currents can be emphasized or de-emphasized. A theoretical interpretation of these electromagnetic excitations is presented

  16. Some models of propagation of extremely short electromagnetic pulses in a nonlinear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimistov, Andrei I

    2000-01-01

    Some cases of model media considered in this paper allow analytical solutions to nonlinear wave equations to be found and the time dependence of the electric field strength to be determined in the explicit form for arbitrarily short electromagnetic pulses. Our analysis does not employ any assumptions concerning a harmonic carrier wave or the variation rate of the field in such pulses. The class of models considered includes two-level resonance and quasi-resonance systems. Nonresonance media are analysed in terms of models of anharmonic oscillators - the Duffing and Lorentz models. In most cases, only particular solutions describing the stationary propagation of a video pulse (a unipolar transient of the electric field or a pulse including a small number of oscillations of the electric field around zero) can be found. These solutions correspond to sufficiently strong electromagnetic fields when the dispersion inherent in the medium is suppressed by nonlinear processes. (invited paper)

  17. An MOT-TDIE solver for analyzing transient fields on graphene-based devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifei

    2016-11-02

    A marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on devices consisting of graphene sheets and dielectric substrates is proposed. The MOT scheme discretizes time domain resistive boundary condition (TD-RBC) and Poggio-Miller-Chang-Harrington-Wu-Tsai (TD-PMCHWT) integral equation, which are enforced on the surfaces of the graphene and dielectric substrate, respectively. The expressions of the time domain resistivity and conductivity of the graphene sheet are obtained analytically from the intra-band contribution formulated in frequency domain. Numerical results, which demonstrate the applicability of the proposed scheme, are presented.

  18. Transient reflectivity on vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galimberti, Gianluca; Ponzoni, Stefano; Ferrini, Gabriele [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Advanced Materials Physics (i-LAMP) and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, I-25121 Brescia (Italy); Hofmann, Stephan [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Arshad, Muhammad [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen (Netherlands); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); National Centre for Physics Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali — CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Pagliara, Stefania, E-mail: pagliara@dmf.unicatt.it [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Advanced Materials Physics (i-LAMP) and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, I-25121 Brescia (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    One-color transient reflectivity measurements are carried out on two different samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and compared with the response recently published on unaligned bundles. The negative sign of the optical response for both samples indicates that the free electron character revealed on unaligned bundles is only due to the intertube interactions favored by the tube bending. Neither the presence of bundles nor the existence of structural defects in aligned bundles is able to induce a free-electron like behavior of the photoexcited carriers. This result is also confirmed by the presence of non-linear excitonic effects in the transient response of the aligned bundles. - Highlights: • Transient reflectivity measurements on two aligned carbon nanotube samples • Relationship between unalignment and/or bundling and intertube interaction • The bundling is not able to modify the intertube interactions • The presence of structural defects does not affect the intertube interactions • A localized exciton-like behavior has been revealed in these samples.

  19. On the dynamic fracture toughness and crack tip strain behavior of nuclear pressure vessel steel: Application of electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of the electromagnetic force to the determination of the dynamic fracture toughness of materials. Taken is an edge-cracked specimen which carries a transient electric current and is simply supported in a steady magnetic field. As a result of their interaction, the dynamic electromagnetic force occurs in the whole body of the specimen, which is then deformed to fracture in the opening mode of cracking. Using the electric potential and the J-R curve methods to determine the dynamic crack initiation point in the experiment, together with the finite element method to calculate the extended J-integral with the effects of the electromagnetic force and inertia, the dynamic fracture toughness values of nuclear pressure vessel steel A508 class 3 are evaluated over a wide temperature range from lower to upper shelves. The strain distribution near the crack tip in the dynamic process of fracture is also obtained by applying a computer picture processing. (orig.)

  20. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

  1. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  2. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  3. Use of a superconductive gradiometer in an ultrasensitive electromagnetic metal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czipott, P.V.; Podney, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a new instrument that we call an electromagnetic gradiometer. It uses a SQUID sensor as the receiver in an active, electromagnetic detector of nonferrous as well as ferrous objects. The gradiometer pickup loops sit in the center of magnet coils that generate a time-varying magnetic field inducing eddy currents in conductive bodies. The gradiometer measures the secondary magnetic field of the eddy currents. The SQUID's sensitivity at frequencies below 1 kHz makes electromagnetic metal detectors practical in the marine environment, where the electrical conductivity of seawater precludes conventional systems. The authors describe a prototype system that attains a detection range of 10 m in seawater for targets 50 cm in diameter. It operates at frequencies from 1 Hz to a few hundred Hz. Uses of the electromagnetic gradiometer include locating naval mines and undersea treasure. The system's response to seawater enables application to airborne electromagnetic bathymetry. On land, its sensitivity to crustal conductivity contrasts suits it to mineral exploration

  4. Minimum depth of investigation for grounded-wire TEM due to self-transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nannan; Xue, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    The grounded-wire transient electromagnetic method (TEM) has been widely used for near-surface metalliferous prospecting, oil and gas exploration, and hydrogeological surveying in the subsurface. However, it is commonly observed that such TEM signal is contaminated by the self-transient process occurred at the early stage of data acquisition. Correspondingly, there exists a minimum depth of investigation, above which the observed signal is not applicable for reliable data processing and interpretation. Therefore, for achieving a more comprehensive understanding of the TEM method, it is necessary to perform research on the self-transient process and moreover develop an approach for quantifying the minimum detection depth. In this paper, we first analyze the temporal procedure of the equivalent circuit of the TEM method and present a theoretical equation for estimating the self-induction voltage based on the inductor of the transmitting wire. Then, numerical modeling is applied for building the relationship between the minimum depth of investigation and various properties, including resistivity of the earth, offset, and source length. It is guide for the design of survey parameters when the grounded-wire TEM is applied to the shallow detection. Finally, it is verified through applications to a coal field in China.

  5. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part I: Theory and description of model capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, A. René; Federici, Gianfranco

    1997-04-01

    RACLETTE (Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation), a comprehensive but relatively simple and versatile model, was developed to help in the design analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs) under 'slow' high power transients, such as those associated with plasma vertical displacement events. The model includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the PFC block thermal response and the coolant behaviour. This paper represents part I of two sister and complementary papers. It covers the model description, calibration and validation, and presents a number of parametric analyses shedding light on and identifying trends in the PFC armour block response to high plasma energy deposition transients. Parameters investigated include the plasma energy density and deposition time, the armour thickness and the presence of vapour shielding effects. Part II of the paper focuses on specific design analyses of ITER plasma facing components (divertor, limiter, primary first wall and baffle), including improvements in the thermal-hydraulic modeling required for better understanding the consequences of high energy deposition transients in particular for the ITER limiter case.

  6. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Pt. I. Theory and description of model capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., p.101-30, 1997. RACLETTE (Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation), a comprehensive but relatively simple and versatile model, was developed to help in the design analysis of plasma facing components (PFCs) under 'slow' high power transients, such as those associated with plasma vertical displacement events. The model includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the PFC block thermal response and the coolant behaviour. This paper represents part I of two sister and complementary papers. It covers the model description, calibration and validation, and presents a number of parametric analyses shedding light on and identifying trends in the PFC armour block response to high plasma energy deposition transients. Parameters investigated include the plasma energy density and deposition time, the armour thickness and the presence of vapour shielding effects. Part II of the paper focuses on specific design analyses of ITER plasma facing components (divertor, limiter, primary first wall and baffle), including improvements in the thermal-hydraulic modeling required for better understanding the consequences of high energy deposition transients in particular for the ITER limiter case. (orig.)

  7. A discontinuous galerkin time domain-boundary integral method for analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an algorithm hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and time domain boundary integral (BI) algorithm for 3-D open region electromagnetic scattering analysis. The computational domain of DGTD is rigorously truncated by analytically evaluating the incoming numerical flux from the outside of the truncation boundary through BI method based on the Huygens\\' principle. The advantages of the proposed method are that it allows the truncation boundary to be conformal to arbitrary (convex/ concave) scattering objects, well-separated scatters can be truncated by their local meshes without losing the physics (such as coupling/multiple scattering) of the problem, thus reducing the total mesh elements. Furthermore, low frequency waves can be efficiently absorbed, and the field outside the truncation domain can be conveniently calculated using the same BI formulation. Numerical examples are benchmarked to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method.

  8. Analysis of a multi-frequency electromagnetic imaging functional for thin, crack-like electromagnetic inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a non-iterative multi-frequency subspace migration imaging algorithm was developed based on an asymptotic expansion formula for thin, curve-like electromagnetic inclusions and the structure of singular vectors in the Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix. The present study examines the structure of subspace migration imaging functional and proposes an improved imaging functional weighted by the frequency. We identify the relationship between the imaging functional and Bessel functions ...

  9. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  10. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  11. Analysis methods of stochastic transient electro–magnetic processes in electric traction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mishchenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The essence and basic characteristics of calculation methods of transient electromagnetic processes in the elements and devices of non–linear dynamic electric traction systems taking into account the stochastic changes of voltages and currents in traction networks of power supply subsystem and power circuits of electric rolling stock are developed. Methodology. Classical methods and the methods of non–linear electric engineering, as well as probability theory method, especially the methods of stationary ergodic and non–stationary stochastic processes application are used in the research. Findings. Using the above-mentioned methods an equivalent circuit and the system of nonlinear integra–differential equations for electromagnetic condition of the double–track inter-substation zone of alternating current electric traction system are drawn up. Calculations allow obtaining electric traction current distribution in the areas of feeder zones. Originality. First of all the paper is interesting and important from scientific point of view due to the methods, which allow taking into account probabilistic character of change for traction voltages and electric traction system currents. On the second hand the researches develop the most efficient methods of nonlinear circuits’ analysis. Practical value. The practical value of the research is presented in application of the methods to the analysis of electromagnetic and electric energy processes in the traction power supply system in the case of high-speed train traffic.

  12. UN_PAT: a software for calculating transient grounding potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Hernán Montaña

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from work done at the National University of Colombia and from a PhD thesis written there. This work was aimed at implementing software for analysing the transient behaviour of any configuration of grounding system buried in lineal, homogeneous and isotropic soil. The hybrid electromagnetic model (HEM was used because it presents high versatility and low computation time. The UN_PAT software was written in C++; it used free libraries with the aim of being free software so that it could be modified and improved in future work. The software results were validated with other software, with results from another analysis model and experimental results; some of these comparisons are given in this paper.

  13. Application of the Matrix Pencil Method for Estimating the SEM (Singularity Expansion Method) Poles of Source Free Transient Responses From Multiple Look Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2000-01-01

    .... The SEM poles are independent of the angle at which the transient response is recorded. The only difference between the various waveforms are that the residues at the various poles are of different magnitudes...

  14. On spherical harmonic representation of transient waves in dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Victor V

    2003-01-01

    Axisymmetric transient solutions to the inhomogeneous telegraph equation are constructed in terms of spherical harmonics. Explicit solutions of the initial-value problem are derived in the spacetime domain by means of the Smirnov method of incomplete separation of variables and the Riemann formula. The corresponding Riemann function is constructed with the help of the Olevsky theorem. Solutions for some source distributions on a sphere expanding with a velocity greater than the wavefront velocity are obtained. This allows an analogous solution in the case of a circle belonging to a sphere expanding with the wavefront velocity to be written at once. Application of the scalar solution to a description of electromagnetic waves is also discussed

  15. Transient thermal performance analysis of micro heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Chen, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of transient fluid flow and heat transfer in a triangular micro heat pipes (MHP) has been conducted to study the thermal response characteristics. By introducing the system identification theory, the quantitative evaluation of the MHP's transient thermal performance is realized. The results indicate that the evaporation and condensation processes are both extended into the adiabatic section. During the start-up process, the capillary radius along axial direction of MHP decreases drastically while the liquid velocity increases quickly at the early transient stage and an approximately linear decrease in wall temperature arises along the axial direction. The MHP behaves as a first-order LTI control system with the constant input power as the 'step input' and the evaporator wall temperature as the 'output'. Two corresponding evaluation criteria derived from the control theory, time constant and temperature constant, are able to quantitatively evaluate the thermal response speed and temperature level of MHP under start-up, which show that a larger triangular groove's hydraulic diameter within 0.18–0.42 mm is able to accelerate the start-up and decrease the start-up temperature level of MHP. Additionally, the MHP starts up fastest using the fluid of ethanol and most slowly using the working fluid of methanol, and the start-up temperature reaches maximum level for acetone and minimum level for the methanol. -- Highlights: • Transient thermal response of micro heat pipe is simulated by an improved model. • Control theory is introduced to quantify the thermal response of micro heat pipe. • Evaluation criteria are proposed to represent thermal response of micro heat pipe. • Effects of groove dimensions and working fluids on start-up of micro heat pipe are evaluated

  16. Conceptual Design Study on Electromagnets of Control Rod Drive Mechanism of a SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehan; Koo, Gyeonghoi

    2013-01-01

    The prototype SFR has six primary control rod assemblies(CRAs) and three secondary shutdown assemblies. The primary control system is used for power control, burnup compensation and reactor shutdown in response to demands from the plant control or protection systems. This paper describes the design concept of primary control rod drive mechanism shortly, and performs the parametric design studies for the electromagnet device of the drive mechanism to maximize CRA gripping force. The electromagnetic core usually confines and guides the magnetic field. The major parameters influenced on the electromagnetic force are the geometry and arrangement of the electromagnet and armature for a given coil specification. A typical equation calculating the electromagnetic force for a solenoid type is represented in equation. The first one is the increasing of the flux cross section area (Α c , Α g ) in magnetic field connecting of air gap, armature and electromagnets. Secondly, the reducing of the path lengths (l c , l g ) of the armature and electromagnet makes the magnetic flux (Β) resistance to be low. An electromagnet field analyses are performed for the initial design values of the electromagnet device. The gripping force is about 3 times of CRA weight when one coil is power on. The parametric studies on air gap, core sizes configuring of the electromagnet cores are performed to maximize the electromagnetic force

  17. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  18. Discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksa, Martin, E-mail: martin.aleksa@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Diemoz, Marcella [INFN Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    This document summarizes a discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS, two experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), that took place at the 13th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation in February 2013. During the discussion each electromagnetic calorimeter and its performance was described in response to ten questions chosen to cover a wide range from the design and construction of the calorimeters over the calibration and performance to their role in the discovery of the Higgs boson and upgrade plans.

  19. Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Tümkaya, Levent; Terzi, Suat; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Erdivanlı, Özlem Çelebi; Dursun, Engin

    2015-08-01

    The results support that chronic electromagnetic field exposure may cause damage by leading to neuronal degeneration of the auditory system. Numerous researches have been done about the risks of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that occur during the use of these devices, especially the effects on hearing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the mobile phones through the electrophysiological and histological methods. Twelve adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided into two groups of six rats. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days. The control group was not given any exposure to the electromagnetic fields. After the completion of the electromagnetic wave application, the auditory brainstem responses of both groups were recorded under anesthesia. The degeneration of cochlear nuclei was graded by two different histologists, both of whom were blinded to group information. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema in the group exposed to the electromagnetic fields compared to the control group. The average latency of wave in the ABR was similar in both groups (p > 0.05).

  20. Performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Awes, T.; Badala, A.; Baumgart, S.; Bellwied, R.; Benhabib, L.; Bernard, C.; Bianchi, N.; Blanco, F.; Bortoli, Y.; Bourdaud, G.; Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Bruna, E.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D.; Capitani, G.P.; Carcagno, Y.; Casanova Diaz, A.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic sampling calorimeter has been studied in test beam measurements at FNAL and CERN. A 4x4 array of final design modules showed an energy resolution of about 11%/√(E(GeV))+1.7% with a uniformity of the response to electrons of 1% and a good linearity in the energy range from 10 to 100 GeV. The electromagnetic shower position resolution was found to be described by 1.5mm+5.3mm/√(E(GeV)). For an electron identification efficiency of 90% a hadron rejection factor of >600 was obtained.

  1. Transient response of a liquid injector to a steep-fronted transverse pressure wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Heister, S.; Stechmann, D.; Kan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the dynamic injection environment posed by unsteady pressure gain combustion processes, an experimental apparatus was developed to visualize the dynamic response of a transparent liquid injector subjected to a single steep-fronted transverse pressure wave. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with a variety of acrylic injector passage designs using water as the working fluid. High-speed visual observations were made of the injector exit near field, and the extent of backflow and the time to refill the orifice passage were characterized over a range of injection pressures. A companion transient one-dimensional model was developed for interpretation of the results and to elucidate the trends with regard to the strength of the transverse pressure wave. Results from the model were compared with the experimental observations.

  2. 3D modeling of lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses on Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Invernón, Francisco J.; Luque, Alejandro; Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric electricity is a common phenomenon in some planets of The Solar System. We know that atmospheric discharges exist on Earth and gaseous planets; however, some characteristics of lightning on Saturn and Jupiter as well as their relevance on the effects of lightning in the atmospheres of these planets are still unknown. In the case of Venus, there exist some radio evidences of lightning, but the lack of optical observations suggests exploring indirect methods of detection, such as searching for lightning-induced transient optical emissions from the upper atmosphere. The Akatsuki probe, currently orbiting Venus, is equipped with a camera whose temporal resolution is high enough to detect optical emissions from lightning discharges and to measure nightglow enhancements. In this work, we extend previous models [1,2] to investigate the chemical impact and transient optical emissions produced by possible lightning-emitted electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in Venus, Saturn and Jupiter. Using a 3D FDTD ("Finite Differences Time Domain") model we solve the Maxwell equations coupled with the Langevin equation for electrons [3] and with a kinetic scheme, different for each planetary atmosphere. This method is useful to investigate the temporal and spatial impact of lightning-induced electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere of each planet for different lightning characteristics (e.g. energy released, orientation). This 3D FDTD model allows us to include the saturnian and jovian background magnetic field inclination and magnitude at different latitudes, and to determine the effects of different lightning channel inclinations. Results provide useful information to interpret lightning observations on giant gaseous planets and in the search for indirect optical signals from atmospheric discharge on Venus such as fast nightglow transient enhancements related to lightning as seen on Earth. Furthermore, we underline the observation of electrical discharges characteristics as a

  3. Stochastic resonance of ensemble neurons for transient spike trains: Wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    By using the wavelet transformation (WT), I have analyzed the response of an ensemble of N (=1, 10, 100, and 500) Hodgkin-Huxley neurons to transient M-pulse spike trains (M=1 to 3) with independent Gaussian noises. The cross correlation between the input and output signals is expressed in terms of the WT expansion coefficients. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is evaluated by using the denoising method within the WT, by which the noise contribution is extracted from the output signals. Although the response of a single (N=1) neuron to subthreshold transient signals with noises is quite unreliable, the transmission fidelity assessed by the cross correlation and SNR is shown to be much improved by increasing the value of N: a population of neurons plays an indispensable role in the stochastic resonance (SR) for transient spike inputs. It is also shown that in a large-scale ensemble, the transmission fidelity for suprathreshold transient spikes is not significantly degraded by a weak noise which is responsible to SR for subthreshold inputs

  4. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  5. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous halfspace, two, three and multilayered sections were analyzed in frequency and time domains. The calculations for different values of chargeability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers. In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong changes in transient curves. In some cases quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of "high-resolution" electroprospecting in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is nonunique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably necessary to complement them by soundings of other type.

  6. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type

  7. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V. [Geoelectromagnetic Research Institute, Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasi wave and quasistatic phenomena made Em sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of Em sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type.

  8. Nonlocal homogenization theory in metamaterials: Effective electromagnetic spatial dispersion and artificial chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    We develop, from first principles, a general and compact formalism for predicting the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial with nonmagnetic inclusions in the long-wavelength limit, including spatial dispersion up to the second order. Specifically, by resorting to a suitable multiscale technique, we show that the effective medium permittivity tensor and the first- and second-order tensors describing spatial dispersion can be evaluated by averaging suitable spatially rapidly varying fields, each satisfying electrostatic-like equations within the metamaterial unit cell. For metamaterials with negligible second-order spatial dispersion, we exploit the equivalence of first-order spatial dispersion and reciprocal bianisotropic electromagnetic response to deduce a simple expression for the metamaterial chirality tensor. Such an expression allows us to systematically analyze the effect of the composite spatial symmetry properties on electromagnetic chirality. We find that even if a metamaterial is geometrically achiral, i.e., it is indistinguishable from its mirror image, it shows pseudo-chiral-omega electromagnetic chirality if the rotation needed to restore the dielectric profile after the reflection is either a 0∘ or 90∘ rotation around an axis orthogonal to the reflection plane. These two symmetric situations encompass two-dimensional and one-dimensional metamaterials with chiral response. As an example admitting full analytical description, we discuss one-dimensional metamaterials whose single chirality parameter is shown to be directly related to the metamaterial dielectric profile by quadratures.

  9. Response of hyporheic zones to transient forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T.; Wu, L.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Lewandowski, J.; Nuetzmann, G.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of water, solutes, and energy between river channels and hyporheic zones (HZs) modulates biogeochemical cycling, regulates stream temperature and impacts ecological structure and function. Numerical modelling of HZ processes is required as field observations are challenging for transient flow. To gain a deeper mechanistic understanding of the effects of transient discharge on hyporheic exchange, we performed a systematic analysis using numerical experiments. In this case, we vary (i) the characteristics of time-varying flood events; (ii) river bedform geometry; (iii) river hydraulic geometry; and (iv) the magnitude and direction of groundwater fluxes (neutral, gaining and losing conditions). We conceptualize the stream bed as a two-dimensional system. Whereby the flow is driven by a dynamically changing head distribution at the water-sediment interface and is modulated by steady groundwater flow. Our model estimates both net values for a single bedform and spatial distributions of (i) the flow field; (ii) mean residence times; and (iii) the concentration of a conservative tracer. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed by changing channel slope, flood characteristics, groundwater upwelling/downwelling fluxes and biogeochemical time-scales in different bedforms such as ripples, dunes and alternating bars. Results show that change of parameters can have a substantial impact on exchange fluxes which can lead to the expansion, contraction, emergence and/or dissipation of HZs . Our results also reveal that groundwater fluxes have different impacts on HZs during flood events, depending on the channel slope and bedform topography. It is found that topographies with smaller aspect ratios and shallower slopes are more affected by groundwater upwelling/downwelling fluxes during flood events. The analysis of biogeochemical transformations shows that discharge events can potentially affects the efficiencies of nitrate removal. Taking into consideration multiple

  10. A hybrid DGTD scheme for transient analysis of electromagnetic field interactions on microwave systems loaded with thin wires

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-10-15

    Use of the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on microwave structures loaded with thin wires has been very limited despite its well-known advantages. Direct application of the three dimensional (3D) DGTD method to such structures calls for very fine volumetric discretizations in the proximity of the thin wires. In this work, to avoid this possible source of computational inefficiency, electromagnetic field interactions on thin wires and the rest of the structures are modeled separately using the modified telegrapher and Maxwell equations, respectively. Then, 1D and 3D DGTD methods are used to discretize them. The coupling between the two resulting matrix systems is realized by introducing equivalent source terms in each equation set. A weighted electric field obtained from the 3D discretization around the wire is introduced as a voltage source in the telegrapher equations. A volume current density obtained from the 1D discretization on the wire is introduced as a current source in the Ampere law equation. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Polarization-independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou

    2018-01-01

    A classical electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) metasurface is numerically simulated. This metasurface is composed of two identical and orthogonal double-end semitoroidals (DESTs) metal resonators. Under the excitation of the normal incidence waves, each of the two DESTs structure exhibits electromagnetic dipole responses at different frequencies, which leads to the polarization-independent EIT-like effect. The features of the EIT-like effect are qualitatively analyzed based on the surface current and magnetic field distribution. In addition, the large index is extracted to verify the slow-light property within the transmission window. The EIT-like metasurface structure with the above-mentioned characteristics may have potential applications in some areas, such as sensing, slow light, and filtering devices.

  12. Research on the electromagnetic structure of movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism for reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jige; Yian Huijie; Wu Yuanqiang; Wu Xinxin; Yu Suyuan; He Shuyan

    2007-01-01

    The movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism (MCEDM) is a new drive scheme for the reactor control rod, and it has a simple structure, good security and reliability property, etc. MCEDM with an air cooled structure has been used in the land research reactor. In order to apply MCEDM to the mobile reactor, experimental and theoretical study on the electromagnet with an oil-water cooled structure and a single magnetic flux circuit (called the type A electro-magnet) has been completed. It is proven by the experiment and theory that the oil-water cooled structure is an excellent measure to increase the coil current of MCEDM. Moreover, a type B electromagnet with an oil-water cooled structure and double magnetic flux circuits is designed to further increase the magnetic force of MCEDM. The analysis of finite element method shows that the type B electromagnet could double the saturation current of type A electro-magnet and the magnetic force of type B electromagnet is greater than that of the type A electromagnet. Moreover, it is proven that the dynamic property of type B electromagnet is better than type A electromagnet. (author)

  13. Response of GaAs charge storage devices to transient ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, D. L.; Klem, J. F.; Hughes, R. C.; Weaver, H. T.

    Charge storage devices in which non-equilibrium depletion regions represent stored charge are sensitive to ionizing radiation. This results since the radiation generates electron-hole pairs that neutralize excess ionized dopant charge. Silicon structures, such as dynamic RAM or CCD cells are particularly sensitive to radiation since carrier diffusion lengths in this material are often much longer than the depletion width, allowing collection of significant quantities of charge from quasi-neutral sections of the device. For GaAs the situation is somewhat different in that minority carrier diffusion lengths are shorter than in silicon, and although mobilities are higher, we expect a reduction of radiation sensitivity as suggested by observations of reduced quantum efficiency in GaAs solar cells. Dynamic memory cells in GaAs have potential increased retention times. In this paper, we report the response of a novel GaAs dynamic memory element to transient ionizing radiation. The charge readout technique is nondestructive over a reasonable applied voltage range and is more sensitive to stored charge than a simple capacitor.

  14. Electromagnetic properties for arbitrary spin particles: Natural electromagnetic moments from light-cone arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorce, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    We revisit the old-standing problem of the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and Q 2 =0 should be conserved nontrivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive all the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of any spin. We provide here a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. We also define in a general way the electromagnetic multipole form factors, and show their relation with the electromagnetic moments and covariant vertex functions. The light-cone helicity conservation argument determines uniquely the values of all electromagnetic moments, which we refer to as the 'natural' ones. These specific values are in accordance with the standard model, and the prediction of universal g=2 gyromagnetic factor is naturally recovered. We provide a very simple and compact formula for these natural moments. As an application of our results, we generalize the discussion of quark transverse charge densities to particles with arbitrary spin, giving more physical support to the light-cone helicity conservation argument.

  15. Non-dissipative electromagnetic media with two Lorentz null cones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Matias F.

    2013-01-01

    We study Maxwell’s equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is modeled by an antisymmetric (2/2 )-tensor with 21 real coefficients. In this setting the Fresnel surface is a fourth-order polynomial surface that describes the dynamical response of the medium in the geometric optics limit. For example, in an isotropic medium the Fresnel surface is a Lorentz null cone. The contribution of this paper is the pointwise description of all electromagnetic medium tensors κ with real coefficients that satisfy the following three conditions: (i)medium κ is invertible, (ii)medium κ is skewon-free, or non-dissipative, (iii)the Fresnel surface of κ is the union of two distinct Lorentz null cones. We show that there are only three classes of media with these properties and give explicit expressions in local coordinates for each class. - Highlights: ► We find two new electromagnetic media classes for which the Fresnel surface decomposes into two light cones. ► In a suitable setting we classify all electromagnetic media where this is the case. ► We find an electromagnetic medium tensor with three different signal speeds in one direction. ► The work is related to [5], which classifies all media with one light cone (in a suitable setting).

  16. Association of tinnitus and electromagnetic hypersensitivity: hints for a shared pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landgrebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a frequent condition with high morbidity and impairment in quality of life. The pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Electromagnetic fields are discussed to be involved in the multi-factorial pathogenesis of tinnitus, but data proofing this relationship are very limited. Potential health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF have been under discussion for long. Especially, individuals claiming themselves to be electromagnetic hypersensitive suffer from a variety of unspecific symptoms, which they attribute to EMF-exposure. The aim of the study was to elucidate the relationship between EMF-exposure, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus using a case-control design. METHODOLOGY: Tinnitus occurrence and tinnitus severity were assessed by questionnaires in 89 electromagnetic hypersensitive patients and 107 controls matched for age-, gender, living surroundings and workplace. Using a logistic regression approach, potential risk factors for the development of tinnitus were evaluated. FINDINGS: Tinnitus was significantly more frequent in the electromagnetic hypersensitive group (50.72% vs. 17.5% whereas tinnitus duration and severity did not differ between groups. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus were independent risk factors for sleep disturbances. However, measures of individual EMF-exposure like e.g. cell phone use did not show any association with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus. Hence, therapeutic efforts should focus on treatment strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy aiming at normalizing this dysfunctional distress network.

  17. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  18. Exposure to power frequency magnetic fields suppresses X-ray-induced apoptosis transiently in Ku80-deficient xrs5 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Furong; Nakahara, Takehisa; Yoshida, Masami; Honda, Naoko; Hirose, Hideki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to determine whether exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields can affect cells, Ku80-deficient cells (xrs5) and Ku80-proficient cells (CHO-K1) were exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields. Cell survival, and the levels of the apoptosis-related genes p21, p53, phospho-p53 (Ser 15 ), caspase-3 and the anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 were determined in xrs5 and CHO-K1 cells following exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields and X-rays. It was found that exposure of xrs5 and CHO-K1 cells to 60 Hz ELF electromagnetic fields had no effect on cell survival, cell cycle distribution and protein expression. Exposure of xrs5 cells to 60 Hz ELF electromagnetic fields for 5 h after irradiation significantly inhibited G 1 cell cycle arrest induced by X-rays (1 Gy) and resulted in elevated bcl-2 expression. A significant decrease in the induction of p53, phospho-p53, caspase-3 and p21 proteins was observed in xrs5 cells when irradiation by X-rays (8 Gy) was followed by exposure to 5 mT ELF magnetic fields. Exposure of xrs5 cells to the ELF electromagnetic fields for 10 h following irradiation significantly decreased X-ray-induced apoptosis from about 1.7% to 0.7%. However, this effect was not found in CHO-K1 cells within 24 h of irradiation by X-rays alone and by X-rays combined with ELF electromagnetic fields. Exposure of xrs5 cells to 60 Hz ELF electromagnetic fields following irradiation can affect cell cycle distribution and transiently suppress apoptosis by decreasing the levels of caspase-3, p21, p53 and phospho-p53 and by increasing bcl-2 expression

  19. MOT solution of the PMCHWT equation for analyzing transient scattering from conductive dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes

    2015-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic interactions on conductive dielectric scatterers are analyzed by solving the Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai (PMCHWT) surface integral equation with a marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. The proposed scheme, unlike the previously developed ones, permits the analysis on scatterers with multiple volumes of different conductivity. This is achieved by maintaining an extra temporal convolution that only depends on permittivity and conductivity of these volumes. Its discretization and computation come at almost no additional cost and do not change the computational complexity of the resulting MOT solver. Accuracy and applicability of the MOT-PMCHWT solver are demonstrated by numerical examples.

  20. Coherent synchrotron radiation transient effects in the energy-dependent region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Botman, Jan; Goloviznin, Vladimir; Wiel, Marnix van der

    2002-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is a well known phenomenon that originates from coherent superposition of electromagnetic waves by ultrarelativistic electrons. CSR longitudinal effects during the passage of a Gaussian beam from a straight to a circular path have often been studied in a regime in which they are energy independent. Nevertheless, the approximations used in such a regime may fail in several practical situations, as in the case of low-energy injectors or for small-wavelength structures within the bunch distribution in CSR-related instability problems. These situations demand a deeper investigation of longitudinal transient effects in the region where the approximations above are no longer valid: a strong γ dependence is found, and described in this paper, in the rate of energy change induced by CSR during the transient of a Gaussian bunch between a straight and a circular path, which was studied with the help of the authors' previous work. Results show that the overall CSR longitudinal effects, in this case, are reduced. One of the outcomes of previous work by Saldin et al. was extended to this situation and very good agreement between the two studies was found

  1. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory. (paper)

  2. INTRANS. A computer code for the non-linear structural response analysis of reactor internals under transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The 'INTRANS' system is a general purpose computer code, designed to perform linear and non-linear structural stress and deflection analysis of impacting or non-impacting nuclear reactor internals components coupled with reactor vessel, shield building and external as well as internal gapped spring support system. This paper describes in general a unique computational procedure for evaluating the dynamic response of reactor internals, descretised as beam and lumped mass structural system and subjected to external transient loads such as seismic and LOCA time-history forces. The computational procedure is outlined in the INTRANS code, which computes component flexibilities of a discrete lumped mass planar model of reactor internals by idealising an assemblage of finite elements consisting of linear elastic beams with bending, torsional and shear stiffnesses interacted with external or internal linear as well as non-linear multi-gapped spring support system. The method of analysis is based on the displacement method and the code uses the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration technique as a basis for solution of dynamic equilibrium equations of motion for the system. During the computing process, the dynamic response of each lumped mass is calculated at specific instant of time using well-known step-by-step procedure. At any instant of time then, the transient dynamic motions of the system are held stationary and based on the predicted motions and internal forces of the previous instant. From which complete response at any time-step of interest may then be computed. Using this iterative process, the relationship between motions and internal forces is satisfied step by step throughout the time interval

  3. A fast transient response low dropout regulator with current control methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Zhuo; Guo Yang; Duan Zhikui; Xie Lunguo; Chen Jihua; Yu Jinshan, E-mail: guoyang@nudt.edu.cn [School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2011-08-15

    A transient performance optimized CCL-LDO regulator is proposed. In the CCL-LDO, the control method of the charge pump phase-locked loop is adopted. A current control loop has the feedback signal and reference current to be compared, and then a loop filter generates the gate voltage of the power MOSFET by integrating the error current. The CCL-LDO has the optimized damping coefficient and natural resonant frequency, while its output voltage can be sub-1-V and is not restricted by the reference voltage. With a 1 {mu}F decoupling capacitor, the experimental results based on a 0.13 {mu}m CMOS process show that the output voltage is 1.0 V; when the workload changes from 100 {mu}A to 100 mA transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 8.2 {mu}s and the undershoot is 5.11 mV; when the workload changes from 100 mA to 100 {mu}A transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 23.3 {mu}s and the overshoot is 6.21 mV. The PSRR value is more than -95 dB. Most of the attributes of the CCL-LDO are improved rapidly with a FOM value of 0.0097.

  4. A fast transient response low dropout regulator with current control methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhuo; Guo Yang; Duan Zhikui; Xie Lunguo; Chen Jihua; Yu Jinshan

    2011-01-01

    A transient performance optimized CCL-LDO regulator is proposed. In the CCL-LDO, the control method of the charge pump phase-locked loop is adopted. A current control loop has the feedback signal and reference current to be compared, and then a loop filter generates the gate voltage of the power MOSFET by integrating the error current. The CCL-LDO has the optimized damping coefficient and natural resonant frequency, while its output voltage can be sub-1-V and is not restricted by the reference voltage. With a 1 μF decoupling capacitor, the experimental results based on a 0.13 μm CMOS process show that the output voltage is 1.0 V; when the workload changes from 100 μA to 100 mA transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 8.2 μs and the undershoot is 5.11 mV; when the workload changes from 100 mA to 100 μA transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 23.3 μs and the overshoot is 6.21 mV. The PSRR value is more than -95 dB. Most of the attributes of the CCL-LDO are improved rapidly with a FOM value of 0.0097.

  5. The influence of internal current loop on transient response performance of I-V droop controlled paralleled DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haojie; Han, Minxiao; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    The external droop control loop of I-V droop control is designed as a voltage loop with embedded virtual impedance, so the internal current loop plays a major role in the system bandwidth. Thus, in this paper, the influence of internal current loop on transient response performance of I-V droop...... controlled paralleled dc-dc converters is analyzed, which is guided and significant for its industry application. The model which is used for dynamic analysis is built, and the root locus method is used based on the model to analyze the dynamic response of the system by shifting different control parameters...

  6. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  7. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of time integration methods for transient response analysis of nonlinear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in the evaluation of direct time integration methods for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structures are presented. These developments, which are based on local stability considerations of an integrator, show that the interaction between temporal step size and nonlinearities of structural systems has a pronounced effect on both accuracy and stability of a given time integration method. The resulting evaluation technique is applied to a model nonlinear problem, in order to: 1) demonstrate that it eliminates the present costly process of evaluating time integrator for nonlinear structural systems via extensive numerical experiments; 2) identify the desirable characteristics of time integration methods for nonlinear structural problems; 3) develop improved stiffly-stable methods for application to nonlinear structures. Extension of the methodology for examination of the interaction between a time integrator and the approximate treatment of nonlinearities (such as due to pseudo-force or incremental solution procedures) is also discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Transient Dynamic Response of Delaminated Composite Rotating Shallow Shells Subjected to Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Karmakar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a transient dynamic finite element analysis is presented to study the response of delaminated composite pretwisted rotating shallow shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and moderate rotational speeds are considered wherein the Coriolis effect is negligible. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. To satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front a multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to unsymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are performed in respect of location of delamination, angle of twist and rotational speed for centrally impacted graphite-epoxy composite cylindrical shells.

  10. Numerical calculation of electromagnetic properties including chirality parameters for uniaxial bianisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirkhizi, Alireza V; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of conductive straight wires or coils the electromagnetic properties of a composite material can be modified. The asymmetric geometry of the coils creates an overall chiral response. The polarization vectors rotate as an electromagnetic wave travels through such a medium. To calculate the chirality of a medium prior to its manufacturing, we developed a method to extract all four electromagnetic material parameter tensors for a general uniaxial bianisotropic composite based on the numerical simulation of the electromagnetic fields. Our method uses appropriate line and surface field averages in a single unit cell of the periodic structure of the composite material. These overall field quantities have physical meaning only when the microscopic variation of the electromagnetic fields in the scale of the unit cell is not important, that is when the wavelength of interest is significantly larger than the maximum linear dimension of the unit cell. The overall constitutive relations of the periodic structure can then be obtained from the relations among the average quantities

  11. Electromagnetic fields and their impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, M. A.; Kasaš-Lažetić, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to briefly recall some different electromagnetic field definitions, some macroscopic sources of electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic fields classification regarding time dependences, and the ways of field determination in concrete cases. After that, all the mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic field and substance, on atomic level, are described in details. Interaction between substance and electric field is investigated separately from the substance and magnetic field interaction. It is demonstrated that, in all cases of the unique electromagnetic field, total interaction can be treated as a superposition of two separated interactions. Finally, the main electromagnetic fields surrounding us is cited and discussed.

  12. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Shao, M. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pajic, S. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); D' Aquila, R. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  13. Supplement: “Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914” (2016, ApJL, 826, L13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. C.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. 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H.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration; Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration; Connaughton, V.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Zhang, B.-B.; Hui, C. M.; Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Giles, M. M.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Mailyan, B.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Roberts, O.; Sparke, L.; Stanbro, M.; Toelge, K.; Veres, P.; Yu, H.-F.; Blackburn, L.; Fermi GBM Collaboration; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Marelli, M.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Salvetti, D.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Venters, T. M.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zhu, S.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Brocato, E.; Cappellaro, E.; Covino, S.; Grado, A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Amati, L.; Antonelli, L. A.; Capaccioli, M.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Getman, F.; Giuffrida, G.; Iannicola, G.; Limatola, L.; Lisi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Possenti, A.; Pulone, L.; Rossi, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stella, L.; Testa, V.; Tomasella, L.; Yang, S.; GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm (GRAWITA); Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Ferrigno, C.; Hanlon, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Laurent, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J. P.; Savchenko, V.; Ubertini, P.; INTEGRAL Collaboration; Kasliwal, M. M.; Singer, L. P.; Cao, Y.; Duggan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bhalerao, V.; Miller, A. A.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Manulis, I.; Rana, J.; Laher, R.; Masci, F.; Surace, J.; Rebbapragada, U.; Cook, D.; Van Sistine, A.; Sesar, B.; Perley, D.; Ferreti, R.; Prince, T.; Kendrick, R.; Horesh, A.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF Collaboration); Hurley, K.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Aptekar, R. L.; Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.; Smith, D. M.; Cline, T.; Krimm, H.; InterPlanetary Network; Abe, F.; Doi, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Kawabata, K. S.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Ohta, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yoshida, M.; J-GEM Collaboration; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Ellman, N.; Rostami, S.; La Silla-QUEST Survey; Bersier, D. F.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mazzali, P.; Mundell, C. G.; Piascik, A. S.; Pollacco, Don; Steele, I. A.; Ulaczyk, K.; Liverpool Telescope Collaboration; Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Rowlinson, A.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Low Frequency Array (LOFAR Collaboration); Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tyurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelian, G.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Poleshuk, V.; Tlatov, A.; Yurkov, V.; MASTER Collaboration; Kawai, N.; Serino, M.; Negoro, H.; Nakahira, S.; Mihara, T.; Tomida, H.; Ueno, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Matsuoka, M.; MAXI Collaboration; Croft, S.; Feng, L.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Williams, A.; Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA Collaboration); Smartt, S. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Young, D. R.; Wright, D. E.; Schultz, A.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Magnier, E. A.; Primak, N.; Rest, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Willman, M.; Pan-STARRS Collaboration; Olivares E., F.; Campbell, H.; Kotak, R.; Sollerman, J.; Smith, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Anderson, J. P.; Botticella, M. T.; Chen, T.-W.; Della Valle, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kupfer, T.; Harmanen, J.; Galbany, L.; Le Guillou, L.; Lyman, J. D.; Maguire, K.; Mitra, A.; Nicholl, M.; Razza, A.; Terreran, G.; Valenti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; PESSTO Collaboration; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Opiela, R.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Pi of Sky Collaboration; Onken, C. A.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Wolf, C.; Yuan, F.; SkyMapper Collaboration; Evans, P. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Giommi, P.; Marshall, F. E.; Nousek, J.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Palmer, D.; Perri, M.; Siegel, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Swift Collaboration; Klotz, A.; Turpin, D.; Laugier, R.; TAROT Collaboration; Zadko Collaboration; Algerian National Observatory, Algerian Collaboration; C2PU Collaboration; Beroiz, M.; Peñuela, T.; Macri, L. M.; Oelkers, R. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Vrech, R.; Cabral, J.; Colazo, C.; Dominguez, M.; Sanchez, B.; Gurovich, S.; Lares, M.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Padilla, N.; Pereyra, N. A.; Benacquista, M.; TOROS Collaboration; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Levan, A. J.; Steeghs, D.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Watson, D.; Irwin, M.; Fernandez, C. G.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. de U.; Thoene, C. C.; Cano, Z.; Rosswog, S.; VISTA Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    This Supplement provides supporting material for Abbott et al. (2016a). We briefly summarize past electromagnetic (EM) follow-up efforts as well as the organization and policy of the current EM follow-up program. We compare the four probability sky maps produced for the gravitational-wave transient GW150914, and provide additional details of the EM follow-up observations that were performed in the different bands.

  14. SUPPLEMENT: “LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914” (2016, ApJL, 826, L13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X. [LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Abbott, T. D. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Acernese, F.; Addesso, P. [Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno (Italy); Ackley, K. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Adams, C. [LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754 (United States); Adams, T. [Laboratoire d’Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K. [Nikhef, Science Park, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aggarwal, N. [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aguiar, O. D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Aiello, L. [INFN, Gran Sasso Science Institute, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Ain, A. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Ajith, P., E-mail: lsc-spokesperson@ligo.org, E-mail: virgo-spokesperson@ego-gw.eu, E-mail: Julie.E.McEnery@nasa.gov [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560012 (India); Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration; Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) Collaboration; BOOTES Collaboration; Dark Energy Survey and the Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaborations; Fermi GBM Collaboration; Fermi LAT Collaboration; GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm (GRAWITA); INTEGRAL Collaboration; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) Collaboration; InterPlanetary Network; J-GEM Collaboration; La Silla–QUEST Survey; Liverpool Telescope Collaboration; Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Collaboration; MASTER Collaboration; MAXI Collaboration; Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) Collaboration; Pan-STARRS Collaboration; PESSTO Collaboration; Pi of the Sky Collaboration; SkyMapper Collaboration; Swift Collaboration; TAROT, Zadko, Algerian National Observatory, and C2PU Collaboration; TOROS Collaboration; VISTA Collaboration; and others

    2016-07-01

    This Supplement provides supporting material for Abbott et al. (2016a). We briefly summarize past electromagnetic (EM) follow-up efforts as well as the organization and policy of the current EM follow-up program. We compare the four probability sky maps produced for the gravitational-wave transient GW150914, and provide additional details of the EM follow-up observations that were performed in the different bands.

  15. SUPPLEMENT: “LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914” (2016, ApJL, 826, L13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Addesso, P.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Supplement provides supporting material for Abbott et al. (2016a). We briefly summarize past electromagnetic (EM) follow-up efforts as well as the organization and policy of the current EM follow-up program. We compare the four probability sky maps produced for the gravitational-wave transient GW150914, and provide additional details of the EM follow-up observations that were performed in the different bands.

  16. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J [Jemez Springs, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  17. [Mechanisms of primary reception of electromagnetic waves of optical range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huliar, S O; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P

    2003-01-01

    An existence of separate functional system of regulation of electromagnetic balance of organism has been substantiated and a working conception of light therapy has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy of the polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation. Foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines the achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows to attain a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about the development of physiological responses (analgesia) to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic fields of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems), as well as via the acupuncture points. It confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy (by polarized polychromatic coherent low energy light) consists in combined (local and system) exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.

  18. Performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J; Badala, A; Baumgart, S; Bellwied, R; Benhabib, L; Bernard, C; Bianchi, N; Blanco, F; Bortoli, Y; Bourdaud, G; Bourrion, O; Boyer, B; Bruna, E; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D; Capitani, G P; Carcagno, Y; Casanova Diaz, A; Cherney, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Cormier, T M; Cunqueiro Mendez, L; Delagrange, H; Del Franco, M; Dialinas, M; Di Nezza, P; Donoghue, A; Elnimr, M; Enokizono, A; Estienne, M; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fichera, F; Foglio, B; Fresneau, S; Fujita, J; Furget, C; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Germain, M; Giudice, N; Gorbunov, Y; Grimaldi, A; Guardone, N; Guernane, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamblen, J; Harris, J W; Hasch, D; Heinz, M; Hille, P T; Hornback, D; Ichou, R; Jacobs, P; Jangal, S; Jayananda, K; Klay, J L; Knospe, A G; Kox, S; Kral, J; Laloux, P; LaPointe, S; La Rocca, P; Lewis, S; Li, Q; Librizzi, F; Madagodahettige Don, D; Martashvili, I; Mayes, B; Milletto, T; Muccifora, V; Muller, H; Muraz, J F; Nattrass, C; Noto, F; Novitzky, N; Odyniec, G; Orlandi, A; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Pavlinov, A; Pesci, W; Petrov, V; Petta, C; Pichot, P; Pinsky, L; Ploskon, M; Pompei, F; Pulvirenti, A; Putschke, J; Pruneau, C A; Rak, J; Rasson, J; Read, K F; Real, J S; Reolon, A R; Riggi, F; Riso, J; Ronchetti, F; Roy, C; Roy, D; Salemi, M; Salur, S; Sharma, M; Silvermyr, D; Smirnov, N; Soltz, R; Sparti, V; Stutzmann, J.-S; Symons, T J.M; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tarini, L; Thomen, R; Timmins, A; van Leeuwen, M; Vieira, R; Viticchie, A; Voloshin, S; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Ward, R M

    2010-01-01

    The performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic sampling calorimeter has been studied in test beam measurements at FNAL and CERN. A $4\\times4$ array of final design modules showed an energy resolution of about 11% /$\\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ $\\oplus$ 1.7 % with a uniformity of the response to electrons of 1% and a good linearity in the energy range from 10 to 100 GeV. The electromagnetic shower position resolution was found to be described by 1.5 mm $\\oplus$ 5.3 mm /$\\sqrt{E \\mathrm{(GeV)}}$. For an electron identification efficiency of 90% a hadron rejection factor of $>600$ was obtained.

  19. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  1. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  3. Experimental study for transient response of a double-tube thermosyphon (DTTH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    study includes the analysis of:1-Boiling and non-boiling heat transfer coefficients of the eva porator.2-Temperature profile along the double-tube thermosyphon.In addition to the performance study for comparison purposes mainly involves:1-Transient response of the double-tube thermosyphon.2-Average evaporator heat transfer coefficient.3-Equivalent overall heat transfer coefficient.4-Effective thermal conductivity of thermosyphon.

  4. STUDY OF TRANSIENT AND STATIONARY OPERATION MODES OF SYNCHRONOUS SYSTEM CONSISTING IN TWO MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Safaryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution of the problem of reliable functioning of an electric power system (EPS in steady-state and transient regimes, prevention of EPS transition into asynchronous regime, maintenance and restoration of stability of post-emergency processes is based on formation and realization of mathematical models of an EPS processes. During the functioning of electric power system in asynchronous regime, besides the main frequencies, the currents and voltages include harmonic components, the frequencies of which are multiple of the difference of main frequencies. At the two-frequency asynchronous regime the electric power system is being made equivalent in a form of a two-machine system, functioning for a generalized load. In the article mathematical models of transient process of a two-machine system in natural form and in d–q coordinate system are presented. The mathematical model of two-machine system is considered in case of two windings of excitement at the rotors. Also, in the article varieties of mathematical models of EPS transient regimes (trivial, simple, complete are presented. Transient process of a synchronous two-machine system is described by the complete model. The quality of transient processes of a synchronous machine depends on the number of rotor excitation windings. When there are two excitation windings on the rotor (dual system of excitation, the mathematical model of electromagnetic transient processes of a synchronous machine is represented in a complex form, i.e. in coordinate system d, q, the current of rotor being represented by a generalized vector. In asynchronous operation of a synchronous two-machine system with two excitation windings on the rotor the current and voltage systems include only harmonics of two frequencies. The mathematical model of synchronous steady-state process of a two-machine system is also provided, and the steady-state regimes with different structures of initial information are considered.

  5. Ultra-high-frequency microwave response from flexible transparent Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingxin; Niu, Jiebin; Zhu, Haolin; Zhang, Jianyong

    2018-02-01

    Flexible transparent materials are a hot spot in current research but also a key technical difficulty in industry. They are playing an increasingly important role in flexible transparent display applications such as organic light-emitting diodes, transparent electrodes, and so on. On the other hand, the present research on nanopatterned antennas is mainly concentrated on the optical frequency but rarely on the microwave (such as 3G, 4G, and 5G) and terahertz frequency band communications, where nanopatterned antennas can have many novel applications. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that presents a method for preparing a flexible transparent Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna. We study its free-space performance at ultra-high frequency and its application in electronic products such as smartphones, tablets, personal computers, and wearable devices (such as smart watches) which have the function of mobile communication. The experimental results showed that the transparency of the antenna designed and fabricated in this work can be as high as 94%, and its efficiency can reach 74.5%-91.9% of antennas commonly seen at present in academia and industry. By adjusting the capacitive and inductive reactance of the nanopatterned antenna’s matching circuit, combined with its measured efficiency and 3D electromagnetic simulation results, we speculate on the mechanism of the Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna with good performance.

  6. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEM Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan S.; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    The response of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells to a step change in load is investigated experimentally in this work. Voltage undershoot, a characteristic feature of transient response following a step increase in current, is due to transients of water distribution in the membrane and ionomers occurring at subsecond time scales. The use of humidified reactants as a means to control the magnitude of voltage undershoot is demonstrated. Further, the response under a step decrease in current density is explored to determine the existence of hysteresis. Under sufficiently humidified conditions, the responses under forward and reverse step changes are symmetric, but under low relative humidity conditions, voltage undershoot is twice as large as the overshoot. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society.

  7. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Chun-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange—Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object.

  8. Transient behaviour of small HTR for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, E.C.; Van Heek, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch market for combined generation of heat and power identifies a unit size of 40 MW thermal for the conceptual design of a nuclear cogeneration plant. The ACACIA system provides 14 MWe electricity combined with 17 t/h of high temperature steam (220 deg C, 10 bar) with a pebble-bed high temperature reactor directly coupled with a helium compressor and a helium turbine. The design of this small CHP unit that is used for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. Thermal hydraulic and reactor physics analyses show favourable control characteristics during normal operation and a benign response to loss of helium coolant and loss of flow conditions. Throughout the response on these highly infrequent conditions, ample margin exists between the highest fuel temperatures and the temperature above which fuel degradation will occur. To come to quantitative statements about the ACACIA transient behaviour, a calculational coupling between the high temperature reactor core analysis code package PANTHER/DIREKT and the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5 for the energy conversion system has been made. This coupling offers a more realistic simulation of the entire system, since it removes the necessity of forcing boundary conditions on the simulation models at the data transfer points. In this paper, the models used for the dynamic components of the energy conversion system are described, and the results of the calculation for two operational transients in order to demonstrate the effects of the interaction between reactor core and its energy conversion system are shown. Several transient cases that are representative as operational transients for an HTR will be discussed, including one representing a load rejection case that shows the functioning of the control system, in particular the bypass valve. Another transient is a load following