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Sample records for traffic noise analysis

  1. The Analysis of Low Noise Protection Barriers Influence on Tram Traffic Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahac Maja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the analysis of tram traffic noise situation in residential areas in the vicinity of Drzic Avenue, one of the major routes between the northern and southern part of the Croatian capital city Zagreb, and the effect of low barriers placed by the tracks on tram noise mitigation. In order to evaluate the effect of planned protection measure, noise models were produced and verified with short-term field measurements. Calculations were conducted by means of noise prediction software, using European interim noise prediction method and 3D model of analyzed area. Finally, the results of noise calculations for existing tram traffic situation and planned measure of protection are presented on noise maps.

  2. Road Traffic Noise Pollution Analysis for Cernavoda City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, L.; Manea, A.; Florea, D.; Tarulescu, S.

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper was studied the noise pollution in Cernavodă city. The noise measurements were made for nine intersections from different city areas. Noise measurements were taken for three chosen routes with high population density, heavy traffic, commercial and residential buildings. Average, maximum and minimum values were collected and compared with standards. The impact of road traffic noise on the community depends on various factors such as road location and design, land use planning measures, building design, traffic composition, driver behaviour and the relief. In the study area 9 locations are identified to measure noise level. By using sound level meter noise levels are measured at different peak sessions i.e. morning, afternoon and evening. The presented values were collected for evening rush hour.

  3. Technical noise supplement : TeNS : a technical supplement to the Traffic Noise Analysis Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this Technical Noise Supplement (TeNS) is to provide technical background : information on transportation-related noise in general and highway traffic noise in : particular. It is designed to elaborate on technical concepts and procedu...

  4. The Traffic Noise Index: A Method of Controlling Noise Nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, F. J.; Scholes, W. E.

    This building research survey is an analysis of the social nuisance caused by urban motor ways and their noise. The Traffic Noise Index is used to indicate traffic noises and their effects on architectural designs and planning, while suggesting the need for more and better window insulation and acoustical barriers. Overall concern is for--(1)…

  5. Evaluation and Analysis of Road Traffic Noise in Asansol: An Industrial Town of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gangopadhyay

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to monitor and assess the road traffic noise in its spatial-temporal aspect in an urban area. The paper discusses the observations, results and their interpretation based on the study. Noise recordings from site, collected from April 2006 to March 2006, were used for statistical analysis and generation of various noise indices. Noise maps were also created for impact analysis and formulation of Noise Risk Zones. Mean Ldn value ranged between 55.1 and 87.3 dB (A. Day time Leq level ranged between 51.2 and 89.0 dB (A, where it ranged between 43.5 and 81.9 dB (A during night. The study reveals that present noise level in all the locations exceeds the limit prescribed by CPCB. Based on the finding it can be said that the population in this industrial town are exposed to significantly high noise level, which is caused mostly due to road traffic.

  6. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...

  7. Assessment, analysis and appraisal of road traffic noise pollution in Rourkela city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Swain, Bijay Kumar; Panda, Santosh Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The problem of road traffic noise pollution has become a concern for both the public and the policy makers. Noise level was assessed in 12 different squares of Rourkela city during different specified times (7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m., 7-10 p.m., 10 p.m.-12 midnight and 4-6 a.m.). Noise descriptors such as L,eq, traffic noise index, noise pollution level, noise climate, Lday, Levening, Lnight and Lden were assessed to reveal the extent of noise pollution due to heavy traffic in this city. The equivalent noise levels of all the 12 squares were found to be much beyond the permissible limit (70dB during day time and 55dB during night time). Appallingly, even the minimum L eq and NPL values were more than 82 dB and 96 dB during day time and 69 dB and 91 dB during night time respectively. Lden values of investigated squares ranged from 83.4 to 86.1 dB and were even more than the day time permissible limit of traffic noise. The prediction model was used in the present study to predict noise pollution level instead of Leq. Comparison of predicted with that of the actual measured data demonstrated that the model used for the prediction has the ability to calibrate the multicomponent traffic noise and yield reliable results close to that by direct measurement. Lastly, it is inferred that the dimension of the traffic generated noise pollution in Rourkela is critical.

  8. Traffic noise in Hyderabad city. part I: road traffic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Shaikh, Q.

    2000-01-01

    Traffic noise survey was conducted at 20 sites in different areas and localities in Hyderabad city and each site noise data was collected continuously from 0800 to 2000 h. The data was analyzed for L/sub A99/, L/sub A90/, L/sub A50/, L/sub 10/ and L/sub A1/, and approximate values of L/sub Aeq12h/ were evaluated for each site. The results are discussed with reference to some criteria for community annoyance and means and ways to limit high-level traffic noise are suggested. (author)

  9. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  10. Health effects of traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H; Dienel, D; Guenther, T; Markert, B

    1980-11-01

    In 57 test persons having worked 1 day under traffic noise (Leq = 85 dB(A) and 1 day without noise (Leq < 50 dB(A)), blood pressure and pulse frequency were measured at 1 h intervals and total urine was collected during working hours. Additionally, blood was sampled at the end of each working day. Psychological parameters were assessed by means of questionnaires. Statistically significant reactions to noise were found in the following fields: 1. Ergonomics: decrease of working quality; 2. Psychology: increase of psychical tension; 3. Blood circulation: increase of blood pressure and pulse frequency; 4. Biochemistry: increase of epinephrine, cAMP, urine and serum Mg, protein, cholesterol plus decrease of erythrocyte Na, and renin. Hypothetical mechanisms of the action of traffic noise are discussed.

  11. Analysis of Traffic Noise along Oyemekun - Oba-Adesida Road Akure Ondo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J Oyedepo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the research is to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along Oba-Adesida –Oyemekun Road. Measurements of noise were recorded in decibel (dBA using digital sound level meters (IEC651 Type 2. While, the traffic volume and spot speed were obtained using cine –camera at six selected locations namely Alagbaka(L1, Biological Garden(L2, Adegbola(L3, Ondo Bye Pass(L4, Ilesha Garage(L5 and FUTA junction(L6 along ObaAdesida- Oyemekun road during the peak period(7:30am -8:30 am & 4:00pm-5:00pm and off peak period(11:30pm- 12:30pm, repeated 3-5 times to account for time-fluctuation of these variables. All measurements were taken on a weighting frequency network, at a height of about 1.5m from the ground level. The vehicles were divided into five categories namely Cars, buses, motorcycles,2-axle load, and 3-axle loads; and were converted into “Passenger Car Units” (PCU by multiplying with recommended factors in accordance with Nigerian Federal Highway Capacity Manual 2006.The average L10(dBA are 72.8, 73.8, 73.4, 74.4, 73.9, and 75.0dBA ; while average combine sound pressure level(SPL in dBA are 76, 77, 78, 78, 77, and 78dBA for L1, L2, L3, L4, L5,and L6 respectively. Findings indicated that traffic generated noise pollution is at or above, the standard outdoor limits in most locations and area can adversely affect the welfare activities. The present study revealed that the study area is getting noisier due to high traffic density and lack of traffic management, practical action to limit and control the exposure to environmental noise are essential. However, road traffic noise by treatments at source (such as to reduce engine noise, exhaust pipe noise etc. is to be encouraged as the principal method of control. The techniques include road design, the management of traffic flow and the use of screens and barriers.

  12. Study on traffic noise level of Sylhet by multiple regression analysis associated with health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Alam, M. Jobair Bin Alam, M. M. Rahman, A. K. Dikshit, S. K. Khan

    Full Text Available The study reports the level of traffic-induced noise pollution in Sylhet City. For this purpose noise levels have been measured at thirty-seven major locations of the city from 7 am to 11 pm during the working days. It was observed that at all the locations the level of noise remains far above the acceptable limit for all the time. The noise level on the main road near residential area, hospital area and educational area were above the recommended level (65dBA. It was found that the predictive equations are in 60-70% correlated with the measured noise level. The study suggests that vulnerable institutions like school and hospital should be located about 60m away from the roadside unless any special arrangement to alleviate sound is used.

  13. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

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    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  14. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  15. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) for highway traffic noise analysis : case studies of select transportation agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Noise from highway traffic can be pervasive in areas near roadways. How and to what extent noise travels is strongly influenced by geospatial features such as terrain and elevation. Thus geographic information systems (GIS), which enable users to mor...

  16. Assessment of traffic noise levels in urban areas using different soft computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, J; Bogojević, N; Pljakić, M; Šumarac-Pavlović, D

    2016-10-01

    Available traffic noise prediction models are usually based on regression analysis of experimental data, and this paper presents the application of soft computing techniques in traffic noise prediction. Two mathematical models are proposed and their predictions are compared to data collected by traffic noise monitoring in urban areas, as well as to predictions of commonly used traffic noise models. The results show that application of evolutionary algorithms and neural networks may improve process of development, as well as accuracy of traffic noise prediction.

  17. Judgments of aircraft noise in a traffic noise background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.

  18. Evaluating Performances of Traffic Noise Models | Oyedepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise in decibel dB(A) were measured at six locations using 407780A Integrating Sound Level Meter, while spot speed and traffic volume were collected with cine-camera. The predicted sound exposure level (SEL) was evaluated using Burgess, British and FWHA model. The average noise level obtained are 77.64 ...

  19. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2012-01-01

    Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....

  20. Partial and Total Annoyance Due to Road Traffic Noise Combined with Aircraft or Railway Noise: Structural Equation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, Laure-Anne; Marquis-Favre, Catherine; Lam, Kin-Che

    2017-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to analyze partial and total in situ annoyance in combined transportation noise situations. A psychophysical total annoyance model and a perceptual total annoyance model were proposed. Results show a high contribution of Noise exposure and Noise sensitivity to Noise annoyance, as well as a causal relationship between noise annoyance and lower Dwelling satisfaction. Moreover, the Visibility of noise source may increase noise annoyance, even when the visibl...

  1. Road traffic noise and children's inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Stansfeld, Stephen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Vrijheid, Martine; de Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-11-21

    An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association was mediated by sleep duration. This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of children's inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age 8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway. An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age 8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled. Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on children's inattention. We found no mediation by sleep duration.

  2. Annoyance of low frequency noise and traffic noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, F.R.; Poulsen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    The annoyance of different low frequency noise sources was determined and compared to the annoyance from traffic noise. Twenty-two subjects participated in laboratory listening tests. The sounds were presented by loudspeakers in a listening room and the spectra of the low frequency noises were...

  3. Traffic noise control of a city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Khan, J.A.; Lakhani, A.H.; Hyder, F.G.; Shamsuddin, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Long exposure to noise due to traffic affects our health and comfort. A noise level up to 45 dB is acceptable for the buildings in the city. A traffic noise study was conducted in Karachi at places of high traffic flow. The noise level was between 75-85 dB. Residential and commercial buildings had sound level up to 79 dB. Reducing vehicle noise by using proper muffler and acoustic treatment should first control traffic noise. Then noise can be reduced by 10-15 dB by constructing barriers of wood or concrete along roadside. Barrier height for sound attenuation can be found from Fresnel Number. The barrier reduces noise better if width at the top is increased and an inward bend of 60 degree is placed at the top. Where feasible a 4-5 meter high concrete barrier is recommended otherwise the nearby buildings from the road should be insulated and acoustically treated. (author)

  4. A rapid appraisal of traffic policemen about auditory effects of traffic noise pollution from Ambala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traffic policemen are at an increased risk of suffering from hazards of noise pollution because they are engaged in controlling traffic noise, particularly at heavy traffic junctions. The effect is more in this subgroup because they are continuously exposed to it. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen regarding auditory effects of traffic noise pollution in Ambala city. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional workplace survey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out in different traffic zones of Ambala city during April-June 2013. The study population consisted of 100 traffic policemen working in different traffic intersections of Ambala city. Statistical Analysis Used: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Interpretation of data was performed using percentages and proportions. Results: Majority (75% of the study subjects were exposed to traffic noise pollution for more than 5 years. Of the total subjects, 5% of respondents reported below-average hearing on self-assessment of hearing ability. Seventeen percent of the study population accepted that while hearing over phone they do miss some conversation. Most (98% of the traffic police did not use any personal protective equipment (PPEs like earplugs/earmuffs, and the non-availability of these PPEs (90% is the common reason for the hearing loss. Conclusions: The study concludes that traffic policemen are not much aware regarding impending auditory effects of traffic noise pollution. Duty rotation, duty scheduling and other forms of preventive modalities for exposure limitation are suggested.

  5. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  6. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  7. Engineering modeling of traffic noise in shielded areas in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Polinder, Henk; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han; Borst, Hieronymous C; Miedema, Henk M E

    2009-11-01

    A computational study of road traffic noise in cities is presented. Based on numerical boundary-element calculations of canyon-to-canyon propagation, an efficient engineering algorithm is developed to calculate the effect of multiple reflections in street canyons. The algorithm is supported by a room-acoustical analysis of the reverberant sound fields in the source and receiver canyons. Using the algorithm, a simple model for traffic noise in cities is developed. Noise maps and exposure distributions of the city of Amsterdam are calculated with the model, and for comparison also with an engineering model that is currently used for traffic noise impact assessments in cities. Considerable differences between the two model predictions are found for shielded buildings with day-evening-night levels of 40-60 dB at the facades. Further, an analysis is presented of level differences between the most and the least exposed facades of buildings. Large level differences are found for buildings directly exposed to traffic noise from nearby roads. It is shown that by a redistribution of traffic flow around these buildings, one can achieve low sound levels at quiet sides and a corresponding reduction in the percentage of highly annoyed inhabitants from typically 23% to 18%.

  8. Effects of road traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane noises. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of road-traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane flyover noises. In the first experiment, 27 subjects judged a set of 16 airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 30-min duration consisting of the combinations of 3 traffic-noise types and 3 noise levels. In the second experiment, 24 subjects judged the same airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 10-min duration consisting of the combinations of 2 traffic-noise types and 4 noise levels. In both experiments the airplane noises were judged less annoying in the presence of high traffic-noise levels than in the presence of low traffic-noise levels.

  9. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedic, Vladimir; Despotovic, Danijela; Cvetanovic, Slobodan; Despotovic, Milan; Babic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L eq . Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model

  10. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedic, Vladimir, E-mail: vnedic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Philology and Arts, University of Kragujevac, Jovana Cvijića bb, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Despotovic, Danijela, E-mail: ddespotovic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Economics, University of Kragujevac, Djure Pucara Starog 3, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Cvetanovic, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.cvetanovic@eknfak.ni.ac.rs [Faculty of Economics, University of Niš, Trg kralja Aleksandra Ujedinitelja, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Despotovic, Milan, E-mail: mdespotovic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Sestre Janjic 6, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Babic, Sasa, E-mail: babicsf@yahoo.com [College of Applied Mechanical Engineering, Trstenik (Serbia)

    2014-11-15

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L{sub eq}. Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model.

  11. Traffic noise in Hyderabad city, part-II. vehicular contribution to road traffic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a road traffic noise survey carried out in Hyderabad city showed that the levels of traffic noise in the City are alarmingly high and much beyond the comfortable limits. There, in order to investigate the level of the noise emitted by different types of vehicles plying on the city roads and to assess their individual contribution to high level traffic noise, studies have been carried out on the measurement of noise emitted by motorcycles, buses, auto-rickshaws, and motor vehicle horns as they normally move on the city roads. The data collected has been analyzed for L/sub v99/, L/sub v90/, L/sub v50/, L/sub v10/ and L/sub v1/ and results are discussed with reference to the existing motor vehicle rules in Pakistan and motor vehicle noise emission limits set by the EEC and other developed countries. Some suggestion have also been made to limit high level traffic noise. (author)

  12. Attitudes of Community to Urban Traffic Noise in Morogoro, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of Community to Urban Traffic Noise in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... which is the daytime governmentally prescribed noise limit for residential-commercial areas. ... The main impacts of exposure to noise were reported to be headache, ...

  13. The Combined Effects of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise and Aircraft and Railway Noise on Noise Annoyance—An Analysis in the Context of the Joint Research Initiative NORAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jördis Wothge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Noise Related Annoyance Cognition and Health (NORAH research initiative is one of the most extensive studies on the physiological and psychological long-term effects of transportation noise in Europe. It includes research on the quality of life and annoyance as well as cardiovascular effects, sleep disturbance, breast cancer, blood pressure, depression and the cognitive development of children. Within the realm of the annoyance module of the study approximately 10,000 residents of the Rhine-Main district were surveyed on the combined effects of transportation noise. This included combined noise from aircraft and road traffic noise (N = 4905, or aircraft and railway noise (N = 4777. Results show that judgment of the total noise annoyance of participants was strongly determined by the sound source which was judged as more annoying (in this case aircraft noise. To a lesser extent, the average sound pressure level of the two present sources was also of relevance.

  14. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Investigative Group. 2016. Long-term air pollution and traffic noise exposures and mild cognitive impairment in older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1361-1368; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509824.

  15. Effects of a traffic noise background on judgements of aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which subjects judged aircraft noises in the presence of road traffic background noise. Two different techniques for presenting the background noises were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over the whole of a test session. For the other, the background noise was changed with each aircraft noise. A range of aircraft noise levels and traffic noise levels were presented to simulate typical indoor levels.

  16. Traffic Noise Assessment at Residential Areas in Skudai, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, F. S.; Darus, N.; Mashros, N.; Haron, Z.; Yahya, K.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicles passing by on roadways in residential areas may produce unpleasant traffic noise that affects the residents. This paper presents the traffic noise assessment of three selected residential areas located in Skudai, Johor. The objectives of this study are to evaluate traffic characteristics at selected residential areas, determine related noise indices, and assess impact of traffic noise. Traffic characteristics such as daily traffic volume and vehicle speed were evaluated using automatic traffic counter (ATC). Meanwhile, noise indices like equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq), noise level exceeded 10% (L10) and 90% (L90) of measurement time were determined using sound level meter (SLM). Besides that, traffic noise index (TNI) and noise pollution level (LNP) were calculated based on the measured noise indices. The results showed an increase in noise level of 60 to 70 dBA maximum due to increase in traffic volume. There was also a significant change in noise level of more than 70 dBA even though average vehicle speed did not vary significantly. Nevertheless, LAeq, TNI, and LNP values for all sites during daytime were lower than the maximum recommended levels. Thus, residents in the three studied areas were not affected in terms of quality of life and health.

  17. Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement: Case study of Ramat Park Benin City. ... bus drivers) were responsible for the noise emission while enforcement of traffic laws in the state and relocation of the motor park close to the square were recommended control measures for noise reduction.

  18. Traffic noise and vehicle movement at a controlled intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic noise at an intersection controlled by traffic lights shows noise level variations due to the alternating green and red lights for the different trafficstreams. Noise peaks caused by automobiles pulling up or passing by at highspeed may be quite annoying for people living near the

  19. Application of GIS in Urban Traffic Noise Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Omidvari; Ali Asghar Alesheikh

    2010-01-01

    Large urban areas are facing growing problems of noise pollutions. Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can conveniently be adapted to gather, analyze and present noise information. GIS can also be extended to answer to user specific problems through deterministic and statistics models. The objectives of this research were to measure urban traffic noise levels, analyze temporal and spatial dynamics of urban traffic-induced noise pollution in the first districted of Tehran estimate the noise f...

  20. Applicability of models to estimate traffic noise for urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo A; Pimentel, Roberto L; Lacerda, Diego M; Silva, Wekisley M

    2015-01-01

    Traffic noise is a highly relevant environmental impact in cities. Models to estimate traffic noise, in turn, can be useful tools to guide mitigation measures. In this paper, the applicability of models to estimate noise levels produced by a continuous flow of vehicles on urban roads is investigated. The aim is to identify which models are more appropriate to estimate traffic noise in urban areas since several models available were conceived to estimate noise from highway traffic. First, measurements of traffic noise, vehicle count and speed were carried out in five arterial urban roads of a brazilian city. Together with geometric measurements of width of lanes and distance from noise meter to lanes, these data were input in several models to estimate traffic noise. The predicted noise levels were then compared to the respective measured counterparts for each road investigated. In addition, a chart showing mean differences in noise between estimations and measurements is presented, to evaluate the overall performance of the models. Measured Leq values varied from 69 to 79 dB(A) for traffic flows varying from 1618 to 5220 vehicles/h. Mean noise level differences between estimations and measurements for all urban roads investigated ranged from -3.5 to 5.5 dB(A). According to the results, deficiencies of some models are discussed while other models are identified as applicable to noise estimations on urban roads in a condition of continuous flow. Key issues to apply such models to urban roads are highlighted.

  1. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-2008-0114] RIN 2125-AF26 Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise... the Federal regulations on the Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of this regulation, certain...

  2. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  3. Croatian Experience in Road Traffic Noise Management - Concrete Noise Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahac Saša

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of concrete noise barrier application in several EU countries and in Croatia. It describes a process of introducing different noise protection solutions on Croatian market in the phase of intensive motorway construction in recent years. Namely, an extensive motorway network has been constructed in Croatia in the last 10 years. Following the process of motorway construction, noise protection walls have also been erected. Usage of different building materials and installation processes as well as variations in building expenditures has led to a comparative analysis of several types of noise protection solutions (expanded clay, wood fibre including a new eco-innovative product RUCONBAR, which incorporates rubber granules from recycled waste tyres to form a porous noise absorptive layer.

  4. Road traffic noise and registry based use of sleep medication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evandt, Jorunn; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Nafstad, Per; Schwarze, Per E; Skovlund, Eva; Houthuijs, Danny; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic noise has been associated with adverse health effects including sleep disturbances. Use of sleep medication as an indicator of sleeping problems has rarely been explored in studies of the effects of traffic noise. Furthermore, using registry data on sleep medications provides an

  5. Noise emission corrections at intersections based on microscopic traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coensel, B.de; Vanhove, F.; Logghe, S.; Wilmink, I.; Botteldooren, D.

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the European IMAGINE project, is to formulate strategies to improve traffic modelling for application in noise mapping. It is well known that the specific deceleration and acceleration dynamics of traffic at junctions can influence local noise emission. However, macroscopic

  6. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Lenthe, F.J. van; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J; Miedema, H.M.E.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship

  7. Development of Seasonal ARIMA Models for Traffic Noise Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarnaccia Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a time series analysis approach is adopted to monitor and predict a traffic noise levels dataset, measured in a site of Messina, Italy. In general, acoustical noise shows a high prediction complexity, since its slope is strongly related to the variability of the sources and to intrinsic randomness. In the analysed site the predominant source is road traffic, that has a periodic and non-stationary behaviour. The study of the time evolution of this hazardous agent is very useful to assess the impact to human health and activities. The time series models adopted in this paper are of the stochastic seasonal ARIMA class; these types of model are based on the strong periodicity registered in the acoustical equivalent levels. The observed periodicity is related to the highly variability of urban traffic in the different days of the week. Three different seasonal ARIMA models are proposed and calibrated on a rich dataset of 800 sound level measurements. The predictive capabilities of these techniques are encouraging. The implemented models show a good forecasting performances in terms of low residuals, i.e. difference between observed and estimated noise values. The residuals are analysed by means of statistical indexes, plots and tests.

  8. Road traffic and cardiovascular health effects - Road traffic noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to both environmental noise and air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until now, few studies have considered both stressors simultaneously. Two large studies were carried out investigating the relationship between road traffic noise and several cardiovascular

  9. Can weekly noise levels of urban road traffic, as predominant noise source, estimate annual ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Gajardo, Carlos; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Vílchez-Gómez, Rosendo

    2016-11-01

    The effects of noise pollution on human quality of life and health were recognised by the World Health Organisation a long time ago. There is a crucial dilemma for the study of urban noise when one is looking for proven methodologies that can allow, on the one hand, an increase in the quality of predictions, and on the other hand, saving resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. The temporal structure of urban noise is studied in this work from a different point of view. This methodology, based on Fourier analysis, is applied to several measurements of urban noise, mainly from road traffic and one-week long, carried out in two cities located on different continents and with different sociological life styles (Cáceres, Spain and Talca, Chile). Its capacity to predict annual noise levels from weekly measurements is studied. The relation between this methodology and the categorisation method is also analysed.

  10. Road traffic noise, air pollution and incident cardiovascular disease: A joint analysis of the HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yutong; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Gulliver, John; Morley, David; Fecht, Daniela; Vienneau, Danielle; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Tim; Hveem, Kristian; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. In pooled complete-case sample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom (N = 355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5259 ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 2871 cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010) and end of follow-up (2008-2013) through medical record linkage. Annual mean 24-hour weighted road traffic noise (Lden) and air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm [PM10], ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5] and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) exposure at baseline address was modelled using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU) and European-wide Land Use Regression models. Individual-level covariate data were harmonised and physically pooled across the three cohorts. Analysis was via Cox proportional hazard model with mutual adjustments for both noise and air pollution and potential confounders. No significant associations were found between annual mean Lden and incident CVD, IHD or cerebrovascular disease in the overall population except that the association with incident IHD was significant among current-smokers. In the fully adjusted models including adjustment for Lden, an interquartile range (IQR) higher PM10 (4.1 μg/m3) or PM2.5 (1.4 μg/m3) was associated with a 5.8% (95%CI: 2.5%-9.3%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 0.2%-7.4%) higher risk for all incident CVD respectively. No significant associations were found between NO2 and any of the CVD outcomes. We found suggestive evidence of a possible association between road traffic noise and incident IHD, consistent with current literature. Long-term particulate air pollution exposure, even at concentrations below current European air quality standards, was significantly associated with incident CVD. Copyright

  11. Variability of road traffic noise recorded by stationary monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads out of the town in the direction of Kraków and Warszawa. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The coefficient of variation and positional variation were proposed for performing comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes. The differences concerned the values of coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.

  12. The influence of road traffic noise on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of road traffic noise on the sleep of adults and 6-11 year old children was studied by using electrophysiological methods. Young adults, unaccustomed to traffic noise, were disturbed by continuous and intermittent traffic noise at 45 dB(A). No sleep disturbances were found for continuous traffic noise at 36 dB(A). Car passages with a peak noise level of 55 dB(A) caused awakenings. The equivalent sound pressure level ( Leq) did not correlate with sleep disturbance effects. A better noise dose description was found in the number of vehicles per night that made most noise. Children wer about 10 dB(A) less sensitive than adults to awakening reactions, and even less sensitive with respect to disturbances of REM sleep and deep sleep. Total habituation to road traffic noise did not occur, even after at least one year of exposure. Sound reduction in the bedroom induced increased amounts of deep sleep for adults and reduced falling-asleep time for children. Road traffic noise during the first hours of a night's sleep tended to disturb sleep more than when it ocurred later in the night, the main effects being a reduction of the total amount of REM sleep during the night and an increased duration of intermittent wakefulness during the hours of exposure.

  13. Survey of Traffic Noise Reduction Products, Materials, and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Noise is one of the most pervasive forms of environmental pollution. It is everywhere and affects our lives at : home, work and play. By definition, noise is any unwanted or excessive sound. Highway traffic noise is a : major issue for transportation...

  14. Description of Anomalous Noise Events for Reliable Dynamic Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Soundscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Alías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the main pollutants in urban and suburban areas. European authorities have driven several initiatives to study, prevent and reduce the effects of exposure of population to traffic. Recent technological advances have allowed the dynamic computation of noise levels by means of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN such as that developed within the European LIFE DYNAMAP project. Those WASN should be capable of detecting and discarding non-desired sound sources from road traffic noise, denoted as anomalous noise events (ANE, in order to generate reliable noise level maps. Due to the local, occasional and diverse nature of ANE, some works have opted to artificially build ANE databases at the cost of misrepresentation. This work presents the production and analysis of a real-life environmental audio database in two urban and suburban areas specifically conceived for anomalous noise events’ collection. A total of 9 h 8 min of labelled audio data is obtained differentiating among road traffic noise, background city noise and ANE. After delimiting their boundaries manually, the acoustic salience of the ANE samples is automatically computed as a contextual signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. The analysis of the real-life environmental database shows high diversity of ANEs in terms of occurrences, durations and SNRs, as well as confirming both the expected differences between the urban and suburban soundscapes in terms of occurrences and SNRs, and the rare nature of ANE.

  15. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  16. Effect of Traffic Noise and Relaxations Sounds on Pedestrian Walking Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Franěk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to noise in everyday urban life is considered to be an environmental stressor. A specific outcome of reactions to environmental stress is a fast pace of life that also includes a faster pedestrian walking speed. The present study examined the effect of listening to annoying acoustical stimuli (traffic noise compared with relaxation sounds (forest birdsong on walking speed in a real outdoor urban environment. The participants (N = 83 walked along an urban route of 1.8 km. They listened to either traffic noise or forest birdsong, or they walked without listening to any acoustical stimuli in the control condition. The results showed that participants listening to traffic noise walked significantly faster on the route than both the participants listening to forest birdsong sounds and the participants in the control condition. Participants who listened to forest birdsong walked slightly slower than those under control conditions; however, this difference was not significant. Analysis of the walk experience showed that participants who listened to forest birdsong during the walk liked the route more than those who listened to traffic sounds. The study demonstrated that exposure to traffic noise led to an immediate increase in walking speed. It was also shown that exposure to noise may influence participants’ perception of an environment. The same environment may be more liked in the absence of noise or in the presence of relaxation sounds. The study also documented the positive effect of listening to various kinds of relaxation sounds while walking in an outdoor environment with traffic noise.

  17. The influence of continuous and intermittent traffic noise on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Stråle, L.-O.; Berlin, M. H.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of road traffic noise on sleep were studied in the laboratory using nine young male adults (aged 20-26). The subjects were exposed to noise with different temporal characteristics: (i) continuous traffic noise of 36 dB(A) or 45 dB(A), (ii) intermittent noise of 50 truck passages with L pmax = 45 dB(A) ( L eq = 29 dB(A)) or L pmax = 55 dB(A) ( L eq = 36 dB(A)), and (iii) a combination of continuous (45 dB(A)) and intermittent ( L pmax = 55 dB(A)) traffic noise. For one noise condition (intermittent 55 dB(A)) the effect of the use of ear plugs was also studied. The intermittent noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused transitions towards lighter sleep, whereas 55 dB(A) was needed to induce awakening effects. It could be shown that the probability for arousal reactions depends on the emergence of the noise peaks from the background, rather than the absolute noise peak level. Continuous traffic noise of 45 dB(A) caused REM sleep deficits, while intermittent traffic noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused stage III+IV deficits. The night with ear plugs was virtually undisturbed. After nights with REM sleep deficits the subjective sleep quality was rated lower and mood was influenced adversely. For the types of exposure used in the present investigation L eq alone is not an adequate descriptor of the noise dose, relating to the sleep disturbances observed. From the present experiment, together with other existing data, it might be concluded that the WHO recommendation of L eq = 35 dB(A) is adequate, but should be supplemented with a maximum noise level, as expressed for example in L pmax or LI, that should not be exceeded.

  18. modelling traffic noise level on roadside traders at wurukum market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    . This leads to poor planning and traffic control strategies within the town to reduce ... embark on a study to assess the level of noise pollution .... industrial products such as cement, fuel, timber, water, waste, etc ... used for a manual traffic count.

  19. Effects of self-reported sensitivity and road-traffic noise levels on the immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahra Kim

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to noise, particularly road traffic noise, can increase cortisol levels and result in changes in immune system biomarkers. Therefore, continuous exposure to noise can have an effect on immune function, hormonal levels, and cardiovascular function, leading to hypertension and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in stress-and immune system-related biomarkers according to the self-reported sensitivity to noise and exposure to road traffic noise, to ultimately determine the potential effects of noise on health. A survey was conducted through questionnaire (ISO/TS 15666 sent to 172 female subjects in Korea, including 128 from Ulsan and 44 from Seoul. The average noise level was calculated, and blood samples were collected for measurements of cortisol levels, Natural killer (NK / Natural killer T (NKT cell populations, and NK cell activity (through measurements of interleukin-12 (IL-12 and interferon-gamma (INF-γ concentrations. Multivariate linear regression analysis of the measured biomarkers according to the road traffic noise level and self-reported noise sensitivity was conducted adjusting for the effects of age, alcohol status, smoking status, regular exercise, and residence period. IL-12 levels increased, whereas the NKT cell population decreased with increasing noise levels. The results further suggested that cortisol levels are more influenced by the subject's sensitivity to noise than to the level of chronic road traffic noise. Therefore, noise appears to have the largest effect on IL-12 levels as well as the population and activity of NKT cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that low-level road traffic noise and sensitivity to noise can affect health by causing changes in the immune response through mechanisms other than increased cortisol.

  20. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION AGAINST ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Gardziejczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents factors for assessment of road traffic noise level and possible actions towards the minimization of excessive noise in the roadway neighborhood. Changes of equivalent sound level values were analyzed in relation to traffic intensity, categorization and vehicles speed. In relation to measures reducing noise level in roadway’s surroundings particular attention was given to anti-noise protections and tyre/noise reduction. Acoustic effectiveness of specific solutions was showed based on chosen examples. It was proved that when admissible noise level is slightly exceeded the need for noise barrier use may be replaced by a proper design and maintenance of road pavement or by enforcement of speed limit.

  1. Study of the road traffic noise in Erzurum-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Gökdag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic noise affects a large number of people, especially in urban areas and is generally a major source of complaints. This paper refers to a study of the problem of traffic noise on roads which have been transformed into streets in the city of Erzurum. Noise levels are measured and the impacts suffered by the community are documented. Manual noise measurements were made along 12 streets exploring sources of maximum noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. The results from the measurements showed that, of 750 measured events, approximately 5% of the vehicles exceeded 70 dB(A and less than 2% exceeded 80 dB(A maximum noise level. In summary, the result showed that the most important vehicle component as regards the maximum noise level in inner city traffic was a medium-weight vehicle. Among the higher noise levels measured (>80 dB(A this type of vehicle was dominant.

  2. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs—Noise maps and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, Paulo Eduardo Kirrian; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2015-01-01

    A study was made of some of the main traffic hubs in a Latin American metropolis, in order to determine the presence or absence of noise by means of noise measurements and acoustic mapping. To characterize noise in the evaluated road stretches, 232 measurements were taken at different points. The Predictor software package was used for the noise mapping calculations. Noise sensitive areas, e.g., hospitals, were identified in the evaluated road stretches. Noise maps were calculated for two hospitals, showing the current levels of noise that reach their facades. Hypothetical scenarios were simulated by making changes in the composition of traffic and total number of vehicles, and an assessment was made of the potential influence of these modifications in reducing the noise levels reaching the facades of the buildings in question. The simulations indicated that a 50% reduction in total traffic flow, or a 50% reduction in heavy vehicle traffic flow, would reduce the noise levels by about 3 dB(A). - Highlights: • Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs • Street systems • Environmental noise impacts • Noise mapping

  3. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs—Noise maps and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Paulo Eduardo Kirrian; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta, E-mail: paulo.zannin@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2015-02-15

    A study was made of some of the main traffic hubs in a Latin American metropolis, in order to determine the presence or absence of noise by means of noise measurements and acoustic mapping. To characterize noise in the evaluated road stretches, 232 measurements were taken at different points. The Predictor software package was used for the noise mapping calculations. Noise sensitive areas, e.g., hospitals, were identified in the evaluated road stretches. Noise maps were calculated for two hospitals, showing the current levels of noise that reach their facades. Hypothetical scenarios were simulated by making changes in the composition of traffic and total number of vehicles, and an assessment was made of the potential influence of these modifications in reducing the noise levels reaching the facades of the buildings in question. The simulations indicated that a 50% reduction in total traffic flow, or a 50% reduction in heavy vehicle traffic flow, would reduce the noise levels by about 3 dB(A). - Highlights: • Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs • Street systems • Environmental noise impacts • Noise mapping.

  4. Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with cognitive function-An analysis of effect measure modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Jokisch, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weimar, Christian; Hennig, Frauke; Sugiri, Dorothea; Soppa, Vanessa J; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution (AP) and noise on cognitive functions have been proposed, but little is known about their interactions and the combined effect of co-exposure. Cognitive assessment was completed by 4086 participants of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study using five neuropsychological subtests and an additively calculated global cognitive score (GCS). We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression. Road traffic noise (weighted 24-h (L DEN ) and night-time (L NIGHT ) means) was assessed according to the EU directive 2002/49/EC. Linear regression models adjusted for individual-level characteristics were calculated to estimate effect modification of associations between AP and noise with cognitive function. We used multiplicative interaction terms and categories of single or double high exposure, dichotomizing the potential effect modifier at the median (AP) or at an a priori defined threshold (road traffic noise). In fully adjusted models, high noise exposure increased the association of AP with cognitive function. For example, for an interquartile range increase of PM 2.5 (IQR 1.43), association s with GCS were: estimate (β)=-0.16 [95% confidence interval: -0.33; 0.01] and β=-0.48 [-0.72; -0.23] for low and high L DEN , respectively. The association of noise with GCS was restricted to highly AP-exposed participants. We observed stronger negative associations in those participants with double exposure compared to the addition of effect estimates of each single exposure. Our study suggests that AP and road traffic noise might act synergistically on cognitive function in adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frogs Call at a Higher Pitch in Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Male frogs call to attract females for mating and to defend territories from rival males. Female frogs of some species prefer lower-pitched calls, which indicate larger, more experienced males. Acoustic interference occurs when background noise reduces the active distance or the distance over which an acoustic signal can be detected. Birds are known to call at a higher pitch or frequency in urban noise, decreasing acoustic interference from low-frequency noise. Using Bayesian linear regression, we investigated the effect of traffic noise on the pitch of advertisement calls in two species of frogs, the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii and the common eastern froglet (Crinia signifera. We found evidence that L. ewingii calls at a higher pitch in traffic noise, with an average increase in dominant frequency of 4.1 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 123 Hz. This frequency shift is smaller than that observed in birds, but is still large enough to be detected by conspecific frogs and confer a significant benefit to the caller. Mathematical modelling predicted a 24% increase in the active distance of a L. ewingii call in traffic noise with a frequency shift of this size. Crinia signifera may also call at a higher pitch in traffic noise, but more data are required to be confident of this effect. Because frog calls are innate rather than learned, the frequency shift demonstrated by L. ewingii may represent an evolutionary adaptation to noisy conditions. The phenomenon of frogs calling at a higher pitch in traffic noise could therefore constitute an intriguing trade-off between audibility and attractiveness to potential mates.

  6. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    When vector-based GIS-packages are used for traffic noise impact assessments, the buffer-technique is usually employed for the study: 1. For each road segment buffer-zones representing different noise-intervals are generated, 2. The buffers from all road segments are smoothed together, and 3....... The number of buildings within the buffers are enumerated. This technique provides an inaccurate assessment of the noise diffusion since it does not correct for buildings barrier and reflection to noise. The paper presents the results from a research project where the traditional noise buffer technique...... was compared with a new method which includes these corrections. Both methods follow the Common Nordic Noise Calculation Model, although the traditional buffer technique ignores parts of the model. The basis for the work was a digital map of roads and building polygons, combined with a traffic- and road...

  7. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Ögren

    Full Text Available Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure.

  8. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine A. Janssen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A‑weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels.

  9. Critical assessment of day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu Chowdhury, Anirban; Debsarkar, Anupam; Chakrabarty, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research work is to assess day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata city, India under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Prevailing traffic noise level in terms of A-weighted equivalent noise level (Leq) at the microenvironment was in excess of 12.6 ± 2.1 dB(A) from the day time standard of 65 dB(A) for commercial area recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India. Noise Climate and Traffic Noise Index of the microenvironment were accounted for 13 ± 1.8 dB(A) and 88.8 ± 6.1 dB(A) respectively. A correlation analysis explored that prevailing traffic noise level of the microenvironment had weak negative (-0.21; p air temperature and relative humidity. A Varimax rotated principal component analysis explored that motorized traffic volume had moderate positive loading with background noise component (L90, L95, L99) and prevailing traffic noise level had very strong positive loading with peak noise component (L1, L5, L10). Background and peak noise component cumulatively explained 80.98 % of variance in the data set. Traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City was higher than the standard recommended by CPCB of India. It was highly annoying also. Air temperature and relative humidity had little influence and the peak noise component had the most significant influence on the prevailing traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment. Therefore, traffic noise level at the microenvironment of the city can be reduced with careful honking and driving.

  10. Traffic Noise as a Factor Influencing Apartment Prices in Large Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepańska Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors are among the key determinants of real estate prices. They include landscape attractiveness, land relief, exposure to sunlight and proximity to natural features. In large urban centers, traffic noise emissions significantly affect decision-making on the real estate market. Weakly developed road networks and the absence of ring roads that shift road traffic outside residential districts are a widespread problem in the cities of Central-Eastern Europe. The prevention of traffic noise pollution, one of the key environmental problems in Europe, is an important goal of European Union policy. This paper analyzes the correlations between apartment prices and traffic noise levels in Olsztyn, the capital city of the Warminsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship (province in north-eastern Poland. A linear correlation analysis was performed, and the distribution of unit prices of apartments was mapped by ordinary kriging.

  11. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta Zannin, Paulo Henrique; Bunn, Fernando

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property.

  12. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors......, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure-response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1...

  13. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  14. Analysis of an infill scenario for Rotterdam. Traffic noise, air pollution, and public health in relation to urban density and traffic of cars and bicycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaminée, S.; Rietveld, E.; Salomons, E.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Borsboom, J.; Borst, H.; Guit, M.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis is presented of various elements of an infill scenario for the center of Rotterdam in the year 2030, corresponding to a population increase from about 30,000 to 60,000 inhabitants. We have implemented detailed future building designs in our software instrument Urban Strategy, and

  15. On the Impact of Anomalous Noise Events on Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Urban and Suburban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orga, Ferran; Alías, Francesc; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma

    2017-12-23

    Noise pollution is a critical factor affecting public health, the relationship between road traffic noise (RTN) and several diseases in urban areas being especially disturbing. The Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC and the CNOSSOS-EU framework are the main instruments of the European Union to identify and combat noise pollution, requiring Member States to compose and publish noise maps and noise management action plans every five years. Nowadays, the noise maps are starting to be tailored by means of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN). In order to exclusively monitor the impact of RTN on the well-being of citizens through WASN-based approaches, those noise sources unrelated to RTN denoted as Anomalous Noise Events (ANEs) should be removed from the noise map generation. This paper introduces an analysis methodology considering both Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and duration of ANEs to evaluate their impact on the A-weighted equivalent RTN level calculation for different integration times. The experiments conducted on 9 h of real-life data from the WASN-based DYNAMAP project show that both individual high-impact events and aggregated medium-impact events bias significantly the equivalent noise levels of the RTN map, making any derived study about public health impact inaccurate.

  16. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures,

  17. Prevalence of occupational noise induced hearing loss amongst traffic police personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, V K; Mehta, A K

    1999-01-01

    Traffic branch personnel of Pune traffic police were screened for presence of noise induced hearing loss. A very significant number (81.2%) showed sensorineural hearing loss. The various factors responsible for noise induced hearing loss are discussed.

  18. Myocardial Infarction Risk Due to Aircraft, Road, and Rail Traffic Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Andreas; Wagner, Mandy; Schubert, Melanie; Dröge, Patrik; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Swart, Enno; Zeeb, Hajo; Hegewald, Janice

    2016-06-17

    Traffic noise can induce stress reactions that have effects on the cardiovascular system. The exposure-risk relationship between aircraft, road, and rail traffic noise and myocardial infarction is currently unknown. 19 632 patients from the Rhine-Main region of Germany who were diagnosed with myocardial infarction in the years 2006-2010 were compared with 834 734 control subjects. The assignment of persons to groups was performed on the basis of billing and prescription data from three statutory health insurance carriers. The exposure of all insurees to aircraft, road, and rail traffic noise in 2005 was determined from their residence addresses. As estimators of risk, odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for age, sex, regional social status variables, and individual social status (if available). The evaluation was performed on the basis of the continuous 24-hour noise level and the categorized noise level (in 5 decibel classes). The linear model revealed a statistically significant risk increase due to road noise (2.8% per 10 dB rise, 95% confidence interval [1.2; 4.5]) and railroad noise (2.3% per 10 dB rise [0.5; 4.2]), but not airplane noise. Airplane noise levels of 60 dB and above were associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction (OR 1.42 [0.62; 3.25]). This higher risk is statistically significant if the analysis is restricted to patients who had died of myocardial infarction by 2014/2015 (OR 2.70 [1.08; 6.74]. In this subgroup, the risk estimators for all three types of traffic noise were of comparable magnitude (3.2% to 3.9% per 10 dB rise in noise level). In this study, a substantial proportion of the population was exposed to traffic noise levels that were associated with an albeit small increase in the risk of myocardial infarction. These findings underscore the importance of effective traffic noise prevention.

  19. Performance of Traffic Noise Barriers with Varying Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Grubeša

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of noise barriers largely depends on their geometry. In this paper, the performance of noise barriers was simulated using the numerical Boundary Element Method (BEM. Traffic noise was particularly considered with its standardized noise spectrum adapted to human hearing. The cross-section of the barriers was varied with the goal of finding the optimum shape in comparison to classical rectangular barriers. The barrier performance was calculated at different receiver points for a fixed barrier height and source position. The magnitude of the insertion loss parameter was used to evaluate the performance change, both in one-third octave bands and as the broadband mean insertion loss value. The proposed barriers of varying cross-section were also compared with a typical T-shape barrier of the same height.

  20. Equivalent noise level response to number of vehicles: a comparison between a high traffic flow and low traffic flow highway in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Herni; Abdullah, Ramdzani

    2014-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Highway traffic noise is a serious problem in Malaysia Heavy traffic flow highway recorded higher noise level compared to low traffic flow Noise level stabilized at certain number of vehicles on the road i.e above 500 vehicles. Although much research on road traffic noise has found that noise level increase are influenced by driver behavior and source-receiver distance, little attention has been paid to the relationship between noise level and total number of vehicles...

  1. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  2. Behavioral and health responses associated with road traffic noise exposure along alpine through-traffic routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lercher, P.; Kofler, W.W. [Institute for Social Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-09-06

    The perceived impact of rising traffic noise exposure on residents in five rural, alpine communities was assessed in an epidemiological study (1989 adults, aged 25-65), using subjective and objective exposure indices. Significant associations were found between noise exposure above 55 dB(A) and annoyance from noise, vibrations, exhaust fumes and soot/dust exposure. Closing windows, double glazing, moving sleeping room, filing complaints, supporting pressure groups and the wish to move was just as significantly linked with noise level as was loss of wellbeing/life satisfaction, increase of sleep problems, health worries and poorer health ratings. However, noise sensitive persons showed a quite different response pattern with lower overall nuisance, fewer behavioral actions but stronger health impacts than those persons actually having expressed their annoyance

  3. Determination of traffic noise nuisance as a function of traffic type and density in a heavily populated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerl, G.; Holzmann, E.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of a study including noise level measurements during the day and night and 1125 interviews with residents, it was found that railway noise creates less of a disturbance than street traffic noise. By far the largest majority of respondents experienced the greatest disturbance during the day. The difference in nuisance decreases as noise level rises.

  4. The effect of traffic noise on the hearing level of people on Karachi streets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawed, I.; Musani, A.; Mahmood, R.; Khambaty, W.Y.; Asim, M.

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of traffic noise on hearing ability of subjects prone to traffic noise exposure. Method: A hospital based prospective study was performed comprising of 200 selected subjects significantly exposed to traffic noise. These included rickshaw drivers, traffic constables and shopkeepers in central business area. All subjects were questioned according to a Performa after which ENT examination was carried out followed by Pure Tone Audiometer y. Results: Hearing impairment showed correlation with the duration of job when analyzed by linear regression analysis with correlation coefficient r=0.36 (p<0.001), Hearing impairment was 33.81+0.42 dB according to the duration of job (in years). Conclusion: Subjects are perceptually exposed to potentially damaging sound pressure level in the metropolis of Karachi. It was observed that audio logically consistent noise induced hearing loss was found to be 0.42 dB per octave from 500 Hz to 2000 Hz per year of duration of job. (author)

  5. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  6. Vehicular traffic noise prediction using soft computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Daljeet; Nigam, S P; Agrawal, V P; Kumar, Maneek

    2016-12-01

    A new approach for the development of vehicular traffic noise prediction models is presented. Four different soft computing methods, namely, Generalized Linear Model, Decision Trees, Random Forests and Neural Networks, have been used to develop models to predict the hourly equivalent continuous sound pressure level, Leq, at different locations in the Patiala city in India. The input variables include the traffic volume per hour, percentage of heavy vehicles and average speed of vehicles. The performance of the four models is compared on the basis of performance criteria of coefficient of determination, mean square error and accuracy. 10-fold cross validation is done to check the stability of the Random Forest model, which gave the best results. A t-test is performed to check the fit of the model with the field data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. Material and Methods: For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00–9:00 a.m., afternoon (12.00–3:00 p.m. and evening (5:00–8:00 p.m. on Saturdays to Wednesdays. Results: As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A, while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq, measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A. Conclusions: The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in

  8. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Abbaspour, Majid; Nassiri, Parvin; Taghavi, Lobat

    2015-01-01

    Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00-9:00 a.m.), afternoon (12.00-3:00 p.m.) and evening (5:00-8:00 p.m.) on Saturdays to Wednesdays. As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq) was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A), while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq), measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A). The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in handling noise pollution data towards depicting noise pollution intensity caused

  9. Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas

    2011-02-01

    To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis. With regard to sleep problems not attributed to any external source (general sleep problems), independent main effects were found for traffic noise (women), decision authority (women), job strain, job demands, suffering from pain or other afflictions, worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, having troubles paying the bills, and having a sick, disabled, or old relative to take care of (women). Significant synergistic effects were found for traffic noise and experiencing bullying at work in women. With regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise, strong synergistic interactions were found between traffic noise and, respectively, job demands (men), having pain or other afflictions, taking care of a sick, old, or disabled relative, and having troubles paying the bills. Main effects were found for worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, job strain (men), and decision authority (men). Synergistic interactions could potentially contribute with 10-20% of the sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population. Work stress, pain, and different worries were independently associated with general sleep problems and showed in general no synergistic interaction with traffic noise. In contrast, synergistic effects between traffic noise and psychological factors were found with regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise. The synergy may contribute significantly to sleep

  10. Research on road traffic noise and human health in India: Review of literature from 1991 to current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on research conducted during the last two decades on traffic noise impacts in India. Road traffic noise studies in India are fewer and restricted only to the metropolitan areas. The studies over the years have also focused on the monitoring, recording, analysis, modeling, and to some extent mapping related themes. Negligible studies are observed in areas of physiological and sleep research exposure-effect context. Most impact studies have been associated with annoyance and attitudinal surveys only. Little scientific literature exists related to effects of traffic noise on human physiology in the Indian context. The findings of this review search and analysis observe that very little studies are available relating to traffic noise and health impacts. All of them are subjective response studies and only a small portion of them quantify the exposure-effect chain and model the noise index with annoyance. The review of papers showed that road traffic noise is a cause for annoyance to a variety of degree among the respondents. A generalization of impacts and meta-analysis was not possible due to variability of the study designs and outputs preferred.

  11. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children′s episodic memory: The RANCH Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Matheson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children′s performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children′s episodic memory.

  12. Road traffic noise-induced sleep disturbances: a comparison between laboratory and field settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånberg, Annbritt

    2004-10-01

    Due to the ongoing discussion about the relevance of sleep studies performed in the laboratory, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of road traffic noise exposure on sleep in laboratory and in field settings. Eighteen healthy young subjects participated in the study. They were exposed to noise from road traffic in the laboratory and exposed to the same recorded traffic noise exposure in their own homes. Their sleep was evaluated with wrist actigraphs and questionnaires on sleep. No significant increase in effects of noise on sleep in the laboratory was found. The results indicate that laboratory experiments do not exaggerate effects of noise on sleep.

  13. A Review of Adverse Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devi; Kumari, Neeraj; Sharma, Pooja

    Noise pollution due to road traffic is a potential threat to human health. Since it is a global hazard, the rapid urbanization and exponential traffic growth have aggravated the problem. Population residing along the busy traffic lanes is continuously exposed to the sound levels which are above the permissible limits. This constant exposure to noise pollution is a cause of concern as it leads to several adverse impacts on human health. Traffic noise causes irritation and annoyance, sleep disturbances, cardiovascular disease, risk of stroke, diabetes, hypertension and loss of hearing. It results in decreased work performance. The present review highlights the serious health hazards of road traffic noise (RTN) which needs to be curbed. Preventive measures of noise pollution can help in combating noise-induced health hazards and increased work performance.

  14. Parameter Estimation for Traffic Noise Models Using a Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Soon An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique has been developed for predicting road traffic noise for environmental assessment, taking into account traffic volume as well as road surface conditions. The ASJ model (ASJ Prediction Model for Road Traffic Noise, 1999, which is based on the sound power level of the noise emitted by the interaction between the road surface and tires, employs regression models for two road surface types: dense-graded asphalt (DGA and permeable asphalt (PA. However, these models are not applicable to other types of road surfaces. Accordingly, this paper introduces a parameter estimation procedure for ASJ-based noise prediction models, utilizing a harmony search (HS algorithm. Traffic noise measurement data for four different vehicle types were used in the algorithm to determine the regression parameters for several road surface types. The parameters of the traffic noise prediction models were evaluated using another measurement set, and good agreement was observed between the predicted and measured sound power levels.

  15. Noise, air pollutants and traffic: continuous measurement and correlation at a high-traffic location in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Clougherty, Jane E; Ito, Kazuhiko; Matte, Thomas; Markowitz, Steven; Eisl, Holger

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked both noise and air pollution to common adverse health outcomes such as increased blood pressure and myocardial infarction. In urban settings, noise and air pollution share important sources, notably traffic, and several recent studies have shown spatial correlations between noise and air pollution. The temporal association between these exposures, however, has yet to be thoroughly investigated despite the importance of time series studies in air pollution epidemiology and the potential that correlations between these exposures could at least partly confound statistical associations identified in these studies. An aethelometer, for continuous elemental carbon measurement, was co-located with a continuous noise monitor near a major urban highway in New York City for six days in August 2009. Hourly elemental carbon measurements and hourly data on overall noise levels and low, medium and high frequency noise levels were collected. Hourly average concentrations of fine particles and nitrogen oxides, wind speed and direction and car, truck and bus traffic were obtained from nearby regulatory monitors. Overall temporal patterns, as well as day-night and weekday-weekend patterns, were characterized and compared for all variables. Noise levels were correlated with car, truck, and bus traffic and with air pollutants. We observed strong day-night and weekday-weekend variation in noise and air pollutants and correlations between pollutants varied by noise frequency. Medium and high frequency noise were generally more strongly correlated with traffic and traffic-related pollutants than low frequency noise and the correlation with medium and high frequency noise was generally stronger at night. Correlations with nighttime high frequency noise were particularly high for car traffic (Spearman rho=0.84), nitric oxide (0.73) and nitrogen dioxide (0.83). Wind speed and direction mediated relationships between pollutants and noise. Noise levels are

  16. Road traffic noise prediction model for heterogeneous traffic based on ASJ-RTN Model 2008 with consideration of horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustim, M.; Arifin, Z.; Aly, S. H.; Ramli, M. I.; Zakaria, R.; Liputo, A.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to predict the noise produced by the traffic in the road network in Makassar City using ASJ-RTN Model 2008 by calculating the horn sound. Observations were taken at 37 survey points on road side. The observations were conducted at 06.00 - 18.00 and 06.00 - 21.00 which research objects were motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). The observed data were traffic volume, vehicle speed, number of horn and traffic noise using Sound Level Meter Tenmars TM-103. The research result indicates that prediction noise model by calculating the horn sound produces the average noise level value of 78.5 dB having the Pearson’s correlation and RMSE of 0.95 and 0.87. Therefore, ASJ-RTN Model 2008 prediction model by calculating the horn sound is said to be sufficiently good for predicting noise level.

  17. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-01-01

    of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income...

  18. Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although air pollution and road traffic noise have been associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, associations with heart failure have received only little attention. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to road traffic noise and nitrogen dioxid...

  19. The impact of traffic noise on mental performance considering complexity of activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: One of the most significant findings emerged from this study is that traffic noise seems to have no effect on the mentioned variables under simple activity condition. However, traffic noise has devastating effects on median reaction time, number of appeared stimuli and reactions under complex activity condition.

  20. Model based monitoring of urban traffic noise : Field test results for road side and shielded sides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Lutgendorf, D.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Urban traffic noise can be a major issue for people and (local) governments. On a local scale the use of measurements is increasing, especially when measures or changes to the local infrastructure are proposed. However, measuring (only) urban traffic noise is a challenging task. By using a model

  1. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic noise at normal urban levels can lead to stress and sleep disturbances. Both excess of stress hormones and reduction in sleep quality and duration may lead to higher risk for type 2 diabetes.Objective: We investigated whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise...

  2. Disturbance of Traffic Noise: Evaluation on the Effects and Management on Road Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Nur Hazliyana Abdul; Mashros, Nordiana; Aminudin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Haron, Zaiton; Talib, Muhammad Hilmi Abd; Hamid, Abdul Rahim Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Several adverse of stimuli can cause annoyance due to the characterized by such effects of distraction on health and delay in activities. Noise annoyance mainly due to the increasing in traffic volume has recognized as important environmental stressor which associated to anxiety and depression. In this manner, it can impose serious damage to human wellbeing, human comfort ability and reduces labour productivity. Hence, this paper aims in evaluating the effects on traffic noise and managing the precaution on road corridors in order to reduce the traffic noise. This case study had been conducted at residential area which is located at Taman Mutiara Rini, residential area located in the southern region of West Peninsular Malaysia. The traffic noise index (TNI) and noise pollution level (NPL) were recorded for a whole day in order to evaluate noise performance with different time durations. From the study, it was shown that the noise level at the Mutiara Rini is above than 75 dBA at most of time which is exceed the permissible limit from the guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Environment (DOE). According to the guidelines, the maximum limitation for noise pollution during daytime at residential area is about 55 dBA. From the interviewed conducted, it shows that reduction on the traffic noise can be improved by proposing and providing the noise barrier which includes the restoration of trees and concrete wall which can reduce the effects on the traffic noise.

  3. Multimodality: a way to cope with road traffic noise? The case of European treefrog (Hyla arborea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troïanowski, Mathieu; Melot, Geoffrey; Lengagne, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    In the last decades, traffic noise has become a new challenge for efficient animal communication and several studies suggest that it is involved in population declines. Although poorly investigated in a traffic noise context, communication is generally multimodal, which can be viewed as a way to improve communication efficiency by allowing shift from a sensory modality to another when one modality suffers from noise. In the present study, we investigated multimodal shift in the European treefrog (Hyla arborea), a species using both acoustic and visual cues during male quality assessment task performed by females. Females were used in a discrimination task in two environmental conditions: with or without traffic noise. In traffic noise conditions, we showed that females' reliance on acoustic signal embedded in noise pollution did not decrease in favour of visual signals, therefore showing that females do not shift between modalities in response to traffic noise. Although, we did not evidence multimodal shift in our study, many species facing traffic noise present multimodal communication, and should be investigated to evaluate the importance of multimodal shift as a way to cope with traffic noise pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ambient air pollution, traffic noise and adult asthma prevalence: a BioSHaRE approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yutong; Zijlema, Wilma L; Doiron, Dany; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R; Fortier, Isabel; Gaye, Amadou; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Morley, David W; Stolk, Ronald P; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both ambient air pollution and traffic noise on adult asthma prevalence, using harmonised data from three European cohort studies established in 2006-2013 (HUNT3, Lifelines and UK Biobank).Residential exposures to ambient air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM 10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 )) were estimated by a pan-European Land Use Regression model for 2007. Traffic noise for 2009 was modelled at home addresses by adapting a standardised noise assessment framework (CNOSSOS-EU). A cross-sectional analysis of 646 731 participants aged ≥20 years was undertaken using DataSHIELD to pool data for individual-level analysis via a "compute to the data" approach. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the effects of each exposure on lifetime and current asthma prevalence.PM 10 or NO 2 higher by 10 µg·m -3 was associated with 12.8% (95% CI 9.5-16.3%) and 1.9% (95% CI 1.1-2.8%) higher lifetime asthma prevalence, respectively, independent of confounders. Effects were larger in those aged ≥50 years, ever-smokers and less educated. Noise exposure was not significantly associated with asthma prevalence.This study suggests that long-term ambient PM 10 exposure is associated with asthma prevalence in western European adults. Traffic noise is not associated with asthma prevalence, but its potential to impact on asthma exacerbations needs further investigation. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. On vehicular traffic data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Mahnke, Reinhard [Institute of Physics, Rostock University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This contribution consists of analysis of empirical vehicular traffic flow data. The main focus lies on the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) data. The first findings show that there are artificial structures within the data due to errors of monitoring as well as smoothing position measurement data. As a result speed data show discretisation in 5 feet per second. The aim of this investigation is to construct microscopic traffic flow models which are in agreement to the analysed empirical data. The ongoing work follows the subject of research summarized by Christof Liebe in his PhD thesis entitled ''Physics of traffic flow: Empirical data and dynamical models'' (Rostock, 2010).

  6. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  7. Residential exposure to traffic noise and leisure-time sports - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-08-01

    Traffic levels have been found a significant environmental predictor for physical inactivity. A recent study suggested that traffic noise annoyance was associated with lower physical activity. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and leisure-time sports. In the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from the baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). People reported participation (yes/no) and hours of leisure-time sport, from which we calculated MET hrs/week. Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2002 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression. Traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was associated with higher prevalence odds ratio of non-participation in leisure-time sports; significantly for road traffic noise (odds ratio (OR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.13) and borderline for railway noise (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99-1.07), per 10dB. In longitudinal analyses, a 10dB higher road traffic noise was associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio of ceasing (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07-1.18) and a lower prevalence odds ratio of initiating (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96) leisure-time sports. Exposure to railway noise was negatively associated with baseline MET hrs/week, whereas no association was found in longitudinal analyses, or for road traffic noise. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is negatively associated with leisure-time sports. Results for railway noise were less consistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods For an Acceptable Traffic Noise Level Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Sviben

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Road noise disturbance on rough roads by means of loudnesssensor caused by wideband signal components with a significantimpact of tonal effects on smooth roads and in specificactions in driving lead to the annoyance of drivers. A systemicapproach has been applied for the sound quality estimation ofphysical properties of various noise sources and structuralvibroacoustic car properties and its components as an integratedparameter in car design for the purpose of the developmentand vehicle noise reduction. Simulation of the most importantcharacteristics of listening impressions was performedby modem systems of signal analysis together with the presentationof loudness, sharpness, and roughness as essential quantities.Optimization of the noise control measuring regarding vehiclesound was obtained by means of a simulation system withthe capability of the real time original sound filtering. Structuralanalysis was performed as an acoustic modal analysis on therear part and the car interior with the quantitative analysis ofsport and luxury car sounds. The possibility of active noise controlwas studied and examples are given for an application ofpsychoacoustic tools for car sound quality design. Sound qualitywas obtained by an observation of certain aspects, which areempirically or theoretically connected with the design. An experimentalsound synthesis with psychometrical measuring wasapplied. The sound quality of car interior is presented takinginto consideration the criteria of objectivity, reliability and validity.

  9. Deaf Smith County noise analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    An analysis of activities proposed for the three major phases of development of the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas, was conducted to quantify the noise levels and the effect of noise resulting from these activities. The report provides additional details of the predictive noise level modeling conducted for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operation phases. Equivalent day/night sound levels are presented for each phase as sound level contours. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activities are addressed including traffic on access routes, and railroad construction and operation. A description of the predictive models, the analysis methodologies, the noise source inventories, the model outputs, and the evaluation criteria are included. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Road traffic air and noise pollution exposure assessment - A review of tools and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jibran; Ketzel, Matthias; Kakosimos, Konstantinos; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2018-09-01

    Road traffic induces air and noise pollution in urban environments having negative impacts on human health. Thus, estimating exposure to road traffic air and noise pollution (hereafter, air and noise pollution) is important in order to improve the understanding of human health outcomes in epidemiological studies. The aims of this review are (i) to summarize current practices of modelling and exposure assessment techniques for road traffic air and noise pollution (ii) to highlight the potential of existing tools and techniques for their combined exposure assessment for air and noise together with associated challenges, research gaps and priorities. The study reviews literature about air and noise pollution from urban road traffic, including other relevant characteristics such as the employed dispersion models, Geographic Information System (GIS)-based tool, spatial scale of exposure assessment, study location, sample size, type of traffic data and building geometry information. Deterministic modelling is the most frequently used assessment technique for both air and noise pollution of short-term and long-term exposure. We observed a larger variety among air pollution models as compared to the applied noise models. Correlations between air and noise pollution vary significantly (0.05-0.74) and are affected by several parameters such as traffic attributes, building attributes and meteorology etc. Buildings act as screens for the dispersion of pollution, but the reduction effect is much larger for noise than for air pollution. While, meteorology has a greater influence on air pollution levels as compared to noise, although also important for noise pollution. There is a significant potential for developing a standard tool to assess combined exposure of traffic related air and noise pollution to facilitate health related studies. GIS, due to its geographic nature, is well established and has a significant capability to simultaneously address both exposures. Copyright

  11. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-12-29

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  12. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13 and 1.04 (1.02–1.06 per 1 dB(A Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  13. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  14. Study of physio-psychological effects on traffic wardens due to traffic noise pollution; exposure-effect relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabraiz, Shamas; Ahmad, Saeed; Shehzadi, Iffat; Asif, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution has increased to alarming extent in most of the urban areas in Pakistan. It is assumed even more perilous than air and water pollution due to its direct acute and chronic physio-psychological effects. The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the psychological and physiological effects caused by traffic noise on traffic wardens and to find relation type between exposure time and effect. Three wardens check posts near roads were selected for survey in Taxila and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Survey conducted included noise measurements at aforementioned check posts for one month and Performa based interviews of traffic wardens. Analysis of results showed that noise levels varied between 85-106 dB hence violating OSHA regulations. Major psychological effects found in wardens were aggravated depression 58%, stress 65%, public conflict 71%, irritation and annoyance 54%, behavioral affects 59% and speech interference 56%. Physiological effects found were hypertension 87%, muscle tension 64%, exhaustion 48%, low performance levels 55%, concentration loss 93%, hearing impairment 69%, headache 74% and cardiovascular issue 71%. Relation between exposure time and effects were evaluated by using simple regression test in excel. Percentage of psychological and physiological effects in wardens varied with the exposure time; aggravated depression (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), stress suffering (R(2) = 0.014, P = 0.173), public conflict (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), irritation and annoyance (R(2) = 0.371, P = 0.137), behavioral affects (R(2) = 0.596, P = 0.0616) and speech interference (R(2) = 0.355, P = 0.445), hypertension (R(2) = 0.96, P = 0.00095) and cardiovascular issue (R(2) = 0.775, P = 0.044).

  15. Statistics of A-weighted road traffic noise levels in shielded urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssén, J.; Hornikx, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of community noise and its negative effects, the noise descriptors used are usually long-term equivalent levels and, sometimes, maximum levels. An improved description could be achieved by including the time variations of the noise. Here, the time variations of A-weighted road traffic

  16. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth....... METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...... between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates...

  17. A critical review of principal traffic noise models: Strategies and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Naveen, E-mail: ngarg@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Apex Level Standards and Industrial Metrology Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Mechanical, Production and Industrial Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Maji, Sagar [Department of Mechanical, Production and Industrial Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents an exhaustive comparison of principal traffic noise models adopted in recent years in developed nations. The comparison is drawn on the basis of technical attributes including source modelling and sound propagation algorithms. Although the characterization of source in terms of rolling and propulsion noise in conjunction with advanced numerical methods for sound propagation has significantly reduced the uncertainty in traffic noise predictions, the approach followed is quite complex and requires specialized mathematical skills for predictions which is sometimes quite cumbersome for town planners. Also, it is sometimes difficult to follow the best approach when a variety of solutions have been proposed. This paper critically reviews all these aspects pertaining to the recent models developed and adapted in some countries and also discusses the strategies followed and implications of these models. - Highlights: • Principal traffic noise models developed are reviewed. • Sound propagation algorithms used in traffic noise models are compared. • Implications of models are discussed.

  18. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  19. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    and analysis, and person re-identification. In traffic sign detection, the work comprises a thorough survey of the state of the art, assembly of the worlds largest public dataset with U.S. traffic signs, and work in machine learning based detection algorithms. It was shown that detection of U.S. traffic signs...

  20. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Janssen, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a

  1. Self-Organized Criticality and $1/f$ Noise in Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Paczuski, Maya; Nagel, Kai

    1996-01-01

    Phantom traffic jams may emerge ``out of nowhere'' from small fluctuations rather than being triggered by large, exceptional events. We show how phantom jams arise in a model of single lane highway traffic, which mimics human driving behavior. Surprisingly, the optimal state of highest efficiency, with the largest throughput, is a critical state with traffic jams of all sizes. We demonstrate that open systems self-organize to the most efficient state. In the model we study, this critical stat...

  2. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  4. Traffic analysis toolbox volume XI : weather and traffic analysis, modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a weather module for the traffic analysis tools program. It provides traffic engineers, transportation modelers and decisions makers with a guide that can incorporate weather impacts into transportation system analysis and mode...

  5. Pregnancy and childhood exposure to residential traffic noise and overweight at 7years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to road traffic noise has been associated with adiposity and diabetes in adults. The suggested pathways have been through sleep disturbance and stress. Children may be particularly susceptible to noise induced sleep disturbance and stress and the effects hereof. Objectives...

  6. Method for predicting future developments of traffic noise in urban areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Hout, D. van den; Janssen, S.; Kugler, U.; MacA, V.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise in urban areas in Europe is a major environmental stressor. In this study we present a method for predicting how environmental noise can be expected to develop in the future. In the project HEIMTSA scenarios were developed for all relevant environmental stressors to health, for all

  7. Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, H.W.; Vlaanderen, J.J.; Henderson, S.E.; Brauer, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both air and noise pollution associated with motor vehicle traffic have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Similarities in pollution source and health outcome mean that there is potential for noise to confound studies of air pollution and cardiovascular disease, and vice versa,

  8. Glucocorticoid metabolites in newborns: A marker for traffic noise related stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech Cantuaria, Manuella; Usermann, Jakob; Proietti, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Traffic noise has been associated with an increased risk for several non-auditory health effects, which may be explained by a noise-induced release of stress hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids). Although several studies in children and adults have indicated an increased secretion of glucocorticoids...

  9. A study on traffic noise of two campuses of University, Balasore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Nayak, Subrata Kumar; Pradhan, Akula Chandra; Dey, Surjendu Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Noise pollution is a significant environmental problem in many rapidly urbanizing areas of Orissa, India. Transportation sector is one of the major contributors to noise in these areas. The present study is an attempt to estimate traffic noise pollution at five places on the way from Vyasa Vihar Campus to Gyan Vigyan Vihar Campus of Fakir Mohan University, Balasore, Orissa. The sources of noise at the studied sites are predominantly attributable to motor vehicular traffic. The noise levels of all the five locations were found to be beyond permissible limit during the day time. The contributions of different types of vehicles to environmental noise were found to ranging from 70.4-94.2, 79.0-96.1, 77.8-110.2, 70.8-90.3, 71.0-87.5, 71.1-84.4, 72.5-86.9 and 74.0-85.4 dB (A) by cargo carrying Trucks, Tractors, Dumpers, Town Buses, Motor cycles, Bolero/Trucker, Pick up and Tempo respectively. The contributions of individual vehicles towards noise pollution were found to be more than the road traffic noise-limit i.e., 70 dB (A). On certain local inhabitants interviewed, the impact of noise was observed in the forms of alterations in their physical, psychological and personal aspects. This study warrants attention from all sections of people to deal with the problem of noise pollution.

  10. Integration and comparison of assessment and modeling of road traffic noise in Baripada town, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Swain, Bijay [Department of Environmental Science, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004, Odisha (India); Goswami, Shreerup [Department of Geology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack-753003, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    The road traffic is the predominant source of noise pollution in urban areas. Despite enactment of legislations and despite effort from Government level to abate vehicle noise, the noise exposure of people of India due to road traffic has hardly changed, but has increased day by day due to growth of vehicular population. Thus, an attempt had been made to assess the noise level in 12 different squares (major intersection points) of Baripada town during four different specified times (7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m., 7-10 p.m.). The equivalent noise levels of all the 12 squares were found to be much beyond the permissible limit (70 dB during day time). Noise descriptors such as L10, L50, L90, Leq, TNI (Traffic Noise Index), NPL (Noise Pollution Level) and NC (Noise climate) were assessed to reveal the extent of noise pollution due to heavy traffic in this town. It is pertinent to mention here that even the minimum Leq and NPL values were more than 70.9 dB and 88.4 dB, respectively. Chi-square (X2) test was also computed for investigated squares at different times to infer the level of significance. The test depicts that the noise levels of different squares do not differ significantly at the peak hour. The prediction model was used in the present study to predict equivalent noise levels. Comparison of predicted equivalent noise level with that of the actual measured data demonstrated that the model used for the prediction has the ability to calibrate the multi-component traffic noise and yield reliable results close to that by direct measurement. Episodic and impulsive noise levels by the air-horn of motor vehicles in Baripada were also appraised and were more than the permissible limit. Though, the dimension of the traffic generated noise pollution in Baripada was not so alarming like other towns of India, a preliminary public health survey has also been carried out.

  11. Effect of Traffic Noise on Sleep: A Case Study in Serdang Raya, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavani Nadaraja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise has been recognised as a serious threat to the quality of life in most industrialised nations. The rapid growth of towns, cities and population has increased the density of traffic. There are various effects of traffic noise on people and these effects are often interrelated. The most common yet serious problem is sleep disturbance. In this study field measurement and questionnaire survey were carried out to determine the overall noise level and the view and opinion of the residents on their sleep disturbance. As the LAeq was higher than the guideline values, contradictorily the survey results showed that most of the residents sleep time was not affected and they were not really annoyed by the traffic noise. This is mainly because most of the residents at the study area residing there for more than 19 years and this is sufficient enough to describe the pattern of outcome where most of the residents were get used with the traffic noise and they adapt it in their daily life as a norm. Yet, countermeasures such as construction of noise barrier are highly recommended to curb the chronic effects. So, a further study is required to establish this.

  12. Website Detection Using Remote Traffic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xun; Kiyavash, Negar; Schear, Nabíl; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in traffic analysis has shown that traffic patterns leaked through side channels can be used to recover important semantic information. For instance, attackers can find out which website, or which page on a website, a user is accessing simply by monitoring the packet size distribution. We show that traffic analysis is even a greater threat to privacy than previously thought by introducing a new attack that can be carried out remotely. In particular, we show that, to perform traffi...

  13. Blood pressure of urban school children in relation to road-traffic noise, traffic density and presence of public transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunovic, Katarina; Belojevic, Goran; Jakovljevic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between noise levels, traffic density and the presence of public transport and children's blood pressure. Another aim was to assess the applicability of public transport as a proxy indicator of noise exposure. A cross-sectional study involved 1113 children aged 7-11 years from a central municipality in Belgrade. Equivalent noise levels were measured in front of all schools and in the middle of all streets. Traffic density was defined as number of light and heavy vehicles per hour. The number of public transport vehicles was calculated from official timetables. Children's addresses were matched with noise levels and transport maps. A physician measured blood pressure with the sphygmomanometer. Children attending schools with public transport running nearby had by 1.3 mmHg higher systolic pressure than did children from schools without public transport. This relationship was independent from children's age, gender, and body mass index, family history of hypertension, some dwelling characteristics, and lifestyle habits. The association between diastolic pressure and public transport was statistically insignificant. The study indicated a possible positive association between the presence of public transport in the vicinity of schools with systolic blood pressure in 7-11 year-old schoolchildren. The presence of public transport may serve as an auxiliary indicator of noise exposure in undeveloped countries with limited capacities for noise measurement or modeling.

  14. Traffic background level and signal duration effects on aircraft noise judgment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, G W; Haasz, A A

    1977-04-22

    The effects of background traffic noise level and signal duration on perceived aircraft noise levels during a flyover event are investigated. Tapes of traffic noise at different levels on which aircraft flyover noise events of different durations were superimposed were played to groups of observers in a room simulating indoor conditions. It is found that the presence of steady background traffic noise reduces the perceived noisiness of aircraft flyovers provided that the duration of the flyover event is sufficiently short in relation to flyover time. For a given event level, a reduction of 21 dB(A) in background noise level leads to the perception of a 5.5 dB(A) increase in peak event level. Regressions of observer response with the noise pollution index show a lower correlation than those with variables based on background noise level and peak signal level, although the data are found to exhibit a number of significant trends associated with noise pollution index variations.

  15. Effects of traffic noise on tree frog stress levels, immunity, and color signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troïanowski, Mathieu; Mondy, Nathalie; Dumet, Adeline; Arcanjo, Caroline; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    During the last decade, many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of noise pollution on acoustic communication. Surprisingly, although it is known that noise exposure strongly influences health in humans, studies on wildlife remain scarce. In order to gain insight into the consequences of traffic noise exposure, we experimentally manipulated traffic noise exposure as well as the endocrine status of animals to investigate physiological and phenotypic consequences of noise pollution in an anuran species. We showed that noise exposure increased stress hormone level and induced an immunosuppressive effect. In addition, both traffic noise exposure and stress hormone application negatively impacted H. arborea vocal sac coloration. Moreover, our results suggest profound changes in sexual selection processes because the best quality males with initial attractive vocal sac coloration were the most impacted by noise. Hence, our study suggests that the recent increases in anthropogenic noise worldwide might affect a broader range of animal species than previously thought, because of alteration of visual signals and immunity. Generalizing these results to other taxa is crucial for the conservation of biodiversity in an increasingly noisy world. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. A Method to Estimate Students’ Exposure to Road Traffic Noise Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Secchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between exposure to traffic noise and students’ performance and annoyance has been investigated in literature mainly considering the relationship between indoor equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq and students’ cognitive impairment. Annoyance is frequently related to the effect of short-duration noise events characterized by high sound pressure levels, such as those due to aircraft fly-over and pass-by of buses, heavy trucks, motorcycles, or street sweepers. These noise events are often described, over specific measurement periods, in terms of maximum A-weighted sound pressure level, LAmax, or statistical levels, such as LA1 or LA10. This aspect is not considered in the noise maps drawn in accordance with the European Environmental Noise Directive, as they provide the LAeq only, determined over day, evening, and night periods. In this paper, students’ exposure to road traffic noise is analyzed by means of regression equations obtained by the authors between LAeq and A-weighted maximum and statistical levels due to road traffic noise. The traffic noise of 28 urban streets was monitored during the opening period of Italian schools. A method is described to estimate students’ exposure to noise from data made available on noise maps by the municipalities of metropolitan areas. The application of this method to the case study of Florence shows that almost 60% of students from municipal primary and lower secondary schools could be exposed to the maximum sound pressure level (SPL inside the classroom greater than 55 dB(A every hour, probably exceeding the typical background noise in classrooms by more than 10 dB.

  17. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.W.; Hoogh, K. de; Fecht, D.; Fabbri, F.; Bell, M.; Goodman, P.S.; Elliott, P.; Hodgson, S.; Hansell, A.L.; Gulliver, J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). - Highlights: • The first implementation of CNOSSOS-EU for national scale noise exposure assessment. • Road traffic noise model performance with varying resolution of inputs is assessed. • Model performance is good with low resolution inputs (r_s = 0.75). • This model will be applied in epidemiological studies of European cohorts. - The CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise model estimates can be used for international scale exposure assessment when parameterised with freely available low resolution covering a large geographic area.

  18. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models of traffic for academic purposes. We define the objective of this thesis as finding a way to evaluate the performance of various applications in a high-speed Internet infrastructure. To satisfy the obje...

  19. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  20. Are air pollution and traffic noise independently associated with atherosclerosis: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Hagen; Hennig, Frauke; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Dragano, Nico; Jakobs, Hermann; Memmesheimer, Michael; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Living close to high traffic has been linked to subclinical atherosclerosis, however it is not clear, whether fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution or noise, two important traffic-related exposures, are responsible for the association. We investigate the independent associations of long-term exposure to fine PM and road traffic noise with thoracic aortic calcification (TAC), a reliable measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We used baseline data (2000-2003) from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort of 4814 randomly selected participants. We assessed residential long-term exposure to PM with a chemistry transport model, and to road traffic noise using façade levels from noise models as weighted 24 h mean noise (Lden) and night-time noise (Lnight). Thoracic aortic calcification was quantified from non-contrast enhanced electron beam computed tomography. We used multiple linear regression to estimate associations of environmental exposures with ln(TAC+1), adjusting for each other, individual, and neighbourhood characteristics. In 4238 participants (mean age 60 years, 49.9% male), PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and Lnight are both associated with an increasing TAC-burden of 18.1% (95% CI: 6.6; 30.9%) per 2.4 µg/m(3) PM2.5 and 3.9% (95% CI 0.0; 8.0%) per 5dB(A) Lnight, respectively, in the full model and after mutual adjustment. We did not observe effect measure modification of the PM2.5 association by Lnight or vice versa. Long-term exposure to fine PM and night-time traffic noise are both independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and may both contribute to the association of traffic proximity with atherosclerosis.

  1. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and transportation noise in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Elise; Fischer, Paul; Janssen, Nicole; Houthuijs, Danny; van Kamp, Irene; Stansfeld, Stephen; Cassee, Flemming

    2012-05-01

    Children living close to roads are exposed to both traffic noise and traffic-related air pollution. There are indications that both exposures affect cognitive functioning. So far, the effects of both exposures have only been investigated separately. To investigate the relationship between air pollution and transportation noise on the cognitive performance of primary schoolchildren in both the home and school setting. Data acquired within RANCH from 553 children (aged 9-11 years) from 24 primary schools were analysed using multilevel modelling with adjustment for a range of socio-economic and life-style factors. Exposure to NO(2) (which is in urban areas an indicator for traffic-related air pollution) at school was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in the memory span length measured during DMST (χ(2)=6.8, df=1, p=0.01). This remained after additional adjustment for transportation noise. Statistically significant associations were observed between road and air traffic noise exposure at school and the number of errors made during the 'arrow' (χ(2)=7.5, df=1, p=0.006) and 'switch' (χ(2)=4.8, df=1, p=0.028) conditions of the SAT. This remained after adjustment for NO(2). No effects of air pollution exposure or transportation noise exposure at home were observed. Combined exposure of air pollution and road traffic noise had a significant effect on the reaction times measured during the SRTT and the 'block' and the 'arrow' conditions of the SAT. Our results provide some support that prolonged exposure to traffic-related air pollution as well as to noise adversely affects cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of role extroversion of caused by traffic noise on mental function of the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gohari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims  contact to noise has harmful effects on operational, Pshychic and physical health. Traffic is of the most important resource of urban environments noises, some of individual differences like extroversion, temper psychoneurosis and sensitivity to noise are the effective factors in effect of noise on function. The goal of this research study of extroversion effect on mental function with traffic noise.   Methods  this study is of interferential type in which traffic noise was recorded by voice recorder sony ICD MX20 in Tehran streets and in was broadcast in laboratory as a sample. The size of sample included 44 persons of students of Medical Science University of Iran elected by accidental sampling method and include 32 samples(23 male, 9 female and 12 control (7male, 5 female. Regarding to introversion and extroversion are of the effective factors on function. Personality questioneire of eyscenk(EPI was used. The considered parameters in mental function included total true answers, false answers time average of true answers that were measured by computerized test COG.     Resultsthe results indicated that after broadcasing noises, total true answers, was increase in extroversion and males (p= 0/000 while in introversions (p=0/049 and females (p=0/010 after exposing noise, the increase was in the false answers.   Conclusion the results achieved by this research indicated that the traffic noise has the different effects on the parameters of mental function of extroverted and introverted persons., also indicate a meaningful relation between noise and size.

  3. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  4. An Experimental Study of the Noise Due to Traffic in a Congested Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Sankar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Noise pollution in an urban environment is an issue of serious concern in the major cities of India. There are various factors that contribute to the increase of noise levels in urban areas. The intensity of traffic is one of the factors which contributes to a drastic increase in environmental noise. The management of noise pollution has to be considered in the decision making process. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the existing noise level due to the traffic in Velachery which is declared as a sensitive area by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF). The noise level data is collected using the MS6710 digital sound meter. The Custic simulation software version 3.2 is used for finding the propagation of noise. The spatial patterns of measurement were also calculated, in the sub-urban area of Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. A means of transmitting this data to vehicles moving in the area, through a wireless medium is simulated using NCTUns 6.0 (network simulator), to enable drivers to understand the environmental conditions. A hardware was also designed which can be used to transmit and receive the noise data using the Zigbee module. A noise transmitting station is placed at a junction, so that it can transmit this noise data to the receivers which are fitted inside the vehicles.

  5. Traffic Noise as a Factor Influencing Apartment Prices in Large Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepańska Agnieszka; Senetra Adam; Wasilewicz Monika

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors are among the key determinants of real estate prices. They include landscape attractiveness, land relief, exposure to sunlight and proximity to natural features. In large urban centers, traffic noise emissions significantly affect decision-making on the real estate market. Weakly developed road networks and the absence of ring roads that shift road traffic outside residential districts are a widespread problem in the cities of Central-Eastern Europe. The prevention of tr...

  6. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  7. The nuisance due to the noise of automobile traffic: An investigation in the neighborhoods of freeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamure, C.; Bacelon, M.

    1980-01-01

    An inquiry was held among 400 people living near freeways in an attempt to determine the characteristics of traffic noise nuisance. A nuisance index was compiled, based on the answers to a questionnaire. Nuisance expressed in these terms was then compared with the noise level measured on the most exposed side of each building. Correlation between the nuisance indexes and the average noise levels is quite good for dwellings with facades parallel to the freeway. At equal noise levels on the most exposed side, the nuisance given for these latter dwellings is lower than for others.

  8. Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution and risk for febrile seizure: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-03-25

    Objectives Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution is suspected to increase susceptibility to viral infections - the main triggering factor for febrile seizures. No studies have examined these two exposures in relation to febrile seizures. We aimed to investigate whether exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution are associated with risk of febrile seizures in childhood. Methods From our study base of 51 465 singletons from a national birth cohort, we identified 2175 cases with febrile seizures using a nationwide registry. Residential address history from conception to six years of age were found in national registers, and road traffic noise (L den ) and air pollution (NO 2 ) were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for potential confounders, including mutual exposure adjustment. Results An interquartile range (IQR) increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution was associated with an 11% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.19) and 5% (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07) higher risk for febrile seizures, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. Weaker tendencies were seen for pregnancy exposure. In models with mutual exposure adjustment, the estimates were slightly lower, with IRR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.16) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.06) per IQR increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that residential exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution is associated with higher risk for febrile seizures.

  9. The disturbance by road traffic noise of the sleep of young male adults as recorded in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Akselsson, K. R.

    1987-05-01

    Primary effects of road traffic noise on sleep, as derived from EEG, EOG, and EMG, were studied for seven young males (aged 21-27) in their homes along roads with heavy traffic during the night. A more quiet experimental condition was obtained by mounting sound-insulating material in the window openings, thus reducing the interiors noise level by an average of 8 dB(A). The present investigation shows that the subjects had not become completely habituated to the noise, although they had lived at least a year at their residences. The noise reduction caused an earlier onset and a prolonged duration of slow was sleep. No effects on REM sleep were seen. The subjective sleep quality was significantly correlated to the noise dose. The equivalent sound pressure level ( L eq) did not give the most adequate noise dose description. Better characterizations of the noise exposure were found in the number of car per night producing maximum sound pressure levels exceeding 50 or 55 dB(A) in the bedroom. Arousal reactions of type "body movements" and "changes towards lighter sleep" were induced by the noise of car passage but the percentage of cars inducing an effect was only sleep stage changes per night showed an increase during the more quiet nights as compared to the noisy nights. The sensitivity to arousal reactions was significantly lower in the present field study than the in the laboratory experiments. A description of the continuous sleep process by a few distinct "sleep stages" is too crude a tool for the detection of the rather subtle changes in the sleeping pattern caused by noise. In the present study an increased sensitivity in the analysis was obtained by dividing stage 2 into three substages.

  10. Neighbour and traffic noise annoyance at home - prevalence and trends among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Ekholm, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Neighbour and traffic noise are affecting many people in their everyday life, implying adverse effects on quality of life and health. In many countries, the most dominant noise sources disturbing people in their homes are traffic and neighbours. The aims of the present study were to examine...... survey) with adequate response rates varying from 57% to 74%. All samples were drawn at random from the adult Danish population (16 years or older). The purpose of the surveys was to describe the status and trends in health and morbidity in the adult Danish population and the factors that influence...

  11. Neighbour and traffic noise annoyance: A nationwide study of associated mental health and perceived stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi AR; Rasmussen, Birgit; Ekholm, Ola

    2018-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known risk factor for multiple adverse health effects. Annoyance is the most prevalent response to environmental noise and may result in negative emotional responses, including poor mental health and high levels of perceived stress. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the association between neighbour and traffic noise annoyance, and mental health and perceived stress. Methods Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity surveys in 2010 and 2013. The study was based on a random sample of the adult population in Denmark living in multistorey housing (n...... = 7090). Information on neighbour and traffic noise annoyance during the past 2 weeks, and mental health and perceived stress, using Short Form-12 and Perceived Stress Scale instruments, respectively, was obtained by means of self-administered questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression models were used...

  12. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to incident rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA.

  13. Research on noise and vibration reduction at DB to improve the environmental friendliness of railway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Werning, B.; Beier, M.; Degen, K. G.; Stiebel, D.

    2006-06-01

    One of the most prominent keywords relating to the environmental friendliness of railway traffic is noise reduction. Thus, the research and development programme "Low Noise Railway" of Deutsche Bahn (DB) is under way to treat the noise of the vehicles and infrastructure. The noise reduction of the trains and the rail/wheel system are being tackled within several projects. The direct noise experienced by railway-lineside residents due to train movements on the track can be reduced by minimising the sound radiation directly at the source. This is the first-choice solution, as it proves to be the most effective countermeasure regarding a cost-benefit relation. The limit values for the noise emission as specified in the technical specification for interoperability are an essential criterion to be confirmed during the procurement process of railway vehicles. A recently developed acoustical quality management scheme establishes systematic noise management to complete the vehicle procurement process in the phases of concept, design, construction and manufacturing. In freight traffic quiet railway wheels for block brake operation will play an important role in the future to meet the goal of a low-noise railway system. A first attempt to realise successfully the low-noise potential of such optimised wheels was performed, even if with mixed results. To show ways of reducing the noise of the cooling ventilation in locomotives, DB is a partner in a development project led by Siemens. A notable 8 dB(A) noise reduction was measured. Concerning bridge noise, a project was started based on an effective and cost-efficient combination of experiments and simulations in order to develop specifications for the construction of generic low-noise bridges.

  14. Background noise levels and correlation with ship traffic in the Gulf of Catania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Grammauta, Roasario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades the growing interest in the evaluation of the underwater acoustic noise for studies in the fields of geology, biology and high-energy physics is driving the scientific community to collaborate towards a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. In June 2012 in the framework of the European project EMSO, a multidisciplinary underwater observatory, named NEMO-SN1, was installed 25 km off-shore the port of Catania, at a depth of 2100 m and operated until May 2013 by INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia). NEMO-SN1 hosted aboard geophysical, oceanographic and acoustic sensors: among these a seismic hydrophone model SMID DT-405D(V). In this work, conducted within the activity of the SMO project, the results on the evaluation of the underwater acoustic pollution in the Gulf of Catania through SMID DT-405D(V) recordings are presented. The seismic hydrophone provided a data set of about 11 months of continuous (24/7) recordings. Underwater sounds have been continuously digitized at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz and the acquired data have been stored in 10min long files for off-line analysis. To describe one-year background noise levels, the mean integrated acoustic noise was measured every second (sampling frequency 2000, NFFT 2048) in the 1/3 octave bands with centre frequency 63 Hz and for each 10 minutes-long file the 5th, the 50th and the 98th percentiles were calculated. Measured noise was correlated with the shipping traffic in the area, thanks to the data provided by an AIS receiver installed at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. An acoustic noise increment was measured in coincidence with the passing of crafts in the area and it was possible to identify the characteristic spectrum of each ship. A simple model for the estimation of the acoustic noise induced by the ships passing through the area was developed. The model was applied by using AIS data acquired during the operation

  15. Long-termexposure to road traffic noise, ambient air pollution, and cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT and lifelines cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Yutong; Hansell, Anna L.; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R.; de Hoogh, Kees; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Gulliver, John; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Morley, DavidW.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Elliott, Paul; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Blood biochemistry may provide information on associations between road traffic noise, air pollution, and cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluated this in two large European cohorts (HUNT3, Lifelines). Methods and results: Road traffic noise exposure was modelled for 2009 using a simplified

  16. Associations of traffic noise with self-rated health and psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees. Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study. Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus ≤45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women. Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.

  17. Noise and vibration analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, J.R.; Williams, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of noise and vibration data from an operating nuclear plant can provide valuable information that can identify and characterize abnormal conditions. Existing plant monitoring equipment, such as loose parts monitoring systems (LPMS) and neutron flux detectors, may be capable of gathering noise data, but may lack the analytical capability to extract useful meanings hidden in the noise. By analyzing neutron noise signals, the structural motion and integrity of core components can be assessed. Computer analysis makes trending of frequency spectra within a fuel cycle and from one cycle to another a practical means of core internals monitoring. The Babcock and Wilcox Noise and Vibration Analysis System (NVAS) is a powerful, compact system that can automatically perform complex data analysis. The system can acquire, process, and store data, then produce report-quality plots of the important parameter. Software to perform neutron noise analysis and loose parts analysis operates on the same hardware package. Since the system is compact, inexpensive, and easy to operate, it allows utilities to perform more frequency analyses without incurring high costs and provides immediate results

  18. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  19. Residential exposure to traffic noise and risk of incident atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz

    2016-01-01

    with adjustment for lifestyle, socioeconomic position and air pollution. Results A 10 dB higher 5-year time-weighted mean exposure to road traffic noise was associated with a 6% higher risk of A-fib (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00–1.12) in models adjusted for factors...

  20. Ambient air pollution, traffic noise and adult asthma prevalence : A BioSHaRE approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Yutong; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Doiron, Dany; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R.; Fortier, Isabel; Gaye, Amadou; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stephane; Morley, David W; Stolk, Ronald P.; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both ambient air pollution and traffic noise on adult asthma prevalence, using harmonised data from three European cohort studies established in 2006-2013 (HUNT3, Lifelines and UK Biobank). Residential exposures to ambient air pollution (particulate matter with

  1. Residential traffic noise and mammographic breast density in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Traffic is the most important source of community noise, and it has been proposed to be associated with a range of disease outcomes, including breast cancer. As mammographic breast density (MD) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing breast cancer, the present study...

  2. Evaluation and Modelling of Traffic Noise on the Asian Highway in Golestan National Park, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharibi Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of vehicles on Iran’s highways and major roads has led to an increase in noise levels. As a result, traffic is now considered a main source of noise pollution. This paper reports on the modelling of traffic noise levels in Golestan National Park, Golestan using vehicle data and other environmental features. For the evaluation of noise and the recording of independent environmental variables, Sampling stations were selected using a systematic-random method at 76 points at various distances and between 0-250 meters from the road. At each sampling point, traffic flow (number and speed of vehicles, number of horn beeps was measured for 15 minutes from 8 am to 8 pm. Simultaneously other environmental variables were assessed, including the geometry of the road surface and location conditions .The best multivariable regression based on the correlation coefficient (R and the coefficient of determination (R2 was achieved. The R-square (73% and the adjusted R-square (68% of the regression equation were 73% and 68% respectively. The results of modelling show that the most important variables affecting noise pollution are distance from the road, roughness coefficient, speed of medium-weight vehicles, relative humidity, and height and number of light vehicles. There is a negative correlation with distance from the road and noise pollution.The accuracy of the model was found to be about ±5 dB. Therefore, the model is suggested for the prediction of traffic noise on the Asian Highway in Golestan National Park.

  3. Web-based Traffic Noise Control Support System for Sustainable Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lisa; Dai, Liming; Li, Anson

    Traffic noise is considered as one of the major pollutions that will affect our communities in the future. This paper presents a framework of web-based traffic noise control support system (WTNCSS) for a sustainable transportation. WTNCSS is to provide the decision makers, engineers and publics a platform to efficiently access the information, and effectively making decisions related to traffic control. The system is based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) which takes the advantages of the convenience of World Wide Web system with the data format of XML. The whole system is divided into different modules such as the prediction module, ontology-based expert module and dynamic online survey module. Each module of the system provides a distinct information service to the decision support center through the HTTP protocol.

  4. Vulnerability of school children exposed to traffic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Results revealed that not all schools, particularly those schools that are very close to the roadside, are intensely affected by such high pitch noise and subsequently teaching - learning process were also greatly affected by such activities. Therefore, it is highly recommended that village committee and municipality authority should coordinate with the school authority for taking measures for such irreversible damaged.

  5. Reactor surveillance by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, Ozer

    1988-01-01

    A real-time noise analysis system is designed for the TRIGA reactor at Istanbul Technical University. By means of the noise techniques, reactor surveillance is performed together with failure diagnosis. The fast data processing is carried out by FFT in real-time so that malfunction or non-stationary operation of the reactor in long term can be identified by comparing the noise power spectra with the corresponding reference patterns while the decision making procedure is accomplished by the method of hypothesis testing. The system being computer based safety instrumentation involves CAMAC in conjunction with the RT-11 (PDP-11) single user dedicated environment. (author)

  6. An Anomalous Noise Events Detector for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Claudi Socoró

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. To this aim, this paper introduces an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED designed to differentiate between RTN and ANE in real time within a predefined interval running on the distributed low-cost acoustic sensors of a WASN. The proposed ANED follows a two-class audio event detection and classification approach, instead of multi-class or one-class classification schemes, taking advantage of the collection of representative acoustic data in real-life environments. The experiments conducted within the DYNAMAP project, implemented on ARM-based acoustic sensors, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational cost and classification performance using standard Mel cepstral coefficients and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM. The two-class GMM core classifier relatively improves the baseline universal GMM one-class classifier F1 measure by 18.7% and 31.8% for suburban and urban environments, respectively, within the 1-s integration interval. Nevertheless, according to the results, the classification performance of the current ANED implementation still has room for improvement.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Zhang, Cuilin; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-11-01

    Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and noise from road traffic (L den ) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. A 10-μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 exposure during first trimester was, however, associated with an increased risk of WHO-GDM (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49). The corresponding OR associated with a 10-dB higher road traffic noise level was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.18). In mutually adjusted models the OR for NO 2 remained similar 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) whereas that for road traffic noise decreased to 1.03 (0.80, 1.32). Significant associations were also observed for exposure averaged over the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and the full pregnancy. No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO 2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause ...

  9. Assessment of road traffic noise indices in urban residential areas of Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Herni; Abdullah, Ramdzani; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd

    2017-10-01

    Traffic noise has been recognized as a serious threat to the quality of life in most industrialised nations. Klang valley is rapidly emerging as industrialized and urbanized city and has started facing severe noise pollution problems. Urban noise quality assessment is studied in three residential areas; Desa Tun Razak, Kinrara Court and Taman Sentul Utama. Noise pollution indices of L10, L50, L90, Lmax and Lmin as well as equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) were measured for all dwellings. Noise indices results illustrate that Desa Tun Razak recorded the highest values of noise levels among three studied sites. Results also indicate that the highest Leq of 75.7 dB(A) was observed in Desa Tun Razak followed by 74.3 dB(A) in Kinrara Court, and 72.1 dB(A) in Taman Sentul Utama. The noise assessment study clearly reveals the alarming condition of noise pollution in residential areas of Klang Valley as the noise level measured exceeded permissible limit by WHO and Malaysia Guidelines.

  10. The Influence of Traffic Noise on Appreciation of the Living Quality of a Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Gillis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic influences the quality of life in a neighborhood in many different ways. Today, in many patsy of the world the benefits of accessibility are taken for granted and traffic is perceived as having a negative impact on satisfaction with the neighborhood. Negative health effects are observed in a number of studies and these stimulate the negative feelings in the exposed population. The noise produced by traffic is one of the most important contributors to the appreciation of the quality of life. Thus, it is useful to define a number of indicators that allow monitoring the current impact of noise on the quality of life and predicting the effect of future developments. This work investigates and compares a set of indicators related to exposure at home and exposure during trips around the house. The latter require detailed modeling of the population’s trip behavior. The validity of the indicators is checked by their ability to predict the outcome of a social survey and by outlining potential causal paths between them and the outcome variables considered: general satisfaction with the quality of life in the neighborhood, noise annoyance at home, and reported traffic density in the area.

  11. The Influence of Traffic Noise on Appreciation of the Living Quality of a Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteldooren, Dick; Dekoninck, Luc; Gillis, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Traffic influences the quality of life in a neighborhood in many different ways. Today, in many patsy of the world the benefits of accessibility are taken for granted and traffic is perceived as having a negative impact on satisfaction with the neighborhood. Negative health effects are observed in a number of studies and these stimulate the negative feelings in the exposed population. The noise produced by traffic is one of the most important contributors to the appreciation of the quality of life. Thus, it is useful to define a number of indicators that allow monitoring the current impact of noise on the quality of life and predicting the effect of future developments. This work investigates and compares a set of indicators related to exposure at home and exposure during trips around the house. The latter require detailed modeling of the population’s trip behavior. The validity of the indicators is checked by their ability to predict the outcome of a social survey and by outlining potential causal paths between them and the outcome variables considered: general satisfaction with the quality of life in the neighborhood, noise annoyance at home, and reported traffic density in the area. PMID:21556178

  12. Road traffic noise, air pollution and myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Theo; Björk, Jonas; Mattisson, Kristoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Rittner, Ralf; Gustavsson, Per; Jakobsson, Kristina; Östergren, Per-Olof; Albin, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Both road traffic noise and air pollution have been linked to cardiovascular disease. However, there are few prospective epidemiological studies available where both road traffic noise and air pollution have been analyzed simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between road traffic noise, air pollution and incident myocardial infarction in both current (1-year average) and medium-term (3-year average) perspective. This study was based on a stratified random sample of persons aged 18-80 years who answered a public health survey in Skåne, Sweden, in 2000 (n = 13,512). The same individuals received a repeated survey in 2005 and 2010. Diagnoses of myocardial infarction (MI) were obtained from medical records for both inpatient and outpatient specialized care. The endpoint was first MI during 2000-2010. Participants with prior myocardial infarction were excluded at baseline. Yearly average levels of noise (L DEN) and air pollution (NO x ) were estimated using geographic information system for residential address every year until censoring. The mean exposure levels for road traffic noise and air pollution in 2005 were L DEN 51 dB(A) and NO x 11 µg/m(3), respectively. After adjustment for individual confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, alcohol consumption, civil status, year, country of birth and physical activity), a 10-dB(A) increase in current noise exposure did not increase the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI, 0.99 (95 % CI 0.86-1.14). Neither did a 10-μg/m(3) increase in current NO x increase the risk of MI, 1.02 (95 % CI 0.86-1.21). The IRR for MI associated with combined exposure to road traffic noise >55 dB(A) and NO x >20 µg/m(3) was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.90-1.64) compared to noise or air pollution at moderate average exposure levels.

  13. Effects of experimentally elevated traffic noise on nestling white-crowned sparrow stress physiology, immune function and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Ondi L; Johnson, Erin E; Blickley, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Breuner, Creagh W

    2013-06-01

    Roads have been associated with behavioral and physiological changes in wildlife. In birds, roads decrease reproductive success and biodiversity and increase physiological stress. Although the consequences of roads on individuals and communities have been well described, the mechanisms through which roads affect birds remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine one mechanism through which roads could affect birds: traffic noise. We exposed nestling mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) to experimentally elevated traffic noise for 5 days during the nestling period. Following exposure to traffic noise we measured nestling stress physiology, immune function, body size, condition and survival. Based on prior studies, we expected the traffic noise treatment to result in elevated stress hormones (glucocorticoids), and declines in immune function, body size, condition and survival. Surprisingly, nestlings exposed to traffic noise had lower glucocorticoid levels and improved condition relative to control nests. These results indicate that traffic noise does affect physiology and development in white-crowned sparrows, but not at all as predicted. Therefore, when evaluating the mechanisms through which roads affect avian populations, other factors (e.g. edge effects, pollution and mechanical vibration) may be more important than traffic noise in explaining elevated nestling stress responses in this species.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE ANNOYANCE AMONG WHITE-COLLAR EMPLOYEES WORKING IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1I. Alimohammadi, 2P. Nassiri, 3M. Azkhosh, 4M. Hoseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of personal and attitudinal factors, noise level, hearing status and psychological traits on traffic-related noise annoyance among white-collar employees working in Tehran has been carefully analyzed. This survey has been conducted by interviewing 495 citizens working in non-manufacturing industries in Tehran, using questionnaires, Weinstein noise sensitivity scale, Beck’s depression, Buss and perry’s aggression, Zung’s anxiety, job satisfaction and Eysenc’s personality inventory. These citizens were office workers or store employees. Noise annoyance was determined both by numerical-based questionnaire criterion and by verbal index. Personal information, attitudinal factors and hearing conditions were determined using a general questionnaire. The amount of workplace noise the participants were exposed to was directly measured at their workplaces. It was revealed that among personal factors, age (p=0.030, marital status (p=0.004, residential period (p=0.001 and wealth (p=0.04 were related to noise annoyance. Attitudinal factors including sensitivity to noise (p=0.001, individual’s opinion on the need to control the noise (p=0.000 and individuals’ assessment of the amount of the workplace ambient noise (p= 0.000 were found to have relationship with noise annoyance. No meaningful relationship was seen between the equivalent noise level (p=0.879 and statistical noise level of L90 (p=0.909. The present study revealed that among all effective factors involved in noise annoyance, attitudinal factors had the most significant role in this regard.

  15. A Green Soundscape Index (GSI): The potential of assessing the perceived balance between natural sound and traffic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Pablo; Arenas, Jorge P; Bermejo, Fernando; Hinalaf, María; Turra, Bruno

    2018-06-13

    Urban soundscapes are dynamic and complex multivariable environmental systems. Soundscapes can be organized into three main entities containing the multiple variables: Experienced Environment (EE), Acoustic Environment (AE), and Extra-Acoustic Environment (XE). This work applies a multidimensional and synchronic data-collecting methodology at eight urban environments in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. The EE was assessed by means of surveys, the AE by acoustic measurements and audio recordings, and the XE by photos, video, and complementary sources. In total, 39 measurement locations were considered, where data corresponding to 61 AE and 203 EE were collected. Multivariate analysis and GIS techniques were used for data processing. The types of sound sources perceived, and their extents make up part of the collected variables that belong to the EE, i.e. traffic, people, natural sounds, and others. Sources explaining most of the variance were traffic noise and natural sounds. Thus, a Green Soundscape Index (GSI) is defined here as the ratio of the perceived extents of natural sounds to traffic noise. Collected data were divided into three ranges according to GSI value: 1) perceptual predominance of traffic noise, 2) balanced perception, and 3) perceptual predominance of natural sounds. For each group, three additional variables from the EE and three from the AE were applied, which reported significant differences, especially between ranges 1 and 2 with 3. These results confirm the key role of perceiving natural sounds in a town environment and also support the proposal of a GSI as a valuable indicator to classify urban soundscapes. In addition, the collected GSI-related data significantly helps to assess the overall soundscape. It is noted that this proposed simple perceptual index not only allows one to assess and classify urban soundscapes but also contributes greatly toward a technique for separating environmental sound sources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  16. Long-term exposure to residential railway and road traffic noise and risk for diabetes in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Road traffic noise exposure has been found associated with diabetes incidence. Evidence for an association between railway noise exposure is less clear, as large studies with detailed railway noise modelling are lacking. To investigate the association between residential railway noise and diabetes incidence, and to repeat previous analyses on road traffic noise and diabetes with longer follow-up time. Among 50,534 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 5062 cases of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 15.5 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2012 were found in national registries, and railway and road traffic noise (L den ) were modelled for all addresses, using the Nordic prediction method. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the association between residential traffic noise over 1 and 5 years before diagnosis, and diabetes incidence. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We found no association between railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence among the 9527 persons exposed, regardless of exposure time-window: HR 0.99 (0.94-1.04) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. There was no effect modification by sex, road traffic noise, and education. We confirmed the previously found association between road traffic noise exposure and diabetes including 6 additional years of follow-up: HR 1.08 (1.04-1.13) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. The study does not suggest an association between residential railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence, but supports the finding of a direct association with residential road traffic noise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of road traffic noise on the students\\' errors in movement time anticipation; the role of introversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Alimohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Traffic noise is one of the most important urban noise pollution, which causes various physical and mental effects, impairment in daily activities, sleep disturbances, hearing loss and the impact on job performance. Thus it can reduce concentration significantly and increase the rate of traffic accidents. Some individual differences such as personality types in noise effects, affect.   Methods : Traffic noise has been measured and recorded in 10 arterial streets in Tehran, and the average sound pressure level measured was72/9 dB during two hours played for participants in the acousticroom . The sample size consisted of 80 patients (40 cases and 40 controls who were students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Personality type was determined by using Eysenc’s Personality Inventory (EPIquestionnaire. The error time movement anticipation before and after exposure to traffic noisewas measured by ZBA computerize test.   Results: The results revealed that error time movement anticipation before exposure to traffic noise have significant difference for introverts and extraverts Introverts have less errortime movement anticipation than extroversion ,whereas extroverts have less error time movement anticipation that introversion after exposure to traffic noise.   Conclusion: According to the obtained results, noise created different effects on the performance of personality type. Extroverts may be expected to adapt better to noise during mental performance, compared to people with opposite personality traits.  

  18. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  19. THE POSSIBILITY OF REDUCING THE IMPACT OF TRAFFIC NOISE ON THE PERSON IN THE PASSENGER CARS OF A RAILWAY TRANSPORT IS THE METHOD, BASED ON THE MASKING EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shmakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reduction of the long-term traffic noise effect on the person in coach passenger spaces is examined. The method of solving the problem is offered. The corresponding calculations and analysis of results are performed. The functional diagram on technical realization of this method is proposed.

  20. Speech intelligibility of normal listeners and persons with impaired hearing in traffic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniansson, G.; Peterson, Y.

    1983-10-01

    Speech intelligibility (PB words) in traffic-like noise was investigated in a laboratory situation simulating three common listening situations, indoors at 1 and 4 m and outdoors at 1 m. The maximum noise levels still permitting 75% intelligibility of PB words in these three listening situations were also defined. A total of 269 persons were examined. Forty-six had normal hearing, 90 a presbycusis-type hearing loss, 95 a noise-induced hearing loss and 38 a conductive hearing loss. In the indoor situation the majority of the groups with impaired hearing retained good speech intelligibility in 40 dB(A) masking noise. Lowering the noise level to less than 40 dB(A) resulted in a minor, usually insignificant, improvement in speech intelligibility. Listeners with normal hearing maintained good speech intelligibility in the outdoor listening situation at noise levels up to 60 dB(A), without lip-reading (i.e., using non-auditory information). For groups with impaired hearing due to age and/or noise, representing 8% of the population in Sweden, the noise level outdoors had to be lowered to less than 50 dB(A), in order to achieve good speech intelligibility at 1 m without lip-reading.

  1. Experiences with sound insulating open windows in traffic noise exposed housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    windows are open, not least to reduce sleep disturbance. Unfortunately, such window solutions are complicated and expensive and practical experience limited. Nevertheless, they have been included in some Danish projects. To support further development and use, experience from seven field cases......Sound insulating windows are widely used in traffic noise exposed residential areas to reduce indoor noise levels to acceptable levels. However, such windows are typically only designed to provide sound insulation in closed position, and many people prefer open windows parts of time for ventilation...... purposes, including during night, or simply because it’s a good feeling to have windows open to be in contact with the surroundings. High noise exposure can lead to adverse effects on comfort and health, and thus, there is a need for sound insulating open windows to reduce noise exposure in homes, when...

  2. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  3. Air traffic controllers' long-term speech-in-noise training effects: A control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, Maria T P; Plasencia, Daniel P; González, María L Z; de Miguel, Angel R; Macías, Ángel R

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and -5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=-5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions.

  4. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people.

  5. Cardiovascular health, traffic-related air pollution and noise: are associations mutually confounded? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-François; Perron, Stéphane; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    This review assessed the confounding effect of one traffic-related exposure (noise or air pollutants) on the association between the other exposure and cardiovascular outcomes. A systematic review was conducted with the databases Medline and Embase. The confounding effects in studies were assessed by using change in the estimate with a 10 % cutoff point. The influence on the change in the estimate of the quality of the studies, the exposure assessment methods and the correlation between road noise and air pollutions were also assessed. Nine publications were identified. For most studies, the specified confounders produced changes in estimates noise and pollutants, the quality of the study and of the exposure assessment do not seem to influence the confounding effects. Results from this review suggest that confounding of cardiovascular effects by noise or air pollutants is low, though with further improvements in exposure assessment, the situation may change. More studies using pollution indicators specific to road traffic are needed to properly assess if noise and air pollution are subjected to confounding.

  6. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic noise can act as a stressor and disturb sleep, and has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest a possible association to metabolic outcomes and adiposity through biological mechanisms related to physiological stress and sleep disturbance. OBJECTIVES...... an 10% increased risk for gaining more than 5kg body weight during follow-up (95% CI: 1.04; 1.15) per 10dB higher 5 years exposure preceding follow-up. Exposure to railway noise above 55dB was associated with weight gain (39.9g/year (95% CI: 10.2; 69.6)), but not with a significant change in waist...

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2017-01-01

    pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. Methods: We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997–2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road...... traffic (Lden) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. Results: According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident......: No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias....

  8. Reconfigurable origami sonic barriers with tunable bandgaps for traffic noise mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, M.; Wang, K. W.

    2017-10-01

    An origami sonic barrier composed of cylindrical inclusions attached onto an origami sheet is proposed. The idea allows for tunable sound blocking properties for application in attenuating complex traffic noise spectra. Folding of the underlying origami sheet transforms the periodicity of the inclusions between different Bravais lattices, viz. between a square and a hexagonal lattice, and such significant lattice re-configuration leads to drastic tuning of dispersion characteristics. The wave tuning capabilities are corroborated via performing theoretical and numerical investigations using a plane wave expansion method and an acoustic simulation package of COMSOL, while experiments are performed on a one-seventh scaled-down model of origami sonic barrier to demonstrate the lattice re-configuration between different Bravais lattices and the associated bandgap adaptability. Good sound blocking performance in the frequency range of traffic noise spectra combined with less efforts, required for actuating one-degree of freedom folding mechanism, makes the origami sonic barrier a potential candidate for mitigating complex traffic noise.

  9. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  10. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  11. How Might People Near National Roads Be Affected by Traffic Noise as Electric Vehicles Increase in Number? A Laboratory Study of Subjective Evaluations of Environmental Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian; Kennedy, John; Martin, Susanna; Rice, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We face a likely shift to electric vehicles (EVs) but the environmental and human consequences of this are not yet well understood. Simulated auditory traffic scenes were synthesized from recordings of real conventional and EVs. These sounded similar to what might be heard by a person near a major national road. Versions of the simulation had 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% EVs. Participants heard the auditory scenes in random order, rating each on five perceptual dimensions such as pleasant-unpleasant and relaxing-stressful. Ratings of traffic noise were, overall, towards the negative end of these scales, but improved significantly when there were high proportions of EVs in the traffic mix, particularly when there were 80% or 100% EVs. This suggests a shift towards a high proportion of EVs is likely to improve the subjective experiences of people exposed to traffic noise from major roads. The effects were not a simple result of EVs being quieter: ratings of bandpass-filtered versions of the recordings suggested that people's perceptions of traffic noise were specifically influenced by energy in the 500-2000 Hz band. Engineering countermeasures to reduce noise in this band might be effective for improving the subjective experience of people living or working near major roads, even for conventional vehicles; energy in the 0-100 Hz band was particularly associated with people identifying sound as 'quiet' and, again, this might feed into engineering to reduce the impact of traffic noise on people.

  12. Performance of FHWA model for predicting traffic noise: a case study of metropolitan city, Lucknow (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Srivastava

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and transport activities are the two major sources of noise pollution in any metropolitan city. Lucknow city, the capital of the largest populated state Uttar Pradesh in India has an area of 310 sq. km and is rapidly growing as a commercial, industrial and trading centre of northern India. The population of Lucknow city as per census 2001 is 22.45 Lacs. It is expected that by the year 2021 it will make 45 Lacs. The total vehicle population in Lucknow city on 31 March 2008, was nearly 1 million with almost 80% two wheelers, 12% cars, 1.36% three wheelers, 0.45% buses etc. A study was carried out to assess the existing status of noise levels and its impacts on the environment with a possibility of further expansion of the city. Ambient noise levels were measured at different locations selected on the basis of land use such as silence, heavy traffic and residential and commercial zones. It was found that noise levels at all selected locations were much higher (75–90 dB than the prescribed limits. The observed traffic volume and data on road geometry were used to predict noise levels using Federal Highway Administration Agency (FHWA model and the calculated noise levels were compared with the observed levels for checking the suitability of this model for predicting the future levels. It was established that the results obtained by FHWA model were very close to the observed noise levels and that the model was suitable to be used for other similar metropolitan cities in India.

  13. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  14. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  15. Selection of suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic noise using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Padillo, Alejandro, E-mail: aruizp@correo.ugr.es [Industrial Engineering and Transportation Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 99 – 5° andar, Porto Alegre - CEP 90.035-190, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Civil Engineering Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ruiz, Diego P., E-mail: druiz@ugr.es [Information Technology and Communication Research Center (CITIC-UGR), Applied Physics Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Torija, Antonio J., E-mail: ajtorija@ugr.es [ISVR, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Ramos-Ridao, Ángel, E-mail: ramosr@ugr.es [Civil Engineering Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Road traffic noise is one of the most significant environmental impacts generated by transport systems. To this regard, the recent implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive by Public Administrations of the European Union member countries has led to various noise action plans (NAPs) for reducing the noise exposure of EU inhabitants. Every country or administration is responsible for applying criteria based on their own experience or expert knowledge, but there is no regulated process for the prioritization of technical measures within these plans. This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision methodology for the selection of suitable alternatives against traffic noise in each of the road stretches included in the NAPs. The methodology first defines the main criteria and alternatives to be considered. Secondly, it determines the relative weights for the criteria and sub-criteria using the fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy process as applied to the results from an expert panel, thereby allowing expert knowledge to be captured in an automated way. A final step comprises the use of discrete multi-criteria analysis methods such as weighted sum, ELECTRE and TOPSIS, to rank the alternatives by suitability. To illustrate an application of the proposed methodology, this paper describes its implementation in a complex real case study: the selection of optimal technical solutions against traffic noise in the top priority road stretch included in the revision of the NAP of the regional road network in the province of Almeria (Spain).

  16. Selection of suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic noise using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Padillo, Alejandro; Ruiz, Diego P.; Torija, Antonio J.; Ramos-Ridao, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the most significant environmental impacts generated by transport systems. To this regard, the recent implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive by Public Administrations of the European Union member countries has led to various noise action plans (NAPs) for reducing the noise exposure of EU inhabitants. Every country or administration is responsible for applying criteria based on their own experience or expert knowledge, but there is no regulated process for the prioritization of technical measures within these plans. This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision methodology for the selection of suitable alternatives against traffic noise in each of the road stretches included in the NAPs. The methodology first defines the main criteria and alternatives to be considered. Secondly, it determines the relative weights for the criteria and sub-criteria using the fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy process as applied to the results from an expert panel, thereby allowing expert knowledge to be captured in an automated way. A final step comprises the use of discrete multi-criteria analysis methods such as weighted sum, ELECTRE and TOPSIS, to rank the alternatives by suitability. To illustrate an application of the proposed methodology, this paper describes its implementation in a complex real case study: the selection of optimal technical solutions against traffic noise in the top priority road stretch included in the revision of the NAP of the regional road network in the province of Almeria (Spain).

  17. BWR noise spectra and application of noise analysis to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.

    1975-01-01

    Work related to noise analysis, in Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co. Ltd. (Toshiba) and Nippon Atomic Industry Group Co. Ltd. (NAIG) for the past several years is reviewed. After considering the Japan-United States Seminar on Reactor Noise Analysis in 1968, other subjects discussed were boiling water reactor noise analysis and work in relation to FBR. Parts of these are related to each other. For example, boiling detection and temperature fluctuations are problems pertinent to both fields. As the main problems in zero-power-reactor noise are now basically understood, only a brief description of the experiments involving the advanced two detector method is made. Focus is rather placed on the area of power plant noise. (author)

  18. Burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise - a quantification of healthy life years lost in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Bodin, Theo; Selander, Jenny

    2017-11-01

    Objectives National quantifications of the health burden related to traffic noise are still rare. In this study, we use disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure to assess the burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise in Sweden. Methods The number of DALY was assessed for annoyance, sleep disturbance, hypertension, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke using a method previously implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO). Population exposure to noise was obtained from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Transport Administration. Data on disease occurrence were gathered from registers held by the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden. Disability weights (DW) and duration were based on WHO definitions. Finally, we used research-based exposure-response functions or relative risks to estimate disease attributable to noise in each exposure category. Results The number of DALY attributed to traffic noise in Sweden was estimated to be 41 033 years; 36 711 (90%) related to road traffic and 4322 (10%) related to railway traffic. The most important contributor to the disease burden was sleep disturbances, accounting for 22 218 DALY (54%), followed by annoyance, 12 090 DALY (30%), and cardiovascular diseases, 6725 DALY (16%). Conclusions Road traffic and railway noise contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Sweden each year. The total number of DALY should, however, be interpreted with caution due to limitations in data quality.

  19. LOW-NOISE PAVEMENT AS A WAY OF LIMITATION OF TRAFFIC NOISE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Gardziejczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Road surface can significantlyreduce the trafficnoise level. Depending on the characteristic of the upper surface layers the differences between the maximum rolling noise levels from passing vehicles to reach values about 10 dB (A. A special group is low-noise pavements characterized by the presence of voids above 15%. Application the porous asphalt layers or asphalt mixture type BBTM affects a significantreduction the width of land surrounded the roads where permissible equivalent sound level is exceeded. Such solutions in some cases can replace acoustic barriers. Road pavements with a higher content of voids require proper maintenance because their acoustic performances are reduced during operation.

  20. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  1. Spectral Analysis of Traffic Functions in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Nemtanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the Fourier transform application in urban traffic analysis and the use of said transform in traffic decomposition. The traffic function is defined as traffic flow generated by different categories of traffic participants. A Fourier analysis was elaborated in terms of identifying the main traffic function components, called traffic sub-functions. This paper presents the results of the method being applied in a real case situation, that is, an intersection in the city of Bucharest where the effect of a bus line was analysed. The analysis was done using different time scales, while three different traffic functions were defined to demonstrate the theoretical effect of the proposed method of analysis. An extension of the method is proposed to be applied in urban areas, especially in the areas covered by predictive traffic control.

  2. Are binaural recordings needed for subjective and objective annoyance assessment of traffic noise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía Cortés; Song, Wookeun; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Humans are annoyed when they are exposed to environmental noise. Traditional measures such as sound pressure levels may not correlate well with how humans perceive annoyance, therefore it is important to investigate psychoacoustic metrics that may correlate better with the perceived annoyance...... of environmental noise than the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. This study examined whether the use of binaural recordings of sound events improves the correlation between the objective metrics and the perceived annoyance, particularly for road traffic noise. Metrics based on measurement with a single...... microphone and on binaural sound field recordings have been examined and compared. In order to acquire data for the subjective perception of annoyance, a series of listening tests has been carried out. It is concluded that binaural loudness metrics from binaural recordings are better correlated...

  3. Short-term association between road traffic noise and healthcare demand generated by Parkinson's disease in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Vázquez, Blanca; Forjaz, Maria João; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Linares, Cristina

    2017-03-23

    To analyse whether there is a short-term association between road traffic noise in the city of Madrid and Parkinson's disease (PD)-related demand for healthcare. Time-series analysis (2008-2009) using variables of analysis linked to emergency and daily PD-related demand for healthcare (ICD-10: G20-G21), namely, PD-hospital admissions (HAs), PD-outpatient visits (OVs) and PD-emergency medical calls in Madrid. The noise pollution measurements used were Leqd, equivalent sound level for the daytime hours (from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.), and Leqn, equivalent sound level for night time hours (from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m.) in dB(A). We controlled for temperature, pollution, trends and seasons, and used the Poisson regression model to calculate relative risk (RR). The association between Leqd and HAs was found to be linear. Leqd and Leqn at lag 0.1 and temperature at lags 1 and 5 were the only environmental variables associated with increased PD-related healthcare demand. The RR (lag 0) for Leqd and HA was 1.07 (1.04-1.09), the RR (lag 0) for Leqd and OV was 1.28 (1.12-1.45), and the RR (lags 0.1) for Leqn and emergency medical calls was 1.46 (1.06-2.01). The above results indicate that road traffic noise is a risk factor for PD exacerbation. Measures to reduce noise-exposure levels could result in a lower PD-related healthcare demand. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of a noise action plan based on a road traffic noise map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausejo, M.; Tabacchi, M.; Recuero, M.; Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, R.; Pavón, I.

    2011-01-01

    According to European Directive 2002/49/CE, EU state members had to compile a strategic noise map no later than 30 June 2007 and a corresponding action plan no later than 18 July 2008 for all agglomerations with more than 250,000 inhabitants and for all major airports, roads and railways. A study on

  5. Nighttime road-traffic noise and arterial hypertension in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belojević, Goran A; Jakovljević, Branko D; Stojanov, Vesna J; Slepcević, Vesna Z; Paunović, Katarina Z

    2008-04-01

    Commonly used daytime measurements in previous investigations on community noise and arterial hypertension (AH) may be a source of exposure bias, as urban residents spend most of their daytime hours out of the home on workdays. For this reason, we focused on the relation of nighttime noise and AH. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 2,503 (995 men and 1,508 women) adult residents of a downtown Belgrade municipality. The inclusion criteria were a period of residence longer than 10 years and a bedroom oriented toward the street. The exclusion criteria were a high level of noise annoyance at work and diseases related to AH. Noise measurements were performed in all 70 streets of the municipality. The streets were grouped into noisy areas (equivalent noise level [Leq]>45 dB(A)) and quiet areas (Leqquiet areas were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for AH was 1.58; the 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 1.03-2.42; and the probability value was 0.038, when men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. This relation was statistically insignificant for women: adjusted OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.59-1.38; p: 0.644. This cross-sectional study showed that nighttime urban road-traffic noise might be related to occurrence of AH in men.

  6. Associations between traffic noise, particulate air pollution, hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension in adults: the KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babisch, Wolfgang; Wolf, Kathrin; Petz, Markus; Heinrich, Joachim; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the association between traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases have rarely considered air pollution as a covariate in the analyses. Isolated systolic hypertension has not yet been in the focus of epidemiological noise research. The association between traffic noise (road and rail) and the prevalence of hypertension was assessed in two study populations with a total of 4,166 participants 25-74 years of age. Traffic noise (weighted day-night average noise level; LDN) at the facade of the dwellings was derived from noise maps. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations at residential addresses were estimated by land-use regression. Hypertension was assessed by blood pressure readings, self-reported doctor-diagnosed hypertension, and antihypertensive drug intake. In the Greater Augsburg, Germany, study population, traffic noise and air pollution were not associated with hypertension. In the City of Augsburg population (n = 1,893), where the exposure assessment was more detailed, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 10-dB(A) increase in noise was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.30) after additional adjustment for PM2.5. The adjusted OR for a 1-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.27) after additional adjustment for noise. For isolated systolic hypertension, the fully adjusted OR for noise was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.86) and for PM2.5 was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.34). Traffic noise and PM2.5 were both associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. Mutually adjusted associations with hypertension were positive but no longer statistically significant.

  7. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  8. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  9. The effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on teachers' attention, episodic and semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enmarker, Ingela

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on attention, episodic and semantic memory, and also to examine whether the noise effects were age-dependent. A total of 96 male and female teachers in the age range of 35-45 and 55-65 years were randomly assigned to a silent or the two noise conditions. Noise effects found in episodic memory were limited to a meaningful text, where cued recall contrary to expectations was equally impaired by the two types of noise. However, meaningful irrelevant speech also deteriorated recognition of the text, whereas road traffic noise caused no decrement. Retrieval from two word fluency tests in semantic memory showed strong effects of noise exposure, one affected by meaningful irrelevant speech and the other by road traffic noise. The results implied that both acoustic variation and the semantic interference could be of importance for noise impairments. The expected age-dependent noise effects did not show up.

  10. Effects of Nautical Traffic and Noise on Foraging Patterns of Mediterranean Damselfish (Chromis chromis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracciali, Claudia; Campobello, Daniela; Giacoma, Cristina; Sarà, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Chromis chromis is a key species in the Mediterranean marine coastal ecosystems where, in summer, recreational boating and its associated noise overlap. Anthropogenic noise could induce behavioural modifications in marine organisms, thereby affecting population dynamics. In the case of an important species for the ecosystem like C. chromis, this could rebound on the community structure. Here, we measured nautical traffic during the summer of 2007 in a Southern Mediterranean Marine Protected Area (MPA) and simultaneously the feeding behaviour of C. chromis was video-recorded, within both the no-take A-zone and the B-zone where recreational use is allowed. Feeding frequencies, escape reaction and school density were analysed. C. chromis specimens were also collected from 2007 to 2008 to evaluate their physiological state using the Body Condition Index as a proxy of feeding efficiency. The MPA was more exploited by nautical tourism during holidays than on weekdays, particularly in the middle of the day. Greater traffic volume corresponded with lower feeding frequencies. The escape reaction was longer in duration (>1 min) when boat passed nearby, while moored boats did not induce an escape response. We found no differences in density between schools in the A- and B-zones and worse body conditions among those individuals inhabiting the B-zone in one area only. Overall, our findings revealed a significant modification of the daily foraging habits of C. chromis due to boat noise, which was slightly buffered by no-take zones established within the MPA. PMID:22792375

  11. Busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells | Ozovehe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only ...

  12. Analysis of traffic accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlekić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violent health damages of different origin (accidents, murders, suicides in children and youth are one of the main causes of death and disabilities in this group of population in most countries. Objective: Objective of our paper was to analyze all related factors of traffic accidents involving children and to propose adequate measures of their prevention. Method: The analysis of fatal traffic accidents of children and youth aged to 18 years on the territory of Belgrade, within the period from 1998 to 2002. Results: In relation to other forms of violent death, the traffic mortality rate in children and youth holds the leading position, accounting for 56.9% with pedestrians as the most frequent category (57.4%. The most frequent age was between 7 and 9 years (46.8% and the boys were more frequently injured than the girls. It was established that the majority of children (51.9% was either running across the street outside the pedestrian/ zebra crossings or they were carelessly running out in the street, especially in April, July, August and September. More than a half of them (55.5%, predominantly school children, were injured by the end of working week, on Thursday and Friday. Conclusion: Results of our research have shown that the traffic education of children in our region is inadequate. Due to the abovementioned, it is primarily necessary to establish long-term and permanent education of this category of population. In addition, some public investments in the City infrastructure will be required in order to reduce the risk of traffic injuries in children.

  13. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  14. Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    (NO2) were associated with incident heart failure. METHODS: In a cohort of 57,053 people 50-64 y of age at enrollment in the period 1993-1997, we identified 2,550 cases of first-ever hospital admission for heart failure during a mean follow-up time of 13.4 y. Present and historical residential....... CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to NO2 and road traffic noise was associated with higher risk of heart failure, mainly among men, in both single- and two-pollutant models. High exposure to both pollutants was associated with highest risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1272....

  15. Davis Canyon noise analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    A study was performed as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to quantify the level and effect of noise from the various major phases of development of the proposed potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository site at Davis Canyon, Utah. This report contains the results of a predictive noise level study for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operational phases. Included herein are graphic representations of energy averaged sound levels, and of audibility levels representing impact zones expected during each phase. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activity including traffic on highways and railroad routes are presented in isopleth maps. A description of the Environmental Noise Prediction Model used for the study, the study basis and methodologies, and actual modeling data are provided. Noise and vibration levels from blasting are also predicted and evaluated. Protective noise criteria containing a margin of safety are used in relation to residences, schools, churches, noise-sensitive recreation areas, and noise-sensitive biological resources. Protective ground motion criteria for ruins and delicate rock formation in Canyonlands National Park and for human annoyance are used in the evaluation of blasting. The evaluations provide the basis for assessing the noise impacts from the related activities at the proposed repository. 45 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs

  16. High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraster, Maria; Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people's noise exposure indoors in bedrooms. We analyzed associations between long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise in bedrooms and prevalent hypertension and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, considering long-term exposure to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We evaluated 1,926 cohort participants at baseline (years 2003-2006; Girona, Spain). Outdoor annual average levels of nighttime traffic noise (Lnight) and NO2 were estimated at postal addresses with a detailed traffic noise model and a land-use regression model, respectively. Individual indoor traffic Lnight levels were derived from outdoor Lnight with application of insulations provided by reported noise-reducing factors. We assessed associations for hypertension and BP with multi-exposure logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Median levels were 27.1 dB(A) (indoor Lnight), 56.7 dB(A) (outdoor Lnight), and 26.8 μg/m3 (NO2). Spearman correlations between outdoor and indoor Lnight with NO2 were 0.75 and 0.23, respectively. Indoor Lnight was associated both with hypertension (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.13) and SBP (β = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.15) per 5 dB(A); and NO2 was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.36), SBP (β = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.25), and DBP (β⊇= 0.56; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.14) per 10 μg/m3. In the outdoor noise model, Lnight was associated only with hypertension and NO2 with BP only. The indoor noise-SBP association was stronger and statistically significant with a threshold at 30 dB(A). Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP, independently of NO2. Associations were less consistent for outdoor traffic Lnight and likely affected by

  17. Noise analysis of a digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, B.A.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The sources of noise in a digital video subtraction angiography system were identified and analyzed. Signal-to-noise ratios of digital radiography systems were measured using the digital image data recorded in the computer. The major sources of noise include quantum noise, TV camera electronic noise, quantization noise from the analog-to-digital converter, time jitter, structure noise in the image intensifier, and video recorder electronic noise. A new noise source was identified, which results from the interplay of fixed pattern noise and the lack of image registration. This type of noise may result from image-intensifier structure noise in combination with TV camera time jitter or recorder time jitter. A similar noise source is generated from the interplay of patient absorption inhomogeneities and patient motion or image re-registration. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured for a variety of experimental conditions using subtracted digital images. Image-intensifier structure noise was shown to be a dominant noise source in unsubtracted images at medium to high radiation exposure levels. A total-system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 750:1 was measured for an input exposure of 1 mR/frame at the image intensifier input. The effect of scattered radiation on subtracted image SNR was found to be greater than previously reported. The detail SNR was found to vary approximately as one plus the scatter degradation factor. Quantization error noise with 8-bit image processors (signal-to-noise ratio of 890:1) was shown to be of increased importance after recent improvements in TV cameras. The results of the analysis are useful both in the design of future digital radiography systems and the selection of optimum clinical techniques

  18. Attractive "Quiet" Courtyards: A Potential Modifier of Urban Residents' Responses to Road Traffic Noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gidlöf-Gunnarsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the influence of the physical environmental qualities of “quiet” courtyards (degree of naturalness and utilization on residents’ noise responses. A questionnaire study was conducted in urban residential areas with road-traffic noise exposure between LAeq,24h 58 to 68 dB at the most exposed façade. The dwellings had “quiet” indoor section/s and faced a “quiet” outdoor courtyard (LAeq,24h < 48 dB façade reflex included. Data were collected from 385 residents and four groups were formed based on sound-level categories (58–62 and 63–68 dB and classification of the “quiet” courtyards into groups with low and high physical environmental quality. At both sound-level categories, the results indicate that access to high-quality “quiet” courtyards is associated with less noise annoyance and noise-disturbed outdoor activities among the residents. Compared to low-quality “quiet” courtyards, high-quality courtyards can function as an attractive restorative environment providing residents with a positive soundscape, opportunities for rest, relaxation and play as well as social relations that potentially reduce the adverse effects of noise. However, access to quietness and a high-quality courtyard can only compensate partly for high sound levels at façades facing the streets, thus, 16% and 29% were still noise annoyed at 58–62 and 63–68 dB, respectively. Implications of the “quiet”-side concept are discussed.

  19. Effects of road traffic noise and the benefit of access to quietness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.; Svensson, H.; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.

    2006-08-01

    Socio-acoustic surveys were carried out as part of the Soundscape Support to Health research programme to assess the health effects of various soundscapes in residential areas. The study was designed to test whether having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling enhances opportunities for relaxation and reduces noise annoyance and other adverse health effects related to noise. The dwellings chosen were exposed to sound levels from road traffic ranging from about L=45-68 dB at the most-exposed side. The study involved 956 individuals aged 18-75 years. The results demonstrate that access to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of one's dwelling supports health; it produces a lower degree and extent of annoyance and disturbed daytime relaxation, improves sleep and contributes to physiological and psychological well-being. Having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling reduces disturbances by an average of 30-50% for the various critical effects, and corresponds to a reduction in sound levels of ( LAeq,24h) 5 dB at the most-exposed side. To protect most people (80%) from annoyance and other adverse effects, sound levels from road traffic should not exceed ( LAeq,24h) 60 dB at the most-exposed side, even if there is access to a quiet side of one's dwelling ( LAeq,24h⩽45 dB).

  20. Passive monitoring using traffic noise recordings - case study on the Steinachtal Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Stähler, Simon; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Civil structures age continuously. The early recognition of potentially critical damages is an important economical issue, but also one of public safety. Continuous tracking of small changes in the medium by using passive methods would offer an extension to established active non-destructive testing procedures at relatively low cost. Here we present a case study of structural monitoring using continuous recordings of traffic noise on a 200 meter long reinforced concrete highway bridge in Germany. Over two months of continuos geophone records are used in the frequency range of 2-8 Hz. Using passive image interferometry, evaluation of hourly cross-correlations between recordings at pairs of receivers yield velocity variations in the range of -1.5% to +2.1%. We were able to correlate our outcomes with temperature measurements of the same two month period. The measured velocity changes scale with the temperature variations with on average a dv/v of 0.064% per degree Celsius. This value is in accordance with other studies of concrete response to temperature, confirming that we are able to observe subtle changes with physical origin. It is shown that traffic noise is temporally homogenenous enough to fulfill the requirements of passive image interferometry.

  1. Association of long-term exposure to community noise and traffic-related air pollution with coronary heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Davies, Hugh W; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air pollution and the dominant source of community noise. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community noise and traffic-related air pollution on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollutants, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a noise prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air pollutants or noise, elevations in noise and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest noise decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution on CHD mortality.

  2. Effect of Road Traffic Noise Pollution on Human Work Efficiency in Government Offices, Private Organizations, and Commercial Business Centres in Agartala City Using Fuzzy Expert System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the problems of reduction of individual’s efficiency in his/her respective working places because of road traffic noise pollution in Agartala due to rapidly growing vehicular traffic. This paper deals with monitoring and modeling of the disturbances caused due to vehicular road traffic interrupted by traffic flow conditions on personal work performance. Total of two hundred seventy individuals from different road side Government Offices, Private Organizations and Commercial Business Centres on both sides of busy roads of the city were interviewed for attitudinal responses. Traffic volume count and noise indices data were collected simultaneously at six selected sites of the city. A relationship was developed between different traffic noise parameters and its harmful impact on work competency of individuals using MATLAB. Regression equations developed to predict the percentage of high annoyance among the individuals are fit based on noise parameters and parameters related to traffic movements. In addition, statistical analysis was also carried out between measured and predictive values of the percentage of highly annoyed group of individuals. The present model will draw the attention of the State Government and will help the policy maker to take the necessary steps to reduce this problem.

  3. Diurnally varying annoyance due to railway and road traffic noise; Laermbelaestigung durch Strassen- und Schienenverkehr zu unterschiedlichen Tageszeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberg, D. [Zentrum fuer Angewandte Psychologie, Umwelt- und Sozialforschung (ZEUS GmbH), Bochum (Germany); Guski, R. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Psychologie, Bochum (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most prominent non-auditory effects of noise influencing the life quality of human beings is the disturbance of activities (i.e. communicating, relaxing, working, sleeping). The disturbance of activities results in noise annoyance, and in the long run may lead to further health effects. Due to the fact that activities vary diurnally it is plausible to assume that peoples'' responses to noise differ depending on the times of day. The aim of the study, which is part of the German research network ''Quiet Traffic'' is to provide empirical data of dose-response relationships for different times of day (excluding the night). 1110 residents from four areas with dominant road traffic noise (683 subjects) and from two areas with dominant railway noise (427 subjects) have been asked in a face-to-face interview for contentment with house and living environment and noise reactions. 131 persons of the total sample took part in an additional study (experience-sampling study) in which the hourly noise annoyance was measured for three consecutive days using a handheld computer. For each subject individual source-specific immission noise level for each hour of the day has been calculated. There is higher annoyance due to road traffic noise in the late afternoon/evening from 4 pm to 7 pm. For railway noise higher annoyance is reported in the evening from 6 pm to 10 am. The reported differences in noise annoyance depending on the times of day are higher with increasing noise level. (orig.)

  4. Seismic Interferometry of Cultural Noise: Body Waves Extracted from Auto and Train Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, D. A.; Brown, L. D.; Kim, D.

    2014-12-01

    Here we report results of two experiments designed to evaluate the utility of anthropogenic noise as a source for generating body waves via interferometry. In particular we address the suggestion that traffic noise might prove effective at producing P and S waves at frequencies and amplitudes appropriate for crustal scale refraction and reflection imaging. The first experiment recorded routine traffic for about 10 days along a straight stretch of a rural highway between the towns of Elmira and Ithaca in upstate New York. The array was deployed along the highway using two different spacings: an inner segment with Δx ~ 25 m, bracketed between flanking segments with Δx ~ 100 m. In addition to strong surface waves, direct and reflected P waves were clearly apparent on most of the virtual shot gathers. These P-waves match the velocities of P-waves recorded from a conventional, small scale refraction survey carried out at the same site with a shotgun source and an engineering seismograph. The second experiment was located in the Rio Grande rift near Belen New Mexico, where relatively isolated train traffic was recorded for about 6 days parallel to a busy section of the BNRF railway that bisects New Mexico. Interferometric processing of the data produced virtual shot gathers with strong surface waves, as expected, but also linear arrivals that exhibit apparent velocities similar to those reported for the shallow Tertiary-Quaternary alluvium based on the original COCORP vibroseis surveys nearby. However the virtual shot gathers derived from the train sources are more complex that those obtained from the auto noise, which we suspect is due to the extended length of the train source relative to the spread length. Both experiments confirm that cultural noise can be used for subsurface imaging, though the cost effectiveness of this approach depends, among other factors, upon the total length of recording time needed to probe to depths of interest. They are both sources that

  5. Influence of frequency spectra to annoyance caused by road traffic noise; Doro kotsu soon no urusasa ni oyobosu shuhasu supekutoru no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Hashimoto, T [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes a study of annoyance to road traffic noise in laboratories. To measure the annoyance to road traffic noise, subjective evaluation test was carried out using 48 road traffic noise recorded at various points in the city. Among the frequency spectra of these noise, the differences on the SPL of high frequency component were significant. As a result, we found that: (1) annoyance was different while A-weighted SPLs were the same, (2) fluctuation strength had the highest correlation with annoyance, (3) besides A-weighted SPL, roughness and sharpness contributed to annoyance -simultaneously, (4) contribution of high frequency noise was significant to annoyance. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Hansell, Anna L; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Toledano, Mireille B

    2017-12-05

    Objective  To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes. Design  Retrospective population based cohort study. Setting  Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km 2 ), UK, from 2006 to 2010. Participants  540 365 singleton term live births. Main outcome measures  Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight. Results  Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m 3 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), 73 μg/m 3 nitrogen oxides (NO x ), 14 μg/m 3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and source specific PM 2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM 2.5 traffic exhaust ) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM 2.5 traffic non-exhaust ) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM 2.5 traffic exhaust and PM 2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM 2.5 >13.8 μg/m 3 during pregnancy. Conclusions  The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Phase Plane Analysis Method of Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhuan Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phase plane analysis method for analyzing the complex nonlinear traffic phenomena is presented in this paper. This method makes use of variable substitution to transform a traditional traffic flow model into a new model which is suitable for the analysis in phase plane. According to the new model, various traffic phenomena, such as the well-known shock waves, rarefaction waves, and stop-and-go waves, are analyzed in the phase plane. From the phase plane diagrams, we can see the relationship between traffic jams and system instability. So the problem of traffic flow could be converted into that of system stability. The results show that the traffic phenomena described by the new method is consistent with that described by traditional methods. Moreover, the phase plane analysis highlights the unstable traffic phenomena we are chiefly concerned about and describes the variation of density or velocity with time or sections more clearly.

  8. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  10. Richton Dome noise analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    A study was performed as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to quantify the level and effect of noise from the various major phases of development of the proposed potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository site at Richton Dome, Mississippi. This report contains the results of a predictive noise level study for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operational phases. Included herein are graphic representations of energy averaged day/night sound levels representing impact zones expected during each phase. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activity including traffic on highways and railroad routes are presented in isopleth maps. A description of the Environmental Noise Prediction Model used for the study, the study basis and methodologies, and actual modeling data are provided. Noise and vibration levels from blasting are also predicted and evaluated. Protective noise criteria containing a margin of safety are used for persons in relation to residences, schools, churches, and agricultural areas. Protective ground motion criteria for residential dwelling and for human annoyance are used in the evaluation. The evaluation provides the bases for assessing the noise impacts from the related activities at the proposed repository. 24 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise, ambient air pollution, and cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT and lifelines cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yutong; Hansell, Anna L; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R; de Hoogh, Kees; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Gulliver, John; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Morley, David W; Stolk, Ronald P; Zijlema, Wilma L; Elliott, Paul; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-08-01

    Blood biochemistry may provide information on associations between road traffic noise, air pollution, and cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluated this in two large European cohorts (HUNT3, Lifelines). Road traffic noise exposure was modelled for 2009 using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU). Annual ambient air pollution (PM10, NO2) at residence was estimated for 2007 using a Land Use Regression model. The statistical platform DataSHIELD was used to pool data from 144 082 participants aged ≥20 years to enable individual-level analysis. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess cross-sectional associations between pollutants and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood lipids and for (Lifelines only) fasting blood glucose, for samples taken during recruitment in 2006-2013. Pooling both cohorts, an inter-quartile range (IQR) higher day-time noise (5.1 dB(A)) was associated with 1.1% [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 0.02-2.2%)] higher hsCRP, 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3-1.1%) higher triglycerides, and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3-0.7%) higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL); only the association with HDL was robust to adjustment for air pollution. An IQR higher PM10 (2.0 µg/m3) or NO2 (7.4 µg/m3) was associated with higher triglycerides (1.9%, 95% CI: 1.5-2.4% and 2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6-2.7%), independent of adjustment for noise. Additionally for NO2, a significant association with hsCRP (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.5-3.3%) was seen. In Lifelines, an IQR higher noise (4.2 dB(A)) and PM10 (2.4 µg/m3) was associated with 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.3%) and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4-0.7%) higher fasting glucose respectively, with both remaining robust to adjustment for air/noise pollution. Long-term exposures to road traffic noise and ambient air pollution were associated with blood biochemistry, providing a possible link between road traffic noise/air pollution and cardio-metabolic disease risk. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  12. Status of traffic noise in urban areas of peshawar (pakistan) and measures for minimizing it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khan, A.R.; Yamin, A.; Aslam, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Survey of noise-level of traffic was conducted at 16 busy intersections of Peshawar City (Pakistan), from 08.00 a.m. to 04.05 p.m. continuously. The data on noise-level were analyzed for L/sub A90/ (average background), L/sub A50/ (average), L/sub A10/ (average peak); approximate values of L/sub Aeq(8)/ were evaluated for each intersection. These levels varied in the ranges; L/sub A90/ (72.2-82.7), L/sub A50/ ( 78.1-89.8), L/sub A10/ (88.3-96.7) and L/sub A90/(84.4-93.6) dB (A). Data concerning numbers and kind of vehicles passing at each intersection were also collected. It was found that an average of 36,168 vehicles/hour pass through the city intersections. The results obtained indicate that faulty engines and defective silencers were the main sources contributing towards noise-pollution. Three-wheeler Auto-rickshaw was the single main vehicle contributing towards aggravating the problem several folds. Possible mitigative measures have also been suggested. (author)

  13. Noise Analysis of MAIA System and Possible Noise Suppression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švihlík, J.; Fliegel, K.; Koten, Pavel; Vítek, S.; Páta, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2011), s. 110-117 ISSN 1210-2512. [International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing /33./ - TSP 2010. Baden near Vienna, 17.08.2010-20.08.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : MAIA * meteor * noise analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2011

  14. Abnormal traffic flow data detection based on wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the traffic flow data of non-stationary, the abnormal data detection is difficult.proposed basing on the wavelet analysis and least squares method of abnormal traffic flow data detection in this paper.First using wavelet analysis to make the traffic flow data of high frequency and low frequency component and separation, and then, combined with least square method to find abnormal points in the reconstructed signal data.Wavelet analysis and least square method, the simulation results show that using wavelet analysis of abnormal traffic flow data detection, effectively reduce the detection results of misjudgment rate and false negative rate.

  15. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  16. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias; Pedersen, Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-10-01

    Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth. From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses. Associations between exposures and indicators of newborn's size at birth: birth weight, placental weight and head and abdominal circumference were analyzed by linear and logistic regression, and adjusted for potential confounders. In mutually adjusted models we found a 10μg/m(3) higher time-weighted mean exposure to NO2 during pregnancy to be associated with a 0.35mm smaller head circumference (95% confidence interval (CI): 95% CI: -0.57; -0.12); a 0.50mm smaller abdominal circumference (95% CI: -0.80; -0.20) and a 5.02g higher placental weight (95% CI: 2.93; 7.11). No associations were found between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. This study indicates that air pollution may result in a small reduction in offspring's birth head and abdominal circumference, but not birth weight, whereas traffic noise seems not to affect newborn's size at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Child-related Road Traffic Accidents in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Dinh Vinh Man

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the number of road traffic accidents, fatalities and injuries have been decreasing, but the figures of children road traffic accidents have been increasing in Ho Chi Minh City of Vietnam. This fact strongly calls for implementing effective solutions to improve traffic safety for children by the local government. This paper presents the trends, patterns and causes of road traffic accidents involving children based on the analysis of road traffic accident data over the period 2010-2015 and the video-based observations of road traffic law violations at 15 typical school gates and 10 typical roads. The results could be useful for the city government to formulate solutions to effectively improve traffic safety for children in Ho Chi Minh City and other cities in Vietnam.

  18. Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modell...

  19. Traffic-Related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in barcelona schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Forns (Joan); P. Dadvand (Payam); M. Foraster (Maria); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); I. Rivas (Ioar); M. López-Vicente (Mònica); E. Suades-González (Elisabet); R. Garcia-Esteban (Raquel); M. Esnaola (Mikel); M. Cirach (Marta); J. Grellier (James); X. Basagaña (Xavier); X. Querol (Xavier); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); M. Nieuwenhuijsen (Mark); J. Sunyer (Jordi)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related

  20. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with

  1. Exposure to air pollution and noise from road traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Garne, Ester; Hansen-Nord, Nete

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with certain congenital anomalies, but few studies rely on assessment of fine-scale variation in air quality and associations with noise from road traffic are unexplored. METHODS: Among 84,218 liveborn singletons (1997-2002) from the Danish...... associated with these subgroups of anomalies as well as with an increased OR for orofacial cleft anomalies (1.17, 0.94-1.47). Inverse associations for several both air pollution and noise were observed for atrial septal defects (0.85, 0.68-1.04 and 0.81, 0.65-0.99, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Residential...... road traffic exposure to noise or air pollution during pregnancy did not seem to pose a risk for development of congenital anomalies....

  2. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    exhaust (DE) at 276μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were...... molecules in leukocyte subtypes. CONCLUSION: 3-h exposure to DE caused no genotoxicity, oxidative stress or inflammation in PBMCs, whereas exposure to noise might cause oxidatively damaged DNA.......Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel...

  3. Analysis of reactor noise; Analiza reaktorskih sumova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velickovic, Lj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1967-11-15

    This paper describes the theoretical model for interpretation of experimental results, experimental method for study of reactor noise at the RB reactor, numerical treatment of experimental results by correlation technique for analysis of reactor noise. A computer code was written to obtain autocorrelation function and spectral density function. Experimental results obtained by oscillator technique, pulse technique, and autocorrelation method are presented and discussed.

  4. Preprint WebVRGIS Based Traffic Analysis and Visualization System

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoming; Lv, Zhihan; Wang, Weixi; Zhang, Baoyun; Hu, Jinxing; Yin, Ling; Feng, Shengzhong

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on Advances in Engineering Software. With several characteristics, such as large scale, diverse predictability and timeliness, the city traffic data falls in the range of definition of Big Data. A Virtual Reality GIS based traffic analysis and visualization system is proposed as a promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop traffic big data. In addition to the basic GIS interaction functions, the proposed system also includes some intellige...

  5. Long-term traffic air and noise pollution in relation to mortality and hospital readmission among myocardial infarction survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonne, Cathryn; Halonen, Jaana I; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Gulliver, John; Kelly, Frank J; Wilkinson, Paul; Anderson, H Ross

    2016-01-01

    There is relatively little evidence of health effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution in susceptible populations. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic air and noise pollution was associated with all-cause mortality or hospital readmission for myocardial infarction (MI) among survivors of hospital admission for MI. Patients from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project database resident in Greater London (n = 1 8,138) were followed for death or readmission for MI. High spatially-resolved annual average air pollution (11 metrics of primary traffic, regional or urban background) derived from a dispersion model (resolution 20 m × 20 m) and road traffic noise for the years 2003-2010 were used to assign exposure at residence. Hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval (CI)) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Most air pollutants were positively associated with all-cause mortality alone and in combination with hospital readmission. The largest associations with mortality per interquartile range (IQR) increase of pollutant were observed for non-exhaust particulate matter (PM(10)) (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 1.1 μg/m(3)); oxidant gases (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.09), IQR = 3.2 μg/m(3)); and the coarse fraction of PM (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 0.9 μg/m(3)). Adjustment for traffic noise only slightly attenuated these associations. The association for a 5 dB increase in road-traffic noise with mortality was HR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.99, 1.06) independent of air pollution. These data support a relationship of primary traffic and regional/urban background air pollution with poor prognosis among MI survivors. Although imprecise, traffic noise appeared to have a modest association with prognosis independent of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensor response time monitoring using noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Thie, J.A.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Holbert, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Random noise techniques in nuclear power plants have been developed for system surveillance and for analysis of reactor core dynamics. The noise signals also contain information about sensor dynamics, and this can be extracted using frequency, amplitude and time domain analyses. Even though noise analysis has been used for sensor response time testing in some nuclear power plants, an adequate validation of this method has never been carried out. This paper presents the results of limited work recently performed to examine the validity of the noise analysis for sensor response time testing in nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that noise analysis has the potential for detecting gross changes in sensor response but it cannot be used for reliable measurement of response time until more laboratory and field experience is accumulated. The method is more advantageous for testing pressure sensors than it is for temperature sensors. This is because: 1) for temperature sensors, a method called Loop Current Step Response test is available which is quantitatively more exact than noise analysis, 2) no method currently exists for on-line testing of pressure transmitters other than the Power-Interrupt test which is applicable only to force balance pressure transmitters, and 3) pressure sensor response time is affected by sensing line degradation which is inherently taken into account by testing with noise analysis. (author)

  7. Detection of Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Nodes for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping within an Hybrid WASN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc. should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED. In Hybrid WASNs, with master-slave architecture, ANED should be implemented in both high-capacity (Hi-Cap and low-capacity (Lo-Cap sensors, following the same principle to obtain consistent results. This work presents an ANED version to run in real-time on μ Controller-based Lo-Cap sensors of a hybrid WASN, discriminating RTN from ANE through their Mel-based spectral energy differences. The experiments, considering 9 h and 8 min of real-life acoustic data from both urban and suburban environments, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational load and in classification accuracy. Specifically, the ANED Lo-Cap requires around 1 6 of the computational load of the ANED Hi-Cap, while classification accuracies are slightly lower (around 10%. However, preliminary analyses show that these results could be improved in around 4% in the future by means of considering optimal frequency selection.

  8. Detection of Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Nodes for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping within an Hybrid WASN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Alías, Francesc; Socoró, Joan Claudi; Orga, Ferran

    2018-04-20

    One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc.) should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED). In Hybrid WASNs, with master-slave architecture, ANED should be implemented in both high-capacity (Hi-Cap) and low-capacity (Lo-Cap) sensors, following the same principle to obtain consistent results. This work presents an ANED version to run in real-time on μ Controller-based Lo-Cap sensors of a hybrid WASN, discriminating RTN from ANE through their Mel-based spectral energy differences. The experiments, considering 9 h and 8 min of real-life acoustic data from both urban and suburban environments, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational load and in classification accuracy. Specifically, the ANED Lo-Cap requires around 1 6 of the computational load of the ANED Hi-Cap, while classification accuracies are slightly lower (around 10%). However, preliminary analyses show that these results could be improved in around 4% in the future by means of considering optimal frequency selection.

  9. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the

  10. Long-range correlation analysis of urban traffic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Sheng; Jun-Feng, Wang; Shu-Long, Zhao; Tie-Qiao, Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates urban traffic data by analysing the long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis. Through a large number of real data collected by the travel time detection system in Beijing, the variation of flow in different time periods and intersections is studied. According to the long-range correlation in different time scales, it mainly discusses the effect of intersection location in road net, people activity customs and special traffic controls on urban traffic flow. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the urban traffic flow represents three-phase characters similar to highway traffic. Moreover, compared by the two groups of data obtained before and after the special traffic restrictions (vehicles with special numbered plates only run in a special workday) enforcement, it indicates that the rules not only reduce the flow but also avoid irregular fluctuation. (general)

  11. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on real-time traffic. Then, the cluster analysis using the attributes of congestion time was conducted to identify the main traffic congestion areas. The result of a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the land use showed that the influence of the high proportion of commercial land use on the traffic congestion was significant. Also, we considered five types of land use through performing a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the ratio of four types of land use. The results showed that the reasonable ratio of land use types could efficiently reduce congestion time. This study makes contributions to the policy-making of urban land use.

  12. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Kateryna B; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Basagaña, Xavier; Gruzieva, Olena; Hampel, Regina; Oftedal, Bente; Sørensen, Mette; Wolf, Kathrin; Aamodt, Geir; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Becker, Thomas; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Foraster, Maria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Swart, Wim J R; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A Wavelet Analysis Approach for Categorizing Air Traffic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael; Sheth, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two frequency domain techniques are applied to air traffic analysis. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), like the Fourier Transform, is shown to identify changes in historical traffic patterns caused by Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and weather with the added benefit of detecting when in time those changes take place. Next, with the expectation that it could detect anomalies in the network and indicate the extent to which they affect traffic flows, the Spectral Graph Wavelet Transform (SGWT) is applied to a center based graph model of air traffic. When applied to simulations based on historical flight plans, it identified the traffic flows between centers that have the greatest impact on either neighboring flows, or flows between centers many centers away. Like the CWT, however, it can be difficult to interpret SGWT results and relate them to simulations where major TMIs are implemented, and more research may be warranted in this area. These frequency analysis techniques can detect off-nominal air traffic behavior, but due to the nature of air traffic time series data, so far they prove difficult to apply in a way that provides significant insight or specific identification of traffic patterns.

  14. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M; Kikuchi, T; Morino, T; Sannohe, M [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1996-05-01

    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Relation between Observed and Perceived Traffic Noise and Socio-Economic Status in Urban Blocks of Different Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte von Szombathely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living in cities offers many benefits and thus more and more people are living in urban areas. However, the concentration of human activities also creates environmental stressors with severe influence on people’s health and well-being. Noise is an environmental stressor with known health impact. Despite this, studies investigating small-scale difference in noise exposure and annoyance are lacking. Against this background, this case study investigates environmental justice empirically, focusing on the distribution of road traffic noise and its perception in Hamburg, Germany. The study outlines a methodological approach that takes into account subjective and objective measures of exposure in small-scale residential blocks. The results show that annoyance by noise is clearly related to noise emission. Moreover, different groups are affected by noise pollution in our study area unequally. In particular, younger people and people with lower socio-economic status have higher probabilities to be affected by noise. Additionally, it emerged that participants reporting higher levels of annoyance from noise are on average younger than those feeling less annoyed. Overall, these results show that the current legal noise limits applicable to residential planning processes in German cities are not sufficient to prevent substantial annoyance effects in residential populations.

  16. Reactor sensor surveillance using noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Thie, J.A.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Reactor noise signals, as measured by neutron detectors and process sensors, contain information about the dynamics of the process and sensor characteristics. The extent of sensor characteristics that can be determined from such measurements depends on the sensor type, the property of the process noise exciting the sensor and its location. This paper addresses degradation monitoring of temperature and pressure sensors, analysis methods and results of application to operating pressurized water reactors. In addition, the use of noise analysis for monitoring of pressure sensing lines in nuclear power plants is discussed

  17. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X. X., E-mail: baoxingxian@upc.edu.cn [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xiong, C. B. [The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  18. Detecting bots using multi-level traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    introduces a novel multi-level botnet detection approach that performs network traffic analysis of three protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. The proposed method relies on supervised machine learning for identifying...

  19. Complexity in White Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    We restrict our attention to random complex systems and discuss degree their degree of complexity based on a white noise. The white noise is realized as the time derivative of a Brownian motion B(t), and denoted by Ḃ(t). The collection {Ḃ(t)}, is a system of idealized elementary variables and at the same time the system is a stochastic representation of the time t, in other words it is time-oriented. Having expressed the given evolutional random phenomena in question in terms of the Ḃ(t), we introduce the notion of spectral multiplicity, which describes how much the phenomena are complex. The multiplicity is the number of cyclic subspaces that are spanned by the given random phenomena. Each cyclic subspace has further structure. Typical property is multiple Markov property, although this property appears only particular cases. As a related property, in fact as a characteristic of a complex system, one can speak of the time reversibility and irreversibility of certain random phenomena in terms of the white noise. We expect an irreversible random complex system may be decomposed into reversible systems.

  20. Noise estimation for remote sensing image data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qian

    2004-01-01

    Noise estimation does not receive much attention in remote sensing society. It may be because normally noise is not large enough to impair image analysis result. Noise estimation is also very challenging due to the randomness nature of the noise (for random noise) and the difficulty of separating the noise component from the signal in each specific location. We review and propose seven different types of methods to estimate noise variance and noise covariance matrix in a remotely sensed image. In the experiment, it is demonstrated that a good noise estimate can improve the performance of an algorithm via noise whitening if this algorithm assumes white noise.

  1. Exposure to long-term air pollution and road traffic noise in relation to cholesterol: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Ketzel, Matthias; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms behind are not yet clear. We aimed to investigate whether the two exposures were associated with levels of cholesterol in a cross-sectional design. In 1993–1997, 39,863 participants aged 50–64 year and living in the Greater Copenhagen area were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. For each participant, non-fasting total cholesterol was determined in whole blood samples on the day of enrolment. Residential addresses 5-years preceding enrolment were identified in a national register and road traffic noise (Lden) were modeled for all addresses. For air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was modeled at all addresses using a dispersion model and PM2.5 was modeled at all enrolment addresses using a land-use regression model. Analyses were done using linear regression with adjustment for potential confounders as well as mutual adjustment for the three exposures. Baseline residential exposure to the interquartile range of road traffic noise,NO2 and PM2.5 was associated with a 0.58 mg/dl (95% confidence interval: −0.09; 1.25), a 0.68 mg/dl (0.22; 1.16) and a 0.78 mg/dl (0.22; 1.34) higher level of total cholesterol in single pollutant models, respectively. In two pollutant models with adjustment for noise in air pollution models and vice versa, the association between air pollution and cholesterol remained for both air pollution variables (NO2: 0.72 (0.11; 1.34); PM2.5: 0.70 (0.12; 1.28) mg/dl), whereas there was no association for noise (−0.08mg/dl). In three-pollutant models (NO2, PM2.5 and road traffic noise), estimates for NO2 and PM2.5 were slightly diminished (NO2: 0.58 (−0.05; 1.22); PM2.5: 0.57 (−0.02; 1.17) mg/dl). Air pollution and possibly also road traffic noise may be associated with slightly higher levels of cholesterol, though associations for the two exposures were difficult to separate.

  2. The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Lu, Henry; Hao, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We explored whether noise modifies associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and HRV in young healthy adults. In this randomized, crossover study, 40 young healthy adults stayed for 2 h in a traffic center and, on a separate occasion, in a park. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and noise were measured and ambulatory electrocardiogram was performed. Effects were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. Traffic-related air pollution and noise were both associated with HRV, and effects of air pollutants were amplified at high noise level (>65.6 A-weighted decibels (dB[A])) compared with low noise level (≤ 65.6 dB[A]). High frequency (HF) decreased by -4.61% (95% confidence interval, -6.75% to-2.42%) per 10 μg/m(3) increment in fine particle (PM2.5) at 5-min moving average, but effects became insignificant at low noise level (P>0.05). Similar effects modification was observed for black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). We conclude that noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution on HRV.

  3. The associations between traffic-related air pollution and noise with blood pressure in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Tiesler, Carla M T; Birk, Matthias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Although traffic emits both air pollution and noise, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air pollution and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term noise exposure (defined as day-evening-night noise indicator "Lden" and night noise indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with noise information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for noise exposure, only noise remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air pollution was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for noise, noise was independently and positively associated with BP in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The subjective effect of low frequency content in road traffic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Flindell, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Based on subjective listening trials, Torija and Flindell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 1-4 (2014)] observed that low frequency content in typical urban main road traffic noise appeared to make a smaller contribution to reported annoyance than might be inferred from its objective or physical dominance. This paper reports a more detailed study which was aimed at (i) identifying the difference in sound levels at which low frequency content becomes subjectively dominant over mid and high frequency content and (ii) investigating the relationship between loudness and annoyance under conditions where low frequency content is relatively more dominant, such as indoors where mid and high frequency content is reduced. The results suggested that differences of at least +30 dB between the low frequency and the mid/high frequency content are needed for changes in low frequency content to have as much subjective effect as equivalent changes in mid and high frequency content. This suggests that common criticisms of the A-frequency weighting based on a hypothesized excessive downweighting of the low frequency content may be relatively unfounded in this application area.

  5. Structural monitoring of a highway bridge using passive noise recordings from street traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Hadziioannou, Céline; Stähler, Simon C

    2015-12-01

    Structural damage on bridges presents a hazard to public safety and can lead to fatalities. This article contributes to the development of an alternative monitoring system for civil structures, based on passive measurements of seismic elastic waves. Cross-correlations of traffic noise recorded at geophone receiver pairs were found to be sufficiently stable for comparison and sensitive to velocity changes in the medium. As such velocity variations could be caused by damage, their detection would be valuable in structural health monitoring systems. A method, originally introduced for seismological applications and named Passive Image Interferometry, was used to quantify small velocity fluctuations in the medium and thereby observe structural changes. Evaluation of more than 2 months of continuous geophone recordings at a reinforced concrete bridge yielded velocity variations Δv/v in the range of -1.5% to +2.1%. The observed fluctuations correlate with associated temperature time series with a striking resemblance which is remarkable for two completely independent data sets. Using a linear regression approach, a relationship between temperature and velocity variations of on average 0.064% °C(-1) can be identified. This value corresponds well to other studies on concrete structures.

  6. Speech interference and transmission on residential balconies with road traffic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Daniel A; Tan, Andy C C; Nur Demirbilek, F

    2013-01-01

    Balcony acoustic treatments can mitigate the effects of community road traffic noise. To further investigate, a theoretical study into the effects of balcony acoustic treatment combinations on speech interference and transmission is conducted for various street geometries. Nine different balcony types are investigated using a combined specular and diffuse reflection computer model. Diffusion in the model is calculated using the radiosity technique. The balcony types include a standard balcony with or without a ceiling and with various combinations of parapet, ceiling absorption and ceiling shield. A total of 70 balcony and street geometrical configurations are analyzed with each balcony type, resulting in 630 scenarios. In each scenario the reverberation time, speech interference level (SIL) and speech transmission index (STI) are calculated. These indicators are compared to determine trends based on the effects of propagation path, inclusion of opposite buildings and difference with a reference position outside the balcony. The results demonstrate trends in SIL and STI with different balcony types. It is found that an acoustically treated balcony reduces speech interference. A parapet provides the largest improvement, followed by absorption on the ceiling. The largest reductions in speech interference arise when a combination of balcony acoustic treatments are applied.

  7. Surveillance of instruments by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Random fluctuations of neutron flux, temperature, and pressure in a reactor provide multifrequency excitation of the corresponding instrumentation chains. Mathematical descriptors suitable for characterizing the output, or noise, of the instrumentation are reviewed with a view toward using such noise in detecting instrument faults. Demonstrations of the feasibility of this approach in a number of reactors provide illustrative examples. Comparisons with traditional surveillance testing are made, and a number of advantages and some disadvantages of using noise analysis as a supplementary technique are pointed out

  8. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky : 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report includes an analysis of traffic accident data in Kentucky for the years of 2003 through 2007. A primary objective of this study was to determine average accident statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of ...

  9. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria. ... problems in Nigeria are analysed in the context of a social dilemma. Game theoretic models based on the famous ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution and noise exposure with blood pressure in 12-year-olds. Blood pressure was measured at age 12 years in 1432 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study. Annual average exposure to traffic-related air pollution [NO2, mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the participants' home and school addresses at the time of blood pressure measurements was estimated by land-use regression models. Air pollution exposure on the days preceding blood pressure measurements was estimated from routine air monitoring data. Long-term noise exposure was assessed by linking addresses to modelled equivalent road traffic noise levels. Associations of exposures with blood pressure were analysed by linear regression. Effects are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) [mmHg] 0.83 (0.06 to 1.61) and 0.75 (-0.08 to 1.58), respectively], but not with systolic blood pressure. We found no association of blood pressure with short-term air pollution or noise exposure. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase diastolic blood pressure in children. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Statistical analysis of brake squeal noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2011-06-01

    Despite substantial research efforts applied to the prediction of brake squeal noise since the early 20th century, the mechanisms behind its generation are still not fully understood. Squealing brakes are of significant concern to the automobile industry, mainly because of the costs associated with warranty claims. In order to remedy the problems inherent in designing quieter brakes and, therefore, to understand the mechanisms, a design of experiments study, using a noise dynamometer, was performed by a brake system manufacturer to determine the influence of geometrical parameters (namely, the number and location of slots) of brake pads on brake squeal noise. The experimental results were evaluated with a noise index and ranked for warm and cold brake stops. These data are analysed here using statistical descriptors based on population distributions, and a correlation analysis, to gain greater insight into the functional dependency between the time-averaged friction coefficient as the input and the peak sound pressure level data as the output quantity. The correlation analysis between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure data is performed by applying a semblance analysis and a joint recurrence quantification analysis. Linear measures are compared with complexity measures (nonlinear) based on statistics from the underlying joint recurrence plots. Results show that linear measures cannot be used to rank the noise performance of the four test pad configurations. On the other hand, the ranking of the noise performance of the test pad configurations based on the noise index agrees with that based on nonlinear measures: the higher the nonlinearity between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure, the worse the squeal. These results highlight the nonlinear character of brake squeal and indicate the potential of using nonlinear statistical analysis tools to analyse disc brake squeal.

  12. Traffic calming for the prevention of road traffic injuries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-09-01

    To assess whether area-wide traffic calming schemes can reduce road crash related deaths and injuries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts Science (and social science) citation index, National Technical Information service, Psychlit, Transport Research Information Service, International Road Research Documentation, and Transdoc, and web sites of road safety organisation were searched; experts were contacted, conference proceedings were handsearched, and relevant reference lists were checked. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before/after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes designed to discourage and slow down through traffic on residential roads. Data were collected on road user deaths, injuries, and traffic crashes. For each study rate ratios were calculated, the ratio of event rates before and after intervention in the traffic calmed area divided by the corresponding ratio of event rates in the control area, which were pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. Sixteen controlled before/after studies met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the number of road user deaths: pooled rate ratio 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 2.59). Sixteen studies reported the number of injuries (fatal and non-fatal): pooled rate ratio 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00). All studies were in high income countries. Area-wide traffic calming in towns and cities has the potential to reduce road traffic injuries. However, further rigorous evaluations of this intervention are needed, especially in low and middle income countries.

  13. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  14. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    various classification modes (decision trees, rulesets, boosting, softening thresholds) regarding the classification accuracy and the time required to create the classifier. We showed how to use our VBS tool to obtain per-flow, per-application, and per-content statistics of traffic in computer networks...

  15. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ta; Jiang, Jhih-Wei; Huang, Polly; Chu, Hao-Hua; Lei, Chin-Laung; Chen, Wen-Chin

    2008-12-01

    Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1) the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2) the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3) the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  16. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1 the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2 the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3 the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  17. Influences of combined traffic noise on the ability of learning and memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Di

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of combined traffic noise (CTN on the ability of learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice were exposed to CTN from highways and high-speed railways for 42 days, whose day–night equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (Ldn was 70 dB(A. On the basis of behavioral reactions in Morris water maze (MWM and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, the impacts of CTN on learning and memory in mice were examined. Results: The MWM test showed that the ability of learning and memory in mice was improved after short-term exposure (6–10 days, the first batch to 70 dB(A CTN, which showed the excitatory effect of stimuli. Long-term exposure (26–30 days, the third batch; 36–40 days, the fourth batch led to the decline of learning and memory ability, which indicated the inhibitory effect of stimuli. Assays testing amino acid neurotransmitters showed that the glutamate level of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group in the first batch. However, the former was lower than the latter in the third and fourth batches. Both, behavioral reactions and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters, testified that short-term exposure and long-term exposure resulted in excitatory effect and inhibitory effect on the ability of learning and memory, respectively. Conclusion: The effects of 70 dB(A CTN on the ability of learning and memory were closely related to the exposure duration. Furthermore, those effects were regulated and controlled by the level of glutamate in the hippocampus.

  18. Macro Data Analysis of Traffic Accidents in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Jusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a macro data analysis of Indonesian road accidents in the form of statistical data. Traffic accidents and their subsequent fatalities bring enormous social and economic consequences. A good understanding of the problem is expected to initiate major action toward the improvement of road and vehicle safety. One important milestone is the collection and analysis of road accident data. The results from this study portray the ‘tangled threads’ problem of traffic in Indonesia. The population number and number of vehicles have increased steadily, as has been accurately predicted by experts. Meanwhile, there is not enough infrastructure growth. Motorcycles are the main contributor to traffic accidents and fatalities due to their popularity as an effective vehicle to jump traffic jams. The ‘tangled threads’ need an extremely creative and comprehensive solution.

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. We evaluated children 7-11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012-2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect

  20. Digital Advertising Traffic Operation: Flow Management Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2017-01-01

    In a Web Advertising Traffic Operation the Trafficking Routing Problem (TRP) consists in scheduling the management of Web Advertising (Adv) campaign between Trafficking campaigns in the most efficient way to oversee and manage relationship with partners and internal teams, managing expectations through integration and post-launch in order to ensure success for every stakeholders involved. For our own interest we did that independent research projects also through specific innovative tasks val...

  1. Integrating neural network technology and noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN

    1995-01-01

    The integrated use of neural network and noise analysis technologies offers advantages not available by the use of either technology alone. The application of neural network technology to noise analysis offers an opportunity to expand the scope of problems where noise analysis is useful and unique ways in which the integration of these technologies can be used productively. The two-sensor technique, in which the responses of two sensors to an unknown driving source are related, is used to demonstration such integration. The relationship between power spectral densities (PSDs) of accelerometer signals is derived theoretically using noise analysis to demonstrate its uniqueness. This relationship is modeled from experimental data using a neural network when the system is working properly, and the actual PSD of one sensor is compared with the PSD of that sensor predicted by the neural network using the PSD of the other sensor as an input. A significant deviation between the actual and predicted PSDs indicate that system is changing (i.e., failing). Experiments carried out on check values and bearings illustrate the usefulness of the methodology developed. (Author)

  2. Comparison of Community Response to Road Traffic Noise in Japan and SWEDEN—PART i: Outline of Surveys and DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    SATO, T.; YANO, T.; BJÖRKMAN, M.; RYLANDER, R.

    2002-02-01

    To investigate cross-cultural differences in the community response to road traffic noise, social surveys were conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, and Kumamoto and Sapporo, Japan, using the same questionnaire and noise measurement method. Typical residential areas with detached houses and apartments were selected as the target areas in each city. The questionnaire comprised 40 questions relating to environmental, housing and personal factors. The key questions concerned annoyance caused by road traffic noise. The total numbers of respondents were 1142 in Gothenburg, 837 in Kumamoto and 780 in Sapporo. The response rates were 68·8, 69·3 and 57·5% respectively. After the questionnaires were completed, noise measurements were made in each area. Community responses were compared on the basis of the dose-response relationships. There were no systematic differences between community responses in Sapporo and Kumamoto, which have the same culture. People living in detached houses in Gothenburg were more annoyed by the same road traffic noise than the people living in Japanese cities. There were no systematic differences among the three cities with regard to activity disturbances indoors, but significant disturbance of activities and resting in gardens or on balconies was noted in Gothenburg. The difference in activity disturbance was due to the differences between lifestyles in the two countries. People living in detached houses were more annoyed by the house vibration caused by road traffic than those living in apartments and people were annoyed by the exhaust from road traffic to the same extent as noise.

  3. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  4. Right-­turn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance in th...

  5. Right-\\0xADturn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in : Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) : and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance i...

  6. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gallasch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD and 20 min of rail (RAIL traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA, a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54 consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only, alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (sBP, total peripheral resistance (TPR, as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP, 0.15–0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF, and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%, sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL −0.7%, ROAD −0.8%, HF decreased (RAIL −3.4%, ROAD −2.9%, and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%. No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values was found at the high-annoyed subgroup.

  7. Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from studies of road traffic noise and hypertension are heterogeneous with respect to effect size, effects among males and females and with respect to effects across age groups. Our objective was to further explore these associations. Methods The study used cross-sectional public health survey data from southern Sweden, including 24,238 adults (18 - 80 years old. We used a geographic information system (GIS to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr at the current residential address. Effects on self-reported hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, alcohol intake, exercise, education, smoking and socioeconomic status. Results Modest exposure effects (OR ≈ 1.1 were generally noted in intermediate exposure categories (45 -64 dB(A, and with no obvious trend. The effect was more pronounced at > 64 dB(A (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04 - 2.02. Age modified the relative effect (p = 0.018. An effect was seen among middle-aged (40 - 59 years old at noise levels 60 - 64 dB(A (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.58 and at > 64 dB(A (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.19 - 3.06. An effect was also indicated among younger adults but not among elderly. No apparent effect modification by gender, country of origin, disturbed sleep or strained economy was noted. Conclusion The study supports an association between road traffic noise at high average levels and self-reported hypertension in middle-aged. Future studies should use age group -specific relative effect models to account for differences in prevalence.

  8. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  9. An Analysis of Vehicular Traffic Flow Using Langevin Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağlar Koşun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow data are stochastic in nature, and an abundance of literature exists thereof. One way to express stochastic data is the Langevin equation. Langevin equation consists of two parts. The first part is known as the deterministic drift term, the other as the stochastic diffusion term. Langevin equation does not only help derive the deterministic and random terms of the selected portion of the city of Istanbul traffic empirically, but also sheds light on the underlying dynamics of the flow. Drift diagrams have shown that slow lane tends to get congested faster when vehicle speeds attain a value of 25 km/h, and it is 20 km/h for the fast lane. Three or four distinct regimes may be discriminated again from the drift diagrams; congested, intermediate, and free-flow regimes. At places, even the intermediate regime may be divided in two, often with readiness to congestion. This has revealed the fact that for the selected portion of the highway, there are two main states of flow, namely, congestion and free-flow, with an intermediate state where the noise-driven traffic flow forces the flow into either of the distinct regimes.

  10. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...: dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC), open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC), and Portland cement... involved in what the highway noise industry refers to as ``low noise pavements'' or ``quieter pavements... several national workshops, trainings, and informational outreach pieces on this topic. In 2005, the FHWA...

  12. Subjective and physiological responses to road traffic noise in an urban recreational area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.A.; Salomons, E.M.; Vos, H.; De Kluizenaar, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of transportation noise on human health has primarily been studied in the home environment, with the facade exposure level as a determinant. However, urban residents may travel, work and recreate outdoors during many hours of the day, and outdoor noise may affect their health and

  13. Noise Analysis studies with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seker, S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    1996-01-01

    Noise analysis studies with neural network are aimed. Stochastic signals at the input of the network are used to obtain an algorithmic multivariate stochastic signal modeling. To this end, lattice modeling of a stochastic signal is performed to obtain backward residual noise sources which are uncorrelated among themselves. There are applied together with an additional input to the network to obtain an algorithmic model which is used for signal detection for early failure in plant monitoring. The additional input provides the information to the network to minimize the difference between the signal and the network's one-step-ahead prediction. A stochastic algorithm is used for training where the errors reflecting the measurement error during the training are also modelled so that fast and consistent convergence of network's weights is obtained. The lattice structure coupled to neural network investigated with measured signals from an actual power plant. (authors)

  14. SNAPS : semantic network traffic analysis through projection and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappers, B.C.M.; van Wijk, J.J.; Harrison, L.; Prigent, N.; Engle, S.; Best, D.; Goodall, J.

    2015-01-01

    Most network traffic analysis applications are designed to discover malicious activity by only relying on high-level flow-based message properties. However, to detect security breaches that are specifically designed to target one network (e.g., Advanced Persistent Threats), deep packet inspection

  15. Cognitive Task Analysis of Prioritization in Air Traffic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    A cognitive task analysis was performed to analyze the key cognitive components of the en route air traffic controllers' jobs. The goals were to ascertain expert mental models and decision-making strategies and to identify important differences in controller knowledge, skills, and mental models as a function of expertise. Four groups of…

  16. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky : 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2004 through 2008. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of crashe...

  17. Analysis of Traffic Crash Data in Kentucky (2012-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2012 through 2016. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  18. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky (2009-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2009 through 2013. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  19. Background noise analysis in urban airport surroundings of Brazilian cities, Congonhas Airport, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scatolini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. METHODS Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL. Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. RESULTS Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. CONCLUSIONS All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures.

  20. Variation and stability in Dutch noise policy: an analysis of dominant advocacy coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Schueler, B.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Noise exposure has harmful effects on human health. Despite policy on the prevention and reduction of noise, the environmental burden is increasing, specifically due to road traffic noise. Noise policy in the Netherlands is organised in a rather complex way, with different legal frameworks for the

  1. Applications of noise analysis to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Martinez, Omar

    2000-01-01

    Noise Analysis techniques (analysis of the fluctuation of physical parameters) have been successfully applied to the operational vigilance of the technical equipment that plays a decisive role in the production cycle of a very complex industry. Although fluctuation measurements in nuclear installations started almost at the start of the nuclear era (see works by Feynman and Rossi on the development of neutron methodology), only recently have neutron noise diagnostic applications begun to be a part of the standard procedures for the performance of some modern nuclear installations. Following the relevant technical advances made in information sciences and analogical electronics, measuring the fluctuation of physical parameters has become a very effective tool for detecting, guarding and following up possible defects in a nuclear system. As the processing techniques for the fluctuation of a nuclear reactor's physical-neutron parameters have evolved (temporal and frequency analysis, multi-parameter self -regression analysis, etc.), the applications of the theory of non-lineal dynamics and chaos theory have progressed by focusing on the problem from another perspective. This work reports on those nuclear applications of noise analysis that increase nuclear safety in all types of nuclear facilities and that have been carried out by the author over the last decade, such as: -Void Force Critical Set Applications (Zero Power Reactor Applications, Central Institute of Physical Research, Budapest, Hungary); -Research Reactor Applications (Triga Mark III Reactor, National Institute of Nuclear Research, ININ, Mexico); -Power Reactor Applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (First Circuit of Block II, Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary); -Second Loop applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (Block I Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary; Block II Kalinin Nuclear Center, Russia); -Shield System Applications for the Transport of Radioisotopes (Nuclear Technology Center, Havana, Cuba) New trends in

  2. Model based monitoring of urban traffic noise : A wireless sensor network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of the acoustic environment due to traffic in urban areas is very important and can be obtained by long term model based monitoring within large areas. As a result one has a good basis for assessing the effect of mitigating measures and for communication and policy making. A

  3. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  4. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  5. Analysis of Wireless Traffic Data through Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahsan Latif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical study on a wireless traffic dataset carried out under the different approaches of machine learning including the backpropagation feedforward neural network, the time-series NARX network, the self-organizing map and the principal component analyses. These approaches are well-known for their usefulness in the modeling and in transforming a high dimensional data into a more convenient form to make the understanding and the analysis of the trends, the patterns within the data easy. We witness to an exponential rise in the volume of the wireless traffic data in the recent decade and it is increasingly becoming a problem for the service providers to ensure the QoS for the end-users given the limited resources as the demand for a larger bandwidth almost always exist. The inception of the next generation wireless networks (3G/4G somehow provide such services to meet the amplified capacity, higher data rates, seamless mobile connectivity as well as the dynamic ability of reconfiguration and the self-organization. Nevertheless, having an intelligent base-station able to perceive the demand well before the actual need may assist in the management of the traffic data. The outcome of the analysis conducted in this paper may be considered in designing an efficient and an intelligent base-station for better resource management for wireless network traffic.

  6. Longitudinal surveys on effects of changes in road traffic noise: effects on sleep assessed by general questionnaires and 3-day sleep logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrström, E.

    2004-09-01

    Adverse health effects including sleep disturbances by road traffic noise were studied among inhabitants in a residential area near Västra Bräckevägen in Göteborg city, Sweden, in 1986 and 1987, before and after the introduction of night traffic regulations. The results of those studies showed a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances and poorer sleep quality in the exposed areas as compared with the control area. This paper presents results on sleep based on new studies done with general questionnaires and daily sleep logs for a period of 3 nights in 1997 and 1999 in the same areas, before and after the opening of a new tunnel for road traffic. At this time, road traffic had been substantially reduced from about 25 000 to 2 400 vehicles per 24 h and from 1375 to 180 vehicles per night (22-06). It is concluded from these long-term investigations that exposure to high levels of road traffic noise induces adverse effects on sleep and that sleep quality is significantly improved after an extensive noise reduction. Sleep quality assessed by a single general questionnaire may give equally good precision as daily reports on sleep over several days. Furthermore, a higher response rate is achieved by a single questionnaire.

  7. NoiseMap and AEDT Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    NoiseMap and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) both use an integrated modeling approach to calculate aircraft noise in and around an airfield. Both models also employ the same general overall approach by using airfield operational data, s...

  8. Noise analysis of switched integrator preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongbo; Li Yulan; Zhu Weibin

    2004-01-01

    The main noise sources of switched integrator preamplifiers are discussed, and their noise performance are given combined PSpice simulation and experiments on them. Then, some practical methods on how to reduce noise of preamplifiers in two different integrator modes are provided. (authors)

  9. Analysis of sharpness increase by image noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takehito; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2009-02-01

    Motivated by the reported increase in sharpness by image noise, we investigated how noise affects sharpness perception. We first used natural images of tree bark with different amounts of noise to see whether noise enhances sharpness. Although the result showed sharpness decreased as noise amount increased, some observers seemed to perceive more sharpness with increasing noise, while the others did not. We next used 1D and 2D uni-frequency patterns as stimuli in an attempt to reduce such variability in the judgment. The result showed, for higher frequency stimuli, sharpness decreased as the noise amount increased, while sharpness of the lower frequency stimuli increased at a certain noise level. From this result, we thought image noise might reduce sharpness at edges, but be able to improve sharpness of lower frequency component or texture in image. To prove this prediction, we experimented again with the natural image used in the first experiment. Stimuli were made by applying noise separately to edge or to texture part of the image. The result showed noise, when added to edge region, only decreased sharpness, whereas when added to texture, could improve sharpness. We think it is the interaction between noise and texture that sharpens image.

  10. Noise Analysis of Switched-Current Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of noise in analog sampled data systems is vital for the design of high resolution circuitry in the discrete time domain. In this paper a general description of sampled and held noise is presened. The noise calculations are verified by measurements on an analog delay line implem...

  11. Noise Analysis of Switched-Current Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of noise in analog sampled data systems is vital for the design of high resolution circuitry. In this paper a general description of sampled and held noise is presented. The noise calculations are verified by measurements on an analog delay line implemented using switched...

  12. Association of Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and Traffic-Related Air Pollution with the Incidence of Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D; Davies, Hugh W

    2017-08-31

    Evidence for an association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease has increased; however, few studies have examined metabolic outcomes such as diabetes or accounted for environmental coexposures such as air pollution, greenness, or walkability. Because diabetes prevalence is increasing and may be on the causal pathway between noise and cardiovascular disease, we examined the influence of long-term residential transportation noise exposure and traffic-related air pollution on the incidence of diabetes using a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the influence of transportation noise exposure over a 5-y period (1994-1998) on incident diabetes cases in a population-based prospective cohort study (n=380,738) of metropolitan Vancouver (BC) residents who were 45-85 y old, with 4-y of follow-up (1999-2002). Annual average transportation noise (Lden), air pollution [black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter Transportation noise was associated with the incidence of diabetes [interquartile range (IQR) increase, 6.8 A-weighted decibels (dBA); OR=1.08 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.10)]. This association remained after adjustment for environmental coexposures including traffic-related air pollutants, greenness, and neighborhood walkability. After adjustment for coexposure to noise, traffic-related air pollutants were not associated with the incidence of diabetes, whereas greenness was protective. We found a positive association between residential transportation noise and diabetes, adding to the growing body of evidence that noise pollution exposure may be independently linked to metabolic health and should be considered when developing public health interventions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1279.

  13. The underwater acoustic environment at SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area: Characterizing vessel traffic and associated noise using satellite AIS and acoustic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ainsley S; Yurk, Harald; Vagle, Svein; Pilkington, James; Canessa, Rosaline

    2018-03-01

    Vessel traffic is one of the most wide-spread anthropogenic contributors to ocean noise worldwide and has the potential to alter ecosystems upon which cetaceans and other acoustically sensitive marine organisms rely. Canada's SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area (SK-B MPA) is one such area whose productive ecosystem could benefit from greater monitoring of human induced threats in order to inform management. Despite earning official designation as a Marine Protected Area under the Oceans Act in 2008, little remains known about vessel traffic in the region and the associated potential impacts on vulnerable marine species. Therefore, to increase our understanding of vessel traffic and accompanying noise at SK-B MPA, satellite AIS and acoustic data were investigated. The results of this study suggest that variations in ambient sound levels in the region are driven by near and distant shipping events, thus having implications for future management of the MPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crash Prediction and Risk Evaluation Based on Traffic Analysis Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety evaluation for traffic analysis zones (TAZs plays an important role in transportation safety planning and long-range transportation plan development. This paper aims to present a comprehensive analysis of zonal safety evaluation. First, several criteria are proposed to measure the crash risk at zonal level. Then these criteria are integrated into one measure-average hazard index (AHI, which is used to identify unsafe zones. In addition, the study develops a negative binomial regression model to statistically estimate significant factors for the unsafe zones. The model results indicate that the zonal crash frequency can be associated with several social-economic, demographic, and transportation system factors. The impact of these significant factors on zonal crash is also discussed. The finding of this study suggests that safety evaluation and estimation might benefit engineers and decision makers in identifying high crash locations for potential safety improvements.

  15. Traffic noise in shielded urban areas: comparison of experimental data with model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randrianoelina, A.; Salomons, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Noise maps of cities are commonly produced with rather simple engineering models for sound propagation. These models may be inaccurate in complex urban situations, in particular in situations with street canyons. Street canyons are urban areas that are partly or completely enclosed by buildings, for

  16. A cyberciege traffic analysis extension for teaching network security

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Xuquan Stanley.; Chua, Kim Yong.

    2011-01-01

    CyberCIEGE is an interactive game simulating realistic scenarios that teaches the players Information Assurance (IA) concepts. The existing game scenarios only provide a high-level abstraction of the networked environment, e.g., nodes do not have Internet protocol (IP) addresses or belong to proper subnets, and there is no packet-level network simulation. This research explored endowing the game with network level traffic analysis, and implementing a game scenario to take advantage of this ne...

  17. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,

  18. A cluster analysis on road traffic accidents using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Sabariah; Baragona, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of traffic road accidents is increasingly important because of the accidents cost and public road safety. The availability or large data sets makes the study of factors that affect the frequency and severity accidents are viable. However, the data are often highly unbalanced and overlapped. We deal with the data set of the road traffic accidents recorded in Christchurch, New Zealand, from 2000-2009 with a total of 26440 accidents. The data is in a binary set and there are 50 factors road traffic accidents with four level of severity. We used genetic algorithm for the analysis because we are in the presence of a large unbalanced data set and standard clustering like k-means algorithm may not be suitable for the task. The genetic algorithm based on clustering for unknown K, (GCUK) has been used to identify the factors associated with accidents of different levels of severity. The results provided us with an interesting insight into the relationship between factors and accidents severity level and suggest that the two main factors that contributes to fatal accidents are "Speed greater than 60 km h" and "Did not see other people until it was too late". A comparison with the k-means algorithm and the independent component analysis is performed to validate the results.

  19. A Wavelet Analysis-Based Dynamic Prediction Algorithm to Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Fan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network traffic is a significantly important parameter for network traffic engineering, while it holds highly dynamic nature in the network. Accordingly, it is difficult and impossible to directly predict traffic amount of end-to-end flows. This paper proposes a new prediction algorithm to network traffic using the wavelet analysis. Firstly, network traffic is converted into the time-frequency domain to capture time-frequency feature of network traffic. Secondly, in different frequency components, we model network traffic in the time-frequency domain. Finally, we build the prediction model about network traffic. At the same time, the corresponding prediction algorithm is presented to attain network traffic prediction. Simulation results indicates that our approach is promising.

  20. Self-organized criticality in asymmetric exclusion model with noise for freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1995-02-01

    The one-dimensional asymmetric simple-exclusion model with open boundaries for parallel update is extended to take into account temporary stopping of particles. The model presents the traffic flow on a highway with temporary deceleration of cars. Introducing temporary stopping into the asymmetric simple-exclusion model drives the system asymptotically into a steady state exhibiting a self-organized criticality. In the self-organized critical state, start-stop waves (or traffic jams) appear with various sizes (or lifetimes). The typical interval between consecutive jams scales as ≃ Lv with v = 0.51 ± 0.05 where L is the system size. It is shown that the cumulative jam-interval distribution Ns( L) satisfies the finite-size scaling form ( Ns( L) ≃ L- vf( s/ Lv). Also, the typical lifetime ≃ Lv‧ with v‧ = 0.52 ± 0.05. The cumulative distribution Nm( L) of lifetimes satisfies the finite-size scaling form Nm( L)≃ L-1g( m/ Lv‧).

  1. Noise analysis for CCD-based ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John J; Hodgkinson, Jane; Saffell, John R; Tatam, Ralph P

    2015-09-20

    We present the results of a detailed analysis of the noise behavior of two CCD spectrometers in common use, an AvaSpec-3648 CCD UV spectrometer and an Ocean Optics S2000 Vis spectrometer. Light sources used include a deuterium UV/Vis lamp and UV and visible LEDs. Common noise phenomena include source fluctuation noise, photoresponse nonuniformity, dark current noise, fixed pattern noise, and read noise. These were identified and characterized by varying light source, spectrometer settings, or temperature. A number of noise-limiting techniques are proposed, demonstrating a best-case spectroscopic noise equivalent absorbance of 3.5×10(-4)  AU for the AvaSpec-3648 and 5.6×10(-4)  AU for the Ocean Optics S2000 over a 30 s integration period. These techniques can be used on other CCD spectrometers to optimize performance.

  2. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  3. A System Supporting the Analysis of Motorway Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Anghinolfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a business intelligence tool for monitoring traffic accidents on motorways and supporting decisions relevant to road safety. The system manages information on road characteristics, traffic accidents and traffic volumes and produces reports for monitoring the evolution of key performance indicators for road safety, supporting decisions on actions for risk mitigation and safety improvements for road users. The paper illustrates the different types of analyses performed by the system. Pattern based analysis is used to evaluate safety performance indicators for the road sections matching defined patterns. Two different road segmentation algorithms, used to identify the most critical road sections according to various severity indicators, are presented and discussed. Differential analysis compares the value of selected severity indicators before and after the implementation of an intervention on a road. Finally, a graphical user interface allows the accident locations to be visualized and accidents with specific characteristics to be highlighted. The system was evaluated on the data collected between 2009 and 2011 for the A15 motorway in Italy, connecting Parma to La Spezia.

  4. Trafficability Analysis at Traffic Crossing and Parameters Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In city traffic, it is important to improve transportation efficiency and the spacing of platoon should be shortened when crossing the street. The best method to deal with this problem is automatic control of vehicles. In this paper, a mathematical model is established for the platoon’s longitudinal movement. A systematic analysis of longitudinal control law is presented for the platoon of vehicles. However, the parameter calibration for the platoon model is relatively difficult because the platoon model is complex and the parameters are coupled with each other. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization method is introduced to effectively optimize the parameters of platoon. The proposed method effectively finds the optimal parameters based on simulations and makes the spacing of platoon shorter.

  5. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland FJ Popp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074 and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059. Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092. The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  6. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Roland Fj; Maier, Stefanie; Rothe, Siegfried; Zulley, Jürgen; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074) and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059). Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092). The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  7. Analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise from VS45

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundabin, P. [Renewable Energy Systems Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the analysis of acoustic data taken from the VS45 at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. The aim was to investigate the dependence of aerodynamic noise on tip speed and angle of attack. In particular, the dependence of noise in individual third octave bands on these variable is examined. The analysis is divided into 3 sections: data selection, data checks and analysis of broadband nacelle noise; analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise and its sensitivity to tip speed and angle of attack. (LN)

  8. Interior noise analysis of a construction equipment cabin based on airborne and structure-borne noise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon; Song, Jee Hun; Joo, Won Ho

    2012-01-01

    Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage

  9. Interior noise analysis of a construction equipment cabin based on airborne and structure-borne noise predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jee Hun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Won Ho [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage.

  10. Noise-Assisted Concurrent Multipath Traffic Distribution in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The concept of biologically inspired networking has been introduced to tackle unpredictable and unstable situations in computer networks, especially in wireless ad hoc networks where network conditions are continuously changing, resulting in the need of robustness and adaptability of control methods. Unfortunately, existing methods often rely heavily on the detailed knowledge of each network component and the preconfigured, that is, fine-tuned, parameters. In this paper, we utilize a new concept, called attractor perturbation (AP), which enables controlling the network performance using only end-to-end information. Based on AP, we propose a concurrent multipath traffic distribution method, which aims at lowering the average end-to-end delay by only adjusting the transmission rate on each path. We demonstrate through simulations that, by utilizing the attractor perturbation relationship, the proposed method achieves a lower average end-to-end delay compared to other methods which do not take fluctuations into account. PMID:24319375

  11. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  12. Timing Noise Analysis of NANOGrav Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Perrodin, Delphine; Jenet, Fredrick; Lommen, Andrea; Finn, Lee; Demorest, Paul; Ferdman, Robert; Gonzalez, Marjorie; Nice, David; Ransom, Scott; Stairs, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    We analyze timing noise from five years of Arecibo and Green Bank observations of the seventeen millisecond pulsars of the North-American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) pulsar timing array. The weighted autocovariance of the timing residuals was computed for each pulsar and compared against two possible models for the underlying noise process. The first model includes red noise and predicts the autocovariance to be a decaying exponential as a function of time lag. Th...

  13. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  14. Orbiter CCTV video signal noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.; Blanke, L. R.; Pannett, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of steady state and transient noise which will couple to orbiter CCTV video signal wiring is predicted. The primary emphasis is on the interim system, however, some predictions are made concerning the operational system wiring in the cabin area. Noise sources considered are RF fields from on board transmitters, precipitation static, induced lightning currents, and induced noise from adjacent wiring. The most significant source is noise coupled to video circuits from associated circuits in common connectors. Video signal crosstalk is the primary cause of steady state interference, and mechanically switched control functions cause the largest induced transients.

  15. Analysis on the Correlation of Traffic Flow in Hainan Province Based on Baidu Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caixia; Shi, Chun

    2018-03-01

    Internet search data records user’s search attention and consumer demand, providing necessary database for the Hainan traffic flow model. Based on Baidu Index, with Hainan traffic flow as example, this paper conduct both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the relationship between search keyword from Baidu Index and actual Hainan tourist traffic flow, and build multiple regression model by SPSS.

  16. Heavy traffic analysis of polling models by mean value analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, van der R.D.; Winands, E.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to derive heavy-traffic asymptotics for polling models. We consider the classical cyclic polling model with exhaustive or gated service at each queue, and with general service-time and switch-over time distributions, and study its behavior when the load tends

  17. A Hybrid Short-Term Traffic Flow Prediction Model Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis and Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shang

    Full Text Available Short-term traffic flow prediction is one of the most important issues in the field of intelligent transport system (ITS. Because of the uncertainty and nonlinearity, short-term traffic flow prediction is a challenging task. In order to improve the accuracy of short-time traffic flow prediction, a hybrid model (SSA-KELM is proposed based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA and kernel extreme learning machine (KELM. SSA is used to filter out the noise of traffic flow time series. Then, the filtered traffic flow data is used to train KELM model, the optimal input form of the proposed model is determined by phase space reconstruction, and parameters of the model are optimized by gravitational search algorithm (GSA. Finally, case validation is carried out using the measured data of an expressway in Xiamen, China. And the SSA-KELM model is compared with several well-known prediction models, including support vector machine, extreme learning machine, and single KLEM model. The experimental results demonstrate that performance of the proposed model is superior to that of the comparison models. Apart from accuracy improvement, the proposed model is more robust.

  18. High-level traffic-violation detection for embedded traffic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, J.A.; de Koning, A.H.M.; Han, Jungong; de With, P.H.N.; Cornelissen, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust and real-time traffic-violation detection system for cameras on intersections. We use background segmentation and a novel road-model to obtain the candidate traffic participants. A region-based tracking system, equipped with static occlusion-reasoning,

  19. Analysis of landing gear noise during approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merino Martinez, R.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    Airframe noise is becoming increasingly important during approach, even reaching higher noise levels than the engines in some cases. More people are a_ected due to low ight altitudes and _xed tra_c routing associated with typical approaches. For most air- craft types, the landing gear system is a

  20. Detecting Distributed Network Traffic Anomaly with Network-Wide Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed network traffic anomaly refers to a traffic abnormal behavior involving many links of a network and caused by the same source (e.g., DDoS attack, worm propagation. The anomaly transiting in a single link might be unnoticeable and hard to detect, while the anomalous aggregation from many links can be prevailing, and does more harm to the networks. Aiming at the similar features of distributed traffic anomaly on many links, this paper proposes a network-wide detection method by performing anomalous correlation analysis of traffic signals' instantaneous parameters. In our method, traffic signals' instantaneous parameters are firstly computed, and their network-wide anomalous space is then extracted via traffic prediction. Finally, an anomaly is detected by a global correlation coefficient of anomalous space. Our evaluation using Abilene traffic traces demonstrates the excellent performance of this approach for distributed traffic anomaly detection.

  1. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  2. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols—HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic, furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components. (general)

  3. Spatial correlation analysis of urban traffic state under a perspective of community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Cao, Jiandong; Qin, Yong; Jia, Limin; Dong, Honghui; Zhang, Aomuhan

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the spatial correlation of urban traffic state is essential for identifying the evolution patterns of urban traffic state. However, the distribution of traffic state always has characteristics of large spatial span and heterogeneity. This paper adapts the concept of community detection to the correlation network of urban traffic state and proposes a new perspective to identify the spatial correlation patterns of traffic state. In the proposed urban traffic network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding correlation of traffic state. Further, the process of community detection in the urban traffic network (named GWPA-K-means) is applied to analyze the spatial dependency of traffic state. The proposed method extends the traditional K-means algorithm in two steps: (i) redefines the initial cluster centers by two properties of nodes (the GWPA value and the minimum shortest path length); (ii) utilizes the weight signal propagation process to transfer the topological information of the urban traffic network into a node similarity matrix. Finally, numerical experiments are conducted on a simple network and a real urban road network in Beijing. The results show that GWPA-K-means algorithm is valid in spatial correlation analysis of traffic state. The network science and community structure analysis perform well in describing the spatial heterogeneity of traffic state on a large spatial scale.

  4. Analysis of noise lines in the Virgo C7 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acernese, F; Amico, P; Alshourbagy, M

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a description of the work of detection and identification of frequency lines in the Virgo dark fringe data from run C7. A number of methods are highlighted by which noise frequency lines are detected by data analysis and measurements in the laboratory. In this paper we give a description of the list of noise line candidates provided by the pulsar search analysis, the investigation of 10 Hz (and harmonics) noise, violin modes, noise from the end station buildings' air conditioners, sidebands in calibration lines and aliasing in the 4 kHz reconstructed data

  5. Analysis of noise lines in the Virgo C7 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acernese, F [INFN, Sezione di Napoli and/or Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, and/or Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Amico, P [INFN, Sezione di Perugia and/or Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Alshourbagy, M [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and/or Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-10-07

    The paper presents a description of the work of detection and identification of frequency lines in the Virgo dark fringe data from run C7. A number of methods are highlighted by which noise frequency lines are detected by data analysis and measurements in the laboratory. In this paper we give a description of the list of noise line candidates provided by the pulsar search analysis, the investigation of 10 Hz (and harmonics) noise, violin modes, noise from the end station buildings' air conditioners, sidebands in calibration lines and aliasing in the 4 kHz reconstructed data.

  6. Automated pattern recognition system for noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sides, W.H. Jr.; Piety, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    A pattern recognition system was developed at ORNL for on-line monitoring of noise signals from sensors in a nuclear power plant. The system continuousy measures the power spectral density (PSD) values of the signals and the statistical characteristics of the PSDs in unattended operation. Through statistical comparison of current with past PSDs (pattern recognition), the system detects changes in the noise signals. Because the noise signals contain information about the current operational condition of the plant, a change in these signals could indicate a change, either normal or abnormal, in the operational condition

  7. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianqi; Sun, Lishan; Yao, Liya; Rong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI) and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on ...

  8. Market Analysis of Soundproof and Noise Reduction Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, China has a booming economy development, transportation industry as an important part of the economic processes has made a considerable progress, and continue to promote the rapid economic development. At the end of 2012, China's highway mileage has reached 4.238 million km and highway mileage ranks first in the world. Transportation in promoting rapid economic development, but also brings the traffic noise which has a tremendous influence on residents’ daily life, and this influence has gradually deepening and widening, in this situation the production of noise reduction panel gradually emerged. In this paper, a noise barriers manufacturer’ business model in Beijing Daxing District and analyze existing data will be analyzed, it will give much guidance and reference for a new noise reduction factory. The study has shown that plant will target all levels of government departments in charge of roads and the property of management department of residence as our customer groups, increasing technological innovation and improving product quality to establish a more extensive business relationships, and gradually formed noise barriers market competitiveness.

  9. The Ageing Effect of Mechanical Joints on the Tyre/Joint Noises Monitored by a Control Vehicle Method without Traffic Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the ageing effect of mechanical joints reflecting from the tyre/joint impacting noise by measuring the vehicle structure-borne noise change. Field data is collected applying two measurement methods suitable for newly installed and existing old expansion joints. The measurement methodology is improved by designing and applying a trailer for equipment installation. The main advantage of this method is not to disturb existing traffic by lane closure for measurement. Field measurements were conducted regularly for a study period up to 16 months after new joint replacement to monitor the variation of the structure-borne noise change inside a test vehicle while passing through mechanical joints. Empirical relationship is developed based on the field data of the roadside airborne noise change and the vehicle structure-borne noise change. The roadside tyre/joint noises could be converted using calibrated empirical formula. Key result findings include the following. (1 The vehicle structure-borne noise change is found smallest during the 3rd–6th months even lower than that measured when a new joint is installed. The structure-borne noise change then keeps increasing afterwards till the end of the study period. (2 Similar observations are found in all study cases incorporating various mechanical joint types and test vehicle types.

  10. Period analysis at high noise level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of some types of the periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data. The equivalence of the Jurkevich and the Warner and Robinson methods is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner and Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form and noise level. The results are illustrated by numerical examples. (orig.)

  11. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.

  12. Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustments in Traffic Signal Warrant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish this research, a comprehensive literature review of existing guidelines and findings based on national and local studies was conducted. Ultimately, guidelines for consistent application for adjusting right-turn traffic volumes were deve...

  13. Aircraft noise: accounting for changes in air traffic with time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Beat; Bütikofer, Rudolf; Plüss, Stefan; Thomann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft noise contours are estimated using model calculations and, due to their impact on land use planning, they need to be highly accurate. During night time, not only the number and dominant types of aircraft may differ from daytime but also the flight paths flown may differ. To determine to which detail these variations in flight paths need to be considered, calculations were performed exemplarily for two airports using all available radar data over 1 year, taking into account their changes over the day. The results of this approach were compared with results of a simpler approach which does not consider such changes. While both calculations yielded similar results for the day and close to the airport, differences increased with distance as well as with the period of day (day

  14. An analysis of network traffic classification for botnet detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2015-01-01

    of detecting botnet network traffic using three methods that target protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. We propose three traffic classification methods based on capable Random Forests classifier. The proposed methods...

  15. Performability indicators for the traffic analysis of wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Platis, Agapios

    2003-01-01

    In connecting computing networks, reliability term is strongly related to the availability of connections of Wide Area networks (WANs) or Local Area networks (LANs). In this paper we will examine the network connections activity of a Greek University in order to provide two sources of information: The Quantity of Information Not Delivered (QIND) and the Information Flow Interruption (IFI). These indicators will provide us with the inference of information from observable characteristics of data flow(s), even when the data is encrypted or otherwise not directly available (traffic), which is lost due to failures or upgrades inside this network. The reliability analysis is obtained by collecting the network failures data (duration and frequency) and traffic (total and average) for a specified period of 1 year. It is assumed that the numerical analysis is based on the fact that the lifetime follows and exponential distribution (here as we are working on discrete time the distribution must be the geometric distribution). Hence a Markov chain model seems suitable for modelling the functioning of this system. An algorithm concentrates the results in a transition probability matrix and calculates the reward functions for the QIND/IFI indicators with the use of the power method. Finally, the application part provides an example of how final results can be used to evaluate the observed network

  16. Dynamical noise filter and conditional entropy analysis in chaos synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Lai, C-H

    2006-06-01

    It is shown that, in a chaotic synchronization system whose driving signal is exposed to channel noise, the estimation of the drive system states can be greatly improved by applying the dynamical noise filtering to the response system states. If the noise is bounded in a certain range, the estimation errors, i.e., the difference between the filtered responding states and the driving states, can be made arbitrarily small. This property can be used in designing an alternative digital communication scheme. An analysis based on the conditional entropy justifies the application of dynamical noise filtering in generating quality synchronization.

  17. Neutron noise analysis for malfunction diagnosis at sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, P.

    1978-09-01

    For the investigation of the potential use of neutron noise analysis at sodium cooled power reactors, measurements have been performed at the KNK I reactor over a period of 18 month under different operational conditions. The signal fluctuations of the following tranducers have been recorded: In-core and Ex-core neutron detectors, temperature-, flow-, pressure-, vibration- and acoustic sensors. These extensive measurements have been analyzed in the frequency range from 0,001 Hz to 1000 Hz with all currently known methods for the identification of noise sources. The following results have been found: - Neutron noise for f 20 Hz the white detection noise prevails. In the region from 1 Hz to 20 Hz the vibrations of core components contribute to neutron noise. - Neutron noise is influenced by the state of the plant. - The contributions to neutron noise due to the fluctuations of coolant flow and inlet temperature are small compared to those produced by the movements of the control rod initiated by the reactor control system. The quantitatively unidentifiable amount of reactivity fluctuations (0,6 time-dependent thermal bowing of the core. With respect to these results and by calculation of the neutron noise patterns to be expected for the SNR 300, the following possible applications for neutron noise analysis have been found: By means of neutron noise analysis only reactivity fluctuations can be identified and supervised which are produced by time dependent changes of the core geometry. Furthermore neutron noise analysis is well suited for a sensitive detection of control rod vibrations and of local sodium boiling. Finally it can be used for the surveillance of the proper functioning of the reactor control system and of the control rod drive mechanism. (orig./HP) 891 HP [de

  18. RB reactor noise analysis; Analiza sumova reaktora RB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, M; Velickovic, Lj; Markovic, V; Jovanovic, S [Institut za nuklearne nauke Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1964-07-01

    Statistical fluctuations of reactivity represent reactor noise. Analysis of reactor noise enables determining a series of reactor kinetic parameters. Fluctuations of power was measured by ionization chamber placed next to the tank of the RB reactor. The signal was digitized by an analog-digital converter. After calculation of the mean power, 3000 data obtained by sampling were analysed.

  19. THE NOISE IMMUNITY OF THE DIGITAL DEMODULATOR MFM-AM SIGNAL USED IN DATA COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL WITH AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE AGAINST A NON-GAUSSIAN NOISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Senyavskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the robustness of the digital demodulator of the signal with the lowest frequency shift keying at a subcarrier frequency with respect to non-Gaussian interference type of atmospheric, industrial noise and interfering frequency -and phase-shift keyed signals. This type of demodulator is used for the transmission of navigation data in the systems of air traffic control with automatic dependent surveillance.

  20. Analysis of Subway Interior Noise at Peak Commuter Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donguk; Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2017-07-01

    Although mass transit systems are convenient and efficient for urban people, little attention has been paid to the potential hearing hazard from their noise. The purpose of the current study was to measure and analyze levels of subway interior noise at peak commuter times and to provide information about commuters' daily dose of noise exposure. To measure the subway interior noise, nine subway lines inside Seoul (i.e., lines 1-9) and six lines surrounding the capital city area (i.e., Central, Bundang, Sinbundang, Incheon, Gyeongui, and Gyeongchun) were chosen. The noise was measured and recorded by a sound level meter for two-hour periods in the morning and evening. 1) In the LZeq analysis, the average noise level of all 15 lines was 72.78 dB; the maximum and minimum noise levels were 78.34 and 62.46 dB, respectively. The average noise level of the nine lines inside Seoul was 73.45 dB, which was 1.68-dB louder than that of the six lines surrounding the capital city area. 2) Based on the LZeq analysis of 33 measured frequencies, 12.5 Hz was the highest frequency and 20,000 Hz was the lowest. 3) There was no remarkable difference in the level of subway interior noise between morning and evening peak commuter times. We concluded that the level of subway interior noise was not loud enough for commuters to incur noise-induced hearing loss. Regardless, environmental noise control efforts in the subway system might be needed for commuters who take a subway every day.

  1. An analysis of background noise in selected canyons of Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchton, K.; Koch, S.W.; Robinson, R.

    1997-10-01

    The authors recorded background noise levels in six canyons within Los Alamos County in order to establish a baseline for future comparisons and to discover what noises animals are exposed to. Noise level measurements were taken within each canyon, beginning at an established starting point and at one-mile intervals up to four miles. The primary source of noise above 55 dBA was vehicular traffic. One clap of thunder provided the highest recorded noise level (76 dBA). In general, the level of noise, once away from highways and parking lots, was well below 60 dBA.

  2. Effects of Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training in Air Traffic Controllers and High Frequency Suppression. A Control Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Zaballos, María Teresa; Ramos de Miguel, Ángel; Pérez Plasencia, Daniel; Zaballos González, María Luisa; Ramos Macías, Ángel

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate 1) if air traffic controllers (ATC) perform better than non-air traffic controllers in an open-set speech-in-noise test because of their experience with radio communications, and 2) if high-frequency information (>8000 Hz) substantially improves speech-in-noise perception across populations. The control group comprised 28 normal-hearing subjects, and the target group comprised 48 ATCs aged between 19 and 55 years who were native Spanish speakers. The hearing -in-noise abilities of the two groups were characterized under two signal conditions: 1) speech tokens and white noise sampled at 44.1 kHz (unfiltered condition) and 2) speech tokens plus white noise, each passed through a 4th order Butterworth filter with 70 and 8000 Hz low and high cutoffs (filtered condition). These tests were performed at signal-to-noise ratios of +5, 0, and -5-dB SNR. The ATCs outperformed the control group in all conditions. The differences were statistically significant in all cases, and the largest difference was observed under the most difficult conditions (-5 dB SNR). Overall, scores were higher when high-frequency components were not suppressed for both groups, although statistically significant differences were not observed for the control group at 0 dB SNR. The results indicate that ATCs are more capable of identifying speech in noise. This may be due to the effect of their training. On the other hand, performance seems to decrease when the high frequency components of speech are removed, regardless of training.

  3. Reactor noise analysis applications in NPP I and C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckler, O. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strosse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria Ontario Power Generation, 230 Westney Road South, Ajax, Ont. L1S 7R3 (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Reactor noise analysis techniques are used in many NPPs on a routine basis as 'inspection tools' to get information on the dynamics of reactor processes and their instrumentation in a passive, non-intrusive way. The paper discusses some of the tasks and requirements an NPP has to take to implement and to use the full advantages of reactor noise analysis techniques. Typical signal noise analysis applications developed for the monitoring of the reactor shutdown system and control system instrumentation of the Candu units of Ontario Power Generation and Bruce Power are also presented. (authors)

  4. Urban Noise Modelling in Boka Kotorska Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most significant noise source in urban areas. The village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay is a site where, in a relatively small area, road traffic and sea (ferry traffic take place at the same time. Due to the specificity of the location, i.e. very rare synergy of sound effects of road and sea traffic in the urban area, as well as the expressed need for assessment of noise level in a simple and quick way, a research was conducted, using empirical methods and statistical analysis methods, which led to the creation of acoustic model for the assessment of equivalent noise level (Leq. The developed model for noise assessment in the Village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay quite realistically provides data on possible noise levels at the observed site, with very little deviations in relation to empirically obtained values.

  5. Detecting Anomaly in Traffic Flow from Road Similarity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xinran

    2016-06-02

    Taxies equipped with GPS devices are considered as 24-hour moving sensors widely distributed in urban road networks. Plenty of accurate and realtime trajectories of taxi are recorded by GPS devices and are commonly studied for understanding traffic dynamics. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in traffic volume, especially the non-recurrent traffic anomaly caused by unexpected or transient incidents, such as traffic accidents, celebrations and disasters. It is important to detect such sharp changes of traffic status for sensing abnormal events and planning their impact on the smooth volume of traffic. Unlike existing anomaly detection approaches that mainly monitor the derivation of current traffic status from history in the past, the proposed method in this paper evaluates the abnormal score of traffic on one road by comparing its current traffic volume with not only its historical data but also its neighbors. We define the neighbors as the roads that are close in sense of both geo-location and traffic patterns, which are extracted by matrix factorization. The evaluation results on trajectories data of 12,286 taxies over four weeks in Beijing show that our approach outperforms other baseline methods with higher precision and recall.

  6. Clustering Trajectories by Relevant Parts for Air Traffic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrienko, Gennady; Andrienko, Natalia; Fuchs, Georg; Garcia, Jose Manuel Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of trajectories of moving objects by similarity is an important technique in movement analysis. Existing distance functions assess the similarity between trajectories based on properties of the trajectory points or segments. The properties may include the spatial positions, times, and thematic attributes. There may be a need to focus the analysis on certain parts of trajectories, i.e., points and segments that have particular properties. According to the analysis focus, the analyst may need to cluster trajectories by similarity of their relevant parts only. Throughout the analysis process, the focus may change, and different parts of trajectories may become relevant. We propose an analytical workflow in which interactive filtering tools are used to attach relevance flags to elements of trajectories, clustering is done using a distance function that ignores irrelevant elements, and the resulting clusters are summarized for further analysis. We demonstrate how this workflow can be useful for different analysis tasks in three case studies with real data from the domain of air traffic. We propose a suite of generic techniques and visualization guidelines to support movement data analysis by means of relevance-aware trajectory clustering.

  7. Digital signal processing for the Johnson noise thermometry: a time series analysis of the Johnson noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chong Eun; Kwon, Kee Choon; David, E. H.; Kisner, R.A.

    2004-06-01

    In this report, we first proved that a random signal obtained by taking the sum of a set of signal frequency signals generates a continuous Markov process. We used this random signal to simulate the Johnson noise and verified that the Johnson noise thermometry can be used to improve the measurements of the reactor coolant temperature within an accuracy of below 0.14%. Secondly, by using this random signal we determined the optimal sampling rate when the frequency band of the Johnson noise signal is given. Also the results of our examination on how good the linearity of the Johnson noise is and how large the relative error of the temperature could become when the temperature increases are described. Thirdly, the results of our analysis on a set of the Johnson noise signal blocks taken from a simple electric circuit are described. We showed that the properties of the continuous Markov process are satisfied even when some channel noises are present. Finally, we describe the algorithm we devised to handle the problem of the time lag in the long-term average or the moving average in a transient state. The algorithm is based on the Haar wavelet and is to estimate the transient temperature that has much smaller time delay. We have shown that the algorithm can track the transient temperature successfully

  8. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B.

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  9. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  10. Minimal-Intrusion Traffic Monitoring And Analysis In Mission-Critical Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Domingo Ajenjo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A good knowledge of expected and actual traffic patterns is an essential tool for network planning, design and operation in deployed, mission-critical applications. This paper describes those needs, and explains the Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Platform (TMAP concept, as developed in support of NATO deployed military headquarters Communications and Information Systems. It shows how a TMAP was deployed to a real NATO exercise, to prove the concept and baseline the traffic needs per application, per user community and per time of day. Then, it analyses the obtained results and derives conclusions on how to integrate traffic monitoring and analysis platforms in future deployments.

  11. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier; Knio, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads

  12. To the analysis of reactor noise in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1972-01-01

    The paper contains some basic thoughts on the problem of neutron flux oscillations in power reactors. The advantages of self-powered detectors and their function are explained. In addition, noise measurements of the boiling water reactors at Lingen and Holden are described, and the possibilities of an employment of vanadium detectors for the analysis of reactor noise are discussed. The final pages of the paper contain a complete list of the author's publications in the field of reactor noise analysis. (RW/AK) [de

  13. Application of autoregressive moving average model in reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri

    1993-01-01

    The application of an autoregressive (AR) model to estimating noise measurements has achieved many successes in reactor noise analysis in the last ten years. The physical processes that take place in the nuclear reactor, however, are described by an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model rather than by an AR model. Consequently more correct results could be obtained by applying the ARMA model instead of the AR model to reactor noise analysis. In this paper the system of the generalised Yule-Walker equations is derived from the equation of an ARMA model, then a method for its solution is given. Numerical results show the applications of the method proposed. (author)

  14. Information Technology Systems Vulnerabilities Detecting based on Network’s Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes traffic analysis procedure that is very effective and sometimes single countermeasure on counteracting of network attacks and information leakage channels (hidden control channels. Traffic analysis envisages certain measures to control the security of the Russian Federation information technology infrastructure and, most importantly, to establish the reasons of the occurred and predictable computer incidents.

  15. The Signal and Noise Analysis of Direct Conversion EHM Transceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayegh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct conversion modulator-demodulator with even harmonic mixers with emphasis on noise analysis is presented. The circuits consist of even harmonic mixers (EHMs realized with antiparallel diode pairs (APDPs. We evaluate the different levels of I/Q imbalances and DC offsets and use signal space concepts to analyze the bit error rate (BER of the proposed transceiver using M-ary QAM schemes. Moreover, the simultaneous analysis of the signal and noise has been presented.

  16. Analysis of factors temporarily impacting traffic sign readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign readability can be affected by the existence of dirt on traffic sign faces. However, among damaged signs, dirty traffic signs are unique since their damage is not permanent and they just can be cleaned instead of replaced. This study aimed to identify the most important factors contributing to traffic sign dirt. To do so, a large number of traffic signs in Utah were measured by deploying a vehicle instrumented with mobile LiDAR imaging and digital photolog technologies. Each individual daytime digital image was inspected for dirt. Location and climate observations obtained from official sources were compiled using ArcGIS throughout the process. To identify contributing factors to traffic sign dirt, the chi-square test was employed. To analyze the data and rank all of the factors based on their importance to the sign dirt, Random forests statistical model was utilized. After analyzing the data, it can be concluded that ground elevation, sign mount height, and air pollution had the highest effect on making traffic signs dirty. The findings of this investigation assist transportation agencies in determining traffic signs with a higher likelihood of sign dirt. In this way, agencies would schedule to clean such traffic signs more frequently.

  17. Influence of Personal Factors on Sound Perception and Overall Experience in Urban Green Areas. A Case Study of a Cycling Path Highly Exposed to Road Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Aletta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary urban design, green public areas play a vital role. They have great societal value, but if exposed to undue environmental noise their restorative potential might be compromised. On the other hand, research has shown that the presence of greenery can moderate noise annoyance in areas with high sound levels, while personal factors are expected to play an important role too. A cycling path bordered by vegetation, but highly exposed to road traffic noise, was here considered as a case study. A sound perception survey was submitted to participants on site and they were subsequently sorted into groups according to their noise sensitivity, visual attention and attitude towards greenery. The aim of this study was testing whether these three personal factors could affect their noise perception and overall experience of the place. Results showed that people highly sensitive to noise and more sceptical towards greenery’s potential as an environmental moderator reported worse soundscape quality, while visually attentive people reported better quality. These three personal factors were found to be statistically independent. This study shows that several person-related factors impact the assessment of the sound environment in green areas. Although the majority of the respondents benefit from the presence of visual green, policy-makers and planners should be aware that for a significant subset of the population, it should be accompanied by a tranquil soundscape to be fully appreciated.

  18. Influence of Personal Factors on Sound Perception and Overall Experience in Urban Green Areas. A Case Study of a Cycling Path Highly Exposed to Road Traffic Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletta, Francesco; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2018-05-30

    In contemporary urban design, green public areas play a vital role. They have great societal value, but if exposed to undue environmental noise their restorative potential might be compromised. On the other hand, research has shown that the presence of greenery can moderate noise annoyance in areas with high sound levels, while personal factors are expected to play an important role too. A cycling path bordered by vegetation, but highly exposed to road traffic noise, was here considered as a case study. A sound perception survey was submitted to participants on site and they were subsequently sorted into groups according to their noise sensitivity, visual attention and attitude towards greenery. The aim of this study was testing whether these three personal factors could affect their noise perception and overall experience of the place. Results showed that people highly sensitive to noise and more sceptical towards greenery's potential as an environmental moderator reported worse soundscape quality, while visually attentive people reported better quality. These three personal factors were found to be statistically independent. This study shows that several person-related factors impact the assessment of the sound environment in green areas. Although the majority of the respondents benefit from the presence of visual green, policy-makers and planners should be aware that for a significant subset of the population, it should be accompanied by a tranquil soundscape to be fully appreciated.

  19. The evaluation of marine traffic noise and its effect on the Chinese White Dolphins in Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) handles a large amount of air traffic, at 68.5 million passengers per year (approx. 40.1 million flights per year). Given that flight demand is forecast to reach 97 million passengers per year (approx 60.2 million flights per year) by 2030, the HKIA must optimise runway capacity in order to meet growing demand. Hence, the Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK) has put forward a proposal to expand the airport into a three-runway system by building a third runway. However, this presents many environmental constraints. These include major impacts on marine ecology; especially the Chinese White Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) that live around the Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park north to the airport. Due to that the third runway will reclaim approximately 650 hectares of the se so re-routing of speed boats and ferries has been planned. This includes one route that passes through the marine nursery inside the park. This indirectly causes noise pollution that will affect marine life. Since dolphins rely on echolocation (often discerned by a "click" sound) to communicate and navigate, increasing marine traffic (re-routing) causes obscuring noises and acoustic communication interfering with echolocation, as well as collisions which lead to physical injuries. Underwater construction works involving techniques such as percussive piling may interfere with the dolphins' echolocation capability. The data has been collected using a hydrophone by observing the noise frequency changes within the marine park. The noises come from a number of sources, including fishing boats, and speed boats, krill and around 20 estuarine fish species. The evaluation of four years (2013-2016) has shown that noise pollution is increasing (as indicated by the increase of frequencies around 100 125 kHz) and that it has caused disruption in regular dolphin movement (irregular clicking sequence) .

  20. Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to transport noise increases the risk for cardiovascular disorders. The effect of transport noise on blood pressure and hypertension is uncertain....

  1. Context-based object-of-interest detection for a generic traffic surveillance analysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; Javanbakhti, S.; Zinger, S.; Wijnhoven, R.G.J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new traffic surveillance video analysis system, focusing on building a framework with robust and generic techniques, based on both scene understanding and moving object-of-interest detection. Since traffic surveillance is widely applied, we want to design a single system that can be

  2. Determinants of traffic accident mortality in The Netherlands: a geographical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beeck, E. F.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W.; Kunst, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a country with one of the lowest levels of traffic accident mortality in the world, large regional mortality differences can be observed. An analysis was performed of the contribution of regional differences in traffic mobility (kilometers travelled/person-years), injury rate

  3. Receive-Noise Analysis of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ayhan; Yaralioglu, G Goksenin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of thermal (Johnson) noise received from the radiation medium by otherwise noiseless capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) membranes operating in their fundamental resonance mode. Determination of thermal noise received by multiple numbers of transducers or a transducer array requires the assessment of cross-coupling through the radiation medium, as well as the self-radiation impedance of the individual transducer. We show that the total thermal noise received by the cells of a CMUT has insignificant correlation, and is independent of the radiation impedance, but is only determined by the mass of each membrane and the electromechanical transformer ratio. The proof is based on the analytical derivations for a simple transducer with two cells, and extended to transducers with numerous cells using circuit simulators. We used a first-order model, which incorporates the fundamental resonance of the CMUT. Noise power is calculated by integrating over the entire spectrum; hence, the presented figures are an upper bound for the noise. The presented analyses are valid for a transimpedance amplifier in the receive path. We use the analysis results to calculate the minimum detectable pressure of a CMUT. We also provide an analysis based on the experimental data to show that output noise power is limited by and comparable to the theoretical upper limit.

  4. Spectrogram Image Analysis of Error Signals for Minimizing Impulse Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeakwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical and experimental study on the spectrogram image analysis of error signals for minimizing the impulse input noises in the active suppression of noise. Impulse inputs of some specific wave patterns as primary noises to a one-dimensional duct with the length of 1800 mm are shown. The convergence speed of the adaptive feedforward algorithm based on the least mean square approach was controlled by a normalized step size which was incorporated into the algorithm. The variations of the step size govern the stability as well as the convergence speed. Because of this reason, a normalized step size is introduced as a new method for the control of impulse noise. The spectrogram images which indicate the degree of the attenuation of the impulse input noises are considered to represent the attenuation with the new method. The algorithm is extensively investigated in both simulation and real-time control experiment. It is demonstrated that the suggested algorithm worked with a nice stability and performance against impulse noises. The results in this study can be used for practical active noise control systems.

  5. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Computer programs were developed which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stae operating at subsonic tip speed. Three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotors blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean velocity deficit wakes of the rotor blades. The fan/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. Turbulence drawn into or generated within the inlet duct is modeled as nonhomogeneous and anisotropic random fluid motion, superimposed upon a uniform axial mean flow, and convected with that flow. Equations for the duct mode amplitudes, or expected values of the amplitudes, are derived.

  6. Multi-fractal analysis of highway traffic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Peng-Jian; Shen Jin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of multi-fractal behaviours in the traffic time series not only by statistical approaches but also by geometrical approaches. The pointwise H(o)lder exponent of a function is calculated by developing an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of H(o)lder exponent of time series. The traffic time series observed on the Beijing Yuquanying highway are analysed. The results from all these methods indicate that the traffic data exhibit the multi-fractal behaviour.

  7. Study on statistical analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary reactor noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Koji

    1993-03-01

    For the purpose of identification of nonlinear mechanism and diagnosis of nuclear reactor systems, analysis methods for nonlinear reactor noise have been studied. By adding newly developed approximate response function to GMDH, a conventional nonlinear identification method, a useful method for nonlinear spectral analysis and identification of nonlinear mechanism has been established. Measurement experiment and analysis were performed on the reactor power oscillation observed in the NSRR installed at the JAERI and the cause of the instability was clarified. Furthermore, the analysis and data recording methods for nonstationary noise have been studied. By improving the time resolution of instantaneous autoregressive spectrum, a method for monitoring and diagnosis of operational status of nuclear reactor has been established. A preprocessing system for recording of nonstationary reactor noise was developed and its usability was demonstrated through a measurement experiment. (author) 139 refs

  8. Noise Pollution: Do We Need a Solution? An Analysis of Noise in a Cardiac Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin M; Gagnon, Matthew; Hanna, Tyler; Mello, Brad; Fofana, Mustapha; Ciottone, Gregory; Molloy, Michael

    2016-08-01

    49.24% of alarms. The CCU cares for ill patients requiring constant monitoring. Despite advances in technology, measured noise levels for the hospital studied exceeded WHO standards of 40 dB and peaks of 45 dB, even during night hours when patients require rest. Further work is required to reduce noise levels and examine effects on patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, and length of stay. Ryan KM , Gagnon M , Hanna T , Mello B , Fofana M , Ciottone G , Molloy M . Noise pollution: do we need a solution? An analysis of noise in a cardiac care unit. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):432-435.

  9. Simulation Analysis on Driving Behavior during Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The traffic signs transfer trip information to drivers through vectors like words, graphs and numbers. Traffic sign with excessive information often makes the drivers have no time to read and understand, leading to risky driving. It is still a problem of how to clarify the relationship between traffic sign recognition and risky driving behavior. This paper presents a study that is reflective of such an effort. Twenty volunteers participated in the dynamic visual recognition experiment in driving simulator, and the data of several key indicators are obtained, including visual cognition time, vehicle acceleration and the offset distance from middle lane, etc. Correlations between each indicator above are discussed in terms of risky driving. Research findings directly show that drivers' behavior changes a lot during their traffic sign recognition.

  10. Analysis and Classification of Traffic in Wireless Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beng, Wang W

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis studied the traffic generated by wireless sensor networks by setting up two different commonly used network topologies, namely a direct connection to the base and a daisy...

  11. Detecting Anomaly in Traffic Flow from Road Similarity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xinran; Liu, Xingwu; Wang, Yuanhong; Pu, Juhua; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    Taxies equipped with GPS devices are considered as 24-hour moving sensors widely distributed in urban road networks. Plenty of accurate and realtime trajectories of taxi are recorded by GPS devices and are commonly studied for understanding traffic

  12. Noise Pollution and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geravandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Noise pollution is of particular importance due to the physical and psychological effects on humans. Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Noise is also a threat to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Health risks from noise are correlated with road traffic. In other words, noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Objectives This study aims to determine the effect of noise pollution (near roadways on health issues in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, equivalent sound pressure level were measured by sound level meters TES-1353 in 75 locations around 4 roadways, which had a high load of traffic in Ahvaz City during day time. During the study, 820 measurements were recorded at measuring stations, for 7 days per week with 1-hour interval between each measurement. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software. Results According to the research findings, the equivalent sound pressure levels in all stations were 76.28 ± 3.12 dB (Mean ± SD. According to sound measurements and the survey questionnaire, noise pollution is higher than EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency and Iran standard level. Based on result of this study the worst noise health effects were the nervousness and sleep quality during 2012. Conclusions According to the results of this study, with increasing load of traffic, there is an increasing need for proper consideration plans to control noise pollution and prevent its effects.

  13. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Saffet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of Paccidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as Paccidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as indicated by adjusted R(2) values. Geographically weighted regression provided values of 0.89-0.99 adjusted R(2) for death and accident rates, compared with 0

  14. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  15. Noise, a tool for analysis of neutronic impact noise; Noise, Una herramienta para el analisis del impacto del ruido neutronico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Escobar, A.; Lopez Cedillo, A.; Ortego Inigo, A.; Ortega Pascual, F.

    2013-07-01

    The NOISE application is an off-line tool developed by TECNATOM for Trillo, which simulates the power calculation circuit protection system and L-RELEB system function limitation. It is fed with real data of neutron flux with a frequency of 100 Hz and is designed for predictive analysis system alarms limitation as a result of the oscillations of neutron flux measurements. Addition is to be used as a tool for engineering support to adjust the effective value of the dead band surround filters preventing possible system alarms cause impact on the operation.

  16. [Analysis of road traffic injuries in Mexican cyclists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro-Báez, Victoria Alejandra; Mendoza-García, M Eulalia; Vera-López, Juan Daniel; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    With the objective of analyzing fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in cyclists and to document helmet use in this road user to inform sustainable mobility policies, a descriptive analysis of four secondary official information sources was conducted at the national level: mortality, Ministry of Health's hospital discharges, Unintentional and Violence Registry System (SIS-SS-17-P) and the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT). Only SIS-SS-17-P and ENSANUT document helmet use. Except for ENSANUT information analyzed is of 2014.A total of 190 cyclists died in Mexico during 2014 and 392 were hospitalized; head was the anatomical region most frequently affected (63% and 32%, respectively). Only 0.75% of the 667 cases registered in SIS-17 reported helmet use and 24% suffered head injuries. Of the 165,348 non-fatally injured cyclists from ENSANUT <10% used helmet, 24% had head injuries and more than 16,000 suffered permanent injuries. Whereas cyclist-friendly infrastructure is an effective intervention to prevent injuries in the long term, helmet use could potentially reduce the frequency and severity of head injuries in the short run while bicycle use widespread as a means of transportation providing "safety in numbers".

  17. Piezoelectric Energy Generation from Vehicle Traffic with Technoeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical simulation based system to support the concept of generating energy from road traffic using piezoelectric materials. The simulation based system design replicates a real life system implementation. It investigates practicality and feasibility using a real-time simulation platform known as MATLAB-Simulink. The system design structure was proposed considering factors involved with the field of material sciences for piezoelectric generator modeling and field of power electronics for additional components in producing a realist outcome. It also ensures ease of vehicle performance, as this system utilizes energy source derived as kinetic energy released from vehicles into electrical power output, that is, obtained by harnessing kinetic energy due to strain of vehicles over asphalt road surface. Due to the real-time simulation platform, the system simulation predicts the effective global carbon footprint. In addition to evaluating technical viability, a technoeconomical business analysis provides a strategic perspective. By using the simulation based power generation results, an estimation of implementation cost and payback time in real life (for United Arab Emirates was derived, hence validating and predicting real-time economic outcome. This is followed by a comparative study with other sources of renewable energy based on levelized energy cost factor that justifies the performance of the proposed system over other renewable energy sources, in support of providing an economical solution on reducing global carbon footprint.

  18. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.

  19. Performance analysis of spectrum sensing with multiple status changes in primary user traffic

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Liang

    2012-06-01

    In this letter, the impact of primary user traffic with multiple status changes on the spectrum sensing performance is analyzed. Closed-form expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection are derived. Numerical results show that the multiple status changes of the primary user cause considerable degradation in the sensing performance. This degradation depends on the number of changes, the primary user traffic model, the primary user traffic intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal. Numerical results also show that the amount of degradation decreases when the number of changes increases, and converges to a minimum sensing performance due to the limited sensing period and primary holding time. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3x10 -14 m s -2 /√(Hz) at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise

  1. Vibration and noise analysis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    Results of the investigations on noise and vibration analysis are presented as a follow-up study of the work published in ''On-load Surveillance of Nuclear Power Plant Components by Noise and Vibration Analysis'' EUR 5036 e. The state of the art in on-load surveillance techniques of light water reactors is given by extending the preceding studies to investigations of boiling water reactors and by summarizing the latest results of pressurized water reactors, the basis being experimental and theoretical work performed by the different organizations involved in preparing this report. Finally, some developments with respect to measurement and identification methods are discussed

  2. Application of noise analysis methods in nuclear reactor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.

    1985-01-01

    By statistical evaluation of the fluctuation component of signals from selected detectors, noise diagnostics detects conditions of equipment which might later result in failure. The objective of early diagnostics is to detect the failed integrity of primary circuit components, failed detectors or anomalies of the thermohydraulic process. The commonest method of experimental data analysis is spectral analysis in the frequency range 0 to 50 Hz. Recently, expert diagnostic systems have been built based on artificial intelligence systems. Czechoslovakia participates in the experimental research of noise diagnostics in the context of the development of diagnostic assemblies for WWER-440 reactors. (M.D.)

  3. Nonlinear analysis of an extended traffic flow model in ITS environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lei [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)], E-mail: yuleijk@126.com; Shi Zhongke [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2008-05-15

    An extended traffic flow model is proposed by introducing the relative velocity of arbitrary number of cars that precede and that follow into the Newell-Whitham-type car-following model. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The results show that the stability of traffic flow is improved by taking into account the relative velocity of cars ahead and backward. By applying the nonlinear analysis the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point. The kink-antikink soliton, the solution of the mKdV equation, is obtained to describe the traffic jams. From the numerical simulation, it is shown that the traffic jams are suppressed efficiently by taking into account the relative velocity of cars ahead and backward. The analytical results are consistent with the simulation one.

  4. Nonlinear analysis of an extended traffic flow model in ITS environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lei; Shi Zhongke

    2008-01-01

    An extended traffic flow model is proposed by introducing the relative velocity of arbitrary number of cars that precede and that follow into the Newell-Whitham-type car-following model. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The results show that the stability of traffic flow is improved by taking into account the relative velocity of cars ahead and backward. By applying the nonlinear analysis the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point. The kink-antikink soliton, the solution of the mKdV equation, is obtained to describe the traffic jams. From the numerical simulation, it is shown that the traffic jams are suppressed efficiently by taking into account the relative velocity of cars ahead and backward. The analytical results are consistent with the simulation one

  5. Identifying compromised systems through correlation of suspicious traffic from malware behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Ana E. F.; Grégio, André; Santos, Rafael D. C.

    2016-05-01

    Malware detection may be accomplished through the analysis of their infection behavior. To do so, dynamic analysis systems run malware samples and extract their operating system activities and network traffic. This traffic may represent malware accessing external systems, either to steal sensitive data from victims or to fetch other malicious artifacts (configuration files, additional modules, commands). In this work, we propose the use of visualization as a tool to identify compromised systems based on correlating malware communications in the form of graphs and finding isomorphisms between them. We produced graphs from over 6 thousand distinct network traffic files captured during malware execution and analyzed the existing relationships among malware samples and IP addresses.

  6. Safety analysis of urban signalized intersections under mixed traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Anjana; M V L R, Anjaneyulu

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the crash causative factors of signalized intersections under mixed traffic using advanced statistical models. Hierarchical Poisson regression and logistic regression models were developed to predict the crash frequency and severity of signalized intersection approaches. The prediction models helped to develop general safety countermeasures for signalized intersections. The study shows that exclusive left turn lanes and countdown timers are beneficial for improving the safety of signalized intersections. Safety is also influenced by the presence of a surveillance camera, green time, median width, traffic volume, and proportion of two wheelers in the traffic stream. The factors that influence the severity of crashes were also identified in this study. As a practical application, the safe values of deviation of green time provided from design green time, with varying traffic volume, is presented in this study. This is a useful tool for setting the appropriate green time for a signalized intersection approach with variations in the traffic volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anomalous Traffic Detection and Self-Similarity Analysis in the Environment of ATMSim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Duck J. Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet utilisation has steadily increased, predominantly due to the rapid recent development of information and communication networks and the widespread distribution of smartphones. As a result of this increase in Internet consumption, various types of services, including web services, social networking services (SNS, Internet banking, and remote processing systems have been created. These services have significantly enhanced global quality of life. However, as a negative side-effect of this rapid development, serious information security problems have also surfaced, which has led to serious to Internet privacy invasions and network attacks. In an attempt to contribute to the process of addressing these problems, this paper proposes a process to detect anomalous traffic using self-similarity analysis in the Anomaly Teletraffic detection Measurement analysis Simulator (ATMSim environment as a research method. Simulations were performed to measure normal and anomalous traffic. First, normal traffic for each attack, including the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS was measured for 48 h over 10 iterations. Hadoop was used to facilitate processing of the large amount of collected data, after which MapReduce was utilised after storing the data in the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS. A new platform on Hadoop, the detection system ATMSim, was used to identify anomalous traffic after which a comparative analysis of the normal and anomalous traffic was performed through a self-similarity analysis. There were four categories of collected traffic that were divided according to the attack methods used: normal local area network (LAN traffic, DDoS attack, and ARP spoofing, as well as DDoS and ARP attack. ATMSim, the anomaly traffic detection system, was used to determine if real attacks could be identified effectively. To achieve this, the ATMSim was used in simulations for each scenario to test its ability to

  8. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IPv4 AND IPv6 INTERNET TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Jaiswal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gigantic growth of the internet communication technology has illustrated its value and benefits to private businesses, government organizations, worldwide professionals, academic institutes and individuals over the past few years. The size and range of computing devices connected to the internet, substantially increased because of IPv6 and offers the potential to establish a much more powerful internet compared to the IPv4. IPV6 developed by the IETF to deal with a shortage of IP addresses under IPv4. New features of IPv6 enhance packet processing speeds over routers, switches and end systems. These improved features will have different traffic characteristics than IPv4. The internet traffic which was earlier assumed as Poisson is now shown to have fractal characteristics as; heavy tailedness, self-similarity and long range dependency. Internet traffic showing above characteristics are found to have burstiness at multiple timescales. This behavior impacts network performance and degrades it substantially. It also increases complexity for network design and create difficulties to maintain desired QoS. IPv4 traffic has been well established as self-similar traffic. Nowadays, IPv6 forming a larger share of the internet traffic and it is pivotal to asses IPv6 with regards to fractal behavior. This will enable network designers to do necessary changes in the existing network to reconcile with IPv6. In this paper we compared IPv4 and IPv6 with respect to fractal behavioral characteristics. It is found that IPv6 shows higher degree of heavy tailedness, higher values of Hurst parameter values, higher fractal dimension values i.e. it is more self-similar, greater autocorrelation achieved even at larger lag and thus showing more burstiness.

  9. Bedload transport from spectral analysis of seismic noise near rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    Channel change in rivers is driven by bedload sediment transport. However, the nonlinear nature of sediment transport combined with the difficulty of making direct observations in rivers at flood hinder prediction of the timing and magnitude of bedload movement. Recent studies have shown that spectral analysis of seismic noise from seismometers near rivers illustrate a correlation between the relative amplitude of high frequency (>1 Hz) seismic noise and conditions for bedload transport, presumably from the energy transferred from clast collisions with the channel. However, a previous study in the Himalayas did not contain extensive bedload transport or discharge measurements, and the correspondence of seismic noise with proxy variables such as regional hydrologic and meteorologic data was not exact. A more complete understanding of the relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise would be valuable for extending the spatial and temporal extent of bedload data. To explore the direct relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise, we examine data from several seismic stations near the Trinity River in California, where the fluvial morphodynamics and bedload rating curves have been studied extensively. We compare the relative amplitude of the ambient seismic noise with records of water discharge and sediment transport. We also examine the noise at hourly, daily, and seasonal timescales to determine other possible sources of noise. We report the influence of variables such as local river slope, adjacent geology, anthropogenic noise, and distance from the river. The results illustrate the feasibility of using existing seismic arrays to sense radiated energy from processes of bedload transport. In addition, the results can be used to design future seismic array campaigns to optimize information about bedload transport. This technique provides great spatial and temporal coverage, and can be performed where direct bedload measurements are difficult or

  10. Tipping point analysis of ocean acoustic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, Valerie N.; Brouwer, Albert; Harris, Peter; Wang, Lian; Sotirakopoulos, Kostas; Robinson, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    We apply tipping point analysis to a large record of ocean acoustic data to identify the main components of the acoustic dynamical system and study possible bifurcations and transitions of the system. The analysis is based on a statistical physics framework with stochastic modelling, where we represent the observed data as a composition of deterministic and stochastic components estimated from the data using time-series techniques. We analyse long-term and seasonal trends, system states and acoustic fluctuations to reconstruct a one-dimensional stochastic equation to approximate the acoustic dynamical system. We apply potential analysis to acoustic fluctuations and detect several changes in the system states in the past 14 years. These are most likely caused by climatic phenomena. We analyse trends in sound pressure level within different frequency bands and hypothesize a possible anthropogenic impact on the acoustic environment. The tipping point analysis framework provides insight into the structure of the acoustic data and helps identify its dynamic phenomena, correctly reproducing the probability distribution and scaling properties (power-law correlations) of the time series.

  11. Tipping point analysis of ocean acoustic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Livina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply tipping point analysis to a large record of ocean acoustic data to identify the main components of the acoustic dynamical system and study possible bifurcations and transitions of the system. The analysis is based on a statistical physics framework with stochastic modelling, where we represent the observed data as a composition of deterministic and stochastic components estimated from the data using time-series techniques. We analyse long-term and seasonal trends, system states and acoustic fluctuations to reconstruct a one-dimensional stochastic equation to approximate the acoustic dynamical system. We apply potential analysis to acoustic fluctuations and detect several changes in the system states in the past 14 years. These are most likely caused by climatic phenomena. We analyse trends in sound pressure level within different frequency bands and hypothesize a possible anthropogenic impact on the acoustic environment. The tipping point analysis framework provides insight into the structure of the acoustic data and helps identify its dynamic phenomena, correctly reproducing the probability distribution and scaling properties (power-law correlations of the time series.

  12. Noise removing in encrypted color images by statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, N.; Puech, W.

    2012-03-01

    Cryptographic techniques are used to secure confidential data from unauthorized access but these techniques are very sensitive to noise. A single bit change in encrypted data can have catastrophic impact over the decrypted data. This paper addresses the problem of removing bit error in visual data which are encrypted using AES algorithm in the CBC mode. In order to remove the noise, a method is proposed which is based on the statistical analysis of each block during the decryption. The proposed method exploits local statistics of the visual data and confusion/diffusion properties of the encryption algorithm to remove the errors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used at the receiving end for the possible solution for noise removing in visual data in encrypted domain.

  13. Random Decrement and Regression Analysis of Traffic Responses of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data fro the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e. g. wind, traffic...

  14. Random Decrement and Regression Analysis of Traffic Responses of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data from the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e.g. wind, traffic...

  15. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  16. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  17. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    algorithms at their core. These methods require accurate ground truth of both malicious and benign DNS traffic for model training as well as for the performance evaluation. This paper elaborates on the problem of obtaining such a ground truth and evaluates practices employed by contemporary detection methods...

  18. Mean value analysis for polling systems in heavy traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, van der R.D.; Winands, E.M.M.; Lenzini, L.; Cruz, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to derive heavy-traffic asymptotics for polling models. We consider the classical cyclic polling model with exhaustive service at each queue, and with general service-time and switch-over time distributions, and study its behavior when the load tends to one.

  19. 77 FR 18297 - Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation Environmental Design Tool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... approval has been granted to use an equivalent methodology and computer model by the FAA Office of... Air Act Amendments of 1990 (as amended) must be prepared using the most recent EDMS model available at... 1050.1E, Appendix A, Section 14.5e states that for ``air traffic airspace actions where the study area...

  20. Estimating the causes of traffic accidents using logistic regression and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacasu, Murat; Ergül, Barış; Altin Yavuz, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Factors that affect traffic accidents have been analysed in various ways. In this study, we use the methods of logistic regression and discriminant analysis to determine the damages due to injury and non-injury accidents in the Eskisehir Province. Data were obtained from the accident reports of the General Directorate of Security in Eskisehir; 2552 traffic accidents between January and December 2009 were investigated regarding whether they resulted in injury. According to the results, the effects of traffic accidents were reflected in the variables. These results provide a wealth of information that may aid future measures toward the prevention of undesired results.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVICES TRAFFIC OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Lodneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular topics in the field of infocommunication is the Internet of things (IоT. IoT is not a standardized concept. Several models of reference models are proposed for the construction and interaction of such systems. Also, to meet basic requirements for intelligent systems, new protocols are often modified or developed. To build IoT systems and predict their behavior in the conditions of changing the amount of transmitted information, realistic computer models are needed, for which you need to know the basic parameters of the traffic created by "smart" devices: its size, transmission time and so on. This study is aimed at solving this problem, namely to obtain and analyze the traffic of devices used in systems "smart" home - "smart" sockets. "Smart" socket in General is a familiar device that is integrated with a module (Wi-Fi, ZigBee, etc. for the convenience and security of secure housing. In this article, we will discuss sockets manufacturers Xiaomi and Broadlink. The study is carried out in different operating modes. To obtain more accurate data on traffic, both the data generated and the data received by the outlets are considered. In the future, the obtained information about the operation of the presented devices can be used for a more in-depth study in order to predict the jumps in traffic and the behavior of the system as a whole, as well as for directly computer models of networks of intelligent devices. Evaluation of the characteristics of the traffic "smart" sockets also gives an idea of the principle of operation of each device and the feasibility of its application in a particular system.

  2. Individual coping as a link between traffic noise and its effects? A study on railway noise; Individuelle Bewaeltigungsversuche als Vermittler zwischen Verkehrslaerm und seinen Wirkungen? Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel des Schienenverkehrslaerms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Paron, M.

    2000-07-01

    Does a person's strategy of coping with traffic noise influence the extent to which he or she feels stressed by it? Ever sSince the seventies, noise research has been attempting to identify factors apart from the noise level that contribute to extraaural noise effects. This investigation discusses new results in the light of transactional stress theory and also investigates the influence of individual coping. Studies on 116 persons showed that it is not the concrete attempt to cope which is the decisive factor but a person's assumptions about his or her potential influence on the experienced noise and its effects, i.e. control. The degree of control experienced was found to be an intermediate step in the development of stress effects. [German] Hat die Art, wie Personen mit taeglich erlebtem Verkehrslaerm umgehen, Einfluss darauf, wie stark sie sich beeintraechtigt fuehlen? Seit den 70er Jahren bemueht sich die Laermforschung, Faktoren zu benennen, die neben dem Schallpegel an der Entstehung (extraauraler) Laermwirkungen beteiligt sind. Die vorliegenden Erkenntnisse erhalten hier durch ihre Einordnung in den Rahmen der transaktionalen Stresstheorien eine theoretische Fundierung. Gleichzeitig wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob auch das Theorieelement Coping (individuelle Bewaeltigungsversuche) als Einflussfaktor fuer die Staerke von Laermwirkungen zu betrachten ist. Empirisch wurde geprueft, ob sich Gestoertheitsurteile und Schlafqualitaetsindikatoren bei schienenverkehrslaermbelasteten Personen in Abhaengigkeit vom individuellen Coping unterscheiden. Die Untersuchung an 116 Personen zeigte, dass nicht konkrete Bewaeltigungsversuche die Groesse von Laermwirkungen mitbestimmen, sondern die Einschaetzung, Einfluss auf den Laerm oder seine Wirkungen nehmen zu koennen (Kontrolle). Belegt wurde, dass die wahrgenommene Kontrolle einen Zwischenschritt bei der Entstehung von Gestoertheitsurteilen darstellt. (orig.)

  3. Determinant of Road Traffic Crash Fatalities in Iran: A Longitudinal Econometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran; Karami Matin, Behzad; Bazyar, Mohammad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Najafi, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Injuries and deaths from road traffic crashes are one of the main public health problems throughout the world. This study aimed to identify determinants of fatality traffic accident in Iran for the twenty-span year from 1991 to 2011. A time series analysis (1991-2011) was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization, unemployment rate and motorization rate) on deaths from road traffic in Iran. In order to examine long- and short-run effects of variables, we employed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and error correction method (ECM). The data for the study was obtained from the Central Bank of Iran (CBI), Iranian Statistical Center (ISC) and Legal medical organizations (LMO). GDP per capita, doctor per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization and motorization rate had a significant impact on fatality from road traffic in Iran. We did not observe any short- and long-term effects of the unemployment rate on fatality from road traffic. GDP per capita, doctor per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization and motorization rate were identified as main determinant of fatality from road traffic accidents in Iran. We hope the results of the current study enable health policy-makers to understand better the factors affecting deaths from road traffic accidents in the country.

  4. Comparative Application of Radial Basis Function and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks to Predict Traffic Noise Pollution in Tehran Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mansourkhaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is a level of environmental noise which is considered as a disturbing and annoying phenomenon for human and wildlife. It is one of the environmental problems which has not been considered as harmful as the air and water pollution. Compared with other pollutants, the attempts to control noise pollution have largely been unsuccessful due to the inadequate knowledge of its effectson humans, as well as the lack of clear standards in previous years. However, with an increase of traveling vehicles, the adverse impact of increasing noise pollution on human health is progressively emerging. Hence, investigators all around the world are seeking to findnew approaches for predicting, estimating and controlling this problem and various models have been proposed. Recently, developing learning algorithms such as neural network has led to novel solutions for this challenge. These algorithms provide intelligent performance based on the situations and input data, enabling to obtain the best result for predicting noise level. In this study, two types of neural networks – multilayer perceptron and radial basis function – were developed for predicting equivalent continuous sound level (LA eq by measuring the traffivolume, average speed and percentage of heavy vehicles in some roads in west and northwest of Tehran. Then, their prediction results were compared based on the coefficienof determination (R 2 and the Mean Squared Error (MSE. Although both networks are of high accuracy in prediction of noise level, multilayer perceptron neural network based on selected criteria had a better performance.

  5. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  6. Nonlinear analysis and simulation of soliton in the traffic flow; Kotsu jutai soliton no hassei kiko nikansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, M. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nagatani, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-07-25

    Traffic jams are investigated numerically and analystically in the optimal velocity model on a single-line highway. The condition is found whether or not traffic jams occur when a car stops instantly. It is shown that traffic soliton appears at the threshold of occurrence of traffic jams. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived from the optimal velocity model by the use of the nonlinear analysis. It is found that the traffic soliton appears only near the neutral stability point. The soliton obtained from the nonlinear analysis is consistent with that of the numerical simulation. (author)

  7. Noise Measurement and Frequency Analysis of Commercially Available Noisy Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Jalaie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise measurement and frequency analysis of commercially available noisy toys were the main purposes of the study. Materials and Methods: 181 noisy toys commonly found in toy stores in different zones of Tehran were selected and categorized into 10 groups. Noise measurement were done at 2, 25, and 50 cm from toys in dBA. The noisiest toy of each group was frequency analyzed in octave bands. Results: The highest and the lowest intensity levels belonged to the gun (mean=112 dBA and range of 100-127 dBA and to the rattle-box (mean=84 dBA and range of 74-95 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity levels significantly decreased with increasing distance except for two toys. Noise frequency analysis indicated energy in effective hearing frequencies. Most of the toys energies were in the middle and high frequency region. Conclusion: As intensity level of the toys is considerable, mostly more than 90 dBA, and also their energy exist in the middle and high frequency region, toys should be considered as a cause of the hearing impairment.

  8. [A spatially explicit analysis of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Tobia

    2017-12-01

    In many German cities and counties, sustainable mobility concepts that strengthen pedestrian and cyclist traffic are promoted. From the perspectives of urban development, traffic planning and public healthcare, a spatially differentiated analysis of traffic accident data is decisive. 1) The identification of spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of accidents involving cyclists and pedestrians, 2) the identification of hotspots and exploration of possible underlying causes and 3) the critical discussion of benefits and challenges of the results and the derivation of conclusions. Spatio-temporal distributions of data from accident statistics in Berlin involving pedestrians and cyclists from 2011 to 2015 were analysed with geographic information systems (GIS). While the total number of accidents remains relatively stable for pedestrian and cyclist accidents, the spatial distribution analysis shows, however, that there are significant spatial clusters (hotspots) of traffic accidents with a strong concentration in the inner city area. In a critical discussion, the benefits of geographic concepts are identified, such as spatially explicit health data (in this case traffic accident data), the importance of the integration of other data sources for the evaluation of the health impact of areas (traffic accident statistics of the police), and the possibilities and limitations of spatial-temporal data analysis (spatial point-density analyses) for the derivation of decision-supported recommendations and for the evaluation of policy measures of health prevention and of health-relevant urban development.

  9. A hierarchical clustering scheme approach to assessment of IP-network traffic using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Takehisa; Masugi, Masao

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the assessment of IP-network traffic in terms of the time variation of self-similarity. To get a comprehensive view in analyzing the degree of long-range dependence (LRD) of IP-network traffic, we use a hierarchical clustering scheme, which provides a way to classify high-dimensional data with a tree-like structure. Also, in the LRD-based analysis, we employ detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is applicable to the analysis of long-range power-law correlations or LRD in non-stationary time-series signals. Based on sequential measurements of IP-network traffic at two locations, this paper derives corresponding values for the LRD-related parameter α that reflects the degree of LRD of measured data. In performing the hierarchical clustering scheme, we use three parameters: the α value, average throughput, and the proportion of network traffic that exceeds 80% of network bandwidth for each measured data set. We visually confirm that the traffic data can be classified in accordance with the network traffic properties, resulting in that the combined depiction of the LRD and other factors can give us an effective assessment of network conditions at different times.

  10. Traffic analysis and signal processing in optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina

    2002-01-01

    /s optical packet switched network exploiting the best of optics and electronics, is used as a thread throughout the thesis. An overview of the DAVID network architecture is given, focussing on the MAN and WAN architecture as well as the MPLS-based network hierarchy. Subsequently, the traffic performance...... of the DAVID core optical packet router, which exploits wavelength conversion and fibre delay-line buffers for contention resolution, is analysed using a numerical model developed for that purpose. The robustness of the shared recirculating loop buffer with respect to´bursty traffic is demonstrated...... the injection of an additional clock signal into the IWC is presented. Results show very good transmission capabilities combined with a high-speed response. It is argued that signal regeneration is an inherent attribute of the IWC employed as a wavelength converter due to the sinusoidal transfer function...

  11. Monetary valuation of aircraft noise; a hedonic analysis around Amsterdam airport Ecological Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, J.E.C.; van der Straaten, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    In densely-populated countries and in particular in large metropolitan areas, the presence of so much human activity causes all sorts of negative externalities, for example traffic noise disturbance. These externalities call for corrective measures by the government. Economists have developed a

  12. Sensitivity of PPI analysis to differences in noise reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, M; Marecek, R; Rektor, I; Filip, P; Janousova, E; Mikl, M

    2015-09-30

    In some fields of fMRI data analysis, using correct methods for dealing with noise is crucial for achieving meaningful results. This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the effects of different preprocessing and noise filtering strategies on psychophysiological interactions (PPI) methods for analyzing fMRI data where noise management has not yet been established. Both real and simulated fMRI data were used to assess these effects. Four regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen for the PPI analysis on the basis of their engagement during two tasks. PPI analysis was performed for 32 different preprocessing and analysis settings, which included data filtering with RETROICOR or no such filtering; different filtering of the ROI "seed" signal with a nuisance data-driven time series; and the involvement of these data-driven time series in the subsequent PPI GLM analysis. The extent of the statistically significant results was quantified at the group level using simple descriptive statistics. Simulated data were generated to assess statistical improvement of different filtering strategies. We observed that different approaches for dealing with noise in PPI analysis yield differing results in real data. In simulated data, we found RETROICOR, seed signal filtering and the addition of data-driven covariates to the PPI design matrix significantly improves results. We recommend the use of RETROICOR, and data-driven filtering of the whole data, or alternatively, seed signal filtering with data-driven signals and the addition of data-driven covariates to the PPI design matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Noise Source Identification of a Ring-Plate Cycloid Reducer Based on Coherence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A ring-plate-type cycloid speed reducer is one of the most important reducers owing to its low volume, compactness, smooth and high performance, and high reliability. The vibration and noise tests of the reducer prototype are completed using the HEAD acoustics multichannel noise test and analysis system. The characteristics of the vibration and noise are obtained based on coherence analysis and the noise sources are identified. The conclusions provide the bases for further noise research and ...

  14. Neutron noise analysis of BWR using time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, Kohyu

    1976-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give more quantitative understanding of noise source in neutron flux and to provide a useful tool for the detection and diagnosis of reactor. The space dependent effects of distributed neutron flux signals at the axial direction of two different strings are investigated by the power contribution ratio among neutron fluxes and the incoherent noise spectra of neutron fluxes derived from autoregressive spectra. The signals are measured on the medium sized commercial BWR of 460 MWe in Japan. From the obtained results, local and global noise sources in neutron flux are discussed. This method is indicated to be a useful tool for detection and diagnosis of anomalous phenomena in BWR. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  16. Finite size scaling analysis on Nagel-Schreckenberg model for traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana

    2015-03-01

    The traffic flow problem as a many-particle non-equilibrium system has caught the interest of physicists for decades. Understanding the traffic flow properties and though obtaining the ability to control the transition from the free-flow phase to the jammed phase plays a critical role in the future world of urging self-driven cars technology. We have studied phase transitions in one-lane traffic flow through the mean velocity, distributions of car spacing, dynamic susceptibility and jam persistence -as candidates for an order parameter- using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model to simulate traffic flow. The length dependent transition has been observed for a range of maximum velocities greater than a certain value. Finite size scaling analysis indicates power-law scaling of these quantities at the onset of the jammed phase.

  17. Reactor noise analysis of experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Hideji; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    1980-01-01

    As a part of dynamics tests in experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'', reactor noise tests were carried out. The reactor noise analysis techniques are effective for study of plant characteristics by determining fluctuations of process signals (neutron signal, reactor inlet temperature signals, etc.), which are able to be measured without disturbances for reactor operations. The aims of reactor noise tests were to confirm that no unstable phenomenon exists in ''JOYO'' and to gain initial data of the plant for reference of the future data. Data for the reactor noise tests treated in this paper were obtained at 50 MW power level. Fluctuations of process signals were amplified and recorded on analogue tapes. The analysis was performed using noise code (NOISA) of digital computer, with which statistical values of ASPD (auto power spectral density), CPSD (cross power spectral density), and CF (coherence function) were calculated. The primary points of the results are as follows. 1. RMS value of neutron signal at 50 MW power level is about 0.03 MW. This neutron fluctuation is not disturbing reactor operations. 2. The fluctuations of A loop reactor inlet temperatures (T sub(AI)) are larger than the fluctuations of B loop reactor inlet temperature (T sub(BI)). For this reason, the major driving force of neutron fluctuations seems to be the fluctuations of T sub(AI). 3. Core and blanket subassemblies can be divided into two halves (A and B region), with respect to the spacial motion of temperature in the reactor core. A or B region means the region in which sodium temperature fluctuations in subassembly are significantly affected by T sub(AI) or T sub(BI), respectively. This phenomenon seems to be due to the lack of mixing of A and B loop sodium in lower plenum of reactor vessel. (author)

  18. A Cyber-ITS Framework for Massive Traffic Data Analysis Using Cyber Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic data is commonly collected from widely deployed sensors in urban areas. This brings up a new research topic, data-driven intelligent transportation systems (ITSs, which means to integrate heterogeneous traffic data from different kinds of sensors and apply it for ITS applications. This research, taking into consideration the significant increase in the amount of traffic data and the complexity of data analysis, focuses mainly on the challenge of solving data-intensive and computation-intensive problems. As a solution to the problems, this paper proposes a Cyber-ITS framework to perform data analysis on Cyber Infrastructure (CI, by nature parallel-computing hardware and software systems, in the context of ITS. The techniques of the framework include data representation, domain decomposition, resource allocation, and parallel processing. All these techniques are based on data-driven and application-oriented models and are organized as a component-and-workflow-based model in order to achieve technical interoperability and data reusability. A case study of the Cyber-ITS framework is presented later based on a traffic state estimation application that uses the fusion of massive Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS data and GPS data. The results prove that the Cyber-ITS-based implementation can achieve a high accuracy rate of traffic state estimation and provide a significant computational speedup for the data fusion by parallel computing.

  19. Data acquisition and processing system for reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Oliveira, J.; Morais Da Veiga, C.; Forjaz Trigueiros, D.; Pombo Duarte, J.

    1975-01-01

    A data acquisition and processing system for reactor noise analysis by time correlation methods is described, consisting in one to four data feeding channels (transducer, associated electronics and V/f converter), a sampling unit, a landline transmission system and a PDP 15 computer. This system is being applied to study the kinetic parameters of the 'Reactor Portugues de Investigacao', a swimming-pool 1MW reactor. The main features that make such a data acquisition and processing system a useful tool to perform noise analysis are: the improved characteristics of analog-to-digital converters employed to quantize the signals; the use of an on-line computer which allows a great accumulation and a rapid treatment of data together with an easy check of the correctness of the experiments; and the adoption of the time cross-correlation technique using two-detectors which by-pass the limitation of low efficiency detectors. (author)

  20. NOASYS, a system for on-line noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massier, H.

    1978-07-01

    This report describes NOASYS, a versatile NOise Analysis SYStem for digital on-line signal processing. The system based on a minicomputer, was originally developed for the analysis of noise signals from nuclear reactors. NOASYS computes various statistical functions e.g. cross- und auto-correlation functions and power spectral densities resp., which may be used for reactor diagnosis and malfunction detection. The system processes up to 16 analog signals with a maximum sampling frequency of 100 kcps (1 channel). The processing of the sampled data is done by a number of software tasks, which may be called from a teletype or linked together for specific measuring programs. The standard configuration contains the often used processing routines e.g. Fast Fourier Transform, complex multiplication, summation etc. In addition NOASYS may be extended by users own tasks (in Assembler or Fortran) to fit for specific applications. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  1. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  2. Current applications of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.; Kryter, R.C.

    1990-02-01

    Monitoring programs using vibration monitoring or neutron noise analysis have demonstrated the ability to detect and, in some cases, diagnose the nature of reactor vessel internals structural degradation. Detection of compromised mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internal components in its early stages allows corrective action to be taken before weakening or damage occurs. In addition to the economic benefits early detection and correction can provide, they can also help maintain plant safety. Information on the condition of reactor vessel internal components gained from a monitoring program supplements in-service inspection results and may be useful in justifying plant license extension. This report, which was prepared under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, discusses the application of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis for monitoring light-water reactor vessel internals. The report begins by describing the effects of structural integrity loss on internals vibration and how measurable parameters can be used to detect and track the progress of degradation. This is followed by a description and comparison of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis, two methods for monitoring the mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internals condition monitoring programs in the United States, Federal Republic of Germany, and France, three countries having substantial commitments to nuclear power. The last section presents guidelines for US utilities wishing to establish reactor internals condition monitoring programs. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Congested Marine Traffic Environment – An Application Using Marine Traffic Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hasegawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of sailing is quite subjective matter. It depends on various factors. Using Marine Traffic Simulation System (MTSS developed by Osaka University this challenging subject is discussed. In this system realistic traffic flow including collision avoidance manoeuvres can be reproduced in a given area. Simulation is done for southward of Tokyo Bay, Strait of Singapore and off-Shanghai area changing traffic volume from 5 or 50 to 150 or 200% of the present volume. As a result, strong proportional relation between near-miss ratio and traffic density per hour per sailed area is found, independent on traffic volume, area size and configuration. The quantitative evaluation index of the difficulty of sailing, here called risk rate of the area is defined using thus defined traffic density and near-miss ratio.

  5. Analysis of Noise Mechanisms in Cell-Size Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Saurabh; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar Augusto; Ghusinga, Khem Raj; Singh, Abhyudai

    2017-06-06

    At the single-cell level, noise arises from multiple sources, such as inherent stochasticity of biomolecular processes, random partitioning of resources at division, and fluctuations in cellular growth rates. How these diverse noise mechanisms combine to drive variations in cell size within an isoclonal population is not well understood. Here, we investigate the contributions of different noise sources in well-known paradigms of cell-size control, such as adder (division occurs after adding a fixed size from birth), sizer (division occurs after reaching a size threshold), and timer (division occurs after a fixed time from birth). Analysis reveals that variation in cell size is most sensitive to errors in partitioning of volume among daughter cells, and not surprisingly, this process is well regulated among microbes. Moreover, depending on the dominant noise mechanism, different size-control strategies (or a combination of them) provide efficient buffering of size variations. We further explore mixer models of size control, where a timer phase precedes/follows an adder, as has been proposed in Caulobacter crescentus. Although mixing a timer and an adder can sometimes attenuate size variations, it invariably leads to higher-order moments growing unboundedly over time. This results in a power-law distribution for the cell size, with an exponent that depends inversely on the noise in the timer phase. Consistent with theory, we find evidence of power-law statistics in the tail of C. crescentus cell-size distribution, although there is a discrepancy between the observed power-law exponent and that predicted from the noise parameters. The discrepancy, however, is removed after data reveal that the size added by individual newborns in the adder phase itself exhibits power-law statistics. Taken together, this study provides key insights into the role of noise mechanisms in size homeostasis, and suggests an inextricable link between timer-based models of size control and

  6. Continuous monitoring of noise levels in the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea). Study of correlation with ship traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, S; Grammauta, R; Sciacca, V; Bellia, G; Beranzoli, L; Buscaino, G; Caruso, F; Chierici, F; Cuttone, G; D'Amico, A; De Luca, V; Embriaco, D; Favali, P; Giovanetti, G; Marinaro, G; Mazzola, S; Filiciotto, F; Pavan, G; Pellegrino, C; Pulvirenti, S; Simeone, F; Speziale, F; Riccobene, G

    2017-08-15

    Acoustic noise levels were measured in the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea) from July 2012 to May 2013 by a low frequency (<1000Hz) hydrophone, installed on board the NEMO-SN1 multidisciplinary observatory. NEMO-SN1 is a cabled node of EMSO-ERIC, which was deployed at a water depth of 2100m, 25km off Catania. The study area is characterized by the proximity of mid-size harbors and shipping lanes. Measured noise levels were correlated with the passage of ships tracked with a dedicated AIS antenna. Noise power was measured in the frequency range between 10Hz and 1000Hz. Experimental data were compared with the results of a fast numerical model based on AIS data to evaluate the contribution of shipping noise in six consecutive 1/3 octave frequency bands, including the 1/3 octave frequency bands centered at 63Hz and 125Hz, indicated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure : Results from the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    Aims Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution

  8. Fuel economy and traffic fatalities: multivariate analysis of international data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    In the US motor vehicle fuel economy standards were imposed in the late 1970s, in response to the oil crises of that decade. Since then, efforts to increase the standards have not occurred, one reason being the argument that smaller vehicles (which are generally more efficient) are considered less safe. Recent analyses (Energy J.( 2004)) suggests that variance in vehicle weights may be more important than the absolute weights of vehicles in making the highway network less safe. In Europe and other countries, which generally have smaller more efficient vehicle fleets, due to relatively high gasoline taxes, this debate has not occurred. In particular, countries such as Great Britain and Sweden have far safer road transport systems than the US but also have much more efficient vehicle fleets. This suggests that either vehicle weight and size are unimportant or if they have an effect it is small compared to other factors. This paper uses international data to build econometric models that examine whether average vehicle fuel economy has any association with road traffic fatalities, while controlling for other factors that are associated with fatalities. The effect on pedestrian fatalities is also analyzed. Cross-sectional time-series data on traffic fatalities from OECD countries is used and negative binomial regression models are developed using panel data to determine whether any associations are present. Results find that changes in vehicle efficiency are not associated with changes in traffic fatalities, suggesting either that size and weight changes over time have not had a strong effect or are not associated with fuel economy improvements

  9. Analysis of hydrogen operation in the Danish Traffic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The main report of a study of the utilisation of hydrogen in the Danish energy and traffic system.The report contains an overview and assessment of the potential hydrogen technologies as well as analyses of the energy and environmental effects of different applications in the Danish transport sec...... sector (passenger car, bus, van, truck). The report concludes that hydrogen along with electric and hybrid propulsion can be a very interesting element in a strategy for sustainable transport, but only if based mainly on renewable energy....

  10. Qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkus, A.; Andriejauskas, T.; Gražulytė, J.; Šernas, O.; Vorobjovas, V.; Kleizienė, R.

    2018-05-01

    Low noise asphalt pavements are cost efficient and cost effective alternative for road traffic noise mitigation comparing with noise barriers, façade insulation and other known noise mitigation measures. However, design of low noise asphalt mixtures strongly depends on climate and traffic peculiarities of different regions. Severe climate regions face problems related with short durability of low noise asphalt mixtures in terms of considerable negative impact of harsh climate conditions (frost-thaw, large temperature fluctuations, hydrological behaviour, etc.) and traffic (traffic loads, traffic volumes, studded tyres, etc.). Thus there is a need to find balance between mechanical and acoustical durability as well as to ensure adequate pavement skid resistance for road safety purposes. Paper presents analysis of the qualitative criteria and design parameters thresholds of low noise asphalt mixtures. Different asphalt mixture composition materials (grading, aggregate, binder, additives, etc.) and relevant asphalt layer properties (air void content, texture, evenness, degree of compaction, etc.) were investigated and assessed according their suitability for durable and effective low noise pavements. Paper concluded with the overview of requirements, qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design for severe climate regions.

  11. Properties of autoregressive model in reactor noise analysis, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu; Kishida, Kuniharu; Bekki, Keisuke.

    1987-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, stochastic processes are described by the ARMA model, however, the AR model is popularly used in reactor noise analysis. Hence, the properties of AR model as an approximate representation of the ARMA model should be made clear. Here, convergence of AR-parameters and PSD of AR model were studied through numerical analysis on specific examples such as the neutron noise in subcritical reactors, and it was found that : (1) The convergence of AR-parameters and AR model PSD is governed by the ''zero nearest to the unit circle in the complex plane'' (μ -1 ,|μ| M . (3) The AR model of the neutron noise of subcritical reactors needs a large model order because of an ARMA-zero very close to unity corresponding to the decay constant of the 6-th group of delayed neutron precursors. (4) In applying AR model for system identification, much attention has to be paid to a priori unknown error as an approximate representation of the ARMA model in addition to the statistical errors. (author)

  12. Diode laser pumped solid state laser. Part IV. ; Noise analysis. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 4. ; Noise kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, H.; Seno, T.; Tanabe, Y. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-10

    Concerning the second harmonic generation(SHG) of diode laser pumped solid state laser using a nonlinear optical material, the researches are carried out to pracitically apply to the optical pickup. Therefore, the reduction of output optical noise has become the important researching subject. The theoretical and experimental analyses of noise generating mechanism were carried out for the system in which Nd;YAG as the laser diode and KTP (KTiOPO {sub 4}) as the nonlinear optical crystal were used. The following findings for the noise generating mechanism could be obtained: The competitive interaction between the polarization modes was dominant noise mechanism in the high frequency range from 1 to 20MHz and the noise could be removed sufficiently by using the QWP(quarter wave plate). On the other hand, the noise observed in the low frequency range from 100 to 200kHz depended on the resonance length, agreed qualitatively with the theoretical analysis of the noise to the competitive longitudinal modes and agreed quantitatively with the noise generating frequency range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Identification of multivariate models for noise analysis of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the normal operation of a pressurized water reactor, neutron noise analysis with multivariate autoregressive procedures in a valuable diagnostic tool to extract dynamic characteristics for incipient failure detection. The first part of the paper will describe in details the equations for estimating the multivariate autoregressive model matrices and the structure of various matrices. The matrices are estimated by solving a set of matrix operations, called Yule-Walker equations. The selection of optimal model order will also be discussed. Once the optimal parameter set is obtained, simple and fast calculations are used to determine the auto power spectral density, cross spectra, coherence function, phase. In addition the spectra may be decomposed into components being contributed from different noise sources. An application using neutron flux data collected on a nuclear plant will illustrate the efficiency of the method

  14. Northern and Southern European Traffic Flow Land Segment Analysis as Part of the Redirection Justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SiniŁa Vilke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural geotraffic flows act as one of the most important factors directly affecting redirections of the world transportation routes. In terms of door-to-door multimodal transport chain, several routes from Far East toward European destinations exist, with Northern European route acting as prevailing one. The proposed paper elaborates possibilities of redirection of the traffic flow by directing cargoes to an alternative route through the Adriatic Sea. The aim is to justify realisation of mentioned possibility in terms of land transportation segment analysis, i.e. by analysing cargo transportation from ports to final destinations in Central Europe, placed in natural gravitational hinterland of ports of Northern Adriatic Port Association (NAPA. Geo-traffic and logistics’ analyses of NAPA ports are presented in the paper. Container traffic and its trend as compared with Northern European ports are analysed. The development plans of inland connections are presented in function of justification of the traffic flow redirection. A model for the selection and evaluation of the optimal container transport route by using the multiple criteria analysis (MCA has been introduced and developed. The model was applied for the selection of the representative service connecting Far East (origin and the central Europe (destination by detailed analysis of the land transportation segment. The PROMETHEE method was used for the model testing and evaluation. Summarised results are presented and discussed tending to confirmation of the traffic flow redirection justification.

  15. Identifying functions for ex-core neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, J.M.; Oliveira, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A method of performing the phase analysis of signals arising from neutron detectors placed in the periphery of a pressurized water reactor is proposed. It consists in the definition of several identifying functions, based on the phases of cross power spectral densities corresponding to four ex-core neutron detectors. Each of these functions enhances the appearance of different sources of noise. The method, applied to the ex-core neutron fluctuation analysis of a French PWR, proved to be very useful as it allows quick recognition of various patterns in the power spectral densities. (orig.) [de

  16. Measurements and analysis of neutron and gamma noise in BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Kleiss, E.B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron and gamma sensitive collectrons (self-powered detectors) have been designed for incore noise measurements in BWRs. A so-called twin-type has been developed for measurements of two-phase flow characteristics and detailed axial velocity distributions. Construction aspects of the twin detectors are discussed. An analysis is presented of the response of both detector types to incore parametric fluctuations. This analysis is based on detector response functions which provide an insight into the 'field of view' of the two types. The results are supported by experimental verifications; it is shown that incore gamma detectors provide useful additional information about two-phase flow in a BWR. (author)

  17. State of the art on reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, P.; Fry, D.; Stegemann, D.; Van Dam, H.

    1986-01-01

    This report is the result of the work of a task force sponsored by the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics (NEACRP) and is divided into six chapters: 1. Loose-Parts Detection and Acoustic Monitoring, 2. Thermal Hydraulics Surveillance, 3. Flow Measurements, 4. Vibration Monitoring, 5. Surveillance Systems and Evaluation Methods, and 6. System Dynamic Analysis. Each chapter summarizes the current situation in noise analysis techniques with emphasis on the following aspects: . physical quantities considered, . possible anomalies involved, . sensors used for the detection, and . conditions of applications. The remainder of each chapter discusses future trends and recommendations

  18. Road traffic emission monitoring on motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the major environmental noise sources that is known to cause health problems. Despite existing noise reception items, the continuing growth of traffic causes higher levels than the lims allow. Consequently, excessive costs are incurred for noise barriers along roads and

  19. Effects of irrelevant speech and traffic noise on speech perception and cognitive performance in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Maria; Meis, Markus; Sukowski, Helga; Schick, August

    2007-01-01

    The effects of background noise of moderate intensity on short-term storage and processing of verbal information were analyzed in 6 to 8 year old children. In line with adult studies on "irrelevant sound effect" (ISE), serial recall of visually presented digits was severely disrupted by background speech that the children did not understand. Train noises of equal Intensity however, had no effect. Similar results were demonstrated with tasks requiring storage and processing of heard information. Memory for nonwords, execution of oral instructions and categorizing speech sounds were significantly disrupted by irrelevant speech. The affected functions play a fundamental role in the acquisition of spoken and written language. Implications concerning current models of the ISE and the acoustic conditions in schools and kindergardens are discussed.

  20. A bibliometric analysis of the published road traffic injuries research in India, post-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeraj; Bairwa, Mohan; Gowthamghosh, B; Gupta, S D; Mangal, D K

    2018-03-01

    Globally, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. However, road traffic injury research has not received adequate attention from the scientific community in low- and middle-income countries, including India. The present study aims to provide a bibliometric overview of research assessing road traffic injuries in India. We used Scopus to extract relevant research in road traffic injuries published from 1991 to 2017. This study presented the key bibliometric indicators such as trends of annual publications and citations, top 10 authors, journals, institutions and highly cited articles, citation analysis of articles, co-occurrence of keywords, etc. Analysis was performed using Scopus, Microsoft Excel, and VOS-viewer. A total of 242 articles were retrieved with an h-index of 18, excluding self-citations. A steadfast growth of publications was documented in last decade, especially after the year 2010. The h-index of the top 10 authors, institutions, journals and highly cited articles did not surpass single digits. A network visualisation map showed that 'traffic accident', 'male', 'adolescent' and 'child' were the most commonly encountered key terms. The prominent authors were Gururaj G, Dandona R, and Hyder AA, whereas the top journals were the Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medico Legal Update, and the International Journal of Applied Engineering Research and top institutions were the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, and the Administrative Staff College of India. In India, road traffic injuries research is inadequate in quantity and quality, warranting greater attention from researchers and policy planners to address the burden of road traffic injuries.

  1. Statistical analysis of traversal behavior under different types of traffic lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boran; Wang, Ziyang; Li, Zhiyin

    2017-12-01

    According to the video observation, it is found that the traffic signal type signal has a significant effect on the illegal crossing behavior of pedestrians at the intersection. Through the method of statistical analysis and variance analysis, the difference between the violation rate and the waiting position of pedestrians at different intersecting lights is compared, and the influence of traffic signal type on pedestrian crossing behavior is evaluated. The results show that the violation rate of the intersection of the static pedestrian lights is significantly higher than that of the countdown signal lights. There are significant differences in the waiting position of the intersection of different signal lights.

  2. Railway traffic noise pollution. Source, propagation and abatement systems; L'inquinamento acustico prodotto da traffico ferroviario. Origine, propagazione e sistemi di attenuazione. Progetto Apparati silenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchi, M.; Salernitano, E. [ENEA, Div. Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Noise pollution is one of the hardest environmental problems connected with railway transport system nowadays. The recent grow of the railways network has caused an increased attention to the acoustic levels along the rail tracks, especially in residential areas. This review aims to supply a synthesis of the issues related to railway noise pollution, including economical, social and medical aspects. Italian legislation about environmental noise and its effect on population is based on the law n. 447/1995 and establishes the fundamental principles on both outdoor and indoor environmental protection from acoustic pollution. Many norms followed this statutory law, trying to cover all areas of the noise related problems. A possible solution to the railway traffic noise mitigation should be based on the reduction of the noise produced by trains (active action on the noise sources) and on the use of acoustic barriers beside the track (passive systems). This work describes noise generation and propagation mechanisms as well as sound attenuation with natural and artificial obstacles. Many screening configurations are described and different materials are compared on the basis of technical (experimental measurements and analytical results), economical and feasibility considerations. [Italian] Il problema della rumorosita' connessa all'esercizio di veicoli ferroviari e' diventato di notevole importanza da quando, col diffondersi dei trasporti di mssa ad alta velocita', e' aumentata la sensibilita' della collettivita' al mantenimento di bassi livelli di inquinamento acustico, soprattutto in zone abitative e residenziali. Il presente lavoro si propone di fornire un quadro sintetico, ma esaustivo, delle problematiche connesse al rumore ferroviario, dalle implicazioni sociali, agli aspetti piu' prettamente tecnici. Viene innanzitutto affrontato il tema della normativa nel campo del fonoinquinamento prodotto da rotabili, con riferimento

  3. Analysis of air safety in the European system of air traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Є. Луппо

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  Article describes air traffic safety provision requirements in the Air Traffic Management system of Europe. Consideration of air traffic variation which affecting the air traffic management operations have been reviewed.

  4. DATA ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND THEIR CAUSES IN GOMEL FOR 2013 AND 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures undertaken for improvement of road traffic safety presuppose clampdown on violation of road traffic regulations but no attention is paid to the fact that there is no possibility to ensure road traffic safety due to inconformity of roads to the modern safety requirements. Therefore reduction in accident rate is connected with some changes in approaches to designing, construction and maintenance of roads. Nowadays when the number of automobiles is extremely large and their number is increasing with every passing year driver’s professionalism becomes the most significant factor. In these circumstances the professionalism is demonstrated not so much while driving in bad road conditions as it was previously but the professionalism is more revealed in the case when it is necessary to drive in conditions of large workloads and high manoeuvring rate when a special important role is given to the capability to forecast a situation, in other words the capability to read the road. Moral climate on the road is no less important as well and it practically fully depends on a driver.The paper contains an analysis of the Gomel traffic police data on quantitative distribution of road traffic accidents and their victims according to the time of day and month, lighting conditions, weather conditions, age and sex factors, types of violations. Situations of traffic behavior, motivations of drivers and road users, drivers training have been shown in terms of impact on the road traffic accident risk. The paper considers a human factor which rather often causes an accident. An evaluation has been given to such factor as road speed of transport facilities which exerts a significant influence on an accident risk and its severity.

  5. Noise analysis role in reactor safety, Spectral analysis (PSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Velickovic, Lj.

    1967-11-01

    Spectral power density of a zero power reactor is frequency dependent and related to transfer function of the reactor and to spectral density of the input disturbance. Measurement of spectral power density of a critical system is used to obtain the ratio (β/l), β is the effective yield of delayed neutrons, and l is the effective mean neutron lifetime. When reactor is subcritical, if the effective yie ald of delayed neutrons, the effective mean neutron lifetime are known, the shutdown margin can be determined by relation α = (1 - k (1- β0)/l, k is the effective multiplication factor. Output neutron spectrum at the RB reactor in Vinca was measured for a few reactor core configurations and for a few levels of heavy water at subcritical state. Measured values were satisfactory when the reactor was critical, but the reactor noise of subcritical system was covered by the white noise of the detector and electronic equipment. The Ra-Be source was under the reactor vessel when measurements of subcritical system were done. More efficient detector or external random stimulus for increasing the intensity of neutron fluctuations would be needed to obtain results for subcritical system

  6. Identification of nuclear reactor characteristics by the reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Hideyuki

    1980-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis method was applied to TRIGA II Research Reactor (Atomic Research Laboratory, Musashi Institute of Technology) and computed power spectral density (PSD) from the CIC current record. PSD has provided many valuable informations regarding to the reactor kinetics, including the effect of control rods vibration. Another information of neutron physics parameters were obtained and this result was compared with the parameter which was formerly measured by the Feynman-α experiment. Through these experiments we could find overall frequency characteristics of TRIGA II Reactor. (author)

  7. The noise analysis and the BWR operation map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1996-01-01

    An analytical expression for the Decay Ratio is obtained: DR = exp(-bW / P 1/2 ). The physics behind is also explained. It applies to a commercial BWR Operation Map, on the vicinity of the power instability. This functional form seems fitting to the structure of the Operation map. The power P and the coolant flow are measured straightforward; the Decay Ratio is obtained by neutron noise analysis techniques. The parameter b, depending on the void reactivity coefficient, is then calculated on line during the Reactor Operation. New DR value is now predicted for each new displacement on the Map, so unexpected instability events are more likely avoided. (authors)

  8. Noise suppression and crosstalk analysis of on-chip magnetic film-type noise suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyan; Muroga, Sho; Endo, Yasushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Naoe, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Hiroo; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses near field, conduction and crosstalk noise suppression of magnetic films with uniaxial anisotropy on transmission lines for a film-type noise suppressor in the GHz frequency range. The electromagnetic noise suppressions of magnetic films with different permeability and resistivity were measured and simulated with simple microstrip lines. The experimental and simulated results of Co-Zr-Nb and CoPd-CaF2 films agreed with each other. The results indicate that the higher permeability leads to a better near field shielding, and in the frequency range of 2-7 GHz, a higher conduction noise suppression. It also suggests that the higher resistivity results in a better crosstalk suppression in the frequency range below 2 GHz. These results can support the design guidelines of the magnetic film-type noise suppressor used in the next generation IC chip.

  9. Lifetime measurement of prompt neutrons using the neutronic noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Servin, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate the life of the prompt neutrons, i, of a nuclear reactor utilizing the neutron noise analysis. This technique carry to development of mathematical model that is valid for lower powers reactor. The equation resulting convey to the observation about power spectrum behaviour respect to the frecquency. In this case, the reactor in study is the Triga Mark III of Nuclear Center of Mexico that it was provided of fission chambers for register the neutron fluxes. These fluxes was digitized and storage in computer disc as signals dependents of time, for later apply the Fourier Transformation and obtain the spectras. The spectras measured to different reactor powers were adjusted to the development equation before, using the method of square minimum and so estimate the parameter i. The analysis of results throw a value of 22.73 +/- 0.92 μs. On the other hand, the calculate value to the resolve the kinetic equation of reactor defer in lower than 4 % about the estimate. Of this, it concludes that the model utilized is trusty with a good mistake margin, moreover of that the technique of Neutron Noise analysis demonstrate be competitive (Author)

  10. Web application and database modeling of traffic impact analysis using Google Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2017-06-01

    Traffic impact analysis (TIA) is a traffic study that aims at identifying the impact of traffic generated by development or change in land use. In addition to identifying the traffic impact, TIA is also equipped with mitigation measurement to minimize the arising traffic impact. TIA has been increasingly important since it was defined in the act as one of the requirements in the proposal of Building Permit. The act encourages a number of TIA studies in various cities in Indonesia, including Surakarta. For that reason, it is necessary to study the development of TIA by adopting the concept Transportation Impact Control (TIC) in the implementation of the TIA standard document and multimodal modeling. It includes TIA's standardization for technical guidelines, database and inspection by providing TIA checklists, monitoring and evaluation. The research was undertaken by collecting the historical data of junctions, modeling of the data in the form of relational database, building a user interface for CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) the TIA data in the form of web programming with Google Maps libraries. The result research is a system that provides information that helps the improvement and repairment of TIA documents that exist today which is more transparent, reliable and credible.

  11. Spatial Assessment of Road Traffic Injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA: Spatial Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Tehranchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS and spatial analysis approach based on the global spatial autocorrelation of road traffic injuries for identifying spatial patterns. A locational spatial autocorrelation was also used for identifying traffic injury at spatial level. Data for this research study were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI based on 2004 and 2011. Moran’s I statistics were used to examine spatial patterns of road traffic injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. An assessment of Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was followed as to identify hot spots and cold spots within the study area. The results revealed that Peel and Durham have the highest collision rate for other motor vehicle with motor vehicle. Geographic weighted regression (GWR technique was conducted to test the relationships between the dependent variable, number of road traffic injury incidents and independent variables such as number of seniors, low education, unemployed, vulnerable groups, people smoking and drinking, urban density and average median income. The result of this model suggested that number of seniors and low education have a very strong correlation with the number of road traffic injury incidents.

  12. MOE-Analysis for Oversaturated Flow with Interrupted Facility and Heterogeneous Traffic for Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed-flow functions have been developed by several transportation experts to predict accurately the speed of urban road networks. HCM Speed-Flow Curve, BPR Curve, MTC Speed-Flow Curve, Akçelik Speed-Flow Curve are some extraordinary efforts to define the shape of speed-flow curves. However, the complexity of driver's behaviour, interactions among different type of vehicles, lateral clearance, co-relation of driver's psychology with vehicular characteristics and interdependence of various variables of traffic has led to continuous development and refinement of speed-flow curves. The problem gets more difficult in the case of urban roads with heterogeneous traffic, oversaturated flow and signalized network (which includes some unsignalized intersections as well. This paper presents analysis for various measures of effectiveness (MOE for urban roads with interrupted flow comprising heterogeneous traffic. Model has been developed for heterogeneous traffic under constraints of roadway geometry, vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic controls. The model developed in this paper predicts speed, delay, average queue and maximum queue estimates for urban roads and quantifies congestion for oversaturated conditions. The investigation details the oversaturated portion of flow in particular.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Tokyo and Moscow Experience in Addressing the Traffic Jams Problem: A View from Moscow and Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    Kiichiro Hatoyama

    2011-01-01

    The problem of traffic jams in Moscow turns out to be chronic. The author employs a comparative analysis of the experiences of different countries, especially Russia and Japan, in decreasing traffic congestion, appropriate damage and in solving other transport problems. The article analyzes the objective and subjective reasons for the deterioration of the traffic situation, as well as effective strategies to address them. 

  14. Comparative Analysis of Tokyo and Moscow Experience in Addressing the Traffic Jams Problem: A View from Moscow and Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiichiro Hatoyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of traffic jams in Moscow turns out to be chronic. The author employs a comparative analysis of the experiences of different countries, especially Russia and Japan, in decreasing traffic congestion, appropriate damage and in solving other transport problems. The article analyzes the objective and subjective reasons for the deterioration of the traffic situation, as well as effective strategies to address them. 

  15. Analysis of CBRP for UDP and TCP Traffic-Classes to measure throughput in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Singh Rayait

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the throughput of both TCP and UDP traffic classes for cluster based routing protocol for mobile ad hoc network. It uses clustering structure to improve throughput , decrease average end-to-end delay and improve the average packet delivery ratio. We simulate our routing protocol for nodes running the IEEE802.11 MAC for analysis of throughput for both UDP and TCP traffic classes. The application layer protocol used for UDP is CBR and for TCP is FTP.

  16. Background noise analysis in urban airport surroundings of Brazilian cities, Congonhas Airport, São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatolini, Fabio; Alves, Cláudio Jorge Pinto

    2016-12-22

    To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level) noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL). Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures. Avaliar quantitativamente o ruído de fundo no entorno do aeroporto de Congonhas, com base em ampla amostragem e medições sem interrupção. Locais de medição escolhidos a partir de curvas de ruído de 62 e 72 LDN (day-night level), em equipamentos urbanos de uso compatível com o residencial. Quinze locais foram avaliados por mais de 168 horas consecutivas cada um (sete dias). A compilação baseou-se em cruzamentos de dados do controle de tráfego aéreo e os resultados foram validados por meio de relatórios meteorológicos do aeroporto. Diagnósticos preliminares foram estabelecidos utilizando a NBR-13368. O ruído de fundo foi calculado com base no Sound

  17. Exploiting automatically generated databases of traffic signs and road markings for contextual co-occurrence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo M.; Woudsma, Thomas; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-11-01

    Combined databases of road markings and traffic signs provide a complete and full description of the present traffic legislation and instructions. Such databases contribute to efficient signage maintenance, improve navigation, and benefit autonomous driving vehicles. A system is presented for the automated creation of such combined databases, which additionally investigates the benefit of this combination for automated contextual placement analysis. This analysis involves verification of the co-occurrence of traffic signs and road markings to retrieve a list of potentially incorrectly signaled (and thus potentially unsafe) road situations. This co-occurrence verification is specifically explored for both pedestrian crossings and yield situations. Evaluations on 420 km of road have shown that individual detection of traffic signs and road markings denoting these road situations can be performed with accuracies of 98% and 85%, respectively. Combining both approaches shows that over 95% of the pedestrian crossings and give-way situations can be identified. An exploration toward additional co-occurrence analysis of signs and markings shows that inconsistently signaled situations can successfully be extracted, such that specific safety actions can be directed toward cases lacking signs or markings, while most consistently signaled situations can be omitted from this analysis.

  18. Stream traffic data archival, querying, and analysis with TransDec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of research was to extend the traffic data analysis of the TransDec (short for : Transportation Decision-Making) system, which was developed under METRANS 09-26 : research grant. The TransDec system is a real-data driven system to support de...

  19. Diagnosis methods based on noise analysis at Cernavoda NPP, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banica, Constantin; Dobrea, Dumitru

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a recent noise analysis of the neutronic signals provided by in-core flux detectors (ICFD) and ion chambers (IC). This analysis is part of on-going program developed for Unit 1 of the Cernavoda NPP, Romania, with the following main objectives: - prediction of detector failures based on pattern recognition; - determination of fast excursions from steady states; - detection of abnormal mechanical vibrations in the reactor core. The introduction presents briefly the reactor, the location of ICFD's and IC's. The second section presents the data acquisition systems and their capabilities. The paper continues with a brief presentation of the numerical methods used for analysis (section 3). The most significant results can be found in section 4, while section 5 concludes about useful information that can be obtained from the neutronic signals at high power steady-state operation. (authors)

  20. Utility experience in reactor noise analysis in German LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, A.; Weingarten, J.; Wach, D.

    1988-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis has a long history in Fed. Rep. of Germany. Since the early 60ies it was directed to early fault, malfunction and anomaly detection in nuclear power plants. When successful diagnoses showed the high potential and benefits including economic and safety aspects, also the utilities began to have a vivid concern in application of the developed methods and systems. The know-how transfer from specialized teams to the onsite personnel as well as the development of more ''intelligent'' online systems are important present and future tasks for further improvement of their efficiency. The diagnostic group of GRS is active in both fields and has close cooperation with several utilities to achieve these objectives. Modern signal processing equipment and access to a comprehensive knowledge base stored in data banks are provided by the data analysis center of GRS. The available capabilities are described and examples of analysis results within the cooperation utilities/GRS are given. (author)

  1. Railroad Noise: Economic Valuation and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Nijkamp, P.; Pels, E.; Rietveld, P.

    2003-01-01

    In developed countries noise annoyance is an important source of environmental concern. Research on noise annoyance caused by railroad traffic is relatively underdeveloped. Here, a causal chain model is presented in which railroad traffic density, noise emission, noise immission and noise annoyance

  2. Noise analysis and performance of a selfscanned linear InSb detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, G.; Meyer, M.; Moorwood, A.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    A noise model for detectors operated in the capacitive discharge mode is presented. It is used to analyze the noise performance of the ESO nested timing readout technique applied to a linear 32-element InSb array which is multiplexed by a silicon switched-FET shift register. Analysis shows that KTC noise of the videoline is the major noise contribution; it can be eliminated by weighted double-correlated sampling. Best noise performance of this array is achieved at the smallest possible reverse bias voltage (not more than 20 mV) whereas excess noise is observed at higher reverse bias voltages. 5 references

  3. Applications of aero-acoustic analysis to wind turbine noise control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    Wind turbine noise generation mechanisms are essentially equivalent to the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. Basic sources for the wind turbine noise radiation process are defined, and their significance assessed. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind turbine noise control which separate the noise problems at cut-in from those at rated power. Some of these offer the possibility of noise reduction without unfavourable effects on performance. (author)

  4. Applications of aero-acoustic analysis to wind turbine noise control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind turbine noise generation mechanisms are essentially equivalent to the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. Basic sources for the wind turbine noise radiation process are defined, and their significance assessed. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind turbine noise control which separate the noise problems at cut-in from those at rated power. Some of these offer the possibility of noise reduction without unfavourable effects on performance. (author)

  5. Cell phone use and traffic crash risk: a culpability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Brubacher, Jeff R; Chan, Herbert

    2013-02-01

    The use of a cell phone or communication device while driving is illegal in many jurisdictions, yet evidence evaluating the crash risk associated with cell phone use in naturalistic settings is limited. This article aims to determine whether cell phone use while driving increases motor vehicle crash culpability. Method Drivers involved in crashes where police reported cell phone use (n = 312) and propensity matched drivers (age, sex, suspect alcohol/drug impairment, crash type, date, time of day, geographical location) without cell phone use (n = 936) were drawn from Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Traffic Accident System data. A standardized scoring tool, modified to account for Canadian driving conditions, was used to determine crash culpability from police reports on all drivers from the crashes. The association between crash culpability and cell phone use was determined, with additional subgroup analyses based on crash severity, driver characteristics and type of licence. A comparison of crashes with vs without cell phones revealed an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.36; P = 0.002). This association was consistent after adjustment for matching variables and other covariates. Subgroup analyses demonstrated an association for male drivers, unimpaired drivers, injured and non-injured drivers, and for drivers aged between 26 and 65 years. Crash culpability was found to be significantly associated with cell phone use by drivers, increasing the odds of a culpable crash by 70% compared with drivers who did not use a cell phone. This increased risk was particularly high for middle-aged drivers.

  6. Analysis of modeling aircraft noise with the Nord2000 noise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    This report provides comparisons between AEDT/INM and the Nord 2000 Noise Models for the following parameters: ground type, simple terrain (downward slope, upward slope, hill), temperature and humidity, temperature gradients (positive and negative), ...

  7. Rotary Compressor Noise Analysis Using Mechanisms and Electromagnetics Coupled Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jinah; Lee, Uiyoon; Lee, Jeongbae; Lee, Unseop; Han, Eunsil; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2016-01-01

    This research is conducted to investigate noise source and design low noise compressors. For improving energy efficiency, the rotary compressor with variable speed brushless DC motor is increasingly adopted for appliances. However brushless DC motor makes more compressor vibration than constant speed motor compressor at high speed operating condition. Therefore it is necessary to reduce noise and vibration for improving air conditioner quality. In this study, compressor’s noise and vibrat...

  8. Development and application of traffic flow information collecting and analysis system based on multi-type video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mujie; Shang, Wenjie; Ji, Xinkai; Hua, Mingzhuang; Cheng, Kuo

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, intelligent transportation system (ITS) has already become the new direction of transportation development. Traffic data, as a fundamental part of intelligent transportation system, is having a more and more crucial status. In recent years, video observation technology has been widely used in the field of traffic information collecting. Traffic flow information contained in video data has many advantages which is comprehensive and can be stored for a long time, but there are still many problems, such as low precision and high cost in the process of collecting information. This paper aiming at these problems, proposes a kind of traffic target detection method with broad applicability. Based on three different ways of getting video data, such as aerial photography, fixed camera and handheld camera, we develop a kind of intelligent analysis software which can be used to extract the macroscopic, microscopic traffic flow information in the video, and the information can be used for traffic analysis and transportation planning. For road intersections, the system uses frame difference method to extract traffic information, for freeway sections, the system uses optical flow method to track the vehicles. The system was applied in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, and the application shows that the system for extracting different types of traffic flow information has a high accuracy, it can meet the needs of traffic engineering observations and has a good application prospect.

  9. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Traffic Patterns Based on Pedestrian Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S.; Schindler, T.; Klinger, T.; Brenner, C.

    2016-06-01

    For driver assistance and autonomous driving systems, it is essential to predict the behaviour of other traffic participants. Usually, standard filter approaches are used to this end, however, in many cases, these are not sufficient. For example, pedestrians are able to change their speed or direction instantly. Also, there may be not enough observation data to determine the state of an object reliably, e.g. in case of occlusions. In those cases, it is very useful if a prior model exists, which suggests certain outcomes. For example, it is useful to know that pedestrians are usually crossing the road at a certain location and at certain times. This information can then be stored in a map which then can be used as a prior in scene analysis, or in practical terms to reduce the speed of a vehicle in advance in order to minimize critical situations. In this paper, we present an approach to derive such a spatio-temporal map automatically from the observed behaviour of traffic participants in everyday traffic situations. In our experiments, we use one stationary camera to observe a complex junction, where cars, public transportation and pedestrians interact. We concentrate on the pedestrians trajectories to map traffic patterns. In the first step, we extract trajectory segments from the video data. These segments are then clustered in order to derive a spatial model of the scene, in terms of a spatially embedded graph. In the second step, we analyse the temporal patterns of pedestrian movement on this graph. We are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as the timetables of nearby public transportation. To evaluate our approach, we used a 4 hour video sequence. We show that we are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as time tables of nearby public transportation.

  10. ANALYSIS OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL TRAFFIC PATTERNS BASED ON PEDESTRIAN TRAJECTORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For driver assistance and autonomous driving systems, it is essential to predict the behaviour of other traffic participants. Usually, standard filter approaches are used to this end, however, in many cases, these are not sufficient. For example, pedestrians are able to change their speed or direction instantly. Also, there may be not enough observation data to determine the state of an object reliably, e.g. in case of occlusions. In those cases, it is very useful if a prior model exists, which suggests certain outcomes. For example, it is useful to know that pedestrians are usually crossing the road at a certain location and at certain times. This information can then be stored in a map which then can be used as a prior in scene analysis, or in practical terms to reduce the speed of a vehicle in advance in order to minimize critical situations. In this paper, we present an approach to derive such a spatio-temporal map automatically from the observed behaviour of traffic participants in everyday traffic situations. In our experiments, we use one stationary camera to observe a complex junction, where cars, public transportation and pedestrians interact. We concentrate on the pedestrians trajectories to map traffic patterns. In the first step, we extract trajectory segments from the video data. These segments are then clustered in order to derive a spatial model of the scene, in terms of a spatially embedded graph. In the second step, we analyse the temporal patterns of pedestrian movement on this graph. We are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as the timetables of nearby public transportation. To evaluate our approach, we used a 4 hour video sequence. We show that we are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as time tables of nearby public transportation.

  11. Implicit methods for equation-free analysis: convergence results and analysis of emergent waves in microscopic traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Berkemer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a general formulation for an implicit equation-free method in the setting of slow-fast systems. First, we give a rigorous convergence result for equation-free analysis showing that the implicitly defined coarse-level time stepper converges to the true dynamics on the slow manifold...... against the direction of traffic. Equation-free analysis enables us to investigate the behavior of the microscopic traffic model on a macroscopic level. The standard deviation of cars' headways is chosen as the macroscopic measure of the underlying dynamics such that traveling wave solutions correspond...... to equilibria on the macroscopic level in the equation-free setup. The collapse of the traffic jam to the free flow then corresponds to a saddle-node bifurcation of this macroscopic equilibrium. We continue this bifurcation in two parameters using equation-free analysis....

  12. Analysis of a Dynamic Multi-Track Airway Concept for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Multi-track Airways (DMA) Concept for Air Traffic Management (ATM) proposes a network of high-altitude airways constructed of multiple, closely spaced, parallel tracks designed to increase en-route capacity in high-demand airspace corridors. Segregated from non-airway operations, these multi-track airways establish high-priority traffic flow corridors along optimal routes between major terminal areas throughout the National Airspace System (NAS). Air traffic controllers transition aircraft equipped for DMA operations to DMA entry points, the aircraft use autonomous control of airspeed to fly the continuous-airspace airway and achieve an economic benefit, and controllers then transition the aircraft from the DMA exit to the terminal area. Aircraft authority within the DMA includes responsibility for spacing and/or separation from other DMA aircraft. The DMA controller is responsible for coordinating the entry and exit of traffic to and from the DMA and for traffic flow management (TFM), including adjusting DMA routing on a daily basis to account for predicted weather and wind patterns and re-routing DMAs in real time to accommodate unpredicted weather changes. However, the DMA controller is not responsible for monitoring the DMA for traffic separation. This report defines the mature state concept, explores its feasibility and performance, and identifies potential benefits. The report also discusses (a) an analysis of a single DMA, which was modeled within the NAS to assess capacity and determine the impact of a single DMA on regional sector loads and conflict potential; (b) a demand analysis, which was conducted to determine likely city-pair candidates for a nationwide DMA network and to determine the expected demand fraction; (c) two track configurations, which were modeled and analyzed for their operational characteristic; (d) software-prototype airborne capabilities developed for DMA operations research; (e) a feasibility analysis of key attributes in

  13. Fermeuse wind power project Newfoundland : noise and visual analysis studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, P.; Turgeon, J.; Heraud, P.; Belanger, S.; Dakousian, S.; Lamontagne, C.; Soares, D. [Helimax Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Basil, C.; Boulianne, S.; Salacup, S.; Thompson, C. [Skypower, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    This paper discussed the noise and visual analyses used to assess the potential impacts of a wind energy project on the east coast of the Avalon Peninsula near St. John's, Newfoundland. The proposed farm will be located approximately 1 km away from the town of Fermeuse, and will have an installed capacity of 27 MW from 9 turbines. The paper provided details of the consultation process conducted to determine acceptable distance and site locations for the wind turbines from the community. Stakeholders were identified during meetings, events, and discussions with local authorities. Consultations were also held with government agencies and municipal councils. A baseline acoustic environment study was conducted, and details of anticipated environmental impacts during the project's construction, operation, and decommissioning phases were presented. The visual analysis study was divided into the following landscape units: town, shoreline, forest, open land and lacustrine landscapes. The effect of the turbines on the landscapes were assessed from different viewpoints using visual simulation programs. The study showed that the visual effects of the project are not considered as significant because of the low number of turbines. It was concluded that the effect of construction on ambient noise levels is of low concern as all permanent dwellings are located at least 1 km away from the turbines. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Noise Source Identification of a Ring-Plate Cycloid Reducer Based on Coherence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A ring-plate-type cycloid speed reducer is one of the most important reducers owing to its low volume, compactness, smooth and high performance, and high reliability. The vibration and noise tests of the reducer prototype are completed using the HEAD acoustics multichannel noise test and analysis system. The characteristics of the vibration and noise are obtained based on coherence analysis and the noise sources are identified. The conclusions provide the bases for further noise research and control of the ring-plate-type cycloid reducer.

  15. Sleep - nocturnal traffic noise - stress - health: Fundamentals and recent research results. Pt. 2. Recent research results; Schlaf - naechtlicher Verkehrslaerm - Stress - Gesundheit: Grundlagen und aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse. T. 2. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschke, C. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Akustik; Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene; Hecht, K. [Inst. fuer Stressforschung, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    In part 2 of the review, an evaluation is given from the angle of prophylactic medicine, of the results of several experimental and epidemiologic studies on the excretion of stress hormones induced by nocturnal traffic noise. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] In Teil 2 der Uebersichtsarbeit werden Ergebnisse mehrerer experimenteller und epidemiologischer Studien ueber die Stresshormonausscheidung bei naechtlichem Verkehrslaerm vorgestellt und praeventivmedizinisch bewertet. (orig./MG)

  16. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  17. Multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.C.; Howington, L.C.; Sides, W.H. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis was developed. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, and updating capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. The ability of the system to learn normal patterns of reactor behavior and to recognize deviations from these patterns was evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the system

  18. Reactor noise analysis by statistical pattern recognition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, L.C.; Gonzalez, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis is presented. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, updating, and data compacting capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. Its abilities to learn normal patterns, to recognize deviations from these patterns, and to reduce the dimensionality of data with minimum error were evaluated by experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Flux Isotope Reactor. Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the pattern recognition system

  19. Multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.C.; Howington, L.C.; Sides, W.H. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis was developed. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, and updating capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. The ability of the system to learn normal patterns of reactor behavior and to recognize deviations from these patterns was evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the system. 19 references

  20. 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor, k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily determined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables