WorldWideScience

Sample records for traffic law compliance

  1. 32 CFR 634.41 - Compliance with State laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance with State laws. 634.41 Section 634.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.41 Compliance with State laws. (a) Installation commanders...

  2. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  3. [Compliance with antismoking laws in official institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovilla, R; Barrueco, M; González Ruiz, J M; Hernández, M A; de Castro, J; Gómez, F

    1997-01-01

    The prevention of nicotine addiction involves a wide range of measures, including writing laws to preserve public health by protecting nonsmokers from smoke and discouraging smokers from consumption. Also important are campaigns to educate both parties (smokers and nonsmokers) about the negative effects of tobacco. The main antismoking law in Spain is the Health and Consumer Ministry's Royal Decree 192/1988 limiting the sale and use of tobacco with the aim of protecting public health. Other regulations have since been enacted by public administrations to complement that law. Research finding published in recent years have been the basis for major legal changes leading in two directions; toward standardizing laws existing in different countries and toward increasing restrictions on the advertising and sale of tobacco. Various scientific and social groups have demanded that current laws be made stricter. Little has been done, however, to assess the degree of vigilance and compliance, and consequently the efficacy, of current legislation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of compliance with the law in governmental institutions in Salamanca. We visited 30 centers and saw that while notices prohibiting smoking were visible in 80%, the number of smokers was high: 43% among workers (none of whom was in educational or medical centers) and 37% among the public. No posters warning of the dangers of tobacco were seen in any of the centers visited. It appears necessary to further restrict the sale and use of tobacco in public places, to enforce compliance with existing regulations and to increase the amount of information on the toxic effects of tobacco in order to gain the cooperation of both smokers and nonsmokers toward achieving smoke-free environments.

  4. Road Transportation and Traffic Law Enforcement in Nigeria: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road Transportation and Traffic Law Enforcement in Nigeria was established in order to reduce the increasing road crashes and fatalities as well as making road users comply with traffic Laws and regulations as a counter measure, which remain as a great challenge in Nigeria. This paper discussed the roles of the Federal ...

  5. 12 CFR 1710.19 - Compliance and risk management programs; compliance with other laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.19 Compliance and risk management programs; compliance with other laws. (a...

  6. On Making Autonomous Vehicles Respect Traffic Law : a Case Study for Dutch Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.

    Among the problems that still need to be solved before autonomous vehicles can fully autonomously participate in traffic is the one of making them respect the traffic laws. This paper discusses this problem by way of a case study of Dutch traffic law. First it is discussed to what extent Dutch

  7. Police Legitimacy and Compliance With the Law Among Chinese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Liu, Jianhong

    2017-11-01

    The process-based model of policing garnered considerable support in the discourse on police legitimacy. However, findings are largely based on Western contexts, and little attention has been paid to the model advanced by Tyler that police legitimacy helps promote compliance. Using a high school sample ( N = 711) from China, we follow Tankebe's operationalization and examine the role of legitimacy in youth support for the police and whether legitimacy helps predict compliance with the law. Findings indicate that procedural justice and shared values are strong predictors of youth support to the police, and this support positively predicts compliance with the law. Distributive fairness exerts an independent effect on compliance while having been questioned by the police is negatively related to compliance.

  8. 13 CFR 120.176 - Compliance with other laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with other laws. 120.176 Section 120.176 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.176...

  9. Correlates of compliance with national comprehensive smoke-free laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruga, Armando; Hayes, Luminita S; Aguilera, Ximena; Prasad, Vinayak; Bettcher, Douglas W

    2017-12-05

    To explore correlates of high compliance with smoking bans in a cross-sectional data set from the 41 countries with national comprehensive smoke-free laws in 2014 and complete data on compliance and enforcement. Outcome variable: compliance with a national comprehensive smoke-free law in each country was obtained for 2014 from the WHO global report on the global tobacco epidemic. Explanatory variables: legal enforcement requirements, penalties, infrastructure and strategy were obtained through a separate survey of governments. Also, country socioeconomic and demographic characteristics including the level of corruption control were included. an initial bivariate analysis determined the significance of each potentially relevant explanatory variable of high compliance. Differences in compliance were tested using the exact logistic regression. High compliance with the national comprehensive smoke-free law was associated with the involvement of the local jurisdictions in providing training and/or guidance for inspections (OR=10.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 117.7) and a perception of high corruption control efforts in the country (OR=7.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 85.8). The results show the importance of the depth of the enforcement infrastructure and effort represented by the degree to which the local government is involved in enforcement. They also show the significance of fighting corruption in the enforcement process, including the attempts of the tobacco industry to undermine the process, to achieve high levels of compliance with the law. The results point out to the need to invest minimal but essential enforcement resources given that national comprehensive smoke-free laws are self-enforcing in many but not all countries and sectors.

  10. Medical marijuana laws, traffic fatalities, and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...

  11. Supervision in compliance with nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Disputes about the exercise of supervision by the state in the course of erection and operation of a nuclear power station are to be dealt with in the first instance by a higher administrative court (Art. 2, Sec. 9, sub-sec (1) No. 1 EntlG). If the state - as provided for in Sec. 7, sub-sec. (1) Atomic Energy Act - in fulfilment of its obligation under the Basic Law, to protect the life, health and property of the citizens, demands a specific licensing procedure to be applied for certain hazardous activities, any citizen whose rights are endangered by such activity hence has the right under public law, on the basis of the procedural provisions to be interpreted in the light of the Basic Law, to claim vis-a-vis all public authorities that the procedure provided for is observed, so as to ensure that infringement of the citizen's rights thus protected cannot be done, or connived, without the license required by the state. (orig.) [de

  12. Democratic Involvement and Immigrants’ Compliance with the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorinas, Cedric; Slotwinski, Michaela; Stutzer, Alois

    compliance with the law. In our study for Denmark, we exploit an institutional regulation that grants foreigners local voting rights after three years of stay. Relying on register data, we find causal evidence that the first possibility to vote considerably reduces the number of legal offenses of non...

  13. Omori's law in the Internet traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.; Suzuki, N.

    2003-03-01

    The Internet is a complex system, whose temporal behavior is highly nonstationary and exhibits sudden drastic changes regarded as main shocks or catastrophes. Here, analyzing a set of time series data of round-trip time measured in echo experiment with the Ping Command, the property of "aftershocks" (i.e., catastrophes of smaller scales) after a main shock is studied. It is found that the aftershocks obey Omori's law. Thus, the Internet shares with earthquakes and financial-market crashes a common scale-invariant feature in the temporal patterns of aftershocks.

  14. Toward Automated International Law Compliance Monitoring (TAILCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formula assigns a value of 0 to 100 to most of the text. The higher a text scores, the more readable it is. In Flesch’s (1979) analysis, comic ... books scored 92 on the scale; the New York Daily News (a tabloid) scored 60; the New York Times scored 39; and Harvard Law Review scored 32. The...Drools http://drools.jboss.org [12] Rudolf Flesch: How to Write Plain English: A Book for Consumers and Lawyers, Harper Collins, 1979. [13] Rinke

  15. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  16. Why Chinese farmers obey the law: Pesticide compliance in Hunan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, H.

    2014-01-01

    While China’s legal system has been increasingly perfected, the implementation of laws in China remains challenging. Simply strengthening law enforcement is not sufficient to improve compliance. It is necessary to bring in a regulatory compliance perspective. This book intends to explore compliance

  17. 48 CFR 252.228-7006 - Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7006 Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance. As prescribed at 228.370(e), use the following clause: Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance (DEC 1998) (a...

  18. A study of pedestrian compliance with traffic signals for exclusive and concurrent phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, John N; McKernan, Kevin; Zhang, Yaohua; Ravishanker, Nalini; Mamun, Sha A

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison of pedestrian compliance at traffic signals with two types of pedestrian phasing: concurrent, where both pedestrians and vehicular traffic are directed to move in the same directions at the same time, and exclusive, where pedestrians are directed to move during their own dedicated phase while all vehicular traffic is stopped. Exclusive phasing is usually perceived to be safer, especially by senior and disabled advocacy groups, although these safety benefits depend upon pedestrians waiting for the walk signal. This paper investigates whether or not there are differences between pedestrian compliance at signals with exclusive pedestrian phasing and those with concurrent phasing and whether these differences continue to exist when compliance at exclusive phasing signals is evaluated as if they had concurrent phasing. Pedestrian behavior was observed at 42 signalized intersections in central Connecticut with both concurrent and exclusive pedestrian phasing. Binary regression models were estimated to predict pedestrian compliance as a function of the pedestrian phasing type and other intersection characteristics, such as vehicular and pedestrian volume, crossing distance and speed limit. We found that pedestrian compliance is significantly higher at intersections with concurrent pedestrian phasing than at those with exclusive pedestrian phasing, but this difference is not significant when compliance at exclusive phase intersections is evaluated as if it had concurrent phasing. This suggests that pedestrians treat exclusive phase intersections as though they have concurrent phasing, rendering the safety benefits of exclusive pedestrian phasing elusive. No differences were observed for senior or non-senior pedestrians. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 48 CFR 252.222-7002 - Compliance with local labor laws (overseas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... labor laws (overseas). 252.222-7002 Section 252.222-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7002 Compliance with local labor laws (overseas). As prescribed in 222.7201(a), use the following clause: Compliance with Local Labor Laws (Overseas) (JUN 1997...

  20. Zolpidem and traffic safety - the importance of treatment compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Olivier, Berend; Johnson, William; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-09-01

    Zolpidem is among the most frequently prescribed hypnotic drugs for those who suffer from insomnia. Recent media reports drew attention to driving impairment after zolpidem misuse. This review summarizes the available data on the effects of recommended use and misuse of zolpidem on driving ability and traffic safety. Both experimental studies and roadside evidence were taken into account. From these studies it must be concluded that patients should fully comply with the prescription instructions of zolpidem, i.e. to take the medication just prior to a full 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep. If this strategy is adopted, zolpidem is a safe alternative to benzodiazpine hypnotics and zopiclone who do show significant driving impairment the morning following bedtime administration. However, to ensure traffic safety higher dosages than recommended (10 mg) or allowing less than 8 hours between zolpidem intake and actual operation of a motor vehicle should be avoided.

  1. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated....... Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern....

  2. A Theory of Compliance with Minimum Wage Law

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice; Jellal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation. Design/methodology/approach – Theoretical modeling under government compliance policy and wages & employment under non compliance. Findings – The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the governm...

  3. On the problem of making autonomous vehicles conform to traffic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are one of the most spectacular recent developments of Artificial Intelligence. Among the problems that still need to be solved before they can fully autonomously participate in traffic is the one of making their behaviour conform to the traffic laws. This paper discusses this

  4. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  5. How traffic law enforcement can contribute to safer roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Exceeding speed limits, drink or distracted driving and failure to wear a seat belt are still the leading causes of death and serious injury on European roads. Despite legislation designed to prevent all four, many drivers involved in fatal traffic collisions clearly failed to comply with one or

  6. Motivational Postures and Compliance with Environmental Law in Australian Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Robyn; Barclay, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Motivational posture theory is applied and extended to the context of Australian agriculture and environmental regulation. Regulatory failure in this area has been observed but little was known of the compliance attitudes and behaviours of farmers prior to this study. Agriculture covers over 60% of Australia's land surface so this information is…

  7. 'Around here I am the law!'
    Strengthening police officers' compliance with the rule of law in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine A.M. Eijkman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this was done through professionalizing police legal training and police legal assistance within the preventive police. Yet the implementation of police human rights strategies is influenced by a wider socio-political and institutional context. 'Around here I am the law' reflects the process of transforming non-professionally trained police officers into professionally trained public officials whose core business is the enforcement of the law. On the basis of empirical research conducted in San José, this paper discusses the effect of implementing police human rights strategies that focus on improving police officers' compliance with the rule of law.

  8. Crash Injury Management for Traffic Law Enforcement Officers; Emergency Medical Services; Course Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleven, Arlene M.

    The course guide has been prepared to aid in planning and conducting a training program in emergency medical care for first responders to traffic accidents (expected to be patrolling law enforcement officers). This document contains a detailed description of the training program; suggestions for course planning including class size, scheduling…

  9. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulinski, Sandra L; Moysés, Simone T; Werneck, Renata I; Moysés, Samuel J

    2016-01-08

    To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years). Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  10. A radical change in traffic law: effects on fatalities in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montag, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 539-545 ISSN 1741-3842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/2172 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : government and law * public health * road traffic accident s Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2014

  11. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Ulinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Method: Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years. Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. Conclusions: A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  12. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations ...

  13. How indicative is a self-reported driving behaviour profile of police registered traffic law offences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive...... from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group “Violating unsafe drivers” was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even...... when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ...

  14. Revisiting the generalized scaling law for adhesion: role of compliance and extension to progressive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojdehi, Ahmad R; Holmes, Douglas P; Dillard, David A

    2017-10-25

    A generalized scaling law, based on the classical fracture mechanics approach, is developed to predict the bond strength of adhesive systems. The proposed scaling relationship depends on the rate of change of debond area with compliance, rather than the ratio of area to compliance. This distinction can have a profound impact on the expected bond strength of systems, particularly when the failure mechanism changes or the compliance of the load train increases. Based on the classical fracture mechanics approach for rate-independent materials, the load train compliance should not affect the force capacity of the adhesive system, whereas when the area to compliance ratio is used as the scaling parameter, it directly influences the bond strength, making it necessary to distinguish compliance contributions. To verify the scaling relationship, single lap shear tests were performed for a given pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape specimens with different bond areas, number of backing layers, and load train compliance. The shear lag model was used to derive closed-form relationships for the system compliance and its derivative with respect to the debond area. Digital image correlation (DIC) is implemented to verify the non-uniform shear stress distribution obtained from the shear lag model in a lap shear geometry. The results obtained from this approach could lead to a better understanding of the relationship between bond strength and the geometry and mechanical properties of adhesive systems.

  15. Measures to increase traffic law acceptance : some strategic considerations. Paper presented at the 5th European workshop `New developments in traffic safety research', Bern, May 2-3, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    1997-01-01

    The set of traffic laws and rules intends to maximise the possibilities for free movement in the traffic system, while at the same time safeguarding road safety. Acceptance of traffic laws depends in part on properties of the laws and rules themselves that determine how they will be perceived or

  16. Open licenses and their compliance with the new private law (new civil code)

    OpenAIRE

    Kráľ, Štefan

    2013-01-01

    Computer programs are widely licensed under open (public, open source, free) licenses. This thesis examines whether the open license (especially GNU GPL) is in compliance with the Czech law and which business models are used to generate profit distributing open computer programs. On the basis of analysis of legislation, case law and doctrinal literature the author assesses whether open licenses are admissible under the new Civil Code. The thesis also provides an overview of commonly used busi...

  17. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  18. Monitoring Manual for Determining Compliance with Public Law 94-142. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    Designed to assist service providers as they strive to provide a full service goal for all handicapped pupils, this manual consists of checklists for monitoring compliance with Public Law 94-142 (Education for All Handicapped Children Act). Checklists of components in general policy areas are: (1) policy requirements (LEAs - Local Educational…

  19. How indicative is a self-reported driving behaviour profile of police registered traffic law offences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, L M; Møller, M; Prato, C G; Haustein, S

    2017-02-01

    Although most motorised countries have experienced massive improvements in road safety over the last decades, human behaviour and differences in accident risk across sub-groups of drivers remains a key issue in the area of road safety. The identification of risk groups requires the identification of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive of having traffic law offences. Sub-groups of drivers were identified based on the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI), while traffic offences and accidents were register-based (Statistics Denmark). The participants (N=3683) were aged 18-84 years and randomly selected from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group "Violating unsafe drivers" was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ and DSI as suitable instruments for predicting traffic offences while also confirming previous results on accumulation of problematic behaviours across life contexts. The finding that driver sub-groups did not differ in registered accidents supports the recent research activities in finding and modelling surrogate safety measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Sogge, Céline Vallet; Lager, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    attributable to them; and (3) an optimal level of enforcement is selected, i.e. the marginal benefits of enforcement in terms of preventing accidents equal the marginal costs of enforcement. The efficiency of current traffic law enforcement in Norway is assessed in terms of these criteria. It is found......This paper assesses the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway. Priorities are regarded as efficient if: (1) enforcement ensures a sufficient level of deterrence to keep down the rate of violations; (2) selection of target violations for enforcement is based on the risk...... low. Cost-benefit analyses show that substantially increasing the amount of police enforcement is cost-effective....

  1. Compliance to the smoke-free law in Guatemala 5-years after implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Barnoya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free environments decrease smoking prevalence and consequently the incidence of heart disease and lung cancer. Due to issues related to poor enforcement, scant data is currently available from low/middle income countries on the long-term compliance to smoke-free laws. In 2006, high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS were found in bars and restaurants in Guatemala City. Six months after a smoking ban was implemented in 2009, levels significantly decreased. However, in 2010, poor law compliance was observed. Therefore, we sought to assess long-term compliance to the ban using SHS measurements. Methods In 2014 we assessed SHS exposure using airborne nicotine monitors in bars (n = 9 and restaurants (n = 12 for 7 days using the same protocol as in 2006 and in 2009. Nicotine was measured using gas-chromatography (μg/m3 and compared to levels pre- (2006 and post-ban (2009. Employees responded to a survey about SHS exposure, perceived economic impact of the ban and customers’ electronic cigarette use. In addition, we estimated the fines that could have been collected for each law infringement. Results Most (71 % venues still have a smoking section, violating the law. The percentage of samples with detectable nicotine concentrations was 100, 85 and 43 % in 2006, 2009 and 2014, respectively. In bars, median (25th and 75th percentiles nicotine concentrations were 4.58 μg/m3 (1.71, 6.45 in 2006, 0.28 (0.17, 0.66 in 2009, and 0.59 (0.01, 1.45 in 2014. In restaurants, the corresponding medians were 0.58 μg/m3 (0.44, 0.71, 0.04 (0.01, 0.11, and 0.01 (0.01, 0.09. Support for the law continues to be high (88 % among bar and restaurant employees. Most employees report no economic impact of the law and that a high proportion of customers (78 % use e-cigarettes. A total of US$50,012 could have been collected in fines. Conclusions Long-term compliance to the smoking ban in Guatemala is decreasing. Additional research that

  2. Compliance to the smoke-free law in Guatemala 5-years after implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquín; Monzon, Jose C; Briz, Paulina; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-04-12

    Smoke-free environments decrease smoking prevalence and consequently the incidence of heart disease and lung cancer. Due to issues related to poor enforcement, scant data is currently available from low/middle income countries on the long-term compliance to smoke-free laws. In 2006, high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) were found in bars and restaurants in Guatemala City. Six months after a smoking ban was implemented in 2009, levels significantly decreased. However, in 2010, poor law compliance was observed. Therefore, we sought to assess long-term compliance to the ban using SHS measurements. In 2014 we assessed SHS exposure using airborne nicotine monitors in bars (n = 9) and restaurants (n = 12) for 7 days using the same protocol as in 2006 and in 2009. Nicotine was measured using gas-chromatography (μg/m(3)) and compared to levels pre- (2006) and post-ban (2009). Employees responded to a survey about SHS exposure, perceived economic impact of the ban and customers' electronic cigarette use. In addition, we estimated the fines that could have been collected for each law infringement. Most (71 %) venues still have a smoking section, violating the law. The percentage of samples with detectable nicotine concentrations was 100, 85 and 43 % in 2006, 2009 and 2014, respectively. In bars, median (25(th) and 75(th) percentiles) nicotine concentrations were 4.58 μg/m(3) (1.71, 6.45) in 2006, 0.28 (0.17, 0.66) in 2009, and 0.59 (0.01, 1.45) in 2014. In restaurants, the corresponding medians were 0.58 μg/m(3) (0.44, 0.71), 0.04 (0.01, 0.11), and 0.01 (0.01, 0.09). Support for the law continues to be high (88 %) among bar and restaurant employees. Most employees report no economic impact of the law and that a high proportion of customers (78 %) use e-cigarettes. A total of US$50,012 could have been collected in fines. Long-term compliance to the smoking ban in Guatemala is decreasing. Additional research that evaluates the determinants of non-compliance

  3. Internal Controls and Compliance with Laws and Regulations for the DOD Military Retirement Trust Fund Financial Statements for FY 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... No. 94-01, "Form and Content of Agency Financial Statements," November 16, 1993. In addition, we assessed the internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations related to the financial statements...

  4. Internal Controls and Compliance with Laws and Regulations for the DOD Military Retirement Trust Fund Financial Statements for FY 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 94-01, "Form and Content of Agency Financial Statements," November 16, 1993. In addition, we assessed the internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations related to the financial statements...

  5. The role of the compliance officer – a comparison of US, UK and German law and practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanzenbach, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The thesis introduces the role of the corporate compliance officer under US, UK and German law and practice. The aim of the thesis is to analyze the compliance function within private sector companies in the three selected jurisdictions in order to establish a model of the German compliance officer. My research is intended to bridge the gap in knowledge concerning the applicable legal standards required to ensure the effectiveness of this position. There is a lack of uniformity and standardiz...

  6. APPLICATION OF COMPLIANCE RULES UNDER THE LAW No. 13.303/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Maximiano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the mechanisms introduced in the Brazilian legal system by Federal Law No. 13.303/2016, also called Government Companies Law. This law established mandatory rules related to corporate governance, transparency, risk management practice and internal control for government companies and government-controlled companies. In particular, the legal provisions about compliance policy mechanisms are analyzed, whose primary function is to ensure that the government company achieves its social function, keeping intact its image and reliability and guarantees its survival with the necessary honor and dignity. These innovations are beneficial to the society in general, once they grant greater efficiency to the government companies, as well as institute control and management mechanisms aiming the integrity and the fight against corruption in the Brazilian Public Administration.

  7. Compliance of off-premise alcohol retailers with the minimum purchase age law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsuwan, Areekul; Phakdeesettakun, Kannapon; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Chaiyasong, Surasak

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand, the 2008 Alcoholic Beverages Control Act set the minimum purchase age (MPA) at 20 years old in order to limit new drinkers as part of the overall alcohol control effort. This study aims to assess the compliance of off-premise alcohol retailers with MPA restrictions and to identify factors affecting sales to adolescents. A decoy protocol was used to quantify compliance of 417 alcohol retailers from three categories, namely grocers, modern minimarts and department stores. Multi-stage sampling was applied to obtain the samples in four provinces: Bangkok, Nakorn Sawan, Songkhla and Surin. Each alcohol retailer was visited twice by 17-19 year-old male and female adolescents who tried to buy alcohol. Information collected from focus groups and in-depth interviews with vendors and management officers were analysed for the qualitative methodology. Of all 834 buying attempts undertaken by the underage adolescent, 98.7% were successful in buying alcohol. Only 0.9% were asked for age and 0.1% were requested to show an ID card. Age and ID verifications were statistically significant to buying success as well as province, while number of vendors, gender and age of vendors and buyers, type of outlet, law cautions and advertisement signs in the outlet demonstrated no significant association. The results showed that vendors fail to comply with the law despite the fact that they know the law. Enforcement needs to be strengthened to effectively limit new drinkers.

  8. 75 FR 74128 - Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... existing non-compliant devices based on what it believes to be a reasonable balance of the safety benefits... public works agencies, that State and local governments must balance with highway safety and traffic... service life of sign sheeting materials. \\7\\ D. Ripley. Quantifying the Safety Benefits of Traffic Control...

  9. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  10. An observational study of compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law among retail stores that sell electronic smoking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Bridging the Nagoya Compliance Gap: The Fundamental Role of Customary Law in Protection of Indigenous Peoples’ Resource and Knowledge Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan M. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol requires states to ensure that access to and use of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities is subject to their prior informed consent (PIC. It also requires states to take into consideration their customary laws. However, it lacks effective compliance mechanisms, a gap exposed in draft European legislation that sidesteps the Nagoya Protocol’s obligations regarding PIC and customary law, leaving traditional knowledge largely unprotected. This article examines the status of customary law under international, regional and national law, and the challenges and opportunities for securing recognition of its role in the protection of traditional knowledge. The article contends that all commercial and development activities with the potential to impact on Nagoya Protocol rights will in the future need to ensure compliance with relevant customary law. It finds state reluctance to adopt measures to ensure consideration of customary law shortsighted and likely to lead to increased litigation. It concludes that customary law has a key role to play in closing the Nagoya compliance gap but to do so it will need to be supported by enforcement mechanisms such as disclosure of origin regimes in intellectual property law.

  12. Improving coordinated responses for victims of intimate partner violence: law enforcement compliance with state-mandated intimate partner violence documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-07-01

    New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Modeling road traffic fatalities in India: Smeed's law, time invariance and regional specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V. Ponnaluri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical formulations linking road traffic fatalities to vehicle ownership, regional population, and economic growth continue to be developed against the backdrop of Smeed and Andreassen models. Though a few attempts were made, Smeed's law has not been fully tested in India. Using the 1991–2009 panel data from all states, this work (a developed the generalized Smeed and Andreassen models; (b evaluated if traffic fatalities were impacted by structural changes; and (c examined if – in relation to the generalized model – the individual (time and regional models are more relevant for application. Seven models (Smeed: original, generalized, time-variant, state-variant; and Andreassen: generalized, time-variant, state-variant were developed and tested for fit with the actual data. Results showed that the per vehicle fatality rate closely resembled Smeed's formulation. Chow-test yielded a significant F-stat, suggesting that the models for four pre-defined time-blocks are structurally different from the 19-year generalized model. The counterclockwise rotation of the log-linear form also suggested lower fatality rates. While the new government policies, reduced vehicle operating speeds, better healthcare, and improved vehicle technology could be the factors, further research is required to understand the reasons for fatality rate reductions. The intercept and gradients of the time-series models showed high stability and varied only slightly in comparison to the 19-year generalized models, thus suggesting that the latter are pragmatic for application. Regional formulations, however, indicate that they may be more relevant for studying trends and tendencies. This research illustrates the robustness of Smeed's law, and provides evidence for time-invariance but state-specificity.

  14. Trade restrictions as a means of enforcing compliance with international environmental law. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, W.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution reviews primarily Art. 4 of the Montreal Protocol and its efficiency for enforcing compliance with obligations under international environmental law and discusses aspects of possible conflicts with GATT law. (CB)

  15. Submissions to the Australian and New Zealand Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy support traffic light nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John; Signal, Louise

    2012-10-01

    Food labels to support healthier choices are an important potential intervention for improving population health by reducing obesity and diet-related disease. This study examines the use of research evidence about traffic light nutrition labelling in submissions to the Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy conducted in Australia and New Zealand. Content analysis of final submissions to the Review and a literature review of documents reporting research evidence about traffic light labelling. Sixty-two submitters to the Review were categorised as 'supporters' of traffic light labelling and 29 as 'opponents'. Supporters focused on studies showing traffic light labels were better than other systems at helping consumers identify healthier food options. Opponents cited evidence that traffic light labels were no better than other systems in this respect and noted a lack of evidence that they led to changes in food consumption. A literature review demonstrated that, as a group, submitters had drawn attention to most of the relevant research evidence on traffic light labelling. Both supporters and opponents were, however, selective in their use of evidence. The weight of evidence suggested that traffic light labelling has strengths in helping consumers to identify healthier food options. Further research would be valuable in informing the development of an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system. The findings have significant implications for the development of front-of-pack nutrition labelling currently being considered in Australia and New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha’u Shu’aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (Plevel of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. Conclusion The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir operations should be

  17. Using the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Understand Compliance with a Smoke-Free Law in a Middle-Income Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, M. J.; Cohen, J. E.; Frattaroli, S.; Gittelsohn, J.; Jernigan, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    Smoke-free laws, which ban smoking in public venues, can be effective in protecting public health, but it has been difficult to achieve compliance with these laws in low- and middle-income countries. This study was conducted to understand the social norms around public smoking and learn how to improve compliance in Bogor, the first Indonesian city…

  18. Environmental Compliance Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panagiotis; Fitzmaurice, Malgosia

    2017-01-01

    Compliance mechanisms can be found in treaties regulating such diverse issues as human rights, disarmament law, and environmental law. In this bibliography, the focus will be on compliance mechanisms of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Compliance with norms of international

  19. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha'u Shu'aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir

  20. Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in a developing country: intervention trial in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Gampo; DeJong, William; Bor, Jacob; Bachman DeSilva, Mary; Sabin, Lora; Feeley, Frank Rich; Udon, Pema; Wangchuk, Nima; Wangdi, Ugyen; Choden, Tshering; Gurung, Mongal Singh; Chogyel, Tandin; Wangchuk, Dorji; Kypri, Kypros

    2016-03-01

    Bhutan is a low-middle income country that, like many others, experiences significant alcohol-related harm and low compliance with laws restricting availability and promotion. This study assessed changes in compliance of alcohol outlets with sales restrictions following a multi-sector programme aimed at improving this. Pre-post design with covert observation of service practices. Thimphu, Bhutan, June-November 2013. Alcohol is not permitted for sale except from 1 to 10 p.m. Wednesday-Monday. Serving minors (increased from 20 to 34% [difference: 14%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7-22%]. Improvement was found in refusals of service before 1 p.m.: 10-34% (difference(adj) = 24%; 95% CI = 12-37%) and on Tuesdays: 43-58% (difference(adj) = 14%; 95% CI = 1-28%). Differences in refusal to serve alcohol: after 10 p.m. (difference(adj) = 15%; 95% CI = -8 to 37%); to underage patrons (difference(adj) = -5%; 95% CI = 14 to 4%); and to intoxicated patrons (difference(adj) = 7%; 95% CI = -7-20%) were not statistically significant. Younger servers, stand-alone bars and outlets permitting indoor smoking were each less likely to comply with the alcohol service laws. A multi-sector programme to improve compliance with legal restrictions on serving alcohol in Bhutan appeared to have a modest effect but even after the programme, in two-thirds of the occasions tested, the laws were broken. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Crash Injury Management: Emergency Medical Services for Traffic Law Enforcement Officers. Student Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    To assist in the continuing efforts to improve the safety of the motorist on the nation's highways and roads, this student guide provides a standardized approach for first responders to traffic accidents to learn emergency medical care. Training is provided in all aspects of emergency medical care required at the scene of a traffic accident.…

  2. Traffic law enforcement by non-police bodies. The "Escape" Project, Deliverable 4. Project funded by the European Commission under the Transport RTD Programme of the 4th Framework Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, J. Goldenbeld, C. Gelau, C. Mäkinen, T. Jayet, M.-C. & Evers, C.

    2000-01-01

    To ensure some minimal standard for traffic system operation and safety, a system of traffic laws and regulations is necessary. Enforcement of these traffic laws is believed to influence driving behaviour through a mechanism of deterrence: the threat of legal punishment should convince road users to

  3. The effects of a new traffic safety law in the Republic of Serbia on driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Lukić, Vera; Zivadinović, Nenad; Babić, Dragan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study presented here has been to see what the effects of the new traffic safety law are, 2 years into its initial implementation, on driving under the influence of alcohol. Until the end of 2009, the legal limit for blood concentration for drivers in Serbia was 0.5g/l; however, the new traffic safety law stipulates the new limit to be 0.3g/l. A retrospective autopsy study was performed over a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011) whose sample covered cases of fatally injured drivers who had died at the scene of the incident, before being admitted to hospital. A total of 161 fatally injured drivers were examined for their blood alcohol concentration. The average age for these drivers was 40.2±15.4 years, with a significant male predominance of 152 men to 9 women (χ(2)=152.000, pdriving under the influence of alcohol, which still remains one of the major human factors, responsible for road-traffic crashes in Serbia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 'Around here I am the law!' Strengthening police officers' compliance with the rule of law in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkman, Q.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this

  5. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the "Other Defense Organizations" Receiving Department 97 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The overall audit objective was to assess internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations and to review and evaluate the adjustments to the FY 1996 "Other Defense Organizations" financial statements...

  6. Awareness and compliance to anti-smoking law in South Bengaluru, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep S. Banandur

    2017-09-01

    This is the first representative survey of awareness and compliance of COTPA in Bengaluru City. Low compliance, coupled with the lack of appropriate awareness among PRCs and AOs about COTPA, demands a comprehensive strategy to enhance awareness. Comprehensive efforts towards making all stakeholders understand the health impacts of smoking, and strict enforcement, might facilitate effective implementation of COTPA.

  7. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. Design This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Setting Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. Procedure and participants A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was us...

  8. Monitoring of compliance with the national tobacco advertising law in 11 cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Xu

    2018-03-01

    Despite implementation of the revised national Advertising Law, tobacco advertising and promotion is still commonly found at tobacco POS in China. Law enforcement agencies should increase inspection and enforcement measures on tobacco advertising and promotion.

  9. Reduction in Fatalities, Ambulance Calls, and Hospital Admissions for Road Trauma After Implementation of New Traffic Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Herbert; Brasher, Penelope; Erdelyi, Shannon; Desapriya, Edi; Asbridge, Mark; Purssell, Roy; Macdonald, Scott; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the public health benefits of traffic laws targeting speeding and drunk drivers (British Columbia, Canada, September 2010). Methods. We studied fatal crashes and ambulance dispatches and hospital admissions for road trauma, using interrupted time series with multiple nonequivalent comparison series. We determined estimates of effect using linear regression models incorporating an autoregressive integrated moving average error term. We used neighboring jurisdictions (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Washington State) as external controls. Results. In the 2 years after implementation of the new laws, significant decreases occurred in fatal crashes (21.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.3, 26.4) and in hospital admissions (8.0%; 95% CI = 0.6, 14.9) and ambulance calls (7.2%; 95% CI = 1.1, 13.0) for road trauma. We found a very large reduction in alcohol-related fatal crashes (52.0%; 95% CI = 34.5, 69.5), and the benefits of the new laws are likely primarily the result of a reduction in drinking and driving. Conclusions. These findings suggest that laws calling for immediate sanctions for dangerous drivers can reduce road trauma and should be supported. PMID:25121822

  10. Crash Injury Management: Emergency Medical Services for Traffic Law Enforcement Officers. Instructor's Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    To assist in the continuing efforts to improve the safety of the motorist on the nation's highways and roads, this instructor's guide provides a standardized approach for providing training in emergency medical care for first responders to traffic accidents. The objective of the course is to provide training in all aspects of emergency medical…

  11. Frustration of contracts, signed in compliance with law of England, as a probable consequence of EU sanctions against Russian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Padiryakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective comprehensive analysis of the doctrine of the frustration of contracts signed in compliance with law of England and the practice of its application for the Russian companies. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematicstructural formallegal comparativelegal legal modeling method. Results due to the introduction of the EU sanctions there is the risk of foreign counterpartiesrsquo refusal to execute contracts with Russian companies on the legal basis of frustration of treaties. The essence of the frustration doctrine is that the contract obligations may be terminated if after their signing such events occur which make their fulfillment impossible or unlawful. When signing international agreements under English law the lawyers of Russian companies should include provisions governing the relationships of the parties in case of impossibility of the contract execution due to the occurrence of an event that caused the treaty frustration in particular the imposition of sanctions. It is recommended to specify in the contract how the losses arising from the inability to execute the contract will be distributed between the parties. Scientific novelty for the first time basing on court practice review the definition of the frustration of contracts according to the law of England is formulated the legal implications of the recognition of the contract frustrated are discussed and the legal conditions are proposed that should be provided for in the text of a contract to avoid the problem of uncertainty in the allocation of losses of the parties in case of occurrence of external events including sanctions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activity

  12. Traffic tech: Examination of changes to the motorcycle law in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Puerto Rico enacted a comprehensive motorcycle safety law in 2007 to address the rise in fatal motorcycle crashes. Prior to the enactment of the law, the popularity of motorcycle riding increased rapidly from 47,920 registrations in 2000, to 89,379 i...

  13. Effective smoke-free policies in achieving a high level of compliance with smoke-free law: experiences from a district of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Singh, Rana J; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-07-01

    Compliance survey of smoke-free law is an effective means of measuring progress towards a smoke-free society. They also help policy makers to take action where strengthening measures are required. India has a comprehensive tobacco control law known as Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA 2003) which prohibits smoking in public places and requires display of 'No smoking' signages with proper specifications at conspicuous points. However, its implementation and enforcement are still a matter of concern. To ascertain the level of compliance with smoke-free law in public places of a district of North India. A cross sectional study was conducted in the months of November-December 2011 in district SAS Nagar Mohali of North India. The public places including hotels/restaurants/bars/shopping malls, government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities and transit stations were surveyed. The study tool was adapted from the guide on 'Assessing compliance with smoke-free law' developed jointly by the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. The overall compliance rate towards section 4 of COTPA was 92.3%. No active smoking was observed in 94.2% of the public places. In 90% of the public places 'No Smoking' signage were displayed as per COTPA. Health and educational institutions had maximum compliance with the smoke-free law while transit sites showed the least compliance. Compliance to the smoke-free law was high in the study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The politics of international law and compliance : Serbia, Croatia and The Hague Tribunal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajkovic, Nikolas

    2012-01-01

    Leading the debate on the domestic effect of the growing influence of international adjudication, this invaluable text examines Serbia and Croatia's erratic record of compliance with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Since the demise of the Milosevic and Tudjman

  15. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.

    2017-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  16. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Thomann, E.; Sager, F.

    2018-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  17. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.24 Compliance with other... Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C...

  18. Influence of religious organisations' statements on compliance with a smoke-free law in Bogor, Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, M Justin; Cohen, Joanna E; Gittelsohn, Joel; Frattaroli, Shannon; Nuryunawati, Ramadhani; Jernigan, David H

    2015-12-14

    To explore the Bogor public's perspective on Muslim organisations' pronouncements against smoking and the effect of these pronouncements on compliance with a new smoke-free law in the context of a prosmoking social norm. Semistructured focus group discussions were conducted, transcribed, coded using ATLAS.ti software, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Photo elicitation was also used during the focus groups. Bogor, Indonesia. 11 focus groups (n=89), stratified by age, gender and smoking status, with members of the public (46 male, 43 female, ages 18-50). There was limited knowledge of and compliance with both the smoke-free law and the religious pronouncements. In most of the focus groups, smoking was described as a discouraged, but not forbidden, behaviour for Muslims. Participants described the decision of whether to follow the religious pronouncements in the context of individual choice. Some participants felt religious organisations lacked credibility to speak against smoking because many religious leaders themselves smoke. However, some non-smokers said their religion reinforced their non-smoking behaviour and some participants stated it would be useful for religious leaders to speak more about the smoke-free law. Religious organisations' pronouncements appear to have had a small effect, primarily in supporting the position of non-smokers not to smoke. Participants, including smokers, said their religious leaders should be involved in supporting the smoke-free law. These findings suggest there is potential for the tobacco control community to partner with sympathetic local Muslim leaders to promote common goals of reducing smoking and public smoke exposure. Muslim leaders' views on smoking would be perceived as more credible if they themselves followed the smoke-free law. Additionally, public health messaging that includes religious themes could be piloted and tested for effectiveness. These findings may also inform similar efforts in other Muslim

  19. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Workpackage WP4 `Good Practices in Traffic Enforcement', Working paper 24: Good practice in data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating traffic law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2007-01-01

    This working paper describes the good practice requirements regarding data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is at, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified ’good practice’ data into a European TLE monitoring database

  20. Drug per se laws: a review of their use in the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Research has indicated that per se laws for alcohol have been : effective in reducing alcohol-related fatalities. A difficulty : in prosecuting drivers for driving impaired by drugs other : than alcohol is that there is no scientific basis for specif...

  1. The Right to Freedom of Association in the Workplace: Australia's Compliance with International Human Rights Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Zoé

    2010-01-01

    The right to freedom of association in the workplace is a well established norm of international human rights law. However, it has traditionally received insubstantial attention within human rights scholarship. This article situates the right to freedom of association at work within human rights discourses. It looks at the status, scope and importance of the right as it has evolved in international human rights law. In so doing, a case is put that there are strong reasons for states to comply...

  2. 38 CFR 58.17 - VA Form 10-0144A-Statement of Assurance of Compliance with Equal Opportunity Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VA Form 10-0144A-Statement of Assurance of Compliance with Equal Opportunity Laws. 58.17 Section 58.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FORMS § 58.17 VA Form 10-0144A—Statement of Assurance of Compliance with Equal...

  3. Permission to park: A statewide study of high school parking permits to determine compliance with graduated driver licensing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanovitch, Audrey; Champany, Victoria; Wilson, Meghan; Emam, Hadeer; Ruiz, Kelly; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry

    2015-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fatality among teens in the United States. Beginning in the 1990s, many states enacted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems to delay full licensure while allowing beginners to obtain experience under lower-risk conditions. Many high schools require parent and guardians of newly licensed teen drivers to complete a student parking pass application (PPA) for their son/daughter to drive, park, and transport themselves to and from school activities. The objective of this study was to describe the content of these PPAs for compliance with Connecticut's GDL law. PPAs were requested via e-mail, fax, or telephone from all Connecticut's high schools (n = 233). PPA variables included school demographics, parking rules, prohibitions and sanctions for violations, as well as reference to GDL law. Seventy-four schools were excluded because students were not allowed to park and schools did not require PPAs or declined to send us a copy of their PPAs. Of the remaining 159 schools, 122 (76.7%) sent us their PPAs. Responding schools were more likely to be suburban or rural. Most PPAs included a section on prohibitions and sanctions for driving misbehavior. Forty-three percent prohibited students from going to car during school hours, and 34% prohibited driving off campus/parking lot. Seventy percent warned of consequences for dangerous driving in parking lot, and 88% included the possibility of revocation for infractions. Only 14% had any reference to Connecticut's GDL law on their PPAs. A small percentage of Connecticut high schools include information about GDL laws on their PPAs. All states should examine their PPA content and adopt a uniform high school PPA that includes key provisions of their state's GDL laws in an effort to promote teen driving safety. Therapeutic study, level V.

  4. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 4a: Good practice in data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report is the Deliverable of task 4.3a of the PEPPER project. It describes the good practice requirements regarding data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is that, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified

  5. 26 CFR 1.6851-2 - Certificates of compliance with income tax laws by departing aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... complied with all of the obligations imposed upon him by the income tax laws. In order to procure such a... to his income tax liability upon presentation to the district director for the internal revenue...

  6. Concussion Law Compliance: The Allocation of Time, Resources, and Money in a Rural Western State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Caroline; Moffit, Dani M.; Schiess, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Secondary schools across the United States that sponsor extracurricular athletic programs are challenged to comply with recent laws that require concussion education and appropriate concussion management. This study examined one rural state's efforts by illustrating both the successes and challenges that secondary schools faced. The findings…

  7. Profit intensity and cases of non-compliance with the law of demand/supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan; Syska, Jacek

    2017-05-01

    We consider properties of the measurement intensity ρ of a random variable for which the probability density function represented by the corresponding Wigner function attains negative values on a part of the domain. We consider a simple economic interpretation of this problem. This model is used to present the applicability of the method to the analysis of the negative probability on markets where there are anomalies in the law of supply and demand (e.g. Giffen's goods). It turns out that the new conditions to optimize the intensity ρ require a new strategy. We propose a strategy (so-called à rebours strategy) based on the fixed point method and explore its effectiveness.

  8. Lay responder naloxone access and Good Samaritan law compliance: postcard survey results from 20 Indiana counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dennis P; Ray, Bradley; Robison, Lisa; Huynh, Philip; Sightes, Emily; Walker, La Shea; Brucker, Krista; Duwve, Joan

    2018-04-06

    To reduce fatal drug overdoses, two approaches many states have followed is to pass laws expanding naloxone access and Good Samaritan protections for lay persons with high likelihood to respond to an opioid overdose. Most prior research has examined attitudes and knowledge among lay responders in large metropolitan areas who actively use illicit substances. The present study addresses current gaps in knowledge related to this issue through an analysis of data collected from a broader group of lay responders who received naloxone kits from 20 local health departments across Indiana. Postcard surveys were included inside naloxone kits distributed in 20 Indiana counties, for which 217 returned cards indicated the person completing it was a lay responder. The survey captured demographic information and experiences with overdose, including the use of 911 and knowledge about Good Samaritan protections. Few respondents had administered naloxone before, but approximately one third had witnessed a prior overdose and the majority knew someone who had died from one. Those who knew someone who had overdosed were more likely to have obtained naloxone for someone other than themselves. Also, persons with knowledge of Good Samaritan protections or who had previously used naloxone were significantly more likely to have indicated calling 911 at the scene of a previously witnessed overdose. Primary reasons for not calling 911 included fear of the police and the person who overdosed waking up on their own. Knowing someone who has had a fatal or non-fatal overdose appears to be a strong motivating factor for obtaining naloxone. Clarifying and strengthening Good Samaritan protections, educating lay persons about these protections, and working to improve police interactions with the public when they are called to an overdose scene are likely to improve implementation and outcomes of naloxone distribution and opioid-related Good Samaritan laws.

  9. Are tanning salons in compliance with German law? An evaluation based on a nationwide representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görig, Tatiana; Schneider, Sven; Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Diehl, Katharina

    2018-03-01

    Given the evidence for increased skin cancer risk due to the sunbed use, a regulation of hazardous artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR regulation) was passed in Germany in 2012. The aim of this study was to explore the advisory services in tanning studios as reported by sunbed users and to evaluate the information provided by the personnel of tanning salons after the UVR regulation was enacted. The first wave of the representative National Cancer Aid Monitoring on Sunbed Use included a subgroup of 357 German citizens between 14 and 45 years who had used sunbeds since the UVR regulation was implemented. The participants provided data on sunbed use and related issues in telephone interviews. Although sunbed operators are mandated to offer their customers certain services at least once since the implementation of the UVR regulation, 15.4% of sunbed users were never advised to use protective eyewear during tanning and 13.1% were not provided with eyewear during their last sunbed use. Overall, 66.0% were never offered to develop a tanning schedule, 56.9% were never advised on the risks of UVR, 43.4% were never offered a determination of their skin type and 40.0% of users were never advised on how to use a sunbed safely. The data showed that 3 years after the UVR regulation was enacted, compliance with this legislation is still not optimal. Binding wording in the legal text and making them applicable to unsupervised sunbeds as well is necessary to extend the impact of this legislation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-05

    This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala. A total of 222 establishments were selected for the study. One hospitality representative from each of the visited sites agreed to take part in a face-to-face administered questionnaire. A subsample of hospitality venues were randomly selected for tobacco air quality testing (n=108). Data were collected between June and August 2016. Knowledge and opinions of the smoke-free law among hospitality venue staff and owners. The level of compliance with the smoke-free law in hospitality venues through: (1) systematic objective observations (eg, active smoking, the presence of designated smoking areas, 'no smoking' signage) and (2) air quality by measuring the levels of tobacco particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in both indoor and outdoor venues. Active smoking was observed in 18% of venues, 31% had visible 'no smoking' signage and 47% had visible cigarette remains. Among interviewed respondents, 57% agreed that they had not been adequately informed about the smoke-free law; however, 90% were supportive of the ban. Nearly all respondents (97%) agreed that the law will protect workers' health, but 32% believed that the law would cause financial losses at their establishment. Indoor PM 2.5 levels were hazardous (267.6 µg/m 3 ) in venues that allowed smoking and moderate (29.6 µg/m 3 ) in smoke-free establishments. In the early phase of Uganda's smoke-free law, the level of compliance in hospitality venues settings in Kampala was suboptimal. Civil society and the

  11. Compliance Parameters through Risk Analysis Methodology for Strict Liability Mitigation According to the Law Anti- Corruption (12.846 / 2013 Regarding Public Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Miranda Batisti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Law 12,846 / 2013 has the scope to fight it and enable companies to become active agents in this intent. The repressive aspect of the legislation can be mitigated if the company adopts strategies of prevention through compliance programs. The preventive effectiveness of this law will depend on the analysis of legal aspects and business management topics. The risk analysis methodology and the adoption of objective parameters for the management of anti-corruption risks, allows companies to build an integrity program that puts in focus the ethical actions necessary for companies willing to negotiate with the government.

  12. Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aurélie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Salmi, L Rachid

    2018-02-28

    Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels. We used freely available data sets (WHO, International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group, the WB). Delays in implementation were calculated until 2013, from the year mandatory use of safety belts by motor vehicle front seat occupants was first introduced worldwide. We used life expectancy tables and age groups as social values in the DALY calculation model. From the estimated total burden, avoidable DALYs were calculated using estimates of the effectiveness of seat belt laws on fatal and nonfatal injuries combined, as extracted from published international reviews of evidence. From the reference year 1972, implementation delays varied from 27 years (Uzbekistan) to 41 years in Bolivia (no seat belt law as of 2013). During delays, total absolute numbers of DALYs lost due to road traffic injuries reached 8,462,099 in Nigeria, 7,203,570 in Morocco, 4,695,500 in Uzbekistan, 3,866,391 in Cambodia, 3,253,359 in Bolivia, and 3,128,721 in Sri Lanka. Using effectiveness estimates ranging from 3 to 20% reduction, the avoidable burden of road traffic injuries for car occupants was highest in Uzbekistan (avoidable part from 1.2 to 10.4%) and in Morocco (avoidable part from 1.5 to 12.3%). In countries where users of public transport and pedestrians were the most affected by the burden, the avoidable parts ranged from 0.5 to 4.4% (Nigeria) and from 0.5 to 3.4% (Bolivia). Burden of road traffic injuries mostly affected motorcyclists in Sri Lanka and Cambodia where the avoidable parts were

  13. Legitimacy versus morality: Why do the Chinese obey the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingkang; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-04-01

    This study explored two aspects of the rule of law in China: (1) motivations for compliance with 4 groups of everyday laws and regulations and (2) determinants of the legitimacy of legal authorities. We applied a structural equations model, constructed from Tyler's conceptual process-based self-regulation model with morality added as a motivation, to online questionnaire responses from 1,000 Shanghai drivers. We explored the compliance with four particular groups of laws: public disturbance; conventional traffic laws; illegal downloading; and distracted driving. The results were threefold. First, for all four groups of laws, the perceived morality influenced compliance consistently and more strongly than the perceived legitimacy of the authorities and all other motivations. The influence of perceived legitimacy of authorities was inconsistent across the four groups of laws tested. Second, the influence of perceived severity of punishment was consistent and significant across all four groups of laws, whereas perceived risk of apprehension had no significant impact on compliance. Third, evaluations of procedural fairness, not those concerning the equitable distribution of law enforcement services and effectiveness of law enforcement, were most strongly linked to legitimacy. In addition to showing that China is a law-abiding society governed by morality, these results underscore the importance of examining morality and magnitude of punishment as potential motivations for compliance in addition to legitimacy and certainty of punishment. They also illustrate the necessity to examine different groups of laws separately when studying compliance. Finally, these results challenge the linkage between legitimacy and compliance previously established in the literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Compliance with driver's license laws and illegal licensing among commercial bus drivers in Lagos, Nigeria: policy implications and evidence for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, I P; Odeyemi, K A; Dolapo, D C; Adegbola, A A

    2014-09-01

    To determine the level of compliance with driver's license laws among commercial bus drivers in Lagos, Nigeria. Two intercity motor parks were selected by simple random sampling and all consenting minibus drivers participated in the study. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were also conducted with selected officials in the driver training and licensing authorities. Compliance with the minimum age for driving was high (93.6%), so also was having driving test prior to driver's license procurement (83.3%). Formal driver training and VA testing were very low, (26.1% and 32.9% respectively) Overall, only 9.3% of them were found to have fulfilled all the pre-license obligations before obtaining their first driver's license. The odds of a driver with a secondary education having formal driver training is 3.33 times higher than those with no education (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.01-11.35). Drivers who were 60 years or older were 3.62 times more likely to be compliant than those who were between 20-29 years (OR 3.62, 95% CI 0.56-29.19). For the 98.3% of them who possessed valid licenses, 52.3% of them obtained them illegally. All the key officials saw RTIs as a serious public health problem but faced several challenges in the course of their work. Overall compliance with pre-license regulations was very poor. There is need for a review and strict enforcement of driver's license laws to improve compliance. Also vital are fostering inter-sectoral collaboration and improvement in the operations of all establishments involved in driver training and license procurement in Nigeria.

  15. Whistleblowing – a Mechanism for Collecting Data on Non-Compliance with the Principles of Administrative Law in Order to Mitigate Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BALAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clear, consistent and predictable rules applicable to the administrative activities of the EU institutions, as well as deepening the EU integration are crucial in order to create a European administrative space. Building on the need to achieving this goal, the paper analyses the object, the procedure applicable, the legal regime and the safeguards granted to whistleblowers, as well as the role of the whistleblowing as a preventive or risk mitigation mechanism for those situations in which noncompliance with the principles of administrative law may affect the validity of documents, the performance of the legal competencies of the institution or citizens` rights. It raises awareness on risks and costs of non-compliance with the principles of the administrative law and good administration standards, as well as on the vulnerabilities and effects it can generate. The document also places whistleblowing in the context of control mechanism available for verifying the compliance of concrete administrative activities with these principles, as a solution to identify and retrieve breaches from within the institution. To draw conclusions, this paper builds on the above analysis and the current Romanian good practice in the field, and frames a series of recommendations for improving the procedure applicable to whistleblowing.

  16. Considerations on the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Frank; Droste, Bernhard; Zencker, Uwe; Komann, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM. The test procedures are based on the recommendations of the IAEA and the respective national and international legal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials. BAM is performing mechanical and thermal tests to investigate the safety of the containers in case of a severe accident. The radionuclide release has to be restricted to a defined limiting value, the radiation shielding and the nuclear safety have to be ensured. The component test is performed using prototypes of model containers combined with calculations or transferability considerations. The safety evaluation is usually based on experimental tests and numerical analyses.

  17. Extremism, Free Speech and the Rule of Law: Evaluating the Compliance of Legislation Restricting Extremist Expressions with Article 19 ICCPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Shepherd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years since 9/11, international security discourse has heightened concerns around extremism, positioning this as the key threat that States need to address in order to prevent and combat terrorism. Politically, enactment of domestic legislation curtailing extremist expressions has been internationally authorised and encouraged and in May 2016 the United Kingdom (‘UK’, spearheading a liberal State trend towards rights-restrictive approaches to extremism, announced its intention to enact legislation imposing a range of civil sanctions on those publicly expressing extremist views. But laws such as this restrict the core democratic right to freedom of expression and so must comply with the tripartite requirements for restrictions enshrined in Article 19(3 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (‘ICCPR’ to be legitimate. Using the UK to dynamically exemplify the issues, this paper assesses the manner in which the laws curtailing extremist expressions comply with international human rights law.

  18. Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...

  19. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  20. Traffic enforcement in Europe: effects, measures, needs and future. Final report of the ESCAPE Consortium. (The acroynm ESCAPE stands for Enhanced Safety Coming from Appropriate Police Enforcement).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Zaidel, D.M. Andersson, G. Biecheler-Fretel, M.-B. Christ, R. Cauzard, J.-P. Elvik, R. Goldenbeld, C. Gelau, C. Heidstra, J. Jayet, M.-C. Nilsson, G. Papaioanou, P. Quimby, A. Rehnova, V. & Vaa, T.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project were to identify important issues of traffic law enforcement in the EU, examine traditional and innovative enforcement approaches and tools, and assess their potential to improve compliance for increased safety on roads. The following main issues were addressed: the

  1. An Analysis of Ethics Laws, Compliance with Ethical Standards, and Ethical Core Competency within the Department of the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    laws and ethical principles above private gain. (2) Employees shall not hold financial interests that conflict with the conscientious...applying ethical principles to decision-making. We analyze the DA ethics training courses, policies, and procedures. The project explores the...leveraging the Enterprises buying power to obtain goods and services more efficiently. Ms. Lyons earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting in

  2. Patterns of adherence to and compliance with the Portuguese smoke-free law in the leisure-hospitality sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Reis

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law.Cross-sectional study conducted between January 2010 and May 2011. A random sample of venues was selected from the Portuguese LH sector database, proportionally stratified according to type, size and geographical area. All venues were assessed in loco by an observer. The independent effects of venues' characteristics on smoking permission and the level of noncompliance with the law were explored using logistic regression.Overall, 1.412 venues were included. Total ban policy was adopted by 75.9% of venues, while 8.4% had designated smoking areas. Smoking ban was more prevalent in restaurants (85.9%. Only 29.7% of discos/bars/pubs opted for complete ban. Full or partial smoking permission was higher in discos/bar/pubs (OR = 7.37; 95%CI 4.87 to 11.17. Noncompliance with the law was higher in venues allowing smoking and lower in places with complete ban (33.6% and 7.6% respectively, p<0.001. Discos/bars/pubs with full smoking permission had the highest level of noncompliance (OR = 3.31; 95%CI 1.40 to 7.83.Our findings show a high adherence to smoking ban policy by the Portuguese LH sector. Nonetheless, one quarter of the venues is fully or partially permissive towards smoking, with the discos/bars/pubs considerably contributing to this situation. Venues with smoking permission policies were less compliant with the legislation. The implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law, without any exceptions, is essential to effectively protect people from the second hand smoke.

  3. Patterns of adherence to and compliance with the Portuguese smoke-free law in the leisure-hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Maria Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Aguiar, Pedro; Precioso, José; Nunes, Baltazar; Veloso, Luís; Santos, Sandra; Miguel, José Pereira

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH) sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas) adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law. Cross-sectional study conducted between January 2010 and May 2011. A random sample of venues was selected from the Portuguese LH sector database, proportionally stratified according to type, size and geographical area. All venues were assessed in loco by an observer. The independent effects of venues' characteristics on smoking permission and the level of noncompliance with the law were explored using logistic regression. Overall, 1.412 venues were included. Total ban policy was adopted by 75.9% of venues, while 8.4% had designated smoking areas. Smoking ban was more prevalent in restaurants (85.9%). Only 29.7% of discos/bars/pubs opted for complete ban. Full or partial smoking permission was higher in discos/bar/pubs (OR = 7.37; 95%CI 4.87 to 11.17). Noncompliance with the law was higher in venues allowing smoking and lower in places with complete ban (33.6% and 7.6% respectively, p<0.001). Discos/bars/pubs with full smoking permission had the highest level of noncompliance (OR = 3.31; 95%CI 1.40 to 7.83). Our findings show a high adherence to smoking ban policy by the Portuguese LH sector. Nonetheless, one quarter of the venues is fully or partially permissive towards smoking, with the discos/bars/pubs considerably contributing to this situation. Venues with smoking permission policies were less compliant with the legislation. The implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law, without any exceptions, is essential to effectively protect people from the second hand smoke.

  4. Elementary Assessment Handbook; a self-assessment handbook for compliance with the laws relating to elementary school boards of trustees and the state board of education policies for the general operation of a school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    As an alternative to assessments conducted by the State Department of Education, Arizona school districts can use this handbook for self evaluation of their compliance with school law, which is basically controlled by Arizona Revised Statute (ARS) Title 15 and State Board of Education policy. This handbook is divided into seven parts which…

  5. Poor compliance with child safety restraint use while travelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fallon, R

    2011-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of death of children. It is the law that all children should be appropriately secured when traveling in vehicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental conformity with these regulations and to test if advice given at a Paediatric outpatient clinic could improve compliance. Two groups were assigned, an intervention group (parents given an information leaflet and a clear explanation about appropriate restraints for their children) and a non-intervention group (received no information). They were contacted again after 2 months and asked regarding compliance. A total of 394 children from 186 families were initially given the questionnaire. Nearly one third of children (29.2%) were not using any restraint while travelling rising to 35.3% on follow up. This study concluded that once off parental education made negligible difference to an already inconsistent and haphazard approach to compliance with safety regulations.

  6. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  7. Identification of Risk Factors Influencing Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs are becoming a major problem around the world, incurring enormous losses of human and economic resources. Recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO reveal that each year more than 1.25 million people are killed and 50 million are injured in road traffic accidents worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, statistics show that at least one traffic accident occurs every minute, causing up to 7,000 deaths and over 39,000 injuries annually. In this study, the main causes of RATs in the province of Hail are examined. The data was collected through the use of a survey which was developed to evaluate the effect of influencing parameters on RTA rate. The results show that 67% of RTAs result from human factors, 29% from road conditions and 4% from vehicle defects. Excessive speed and violation of traffic rules and regulations were found to be the main causes of RATs. Low rates of compliance with speed limit signs and seat-belt regulations were also observed. These findings highlight the need of strengthening effective traffic law enforcement alongside with improving traffic safety and raising public awareness.

  8. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Conflict Mitigation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    This is a presentation that describes the UAS Traffic Management Approach to an alternate means of compliance with 91.113 right of way regulations. UTM is an "air traffic management" ecosystem for uncontrolled operations.

  10. Determinants of Behavior of Students as Pedestrian and Car Occupants in Relation to Traffic Laws in 2013, Gorgan, Iran; An Application of Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Hashem; Behnampour, Nasser; Binaei, Golnaz; Khajavai, Samane

    2014-07-01

    To determine the behavioral pattern of Golestan University of Medical Science (GUMS) students as pedestrian and car occupants in relation to traffic law based on Health Belief Model. This cross-sectional study was performed during 2012 in GUMS. A total of 370 students of GUMS were selected using multi-stage sampling method  including stratified and  random  sampling. Data were collected by using a reliable and valid questionnaire. All the participants filled the questionnaire and the data was extracted according to previously described method. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 18 Software. Descriptive statistic and Spearman correlation was used for analyzing the data. Mean age of the participants was 20.92±1.98 (range 17-32) years. Mean score of perceived susceptibility was 81.87±17.18, being in desirable level. Mean score of perceived severity was 73.39±18.4, being also in desirable level. Mean score of perceived benefits was 77.22 ±16.13, which was also assumed to be in desirable level. Mean score of perceived barriers was 53.46±16.27, assumed as moderate level. In the same way the mean score of practice was 66.17±17.51, so practice in students was in moderate level. Television was the most important cues to action. Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits regarding safety behaviors was in good level but perceived barriers and behavior was in moderate level and according to the importance of Television, we recommended appropriate intervention such as health education and advocacy, especially through national Television.

  11. 32 CFR 634.32 - Traffic violation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic violation reports. 634.32 Section 634.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.32 Traffic violation reports. (a) Most traffic violations...

  12. Internal Controls and Compliance with Laws and Regulations for the Defense Logistics Agency Working Capital Fund Financial Statements for FY 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    2000-01-01

    Public Law 101-576, the "Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990," as amended by Public Law 103-356, the "Federal Financial Management Act of 1994," requires financial statement audits by the Inspector...

  13. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the Defense Logistics Agency Working Capital Fund Financial Statements for FY 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    Public Law 101-576, the "Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990," as amended by Public Law 103-356, the "Federal Financial Management Act of 1994," requires financial statement audits by the Inspector...

  14. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  15. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    to health care services dovetails with the international law approach to assessing compliance with the ..... with extended opening hours) are well distributed across the city.40 Availability of .... often constitutes a de facto denial of access to care.

  16. Achieving compliance when legal sanctions are non-deterrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Feld, Lars P.

    2006-01-01

    Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show that exog......Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show...... that exogenously imposing mild law does not achieve compliance, but compliance is much improved if mild law is endogenously chosen, i.e., selfimposed. We show that voting for mild law induces expectations of cooperation, and that people tend to comply with the law if they expect many others to do so...

  17. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  18. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident investigation. Installation law enforcement personnel must make detailed investigations of...

  19. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.25 Installation traffic codes. (a) Installation or activit...

  20. 32 CFR 634.24 - Traffic planning and codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic planning and codes. 634.24 Section 634.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.24 Traffic planning and codes. (a) Safe and efficient...

  1. 12 CFR 609.910 - Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). 609.910 Section 609.910 Banks and Banking... with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). (a) General. E-SIGN makes it easier to conduct E-commerce. With some exceptions, E-SIGN permits the use and...

  2. Criminal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antonella Andretta

    2015-10-01

    The article discusses the concepts of both compliance and criminal compliance, its main components and structure as well as the main rules relating to its global application, and finally his emergence in the Ecuadorian legal system.

  3. PENGAWASAN DEWAN PENGAWAS SYARIAH PADA AKTA PEMBIAYAAN NOTARIS DALAM RANGKA KEPATUHAN PRINSIP SYARIAH (SHARIA COMPLIANCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Arista Nurul Shofanisa

    2017-01-01

    As an intermediary institution based on sharia principle, sharia banks are required to performing two compliance namely compliance syariah principle and law compliance, as for th application of two compliance is it not only in  good corporate governance and the kind of product sharia bank, but also on financing deed made by a notary. Therefore financing deed in sharia banks must reflect sharia compliance principle besides the law compliance, special concern about sharia compliance, has become...

  4. Criminal Liability for Serious Traffic Offences : Essays on Causing Death, Injury and Danger in Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Alwin; Wolswijk, Hein

    2015-01-01

    The criminal law on serious traffic offences is a fascinating area. The traffic context presents legislators with numerous controversial issues. One such issue is when severe consequences are matched with low moral culpability. How should the law deal with a driver who kills someone because she

  5. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Working Capital Fund Financial Statements for FY 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), who is the fund manager of the DFAS Working Capital Fund, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls and for complying with applicable laws and regulations...

  6. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  7. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  8. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  9. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes physical training, self-defense, firearm proficiency, criminal and civil law principles... parking violations and issuing appropriate warnings or appearance notices, (7) Wage and hour compliance officers, (8) Equal employment opportunity compliance officers, (9) Tax compliance officers, (10) Coal...

  10. Observations regarding the right of civil servants to pursue a career. About „instability” in civil service and law non-compliance practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia STOICA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the regulation of the carrier of the civil servants is considered, especially the stability and continuity – essential elements at the European Union level. Unfortunately, in the Romanian legislation, as well as in the institutional case law, it remains a purely declarative issue. The study is based on a series of recent court decisions. We criticized the abusive use of the expeditious ordinances and the instruments of legislative regulation. This is considered as an abusive practice of the law maker and shows a legislative inability related to the regulation of the public office, especially by not observing the conditions in which a person could be relieved of his office. The conclusion of the study leads to the necessity for the law maker to revise the statute of the civil servant, especially by eliminating the fluctuation determined by the succession of the governing political forces.

  11. Perspectives on compliance: non-compliance with environmental licenses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.; van de Peppel, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Compliance with environmental law is not self-evident. In many instances enforcement of environmental regulations is a necessary means for achieving compliance. Assuming that an enforcement strategy, in order to be effective, has to fit the type of non-compliance, we integrate six different

  12. Opportunities, threats and barriers to enacting mandatory child car restraint laws in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Hamid; Ainy, Elaheh; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of Iranian children's deaths are caused by injuries. Of these, 36% result from road traffic injuries (RTIs). Both RTIs and fatalities could be reduced by using child car restraints (CCRs). Despite their demonstrated effectiveness, CCRs are not mandatory in Iran. This study was conducted to assess opportunities and barriers in enacting mandatory CCR laws in that country. Using mixed method research, a phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences and perspectives of road safety stakeholders in regard to opportunities and threats in enacting mandatory CCR laws in Iran. The themes derived from group discussions were used to first develop a structured questionnaire, which was later distributed to and completed by study participants. The study analysis was conducted using scores and rankings from the responses to these questions. Twenty-eight stakeholders participated in the study. Most were male, aged 36.7 ± 5.6 (range 25-59). In terms of identifying the organization that should establish mandatory CCR laws, the Traffic Police Department achieved the highest score of 90 (range 0-100). The participants also thought that the Traffic Police department is responsible to monitor compliance and conduct follow-up investigations (score = 100). In regard to existing barriers in enacting CCR laws, the lack of positive Publicity by mass media and the lack of related laws received scores of 85 and 70, respectively. Enabling factors and opportunities included 'positive regards or attitude of families towards their child's health,' 'officials' commitment to support such laws' and 'having adequate resources to raise community awareness of the importance of CCR use. These received scores of 83, 69 and 68, respectively. The results suggest that cooperation and collaboration among stakeholders including the Traffic Police, families and local communities are needed to maximize the likelihood of mandating CCR laws.

  13. Compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

  14. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  15. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  16. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models of traffic for academic purposes. We define the objective of this thesis as finding a way to evaluate the performance of various applications in a high-speed Internet infrastructure. To satisfy the obje...

  17. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  18. Air traffic security act unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the interest of more effective protective measures against terrorist attacks, the German federal parliament inter alia added a clause to the Air Traffic Security Act (Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act) empowering the armed forces to shoot down aircraft to be used as a weapon against human lives. In Germany, this defense possibility has been discussed also in connection with deliberate crashes of hijacked aircraft on nuclear power plants. The 1 st Division of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in its decision of February 15, 2006, ruled that Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act was incompatible with the Basic Law and thus was null and void (file No. 1 BvR 357/05) for two reasons: - There was no legislative authority on the part of the federal government. - The provision was incompatible with the basic right of life and the guarantee of human dignity as enshrined in the Basic Law. (orig.)

  19. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29... records. Installation law enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on Service/DLA... traffic accident investigation reports pertaining to accidents investigated by military police that...

  20. The Theory of Thermodynamic Systems with Internal Variables of State: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Compliance with the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnip, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the entropy-free thermodynamic approach, a generalized theory of thermodynamic systems with internal variables of state is being developed. For the case of nonlinear thermodynamic systems with internal variables of state and linear relaxation, the necessary and sufficient conditions have been proved for fulfillment of the second law of thermodynamics in entropy-free formulation which, according to the basic theorem of the theory, are also necessary and sufficient for the existence of a thermodynamic potential. Moreover, relations of correspondence between thermodynamic systems with memory and systems with internal variables of state have been established, as well as some useful relations in the spaces of states of both types of systems.

  1. Traffic Perturbation

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM

  2. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data... § 634.30 Use of traffic accident investigation report data. (a) Data derived from traffic accident... accidents (collision diagram) will be examined. (b) Law enforcement personnel and others who prepare traffic...

  3. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham- Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set

  4. Unfinished Business: Canada’s Contribution to Promoting Compliance with International Humanitarian Law Through the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Agenda of the United Nations Security Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle A. Martin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During its 1999-2000 term on the United Nations Security Council, Canada helped launch the Council’s “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict” agenda. This aimed to reduce civilian war casualties through better respect for international humanitarian law [IHL]. This article reviews the agenda’s origins and evolution ten years on. The authors focus on Canada’s contributions in increasing the Council’s efforts to protect civilians, with three main assertions. First, Canada had a key role in creating and promoting the agenda, an important IHL initiative. Second, the agenda is well established in the Council’s work, but needs further effort to ensure greater impact in specific situations. Third, Canada could develop the agenda and improve respect for IHL if it joins the Security Council for the 2011-2012 term, picking up its “unfinished business” from its last Council term. Pendant son mandat de 1999-2000 au Conseil de Sécurité de l’ONU, le Canada a aidé à lancer le programme « La protection des civils dans les conflits armés » du Conseil. Le but était de réduire le nombre de victimes civiles de la guerre en faisant respecter davantage le droit international humanitaire [DIH]. Cet article passe en revue l’origine du programme et son évolution après dix années. Les auteurs portent leur attention sur les contributions du Canada pour augmenter les efforts du Conseil en vue de la protection des civils, en faisant trois affirmations principales. D’abord, le Canada a joué un rôle-clé dans la création et la promotion du programme, une initiative importante de DIH. Deuxièmement, le programme est bien établi au sein du travail du Conseil, mais nécessite des efforts additionnels afin d’assurer plus d’impact dans des situations particulières. Troisièmement, le Canada pourrait développer le programme et améliorer le respect du DIH s’il devient membre du Conseil de Sécurité pour 2011- 2012 lui permettant de

  5. Cross-sectional study of road accidents and related law enforcement efficiency for 10 countries: A gap coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Yohan; Velaga, Nagendra R; Maji, Avijit

    2016-10-02

    Road crashes are considered as the eighth leading causes of death. There is a wide disparity in crash severity and law enforcement efficiency among low-, medium-, and high-income countries. It would be helpful to review the crash severity trends in these countries, identify the vulnerable road users, and understand the law enforcement effectiveness in devising efficient road safety improvement strategies. The crash severity, fatality rate among various age groups, and law enforcement strategies of 10 countries representing low-income (i.e., India and Morocco), medium-income (i.e. Argentina, South Korea, and Greece), and high-income (i.e., Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the United States) are studied and compared for a period of 5 years (i.e., 2008 to 2012). The critical parameters affecting road safety are identified and correlated with education, culture, and basic compliance with traffic safety laws. In the process, possible road safety improvement strategies are identified for low-income countries. The number of registered vehicles shows an increasing trend for low-income countries as do the crash rate and crash severity. Compliance related to seat belt and helmet laws is high in high-income countries. In addition, recent seat belt- and helmet-related safety programs in middle-income countries helped to curb fatalities. Noncompliance with safety laws in low-income countries is attributed to education, culture, and inefficient law enforcement. Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education taking into account cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic-related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India.

  6. 32 CFR 634.33 - Training of law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training of law enforcement personnel. 634.33 Section 634.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.33 Training of law enforcement personnel. (a) A...

  7. Virtual Reality Game Education to Learn Traffic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Andru Deva Lukito

    2017-01-01

    Abstract – Traffic accident has become number 3 of children death cause in the world according to WHO[1]. Traffic accident that involve children often caused by their own by breaking the law or regulation. Therefor education about traffic regulation and law including traffic sign and its meaning must be given to children early. Because education means process to change a person or a group attitude and behavior in order to make them mature through teaching and training [2]. One of them that ca...

  8. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  9. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  10. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  11. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  12. Corporate compliance: framework and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, N

    1999-01-01

    The federal government has created numerous programs to combat fraud and abuse. The government now encourages healthcare facilities to have a corporate compliance program (CCP), a plan that reduces the chances that the facility will violate laws or regulations. A CCP is an organization-wide program comprised of a code of conduct and written policies, internal monitoring and auditing standards, employee training, feedback mechanisms and other features, all designed to prevent and detect violations of governmental laws, regulations and policies. It is a system or method ensuring that employees understand and will comply with laws that apply to what they do every day. Seven factors, based on federal sentencing guidelines, provide the framework for developing a CCP. First, a facility must establish rules that are reasonably capable of reducing criminal conduct. Second, high-level personnel must oversee the compliance effort. Third, a facility must use due care in delegating authority in the compliance initiative. Fourth, standards must be communicated effectively to employees, and fifth, a facility must take reasonable steps to achieve compliance. Sixth, standards must be enforced consistently across the organization and last, standards must be modified or changed for reported concerns, to ensure they are not repeated. PROMINA Health System, Inc. in Atlanta, Ga., designed a program to meet federal guidelines. It started with a self-assessment to define its areas or risk. Next, it created the internal structure and assigned organizational responsibility for running the CCP. PROMINA then developed standards of business and professional conduct, established vehicles of communication and trained employees on the standards. Finally, it continues to develop evidence of the program's effectiveness by monitoring and documenting its compliance activities.

  13. Environmental Compliance Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, L.W.; Krsul, T.; Peralta, R.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing the Environmental Compliance Management System (ECMS) as a comprehensive, cost-effective tool to ensure (1) that the Laboratory complies with all applicable federal and state environmental laws and regulations, (2) that environmental issues and concerns are recognized and considered in the early phases of projects; and (3) that Laboratory personnel conduct Laboratory operations in the most environmentally acceptable manner. The ECMS is an expert computer system which is designed to allow project engineers to perform an environmental evaluation of their projects. The system includes a Master Program which collects basic project information, provide utility functions, and access the environmental expert modules, environmental expert system modules for each federal and state environmental law which allows the user to obtain specific information on how an individual law may affect his project; and site-specific databases which contain information necessary for effective management of the site under environmental regulations. The ECMS will have the capability to complete and print many of the necessary environmental forms required by federal and state agencies, including the Department of Energy

  14. The Compliance Officer in 2011. A stock-taking of six years currency of the Energy Industry Law; Der Gleichbehandlungsbeauftragte 2011. 6 Jahre EnWG in der Bilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzner, Peter [RWE Deutschland AG, RWE Rhein-Ruhr Verteilnetz GmbH, Wesel (Germany); Stolzenburg, Geertje [Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V. (BDEW), Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Energieregulierungsrecht

    2011-08-15

    After a difficult start-up phase the authority of the Compliance Officer has not only become well-established and accepted, it is even known in general what his or her individual responsibilities are. Has the role of the Compliance Officer developed more towards providing consultancy and support in unbundling-related issues (prevention) or more towards that of a company policeman (punishment)? An opinion snapshot taken at the BDEW Information Meeting in February 2011 gives an impression of how the Compliance Officer's role has developed.

  15. WORKER PROTECTION: Federal Contractors and Violations of Labor Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP). Federal law and an executive order place greater responsibilities on federal contractors compared with other employers In some areas of workplace activity...

  16. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  17. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  18. Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement: Case study of Ramat Park Benin City. ... bus drivers) were responsible for the noise emission while enforcement of traffic laws in the state and relocation of the motor park close to the square were recommended control measures for noise reduction.

  19. Analysis of Child-related Road Traffic Accidents in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Dinh Vinh Man

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the number of road traffic accidents, fatalities and injuries have been decreasing, but the figures of children road traffic accidents have been increasing in Ho Chi Minh City of Vietnam. This fact strongly calls for implementing effective solutions to improve traffic safety for children by the local government. This paper presents the trends, patterns and causes of road traffic accidents involving children based on the analysis of road traffic accident data over the period 2010-2015 and the video-based observations of road traffic law violations at 15 typical school gates and 10 typical roads. The results could be useful for the city government to formulate solutions to effectively improve traffic safety for children in Ho Chi Minh City and other cities in Vietnam.

  20. Efficiency of the emission trading. A contribution to the climate protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenz, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The contribution discusses the following topics: Inclusion of additional sectors into the emission trading: road traffic and sea traffic, the stepwise realization and difficulties; the failed inclusion of air traffic, rigid penalties in case of violation of the fee delivery, thread for the complete mechanism, over-compliance in Germany and international perspectives.

  1. Construction and simulation of a novel continuous traffic flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yao-Hsin; Yu, Jui-Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to propose a novel mathematical model for traffic flow and apply a newly developed characteristic particle method to solve the associate governing equations. As compared with the existing non-equilibrium higher-order traffic flow models, the present one is put forward to satisfy the following three conditions: 1.Preserve the equilibrium state in the smooth region. 2.Yield an anisotropic propagation of traffic flow information. 3.Expressed with a conservation law form for traffic momentum. These conditions will ensure a more practical simulation in traffic flow physics: The current traffic will not be influenced by the condition in the behind and result in unambiguous condition across a traffic shock. Through analyses of characteristics, stability condition and steady-state solution adherent to the equation system, it is shown that the proposed model actually conform to these conditions. Furthermore, this model can be cast into its characteristic form which, incorporated with the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, is appropriate to be simulated by the characteristic particle method to obtain accurate computational results. - Highlights: • The traffic model expressed with the momentum conservation law. • Traffic flow information propagate anisotropically and preserve the equilibrium state in the smooth region. • Computational particles of two families are invented to mimic forward-running and backward-running characteristics. • Formation of shocks will be naturally detected by the intersection of computational particles of same family. • A newly developed characteristic particle method is used to simulate traffic flow model equations.

  2. Air traffic security act unconstitutional; Luftsicherheitsgesetz verfassungswidrig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2006-05-15

    In the interest of more effective protective measures against terrorist attacks, the German federal parliament inter alia added a clause to the Air Traffic Security Act (Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act) empowering the armed forces to shoot down aircraft to be used as a weapon against human lives. In Germany, this defense possibility has been discussed also in connection with deliberate crashes of hijacked aircraft on nuclear power plants. The 1{sup st} Division of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in its decision of February 15, 2006, ruled that Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act was incompatible with the Basic Law and thus was null and void (file No. 1 BvR 357/05) for two reasons: - There was no legislative authority on the part of the federal government. - The provision was incompatible with the basic right of life and the guarantee of human dignity as enshrined in the Basic Law. (orig.)

  3. Management information systems for environmental compliance activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-23

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is subject to Federal and state laws designed to protect against threats to public health and the environment. The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the Department had developed adequate information systems for tracking and reporting on the status of its compliance with these laws. Systems used for prioritizing and budgeting for environmental activities are being addressed in a separate review.

  4. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2003 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to Nevada Test Site biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2003.

  5. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  6. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicles based on similar traffic operating characteristics are grouped into ... of distances to the video monitor involved using a measuring wheel to mark ... Secondly, the observers reviewed the videotape to sample traffic entity ...... makes a strong case for including service lanes for slow moving vehicles for improving the.

  7. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  8. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  9. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  10. Student Data Privacy: Going beyond Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeide, Elana

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, most states have considered one or more bills to protect student data, with many giving state boards of education more authority in this arena. The best of this legislation goes beyond compliance to better address stakeholders' fears. States that take this approach have adopted two key practices in implementation of new state laws:…

  11. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D. J.; Anderson, D. C.; Hall, D. B.; Greger, P. D.; Ostler, W. K.

    2012-06-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2011. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2011, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  12. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2015 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2015. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2015, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  13. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.J.; Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.; Greger, P.D.; Ostler, W.K.

    2011-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2010. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2010, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  14. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent; Hansen, Dennis J.

    2013-07-03

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2012. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2012, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  15. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Perry, Jeanette [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2016. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2016, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  16. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2009 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. Dennis; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2010-07-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2009. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2009, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  17. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2013. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2013, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  18. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  19. Compliance management and corporate governance; Compliance Management und Corporate Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Uwe [Stadt Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Alsheimer, Constantin; Kassebohm, Kristian; Reutler, Susanne [Mainova AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Starting in the year 2009, numerous changes in the financial system and accountancy a well as in the corporate law come into effect for enterprises. Thereby, the requirements substantially are intensified to their corporate governance. The actual well-known reproaches of bribery, corruption and injuries of data protection intensify the pressure on executive committees and supervisory boards in order to meet normative and ethical requirements. All the more is valid for power suppliers whose reputation can already carry damage out with the first suspicion. Already in 2008, Mainova AG (Frnkfurt/Main, Federal Republic of Germany) implemented a compliance management.

  20. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  1. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  4. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  5. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  6. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  7. Efficiency of the emission trading. A contribution to the climate protection law; Effizienz im Emissionshandel. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht; Wimmers, Kristina [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution discusses the following topics: Inclusion of additional sectors into the emission trading: road traffic and sea traffic, the stepwise realization and difficulties; the failed inclusion of air traffic, rigid penalties in case of violation of the fee delivery, thread for the complete mechanism, over-compliance in Germany and international perspectives.

  8. INDONESIA SHARI'AH COMPLIANCE STOCK RETURN BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measures the behaviour of Indonesia Shari'ah compliance stock return. The measurement of return behaviour toward volatility will proved the capability of Indonesia Shari'ah compliance toward volatility that happened in Indonesia during the period of observation. Investing in Shari'ah compliance is quite different than investing in conventional stock which followed the capital market set of rules and law, Shari'ah compliance follows not only the capital market set of laws and but also the Islamic principles of principles. Most of the previous studies examine issues related to the conventional stocks and market. The present study take one step further by investigating issue related to Shari'ah compliance instrument. In the case of Shari'ah stock price in Indonesia, the dynamics volatility of the stock price can be minimized by taking an integrated screening process to the listed company, as precautions steps toward volatility

  9. Virtual Reality Game Education to Learn Traffic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andru Deva Lukito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Traffic accident has become number 3 of children death cause in the world according to WHO[1]. Traffic accident that involve children often caused by their own by breaking the law or regulation. Therefor education about traffic regulation and law including traffic sign and its meaning must be given to children early. Because education means process to change a person or a group attitude and behavior in order to make them mature through teaching and training [2]. One of them that can be used is digital media.  One of interactive digital media is digital game, various form of digital game start from 2D, 2.5D, 3D with many point of view and new technology. VR (Virtual Reality as new digital media where alternate reality exist to test various theory without any real consequences, according to Greenbaum “Virtual Reality is an alternate world filled with computer-generated images that respond to human movements. These simulated environments are usually visited with the aid of an expensive data suit which features stereophonic video goggles and fiber-optic data gloves”[3]. Greenbaum statement before were make VR suitable to test traffic law and regulation and educate kid to obey the traffic sign and regulation without real consequences from real world. This Journal contain the result of using virtual reality as traffic regulation education media. Education material that arranged consisting traffic sign that appear on the road and safety riding gear. Keywords – Virtual Reality, Traffic sign, Road traffic, children, education

  10. The limits of authority of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the procedure for the assessment of compliance of laws with the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simović Miodrag N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the pillars of rule of law and legal security as well as guarantee for preservation and development of democratic order in the constitutional framework of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is not legislative, neither executive nor classical court authority, but a special kind of sui generis authority, acting as corrective factor for all three authority branches. In such a situation, the relationship between the Constitutional Court and legislative authority has a special significance, having in mind that legislative authority regulates, primarily through the law, legal order and, thereby, also defines social and political system of one state and that, on the other side, the Constitutional Court ensures that those laws are in accordance with the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that, if it finds such a law has gone out of the framework of the Constitution, it may intervene by declaring the whole law or parts of it unconstitutional and put them out of force. Does the Constitutional Court in such a situation takes the role of legislator and what kind of legislator? What if the legislative authority does not comply with the decision of the Constitutional Court? Should Constitutional Court take the role of positive legislator? It is less problematic activity of the Constitutional Court as negative legislator in theory and practice. In such legal situation, the Constitutional Court in its decision finds unconstitutionality of a law provision (or the whole law and eliminates it from legal system generally after expiration of certain period of time when such provisions cease to be valid and the legislator replaces unconstitutional provisions with new ones within set time limit. However, we have a much more problematic situation when the Constitutional Court acts as positive legislation, i.e. when it makes a decision declaring validity of certain provisions of the law or instructing the

  11. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  12. Compliance Function in Banks, Investment and Insurance Companies after MiFID

    OpenAIRE

    Musile Tanzi, Paola; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Previati, Daniele; Schwizer, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The risk of compliance comes from the failure to comply with laws, regulations, rules, self-regulatory standards, and codes of conduct. This article focuses on the evolving scenario of the compliance function within banks, investment and insurance companies operating in Italy. We developed four areas of research questions: (i) Does the positioning of the compliance function in the organizational structure start “at the top”? (ii) Are roles attributed to the compliance ...

  13. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  14. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  15. SPEED COMPLIANCE IN FREEWAY VARIABLE SPEED LIMIT SYSTEM – CASE STUDY OF THE PRAGUE CITY RING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MATOWICKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have confirmed the strong relationship between speed compliance and the frequency and severity of traffic accidents. Variable speed limit (VSL system as a measure to improve traffic safety enables the freeway system to change its posted speed limit based on various traffic and environmental conditions. Such system helps drivers to recognize the upcoming events, to adjust their driving style and in such way to address speed variation of the traffic flow. This is called speed harmonization. Although many studies researching the effect of VSL system on the traffic stream can be found, there are only few addressing its influence on the drivers behavior, particularly focusing on their tolerance limit and compliance, which has crucial meaning for future design of controlling algorithms. This study was prepared to inspect this grey area by studying the data from the VSL system at Prague city ring, describing the influence of the highway management system and its influence on drivers.

  16. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  17. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  18. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  19. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  20. A Comparative Analysis of State Traffic Safety Countermeasures and Implications for Progress “Toward Zero Deaths” in the United States : Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    States use a variety of countermeasures to reduce traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities within their jurisdictions. These countermeasures focus primarily on engineering, law enforcement, and public education (NHTSA, 2006). NHTSA's bi-annual publi...

  1. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  2. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  3. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  4. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  6. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  7. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  8. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  9. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  10. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  11. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2008 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis J.; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2009-04-30

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2008. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  12. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  13. A transparência ativa nos municípios de Santa Catarina: avaliação do índice de atendimento à lei de acesso à informação e suas determinantes = The active transparency in Santa Catarina municipalities: evaluation of the rate of compliance to access to information law and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Comin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a relação existente entre o índice de atendimento à Lei de Acesso à Informação dos municípios catarinenses e os seus indicadores socioeconômicos (população total, receita arrecadada, PIB e IDH-M. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa, cujo procedimento de coleta de dados é documental. Para a construção do índice de atendimento à Lei de Acesso à Informação, foi realizada busca e avaliação nos sítios eletrônicos dos 121 municípios de Santa Catarina que possuem população superior a dez mil habitantes, mediante a aplicação de um Check-list formulado com base nos artigos 5°, 8°, 9º, e 45 da lei. O nível de atendimento foi identificado como um conjunto de 19 indicadores. Para cada indicador atribuiu-se o valor de um ponto quando atendido, meio ponto quando atendido de forma parcial e nenhum ponto quando não atendido. Posteriormente ao cálculo dos percentuais de atendimento, observou-se que, até então, nenhum dos municípios atende a todas as exigências da Lei de Acesso à Informação, ficando a média geral de conformidade em 69,43%. Verificou-se também a existência de relação positiva do índice de atendimento apenas com a variável IDH-M. Demonstram os demais fatores socioeconômicos que os municípios menores têm divulgado maior número de informações voluntariamente. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the rate of compliance to the Access to Information Law of the municipalities of Santa Catarina and its socio-economic indicators (total population, revenue, GDP and HDI. It is a descriptive research with a quantitative approach, whose data collection procedure is documentary. In order to create the the rating level according to the requirements of the Information Access Law, it was necessary to search and evaluate the websites of 121 municipalities of Santa Catarina which a population of ten thousand

  14. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  15. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  16. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  17. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  18. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  19. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Herrera; Laura González; Daniel Calegari; Bruno Rienzi

    2017-01-01

    In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with ...

  20. Choices that increase compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A compliance model is developed and tested using a survey of corporate officials and the regulatory arena of equal employment opportunity. Findings support the economic model of compliance in its conclusion that probability of detection and probable level of sanctions influence compliance decisions. Results also indicate that adjustments to the model that account for bounded rationality are valid. The key outcome, however, is that although all types of investigations play some role in enhancing compliance, those that stress sanctions and thus severity rather than certainty of detection may have the greatest positive influence on compliance. Enforcement programs attempting to operate simply as investigators of small-scale complaints will have less success than those with different types of investigations or a balanced type of single investigation. The results also suggest a more complex cognitive process on the part of regulated individuals than initially theorized. 34 refs., 3 tabs

  1. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  2. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Understanding how to maintain compliance in the current regulatory climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignell, D.T.; Burns, R.

    1995-01-01

    High level radioactive waste facilities must maintain compliance with all regulatory requirements, even those requirements that have been promulgated after the facility was placed into operation. Facilities must aggressively pursue compliance because environmental laws often impose strict liability for violations; therefore, an honest mistake is no defense. Radioactive waste management is constantly under the public microscope, particularly those facilities that handle high-level radioactive waste. The Savannah River Site has effectively met the challenges of regulatory compliance in its HLRW facilities and plans are being formulated to meet future regulatory requirements as well. Understanding, aggressively achieving, and clearly demonstrating compliance is essential for the continued operations of radioactive waste management facilities. This paper examines how HLRW facilities are impacted by regulatory requirements and how compliance in this difficult area is achieved and maintained

  4. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  5. Penalties in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect

  6. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  7. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  8. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  9. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    1999-12-01

    The Ecological and Compliance program, funded through the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 1999. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites (2) desert tortoise compliance (3) ecosystem mapping (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center.

  10. Acid rain mitigation: Everyone benefits from a market for compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, T.W.; Weinstein, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The writers of this article anticipate that there will be a market in credits for overcompliance with sulfur dioxide emission limitations created by new congressional legislation, and advocate that utility managers plan to participate actively in that market. In the article they use some actual data on the compliance options of utilities, and their costs, to determine a market-clearing price for compliance credits. They also proceed to show that every utility affected by the new law will be better off if it participates in the compliance market

  11. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM CALENDAR YEAR 2005 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA ECOLOGICAL SERVICES

    2006-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during the Calendar Year 2005. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive and protected/regulated species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  12. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  13. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.

  14. The problem of the pillion rider: India's helmet law and New Delhi's exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L

    2014-05-01

    In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    This study of municipal enforcement of agro-environmental regulations in Denmark provides an empirical understanding of how enforcement affects compliance. A key contribution is sorting out the relative influence of inspectors' different styles of enforcement and choices made by enforcement...... agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  17. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  18. 28 CFR 73.4 - Partial compliance not deemed compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partial compliance not deemed compliance. 73.4 Section 73.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATIONS TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL BY AGENTS OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 73.4 Partial compliance not deemed compliance. The fact...

  19. LAW ENFORCEMENT OF THE BANDUNG REGIONAL REGULATIONS ON THE ORDERLINESS, CLEANLINESS, AND THE BEAUTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesmil Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Number of sidewalk vendors in Bandung has reached 11,000 with no decline in growth according to the survey conducted by Indonesian University of Education/ Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI in collaboration with Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah (Bappeda or regional development planning agency Bandung. Sidewalk vendor is one of the main contributors to the dirtiness and traffic congestion in Bandung. Bandung has passed a Regional Regulation Numbered 3 and 5 about Cleanliness, Orderliness and the Beauty to prevent and to build the  sidewalk vendors. However, lack of legal awareness and law enforcement may constrain the effectiveness of the regulation. Those regulations are particularly Bandung Regional Regulation Numbered 4/ 2011 concerning sidewalk vendors in which imposing high fine sanction not only for the seller but also for the buyer to prevent them from violating those regulations. To analyze the the compliance level of society and the effectiveness of fine sanction for the violation of regulations, this research used juridical normative approach and comparative method by comparing the regulation in Bandung with other Regional regulations related to sidewalk vendors in other cities in Indonesia such as in Surakarta and Surabaya. This research found that the law enforcement to the violation of sidewalk vendors regulation in Bandung city is not optimum due to lack of awareness to obey the law. The criminal sanction such as fine and forced fees are not able to prevent the violation of sidewalk vendors regulations. This research suggest that The Regional government of Bandung City: (1 needs to find a right model to keep sidewalk vendors in order by looking at the characteristics of the society and its social culture; (2 needs to search for a way to increase society’s compliance to any policies made by the government; and (3 needs to revise the current regulation

  20. 27 CFR 31.4 - Relation to State and municipal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business contrary to the laws of such State or in places prohibited by municipal law; nor shall such... municipal law. 31.4 Section 31.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... State and municipal law. Compliance with the requirements of this part shall not be held to exempt any...

  1. Drinking and Driving: Alcohol Association with Traffic Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Barrie G.

    1985-01-01

    Presents an analysis of drink-driving research methods and findings with reference to traffic accidents. Challenges some conclusions about drinking and driving in Australia and New Zealand. Evaluates the growing acceptance of Scandinavian-type laws. Rejects the demand to "criminalize" drink-driving offenses. Presents the reduction of…

  2. Changes of law for the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, G.; Quester, H.; Busch, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The months to come will see important changes of law for the transport of hazardous goods on the road. Of significance also is the introduction of a hazardous goods inspector responsible for all traffic means in business enterprises concerned with the transport of hazardous goods. The most important changes are presented and discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental Compliance Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects

  4. 340 Facility compliance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, S.L.

    1993-10-01

    This study provides an environmental compliance evaluation of the RLWS and the RPS systems of the 340 Facility. The emphasis of the evaluation centers on compliance with WAC requirements for hazardous and mixed waste facilities, federal regulations, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements pertinent to the operation of the 340 Facility. The 340 Facility is not covered under either an interim status Part A permit or a RCRA Part B permit. The detailed discussion of compliance deficiencies are summarized in Section 2.0. This includes items of significance that require action to ensure facility compliance with WAC, federal regulations, and WHC requirements. Outstanding issues exist for radioactive airborne effluent sampling and monitoring, radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, non-radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, less than 90 day waste storage tanks, and requirements for a permitted facility

  5. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  6. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  7. Measuring the Complexity of Self-Organizing Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Zubillaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to an urban traffic model for comparing a traditional traffic-light coordination method with a self-organizing method in two scenarios: cyclic boundaries and non-orientable boundaries. We show that the measures are useful to identify and characterize different dynamical phases. It becomes clear that different operation regimes are required for different traffic demands. Thus, not only is traffic a non-stationary problem, requiring controllers to adapt constantly; controllers must also change drastically the complexity of their behavior depending on the demand. Based on our measures and extending Ashby’s law of requisite variety, we can say that the self-organizing method achieves an adaptability level comparable to that of a living system.

  8. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  9. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  10. Antitrust v. Anti-Corruption Policy Approaches to Compliance: Why Such A Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Thepot

    2015-01-01

    Different liability regimes may explain why, in some jurisdictions, competition law and anti-corruption agencies have very contrasted approaches to compliance programs. Florence Thépot (University College London)

  11. Compliance costs caused by agency action? Empirical evidence and implications for tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Kegels, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The compliance costs of private taxpayers are not only affected by the tax law itself but also by its implementation through the tax authorities. In this paper we analyze the effect of the tax authorities on the burden of complying with tax regulations. Using survey data of Belgian businesses and controlling for potential endogeneity, we find empirical evidence that tax authority behavior is an important cost driver. According to our estimate, a customer-unfriendly tax administration increase...

  12. Do alcohol compliance checks decrease underage sales at neighboring establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Smolenski, Derek J; Toomey, Traci L; Carlin, Bradley P; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2013-11-01

    Underage alcohol compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agencies can reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at checked alcohol establishments, and theory suggests that an alcohol establishment that is checked may warn nearby establishments that compliance checks are being conducted in the area. In this study, we examined whether the effects of compliance checks diffuse to neighboring establishments. We used data from the Complying with the Minimum Drinking Age trial, which included more than 2,000 compliance checks conducted at more than 900 alcohol establishments. The primary outcome was the sale of alcohol to a pseudo-underage buyer without the need for age identification. A multilevel logistic regression was used to model the effect of a compliance check at each establishment as well as the effect of compliance checks at neighboring establishments within 500 m (stratified into four equal-radius concentric rings), after buyer, license, establishment, and community-level variables were controlled for. We observed a decrease in the likelihood of establishments selling alcohol to underage youth after they had been checked by law enforcement, but these effects quickly decayed over time. Establishments that had a close neighbor (within 125 m) checked in the past 90 days were also less likely to sell alcohol to young-appearing buyers. The spatial effect of compliance checks on other establishments decayed rapidly with increasing distance. Results confirm the hypothesis that the effects of police compliance checks do spill over to neighboring establishments. These findings have implications for the development of an optimal schedule of police compliance checks.

  13. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis; Anderson, David; Derek, Hall; Greger, Paul; Ostler, W. Kent

    2008-03-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

  14. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  15. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  16. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  17. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  18. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  19. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  20. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  1. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  2. Ethical Predispositions to Violate or Obey Traffic Rules and the Mediating Role of Driving Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei C; Popusoi, Simona A

    2018-07-04

    Traffic law violations are the most important determinants of traffic accidents. This study examined the influence of drivers' ethical perspective on their traffic violations and the mediating role of driving styles in these relationships. A sample of 313 drivers participated in the study. Contrary to expectations, high ethical relativism was found to be associated with fewer aggressive traffic violations. This suggests that the informal normative system that parallels the official traffic regulations is the more salient reference against which drivers usually assess the adequacy of their behaviors, highly relativistic drivers being more willing to also take into consideration the official traffic code in these appraisals. We also found significant interactions between idealism and relativism on both ordinary and aggressive violations. Idealism emerged as a predictor of these violations only in drivers low in relativism. In this group, one's concern about the harm that he/she might cause to other traffic participants induces higher traffic law abidingness. These influences of idealism were mediated by certain driving styles. Drivers' general ethical perspective fosters a specific pattern of driving styles and, consequently, the tendency to commit or to refrain from traffic violations.

  3. 76 FR 20590 - International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Defense Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    .... For example, the proposed new rule would prevent the anomalous situation where foreign companies are... compliance costs on Indian tribal governments, and will not pre-empt tribal law. Accordingly, the requirement... public domain data; or (5) Providing assistance (including training) in medical, logistical (other than...

  4. Measuring compliance during aircraft (Component) redeliveries at KLM engineering & maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burhani, Shahir; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft and aircraft components are redelivered to the next operator or owner during the phase-out process. During this process the operator is required by law and contract requirements to show compliance with maintenance procedures. At KLM E&M the phase-out documentation process is under

  5. Business Process Compliance through Reusable Units of Compliant Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shumm; O. Turetken; N. Kokash (Natallia); A. Elgammal; F. Leymann; J. van den Heuvel

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractCompliance management is essential for ensuring that organizational business processes and supporting information systems are in accordance with a set of prescribed requirements originating from laws, regulations, and various legislative or technical documents such as Sarbanes-Oxley Act

  6. Lifecycle business process compliance management : a semantically-enabled framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgammal, A.; Turetken, O.

    2015-01-01

    Following the crisis in 2008, different industrial sectors has faced growing numbers of laws and regulations globally. The number and complexity of these regulations is creating significant issues for governance, risk and compliance management especially for heavily-regulated sectors, such as the

  7. 77 FR 76596 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... compliance from certain provisions of the Federal hours of service laws contained at 49 U.S.C. 21103(a)(4... for the railroad with the additional day is well below the 276-hour monthly maximum allowed. Finally... Docket Operations Facility is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal Holidays...

  8. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  9. Dynamic control of traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Wal, van der Jan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic lights are put in place to dynamically change priority between traffic participants. Commonly, the duration of green intervals and the grouping, and ordering in which traffic flows are served are pre-fixed. In this chapter, the problem of minimizing vehicle delay at isolated intersections is

  10. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  11. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  12. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  13. TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    growing in Eastern and Southern Africa in response to increased human populations and poverty. fuel-trees etc. Conversely, extreme poverty of others means they regard wildlife as a means to meet their short worldwide. You can also find us online in: mainland China, India, Japan, Taiwan TRAFFIC is a strategic

  14. Decline traffic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  15. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  16. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  17. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Results: Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally...... or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise....

  18. Compliance with Environmental and Social Legislation in Certified Forestry Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Santana Leite

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the FSC forestry certification system to improve the forestry sector, in terms of compliance to environmental and social laws and improvements in working conditions resulting from the certification process. Thirty-seven auditing reports from five Brazilian forestry companies were evaluated, throughout the 2006-2013 period. Non-compliance and observations were analyzed and organized into categories, which identified the main performance issues found in certified forestry organizations. 301 instances of non-compliance and 138 observations of audit reports were verified, where 48 and 57% respectively, were linked to the two principles studied. For obtaining and/or maintaining the certificate it is necessary for all violations to be resolved. Therefore, it was concluded that forest certification contributes to the advancement of the forestry sector in Brazil, in relation to compliance with legal, social and labor issues.

  19. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  20. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  1. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  2. Compliance with OSHA record-keeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, P J; Sieber, W K; Pedersen, D H; Sundin, D S; Frazier, T M

    1988-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 requires employers to maintain records of workplace injuries and illnesses. To assess compliance with the law, data from the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) were examined. Of the 4,185 companies with 11 or more employees, 75 per cent maintained OSHA Form 200 designed for recording illnesses and injuries. The number of employees and the presence of a union were positive determinants in the record maintenance. Of companies with 500 or more employees, 95 per cent kept records compared with 60 per cent of companies with between 11 and 99 employees. PMID:3407825

  3. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  4. Yearbook of environmental and engineering law 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1990-01-01

    The yearbook 1990 again contains individual contributions on German, foreign, and international environmental and engineering law. Beginning with this volume, there will always be a detailed report on previous year developments in environmental and engineering law in order to master the continuously increasing legal material. Some contributions - there are others - deal with the following subjects: Legislative need to act in matters of genetic engineering; ethics commissions and constitutional law; nature's own rights; legal protection of local government against brown coal plans; mining laws; sports and air-traffic noise; questions of nuclear waste management; removal of long-standing multi-party liability in environmental law; waste and restoration of abandoned industrial sites; technological development and liability insurance; problems of legislation coming into effect in pollution abatement procedures; Dutch air pollution abatement fund; environmental absolute liability in Austria; EC environmental legislation and solo actions by individual member states. (HSCH) [de

  5. The Amsterdam Hip Protector Study: Compliance and determinants of compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Asma, G.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Hip protectors appear to be effective in reducing the incidence of hip fractures. However, compliance is often poor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the compliance and determinants of compliance with external hip protectors. A prospective study was performed in residents from

  6. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  7. Rocky Flats Compliance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE's strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP

  8. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  9. Validating year 2000 compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul); M.P.A. Sellink

    1997-01-01

    textabstractValidating year 2000 compliance involves the assessment of the correctness and quality of a year 2000 conversion. This entails inspecting both the quality of the conversion emph{process followed, and of the emph{result obtained, i.e., the converted system. This document provides an

  10. Strategisk compliance og regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Denne artikel introducerer strategisk compliance og påpeger dens samspil med klassiske og nyere former for reguleringer i digital værdiskabelse. Konteksten er den digitale økonomi, som vokser frem imellem den materielle økonomis bærepiller: Virksomheder og markeder, men består af en helt ny...... materialitet, som er det digitale univers og dets modsvarighed i nye krav til compliance. Den nye materialitet stiller nye krav, hvad angår digitale processer og transaktioner. Klassisk regulering, som aktører ikke selv kan ændre, støder på egenregulering, hvor aktørerne selv opsætter regler for at skabe...... digital værdi. Dette kalder på strategisk compliance. Med digitalisering er strategisk compliance sat på dagsordnen i reguleringsdebatten. Vi hævder, at regulering og egenregulering kan komme til at virke komplementært i det post-industrielle, digitaliserede samfund....

  11. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed

  12. Financial Markets and Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, T.A.H.M.; Bleker, Sylvie; Houben, Raf

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the goals of financial market regulation through the rules of economics, the strategies financial regulation employs to achieve these goals and the insights this provides for the compliance profession. For an overview of the goals and strategies of financial regulation

  13. Year 2000 compliance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This month, we continue our coverage of the year 2000 (Y2K) problem as it affects healthcare facilities and the professionals who work in them. We present the following articles: "Checking PCs for Y2K Compliance"--In this article, we describe the probable sources of Y2K-related errors in PCs and present simple procedures for testing the Y2K compliance of PCs and application software. "Y2K Assessment Equipment Expectations"--In this article, we review the Y2K compliance data from a small sampling of hospitals to help answer the question "What percentage of medical equipment will likely be susceptible to Y2K problems?" "Y2K Labeling of Medical Devices"--In this article, we discuss the pros and cons of instituting a program to label each medical device with its Y2K status. Also in this section, we present an updated list of organizations that support ECRI's Position Statement on the testing of medical devices for Y2K compliance, which we published in the December 1998 issue of Health Devices (27[12]). And we remind readers of the services ECRI can offer to help healthcare institutions cope with the Y2K problem.

  14. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  15. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  17. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  18. The USAID Environmental Compliance Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Environmental Compliance Database is a record of environmental compliance submissions with their outcomes. Documents in the database can be found by visiting the...

  19. Environmental law. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H.J. (ed.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Forschungsstelle Umweltrecht

    2007-07-01

    The text book under consideration already is addressed to lawyers and students of jurisprudence. It enables an introduction into the general environmental law and consists of sixteen autonomous chapters: (a) International law in the field of ecology (Matthias Buck, Roda Verheyen); (b) European and national environmental constitutional law (Johannes Caspar); (c) General environmental administrative law (Ulrich Ramsauer); (d) Pollution abatement law (Hans-Joachim Koch); (e) Water protection law (Silke Laskowski, Cornelia Ziehm); (f) Recycling economy law and waste management law (Martin Dieckmann, Moritz Reese); (g) Nature conservation law (Christian Maass, Peter Schuette); (h) Soil conservation law and contaminated sites law (Nikolaus Herrmann); (i) Energy legal regulations as an instrument of environmental protection (Wolfgang Ewer); (j) Atomic energy law (Klaus Jankowski); (k) Genetic engineering law (Ursula Prall); (l) Law of hazardous materials (Eckhard Pache); (m) Environmental law in planning law (Nikolaus Hermann); (n) Environment and traffic (Philipp Hermann, Ekkehard Hofmann); (o) Agriculture and ecology (Ulf-Henning Moeker); (p) Liberal trade and environmental protection (Matthias Buck).

  20. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  1. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Temporal Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Soori, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Distributions of RTAs were obtained for season, month, week, and hour scales, and for long holidays (more than one day) and the day prior to long holidays (DPLH). The final analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression model to calculate incidence rate ratios for RTIs. All analyses were conducted using STATA 13.1 and Excel software; statistical significance was set at P accidents was 219 per 10,000 registered vehicles, or 595 per 100,000 people. About 28% of all RTAs, and more than one third of fatal RTAs, occurred during the summer months. The incidence rate for all traffic accidents on DPLH was 1.20, compared to workdays as a reference category, and it was 1.40 for fatal crashes. The rate of fatal road traffic accidents in outer cities was 3.2 times higher than in inner ones. Conclusions Our findings reveal that there are temporal variations in traffic accidents, and long holidays significantly influence accident rates. Traffic injuries have different patterns on outer/inner city roads, based on weekday and holiday status. Thus, these findings could be used to create effective initiatives aimed at traffic management. PMID:27703958

  3. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  4. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91.68 Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders. (a) Other Federal environmental laws. All projects...

  5. Road Transportation and Traffic Law Enforcement in Nigeria: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... the vehicle and the penalties for flouting ... knowledge and attention to the vehicle behavior, ignorance ..... Communication technology (ICT) that can .... [43] Rothergatter, T. (1990) automatic policing and Information Systems.

  6. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Canada: Brunswick News Inc. versus Her Majesty the Queen in the Right of the Province of New Brunswick denying release of nuclear power feasibility study: A superior court in Canada has made an important decision with regard to freedom of information legislation and protection of confidential commercial information. It denied a provincial newspaper company access to a feasibility study concerning the construction of a second nuclear power reactor in New Brunswick. U.S.A.: In the Court of federal Claims, plaintiffs Carolina Power and Light Company and Florida power corporation (collectively Progress Energy) claimed damages of U.S.D. 91 029 704 from defendant U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.), under the terms of D.O.E. standard contract for Disposal of spent nuclear fuel and/or high level waste. D.O.E. liability was previously established and the amount of damages was the sole issue in this case.Germany: in 2005, the federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (B.M.U.) instructed the regulatory and supervisory body of the federal state Baden-Wurtemberg to issue an order, which required the operator to shut its plant, without delay or further orders, in case of not obviously insignificant non-compliance with technical limits, measures or other specific safety-related requirements deemed to control incidents. The operator was further required to inform the regulatory and supervisory body immediately if it was no longer able to demonstrate the controllability of design basis accidents. In the judgement of the Federal Administrative court, the instruction to stop operation is too ambiguous since it does not specify with technical criteria should compel operators to shut their reactors.The court rules that, in compliance with the principle that administrative decisions must be precise, clear and unambiguous, an order to terminate operations must clearly state when and for what reasons an operator has this duty. a global obligation to

  7. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  8. Ethics of Tax Law Compliance: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Richard G.; Longo, Peter J.; Rioux, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The first semester Tax I student seems to be interested in the ethical issue of why citizens should report their income and only take legitimate tax deductions when it is unlikely that anyone will ever know. This paper addresses this issue from an interdisciplinary approach of accounting, philosophy, and political science. The accounting…

  9. Air Force IT System Security Compliance with Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    monetary burden on 3 system owners as there is “…a significant cost benefit to building in IA during the development phase” 4 of a system. Current...16 Option 4 : Cloud Computing to Eliminate Policy and Methodology Requirements ....17 Option 4 : Application...Assurance ( IA ) (data integrity) to support mission assurance. To ensure IA and to support the mission, changes need to be made to Air Force IT

  10. 28 CFR 11.3 - Compliance with existing laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirement for these services in the Commerce Business Daily and in a selection of pertinent legal publications likely to reach socially and economically disadvantaged firms, as well as sending... preferential consideration to any bidders in selection for award of these contracts. The Department's Office of...

  11. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  12. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  13. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  14. Managing quality and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Alice; Koppel, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Critical care nurses assume vital roles in maintaining patient care quality. There are distinct facets to the process including standard setting, regulatory compliance, and completion of reports associated with these endeavors. Typically, multiple niche software applications are required and user interfaces are varied and complex. Although there are distinct quality indicators that must be tracked as well as a list of serious or sentinel events that must be documented and reported, nurses may not know the precise steps to ensure that information is properly documented and actually reaches the proper authorities for further investigation and follow-up actions. Technology advances have permitted the evolution of a singular software platform, capable of monitoring quality indicators and managing all facets of reporting associated with regulatory compliance.

  15. Changes in motorcycle-related injuries and deaths after mandatory motorcycle helmet law in a district of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Ederer, David; Vo, Van Anh Ha; Pham, An Van; Mounts, Anthony; Nolen, Leisha D; Sugerman, David

    2018-01-02

    Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.

  16. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Ji-Hong; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Yuan, Dan-Feng; Gao, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan'an district (urban) and Jiangjin district (rural) of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries. Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared. Between the year 2000 and 2006, the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan'an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/ 100 000 respectively, higher than that in Jiangjin district (27.49/ 100 000, 7.13/100 000, P less than 0.01). However, the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%, higher than that in Nan'an district (10.00%, P less than 0.01). Head injury was the primary cause of death. Totally 76.58% of casualties were pede-strians. Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system. The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people. It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law, so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  17. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... induced traffic is partly accounted for than when it is ignored. By exaggerating the economic benefits of road capacity increase and underestimating its negative effects, omission of induced traffic can result in over-allocation of public money on road construction and correspondingly less focus on other...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...

  18. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that...

  19. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that, to the best of its knowledge...

  20. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 1998 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Ecological Services

    1998-01-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U. S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 1998. Twenty-one sites for seven projects were surveyed for the presence of state or federally protected species. Three projects were in or near habitat of the threatened desert tortoise and required special clearance and transect surveys. All geospatial data collected were entered into Bechtel Nevada's Ecological Geographic Information system for use in ongoing ecosystem management of the NTS

  1. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  2. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  3. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber- sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Bandwith, Traffic Shapping, MikroTik. 

  4. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  5. Can draconian law enforcement solve the South African Road Safety crisis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mohammed, SO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic law enforcement has been defined as the area of activity aimed at controlling road user behaviour by preventive, persuasive and punitive measures in order to effect the safe and efficient movement of traffic. The Department of Transport...

  6. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  7. Post Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in Malaysia: Tax Agents’ Perceptions on Clients’ Compliance Behaviour and Tax Agents’ Roles in Promoting Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Izlawanie

    2017-01-01

    The Malaysian government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) starting from 1 April 2015 to enhance the revenue collections and mitigate the transfer pricing manipulation. Tax agents play a significant role to help businesses to comply with GST law and regulations. After one year of GST implementation, it is vital to understand tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance behaviour and tax agents’ roles in influencing compliance. A total of 30 registered tax agents completed a survey...

  8. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  9. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  10. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  11. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  12. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  13. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  14. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Traffic accidents in Brazil from 1998 to 2010: many changes and few effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the situation of road traffic accidents in Brazil since 1998, when a new Brazilian traffic law was approved, up to the year 2010. A review of both academic and non-academic literature was carried out, including journals (both indexed and non-indexed), technical reports, author searches, searches in paper reference lists and direct contact with researchers. The main problems related to road traffic accidents in Brazil identified were the increase in the absolute number of deaths and in the mortality rates, a rapid increase in the number of motorcycles, and drink & driving. Influent authors in the field and centers of expertise were identified. Some potential solutions are presented by the authors, who suggest that the public offices related to traffic regulation and control are not taking suitable measures for control and reduction of road traffic accidents.

  16. Traffic Accidents And Destiny Relation -In Contex Prayers, Cha-rity And Resignation-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ORAL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are established rules to avoid traffic Chaos. Failure to do so may result in traffic accidents which are sad events. God tied everything in this world to some reasons. Even though the humans fulfill these reasons, God creates them in accordance with the free will of the person. This is a divine law, that is, fate. Are traffic accidents fate? How much do our will and precautions affect this? With prayer and charity, can we prevent accidents that could happen to us? Do people die in traffic accidents because their life-spans expired? Such questions in people's minds may be a problem. This article will offer solutions to the discussions concerning traffic accidents and fate, within the fra-mework of Islamic theology and creed.

  17. Discovering urban mobility patterns with PageRank based traffic modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjie; Yang, Su; Sun, Yi; Gao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Urban transportation system can be viewed as complex network with time-varying traffic flows as links to connect adjacent regions as networked nodes. By computing urban traffic evolution on such temporal complex network with PageRank, it is found that for most regions, there exists a linear relation between the traffic congestion measure at present time and the PageRank value of the last time. Since the PageRank measure of a region does result from the mutual interactions of the whole network, it implies that the traffic state of a local region does not evolve independently but is affected by the evolution of the whole network. As a result, the PageRank values can act as signatures in predicting upcoming traffic congestions. We observe the aforementioned laws experimentally based on the trajectory data of 12000 taxies in Beijing city for one month.

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  19. THE ROLE OF COMPLIANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION. WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreescu Nicoleta Alina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the importance of ethical and conduct codes in implementing the compliance programs in an organization. We presented the assumptions that were the basis for the forming of ethic and compliance programs, as well as their evolution in the last decades. In the first part of this paper we highlighted the legislation that outlined principles required for organizations to implement their compliance programs and business ethics. This legislation came as a response to corporate scandals relating to bribery, fraud and corruption in the 70s, and governments of the affected countries were forced to react in order to prevent, detect inappropriate behaviour, as well as improve corporate behaviour. After coming into force of the Federal Law "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977" (FCPA, 1977, there was an increase in the number of codes of conduct and corporate involvement in adopting a conduct supported by consumers and stakeholders and to redefine the standards and values, to create a new image corresponding to the new market requirements. In the Guidelines 2002 basic principles are set out in order to efficiently implement a compliance and ethics program in business. The case study was materialized in the analysis of ethics and compliance codes, and the method used for implementing them in three Romanian companies. Analyzing the three ethics and conduct codes, we can conclude that the most important factor to successfully implement ethics and compliance within an organization is "tone from the top". CEO conduct is one that has a direct effect on members of the organization. Furthermore, we followed capturing developments in the rules governing the international business ethics and evaluated the legal framework regulating these issues. The primary aim was to assess how rules are implemented throughout business ethics compliance programs developed at company level and to identify ways to promote - at an organizational level

  20. Taxpayers’ motivations relating to tax compliance: Evidence from two representative samples of Austrian and Dutch self-employed taxpayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangl, Katherina; Hofmann, Eva; Groot, de Manon; Antonides, G.; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Hartl, Barbara; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance is assumed to be shaped by three main motivations to comply: enforced, voluntary, and committed motivation. Taxpayers, who hold an enforced motivation to comply, only pay taxes because of audits and fines for non-compliance. Voluntary motivated taxpayers respect the law and pay taxes

  1. The Effect of Tax Reforms and Tax Compliance on the Economic Development of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajani, Olawumi Funso

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1980s’ the awareness of the effect of tax reforms and tax compliance on economic development has increased significantly. The positive and effective use of tax revenues influences how taxpayers comply with tax laws. In particular, taxpayers tend to adhere to tax laws and fulfil their obligations when it is evident that the taxes paid are put into proper use by providing the essential public goods and services needed by the citizens. Compliance increases when it is believed t...

  2. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  3. Integration of a driving simulator and a traffic simulator case study: Exploring drivers' behavior in response to variable message signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jeihani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a driving simulator has been integrated with a traffic simulator at the network level to allow subjects to drive in a fairly realistic environment with a realistic traffic flow and density. A 10 mi2 (25 km2 network was developed in a driving simulator and then exported to a traffic simulator. About 30 subjects drove the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions and variable message sign (VMS information, both with and without integration. Route guidance was available for the subjects. The challenges of the integration process are explained and its advantages investigated. The study concluded that traffic density, VMS reliability and compliance behavior are higher when driving and traffic simulators are integrated. To find factors affecting route diversion, researchers applied a binary logistic regression model. The results indicated that the original chosen route, displayed VMS information, subjects' attitude toward VMS information helpfulness, and their level of exposure to VMS affect route diversion. In addition, a multinomial logistic regression model was employed to investigate important factors in route choice. The results revealed that there is a significant correlation with driver route choice behavior and their actual travel time, the need for GPS, VMS exposure and also the designed scenarios. It should be noted that the paper was peer-reviewed by TRB and presented at the TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2016. Keywords: Integration, Variable message sign, Compliance behavior, Driving simulator, Traffic simulator, Discrete choice analysis

  4. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  5. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  6. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, B.; Islam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine compliance, factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive therapy and to compare compliant and non-compliant groups, in a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Analytical (cross-sectional) study. Place and Duration of Study: The outpatient clinics at the Aga Khan University from May 2004 to February 2005. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients presenting to the outpatients clinic were included. All patients 18 years and above, who had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, had one clinic visit to a medicine clinic, 6 months prior to presentation and started on antihypertensive medicines, were included. Results: Sixty-six percent were males and 33.5 % were females. Mean age was 58.1 ( +- 12) years and mean duration of hypertension was 7.2 (+- 6.7) years. Fifty-seven percent were compliant and 43% were noncompliant. In the noncompliant group, 53.4 % had mild noncompliance, 24.4 % had severe non-compliance, while 22% had moderate noncompliance. Factors of noncompliance were 56.8% missed doses due to forgetfulness, 12.7% deliberately missed their doses, 11.6% could not take the medicine due to side effects, 10.4% did not take the dose due to increased number of tablets, 4.6% were not properly counseled by the physician and 3.48% did not take medicines due to cost issues. The mean systolic blood pressure was 126 +- 19.2 mmHg in the compliant group while it was 133 +- 16.5 mmHg in the noncompliant group (p-value 0.004). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the compliant group was 76 +- 11.9 mmHg, while in the noncompliant group it was 81.9 +- 10.9 mmHg (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy in a tertiary care center is significantly good. Forgetfulness was the major reason for noncompliance. The mean blood pressure control was better in the compliant group. (author)

  7. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  8. PENGAWASAN DEWAN PENGAWAS SYARIAH PADA AKTA PEMBIAYAAN NOTARIS DALAM RANGKA KEPATUHAN PRINSIP SYARIAH (SHARIA COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arista Nurul Shofanisa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As an intermediary institution based on sharia principle, sharia banks are required to performing two compliance namely compliance syariah principle and law compliance, as for th application of two compliance is it not only in  good corporate governance and the kind of product sharia bank, but also on financing deed made by a notary. Therefore financing deed in sharia banks must reflect sharia compliance principle besides the law compliance, special concern about sharia compliance, has become scope authority from the Sharia Supervisory Board, in this term Sharia Supervisory Board not only ensure the application of sharia compliance but also every deeds which was built by by a notary sharia bankmust to be in accordance with the sharia principle. Failure on the fulfillment of the shariah principle on a sharia bank financing deed can led to such deed null and void, so that in this case application of sharia principle should be given to the aspect of protection sharia banks and consumer protection which took the form of the superintendence of the Sharia Supervisory Board to every sharia bank financing deed.

  9. Managing compliance risk after Mifid

    OpenAIRE

    P. Musile Tanzi; G. Gabbi; D. Previati; P. Schwizer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on changes in the compliance function within major European banks and other financial intermediaries and on the effects of Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) implementation. Design/methodology/approach – The four areas of research seek to answer the following questions: Is the positioning of the compliance function “at the top” of the organizational structure? Are the roles attributed to the compliance function, th...

  10. Compliance officers and legal advisers in power supply companies. interactions between compliance, risk management and the employer-employee relationship; Compliance-Beauftragte und Justitiare in EVU. Wechselwirkungen von Compliance, Risikomanagement und Arbeitsverhaeltnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Juergen [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Ralf; Bussmann, Sandra [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    An inevitable task of any employee who has been appointed compliance officer, head of the legal department or internal auditor is to ensure that the company is protected against detriment through breaches of law or regulations. Another of his or her tasks, however, and one which might not be as obvious, is to ensure that parties outside the company are protected against detriment through his or her own employer. In order to deal appropriately with these and related questions some basic considerations on the necessity and function of compliance surveillance and its relationship with risk management must first be made. Using two significant court decisions for illustration the authors make a close examination of the liability issues involved in this area of potential conflict. They identify some salient points which should be considered in framing the contractual relationship between a compliance officer and his or her employer.

  11. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  12. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  13. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  14. The NASA Air Traffic Management Ontology (atmonto)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA ATM (Air Traffic Management) Ontology describes classes, properties, and relationships relevant to the domain of air traffic management, and represents...

  15. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  16. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  17. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  19. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws (United States): 1 - Virginia Uranium, Inc. v. Warren, 848 F.3d 590 (4. Cir. 2017): In the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, the plaintiffs, a collection of uranium mining companies and owners of land containing uranium deposits, challenged a Commonwealth of Virginia moratorium on conventional uranium mining. The plaintiffs alleged that the state moratorium was preempted by federal law under the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution.; 2 - United States v. Energy Solutions, Inc.; Rockwell Holdco, Inc.; Andrews County; Holdings, Inc.; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. (D. Del. June 21, 2017): In 2016, the United States, acting through the US Department of Justice, commenced an action in United States District Court in Delaware seeking to enjoin the acquisition of Waste Control Specialists, LLC (WCS) and its parent company by Energy Solutions, Inc., and its parent. WCS and Energy Solutions are competitors in the market for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) produced by commercial generators of such material. The United States alleged that the proposed acquisition was unlawful. 3 - Cooper v. Tokyo Electric Power Company, No. 15-56426 (9. Cir. 2017): The plaintiffs are US Navy service members who were deployed off the Japanese coast as part of the US effort to provide earthquake relief after the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Plaintiffs sued alleging 'that TEPCO was negligent in operating the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and in reporting the extent of the radiation leak

  20. Quality beyond compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, N; Monroe, M; White, L; Larson, R

    1999-01-01

    The service sector within the biopharmaceutical industry has experienced phenomenal growth over the past decade. In the highly regulated Good Laboratory Practices environment, the need for timely, high-quality service, accurate results, and on-time deliverables becomes paramount for the success and profitability of biopharmaceutical companies. The quality assurance process is a vital component of this drug product-development cycle and ensures compliance to the highest domestic and international regulatory standards. Quality-assurance professionals historically have held the role of independent auditors of the processes, who certify that results meet current standards of practice. Covance, a contract research organization that includes Good Laboratory Practices laboratories, reorganized and expanded the functional responsibilities of its quality assurance team in 1997. Auditors and quality assurance professionals have assumed roles beyond traditional compliance auditing and are forging new leadership and mentoring roles as process-improvement specialists. The results have been tangible, measurable benefits for clients and the Covance organization. This article provides an overview of this cultural change and the processes put in place to improve efficiency, productivity, and customer and employee satisfaction.

  1. Proactive compliance report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) stipulates requirements to protect public safety, minimize environmental impacts, improve conservation, and ensure equity by promoting orderly and responsible energy development. Surveillance activities by the EUB, such as inspections and audits, ensures compliance with these requirements. This report presents statistical results of the enforcement ladder process (inspections, complaints, activities, major initiatives, and enforcement) for 2004 across ten EUB groups, including, Field Surveillance, Resources Applications Group, Operations Group, Environment Group, Utilities Branch, Facilities Applications Group, Corporate Compliance Group, Fort McMurray, Information and Dissemination Group, and Financial Management Group. When a noncompliance is identified, the EUB uses a process that has an established policy for EUB enforcement actions. Enforcement actions are determined by the severity of the noncompliance event and are escalated for subsequent noncompliance or failure to comply with the EUB's corrective order. Within the process, the EUB provides a grace period after an initial enforcement action. During this period, the EUB will take appropriate enforcement actions for subsequent noncompliances but will not escalate enforcement consequences. Enforcement consequences are escalated after the grace period has expired. 72 tabs

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period

  4. Formalizing and appling compliance patterns for business process compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgammal, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Heuvel, W.; Papazoglou, M.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s enterprises demand a high degree of compliance of business processes to meet diverse regulations and legislations. Several industrial studies have shown that compliance management is a daunting task, and organizations are still struggling and spending billions of dollars annually to ensure

  5. Formalizing and applying compliance patterns for business process compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgammal, A.F.S.A.; Türetken, O.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.M.; Papazoglou, M.

    Today’s enterprises demand a high degree of compliance of business processes to meet diverse regulations and legislations. Several industrial studies have shown that compliance management is a daunting task, and organizations are still struggling and spending billions of dollars annually to ensure

  6. Diagnostic information for compliance checking of temporal compliance requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Salinesi, C.; Norrie, M.C.; Pastor, O.

    2013-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today’s organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying predefined (legal) requirements or service level agreements. Deviations may be costly and expose an organization to severe risks. Compliance

  7. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic violence, preventing him/her from possessing a firearm in compliance with section 658 of Public... orientation session developed by Reclamation to become familiar with Federal laws and procedures and with all...

  8. New thought experiment to test the generalized second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, George E.A.; Rocha da Silva, Andre R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose an extension of the original thought experiment proposed by Geroch, which sparked much of the actual debate and interest on black hole thermodynamics, and show that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is in compliance with it

  9. COBRA compliance: how employers can successfully meet today's complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jim

    2003-03-01

    Although the architects of COBRA had sound and compassionate motivations in place, administration of and compliance with this law are far from easy. COBRA assists employees that lose their jobs by allowing them to purchase insurance benefits from their former employer. Outsourcing COBRA administration can be the best way for some employers to cope with COBRA regulations, contingencies and paperwork and avoid legal fees and penalties. But look for COBRA providers that have a sound track record.

  10. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  11. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  12. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The

  13. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  14. 75 FR 54692 - Notice of Debarment Pursuant to Section 127.7(c) of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Traffic in Arms Regulations Title: Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment under... Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State (202) 663-2980. SUPPLEMENTARY.... Statutory debarment is based solely upon conviction in a criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States...

  15. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham- Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber-attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offline. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber-attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-09-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill- Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data generated by multiple sensors of different types, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for a specific decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offliine. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  17. Compliance Issues in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency in the 1980's, quality in the 1990's, compliance in the 2010's - private sector management techniques and mechanisms find their way to public services. This paper facilitates the understanding of how compliance management controls can improve operations and prevent or detect failure or wrong doing. The last few years' empirical research…

  18. Diagnostic information in compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today's organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying predefined (legal) requirements. Deviations may be costly and expose the organization to severe risks. Compliance checking is of growing

  19. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  20. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  1. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  2. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber-sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website.

  3. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...... of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average...

  4. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...

  5. The effect of business characteristics on tax compliance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popi Fauziati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Compliance fee is the cost incurred by the taxpayers in fulfilling the taxation requirements imposed on the taxpayers by the law and the authority of the country. The company expects to incur the minimum tax costs associated with fulfilling its tax obligations. Research on the influence of business characteristics to tax compliance cost is still scanty. This research examined the effect of business characteristics (age, size, sector and risk management on tax compliance costs. The research design adopted in this study is survey design. The questionnaires were distributed to the members of De-partment of Cooperatives and Micro Small-Medium Enterprises in Padang City. The non-probability sampling was used as the sampling method and 92 respondents participated in this re-search. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The research findings indicate that age, size and sector have no effect on tax compliance costs while risk management has an effect on tax compliance costs.

  6. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliday, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  7. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  8. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  9. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Compliance with tobacco control policies in India: an examination of facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M M; Rimal, R N; Lumby, E; Cohen, J; Surette, A; Roundy, V; Feighery, E; Shah, V

    2016-03-01

    India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) prohibits smoking in public places, limits advertising at points of sale, and bans sales in close proximity to educational institutions. To examine key stakeholders' (i.e., tobacco retailers, hotel and restaurant owners/managers, law enforcement officials, school principals/administrators) perceptions of facilitators and barriers to compliance with COTPA. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 60), we identified a range of facilitators and barriers that varied across the venues. A number of simple measures to increase compliance were identified: provide signs to retailers, provide aesthetically pleasing signs more fitting for the atmosphere of the hotel/restaurant, etc., and empower law enforcement to implement the law. Priority should be placed on public awareness, as it can facilitate compliance in numerous venues. Communication efforts could be undertaken to change the public's residual negative attitudes toward the policy.

  11. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole

  12. Environmental projects. Volume 3: Environmental compliance audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at Goldstone are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL and Goldstone have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, abestos, and underground storage tanks. A JPL version of a document prepared as an environmental audit of Goldstone operations is presented. Both general and specific items of noncompliance at Goldstone are identified and recommendations are provided for corrective actions.

  13. Compliance characteristics of cracked UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williford, R.E.; Mohr, C.L.; Lanning, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The thermally induced cracking of UO 2 fuel pellets causes simultaneous reductions of the bulk (extrinsic) fuel thermal conductivity and elastic moduli to values significantly less than those for solid pellets. The magnitude of these bulk properly reductions was found to be primarily dependent on the amount of crack area in the transverse plane of the fuel. The model described herein uses a simple description of the crack geometry to couple the fuel rod thermal and mechanical behaviors by relating in-reactor data to Hooke's Law and a crack compliance model. Data from the NRC/PNL Halden experiment IFA-432 show that for a typical helium-filled BWR-design rod at 30 kW/m, the effective thermal conductivity and elastic moduli of the cracked fuel are 4/5 and 1/40 of that for solid pellets, respectively

  14. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  15. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    , treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  16. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  17. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  18. Complying with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavetto, C.S.; Watmore, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), signed into law on October 6, 1992, amended the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to place significant additional environmental compliance responsibilities on federal facilities. The federal government has expressly waived sovereign immunity regarding hazardous waste enforcement action taken against these facilities by the states and the EPA. An exception exists for mixed waste violations. The FFCA defines mixed waste as hazardous waste, as defined by RCRA, combined with source, special nuclear or by-product material that is subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. As the majority owner of mixed waste in the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) must satisfy several new requirements under the FFCA for their facilities. This paper reviews the FFCA's requirements and how they apply to and may affect the DOE and other federal facilities. Included in the review are responsibilities of federal agencies involved and the role of the EPA and the states. In addition, this paper discusses the intent of the FFCA to encourage development of federal facility agreements (FFA) between federal agencies, the EPA and state environmental regulatory agencies

  19. Planning for compliance: OSHA's bloodborne pathogen rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, B; Duke, M C

    1990-11-01

    Overall, the bloodborne pathogen rule constitutes a reasonable response to a significant threat to workplace safety. The risks to dialysis workers from HBV and HIV must be minimized or eliminated and the rule is generally consistent with the consensus approach. Unfortunately for dialysis providers, the rule is not exempt from the law of unintended consequences: government regulation will always have impact beyond its object. Promulgation of the final rule will immediately increase the expenses of dialysis providers. Additionally, the enormity of the HBV and HIV problem coupled with the open-ended nature of the rule's key provisions will almost certainly bring additional costs. So long as dialysis reimbursement remains flat, the unintended consequence of the bloodborne pathogen rule may be to quicken the pace of consolidation in the dialysis service market. The added burden of compliance may be too much for small independent facilities. Only large chains may have the resources to comply and survive. To forestall this effect and to provide employees with maximum protection, all dialysis providers should plan now for compliance.

  20. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  1. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  2. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  3. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... and 500 deaths! Foundation News Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  4. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  5. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  6. Relationship of community traffic rights and international conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has established the Union as a legal personality. It opens for mixed agreements on foreign policy and community topics. In areas where the Union legislates, the EU can sign various kinds of agreements on behalf of the member states, who are consequently not allowed to negotiate international agreements on their own (autonomously in these areas. The European Union's accession to the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF represents a historic step for the railway community. This relationship is now clear: a disconnection clause in the accession agreement in principle allows EU law precedence for traffic internal to the EU. The relationship between EU law and COTIF law is there more about coordination than disconnection.

  7. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics from the Abilene network on a weekly basis. At that time, the network connected 230 research institutes with a 10Gb/s link. Although these reports were limited to the behavior of the Albeline's users,...

  8. Traffic classification with passive measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hoang Phong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is a master thesis from a collaboration between Oslo University College and Uninett Research. Uninett have a passive monitoring device on a 2.5 Gbps backbone link between Trondheim and Narvik. They uses measurement with optical splitters and specialized measuring interfaces to trace traffic with Gigabit speed. We would like to investigate the structure and patterns in these data. It is of special interest to classify the traffic belonging to different services and protocols. ...

  9. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  10. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  11. Regulatory measures for traffic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapur, R.D.; Bharambe, S.D.; Patnaik, S.K.; Tandle, A.K.; Sonawane, K.A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Venkat Subramanian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic safety is an issue related to occupational safety not restricted alone to the transportation but extends beyond. BARC has many facilities spread across large area in Mumbai and outside Mumbai. BARC deploys large number of buses, mini buses, jeeps and cars for commuting its employees to reach BARC and for commuting within BARC premises. Additionally, trucks, fire tenders, trailers etc. are also deployed for transportation of materials. No moving vehicle is ever free of the possibility of involvement in an accident. Vehicular accidents and the fatalities on road are the result of inter-play of a number of factors. The vehicle population has been steadily increasing with the pace picking up significantly in recent past. Increase in vehicle population in the face of limited road space used by a large variety of traffic has heightened the need and urgency for a well-thought-out road safety. Therefore, existence of regulatory authority to regulate traffic and vehicles to ensure safety of its employees and vehicles is very essential. BARC Traffic Safety Committee (BTSC), which is the regulating body for traffic safety is responsible for ensuring overall traffic safety. (author)

  12. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  13. 29 CFR 471.10 - How will the Department determine whether a contractor is in compliance with Executive Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS OF FEDERAL CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS General Enforcement; Compliance Review and Complaint Procedures § 471.10...

  14. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  15. Female vs. Male Ampelmännchen-Gender-Specific Reaction Times to Male and Female Traffic Light Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid I. Kandil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are important visual guiding signals for the safe navigation through complex road traffic. Interestingly, there is little variation in the traffic signs for cars around the world. However, remarkable variation exists for pedestrian traffic signs. Following up from an earlier study, we investigated the visual efficacy of female vs. male German Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signs. In a Stroop-like test, 30 subjects were presented with female and male go and no-go traffic light figures that were shown either in the corresponding or opposing color. Subjects had to indicate, based either solely on the form or the color of the figure, whether they were allowed to go. Accuracy and response times across all subjects did not differ for the female vs. male signs, indicating that Ampelfrau and Ampelmann signs have equal visual efficacy. However, subjects responded faster to signs of their own vs. the opposite gender. This preference for signs of one's own gender is in accordance with effects in social psychology described by social learning theory. An introduction of such novel traffic lights may, thus, contribute to higher compliance with the traffic sign signals.

  16. Investigating traffic light violations by cyclists in Dublin City Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This research examines the behaviour of cyclists in Dublin City with specific regard to red light running. A number of specific research questions are raised by this study. These questions address the impact of different infrastructure types on red light running, as well as the behavioural patterns and demographics of offending cyclists. Two data collection methods were used to gather information on cyclists in Dublin City - an observational survey and an online questionnaire. The observational surveys examined cyclist compliance with different traffic signal systems and the impact of on-road and off-road cycle infrastructure. An online questionnaire was used to get direct feedback from cyclists in Dublin City on the reasons (if any) they decide to commit infringement at traffic lights. With the recent growth of cycling in Dublin City (as well as many other international cities) it is vital to accommodate and manage this growing demand by ensuring the safety and road discipline of cyclists. The next few years will be crucial for the continued development of cycling in Dublin, particularly due to the increasing investment by transport planners in cycle infrastructure. It is therefore important to identify now the main factors which influence cyclist's decisions to break red lights in order to guide local traffic authorities in their efforts to reduce such transgressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  18. Revenue-Maximizing Radio Access Technology Selection with Net Neutrality Compliance in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissar Khloussy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The net neutrality principle states that users should have equal access to all Internet content and that Internet Service Providers (ISPs should not practice differentiated treatment on any of the Internet traffic. While net neutrality aims to restrain any kind of discrimination, it also grants exemption to a certain category of traffic known as specialized services (SS, by allowing the ISP to dedicate part of the resources for the latter. In this work, we consider a heterogeneous LTE/WiFi wireless network and we investigate revenue-maximizing Radio Access Technology (RAT selection strategies that are net neutrality-compliant, with exemption granted to SS traffic. Our objective is to find out how the bandwidth reservation for SS traffic would be made in a way that allows maximizing the revenue while being in compliance with net neutrality and how the choice of the ratio of reserved bandwidth would affect the revenue. The results show that reserving bandwidth for SS traffic in one RAT (LTE can achieve higher revenue. On the other hand, when the capacity is reserved across both LTE and WiFi, higher social benefit in terms of number of admitted users can be realized, as well as lower blocking probability for the Internet access traffic.

  19. Right-­turn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance in th...

  20. Right-\\0xADturn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in : Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) : and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance i...

  1. Oil Mist Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that 'Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace', and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: 'American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 'Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,' (2005) (incorporated by reference, see (section)851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910'. In the 2005 ACGIH Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified

  2. Oil Mist Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  3. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

  4. Energy law novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Paula

    2004-01-01

    Energy Law no. 318/2003 has been worked out in compliance with the EU Electricity Directive based on the following principles and objectives: - clearly defining the positions and roles of various institutional entities and structures; - introducing the competitions in energy generation and supply; - creation and functioning of electricity competitive markets; - right of certain consumers to buy electricity directly from the producers; - direct, fair and regulated access to electrical network of all the participants in the electricity market; - generators, distributors and consumers; - achieving the activities in the field under reliable conditions and at the quality standards for optimally using the primary energy resources by observing the environmental protection norms in force; - promoting, in a balanced manner, the interests of the National Power System based on the European regulations and requirements on optimal and efficient resources use by observing the environmental criteria and norms; - ensuring the sustainable development of the national economy; - diversifying the primary energy resources basis; - transparency of electricity tariffs, prices and taxes; - creating the security stocks of needed fuels for electricity and heat co-generation; - ensuring the interconnected operation of the NPS with the energy systems in the neighboring countries and with the ones in the UCTE; - promoting the use of renewable energy sources. Among the novelties brought by this Law by the definitions given to the terms used it is worth mentioning: - Access to the public electricity network; - Energy capacity; - Passageway of the electric line; - Natural monopoly in the energy field; - Electricity market operator; - Distribution system operator; - Transmission system operator; -Merit order (i.e the order in which an electricity producer is taken into consideration according to the price offered to cover the NPS electricity demand); - Electricity market; - Rehabilitation

  5. Y2K compliance countdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlotto, P W

    1999-01-01

    The new century brings unique challenges--especially Y2K compliance. This article presents nurse managers and executives with an overview of the issues and action steps to keep their organizations on track.

  6. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  7. The Italian compliance assurance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelloni, S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is given of the compliance assurance programme that is applied in Italy and the role of the different competent authorities that have responsibilities for the transport of radioactive materials is described. (author)

  8. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  9. The Strategic Nature of Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    by the anticipated enforcement decision of the monitoring agency and whether this agency is responsive to the probability of enforcement success and the potential sanctioning costs produced by noncomplying implementers. Compared to other monitoring systems, the centralized monitoring system of the European Union (EU......This compliance study models correct and timely implementation of policies in a multilevel system as a strategic game between a central monitoring agency and multiple implementers and evaluates statistically the empirical implications of this model. We test whether compliance is determined......) is praised for exemplary effectiveness, but our findings reveal that the monitoring agency refrains from enforcing compliance when the probability of success is low, and the sanctioning costs are high. This results in a compliance deficit, even though the selective enforcement activities of the monitoring...

  10. Above reproach: developing a comprehensive ethics and compliance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuspeh, A; Whalen, K; Cecelic, J; Clifton, S; Cobb, L; Eddy, M; Fainter, J; Packard, J; Postal, S; Steakley, J; Waddey, P

    1999-01-01

    How can a healthcare organization improve the public's confidence in the conduct of its business operations? What can it do to ensure that it can thrive despite being the subject of public and governmental scrutiny and doubt? Healthcare providers must establish standards of conduct that are above reproach and ensure that those standards are clearly articulated and strictly adhered to. This article describes the merits of a comprehensive ethics and compliance program, suggests five basic elements of such a program--organizational support/structure, setting standards, creating awareness, establishing a mechanism for reporting exceptions, and monitoring and auditing--and then demonstrates how those elements should be applied in several high-risk areas. Fundamentally, an ethics and compliance program has two purposes: to ensure that all individuals in an organization observe pertinent laws and regulations in their work; and to articulate a broader set of aspirational ethical standards that are well-understood within the organization and become a practical guideline for organization members making decisions that raise ethical concerns. Every ethics and compliance program should contain certain fundamental aspects. First, the effort must have the active support of the most senior management in the organization. To instill a commitment to ethics and compliance absent a clear and outspoken commitment to such purposes by organization leaders is simply impossible. Second, an ethics and compliance program is fundamentally about organizational culture--about instilling a commitment to observe the law and, more generally, to do the right thing. Third, ethics and compliance are responsibilities of operating management (sometimes called line management). Although staff such as compliance officers are obligated to provide the necessary resources for a successful program and to design the program, such staff officers cannot achieve implementation and execution. Only operating

  11. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  12. Finite size scaling analysis on Nagel-Schreckenberg model for traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana

    2015-03-01

    The traffic flow problem as a many-particle non-equilibrium system has caught the interest of physicists for decades. Understanding the traffic flow properties and though obtaining the ability to control the transition from the free-flow phase to the jammed phase plays a critical role in the future world of urging self-driven cars technology. We have studied phase transitions in one-lane traffic flow through the mean velocity, distributions of car spacing, dynamic susceptibility and jam persistence -as candidates for an order parameter- using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model to simulate traffic flow. The length dependent transition has been observed for a range of maximum velocities greater than a certain value. Finite size scaling analysis indicates power-law scaling of these quantities at the onset of the jammed phase.

  13. Compliance with removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirmal

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesMedline via OVID, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science Core Collection, LILACS and BBO databases. Unpublished clinical trials accessed using ClinicalTrials.gov, National Research Register, ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database.Study selectionTwo authors searched studies from inception until May 2016 without language restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative studies incorporating objective data on compliance with removable appliances, barriers to appliance wear compliance, and interventions to improve compliance were included.Data extraction and synthesisQuality of research was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool, the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I), and the mixed methods appraisal tool. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by examining a graphic display of the estimated compliance levels in conjunction with 95% confidence intervals and quantified using the I-squared statistic. A weighted estimate of objective compliance levels for different appliances in relation to stipulated wear and self-reported levels was also calculated. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Meta-regression was undertaken to assess the relative effects of appliance type on compliance levels.ResultsTwenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were included in the quantitative synthesis. The mean duration of objectively measured wear was considerably lower than stipulated wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.81 hours, 95% confidence interval, 4.98, 6.64). Self-reported wear time was consistently higher than objectively measured wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.02 hours, 95% confidence interval, 3.64, 6.40). Two studies found an increase in compliance with headgear and Hawley retainers when patients were aware of monitoring. Five studies found younger age groups to

  14. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  15. Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.

  16. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  17. Assessment of compliance of Employees and Management to Occupational Health & Safety Act in the Department of Public Safety in the North West Province / Neo Patricia Seleka

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the worker assessment of compliance to OHS act in the department of Public safety. One hundred and two (102) employees were selected randomly using table of random numbers from different directorates such as Human resources, Finance, Road safety, Crime prevention and Traffic management. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire which was made of personal characteristics and sections on level of compliance with OHS act, workers' ...

  18. The Newcomb-Benford law and nuclear half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Gyuerky, Gy.

    2010-01-01

    Compete text of publication follows. The satisfaction of the Newcomb-Benford law (a.k.a. Benford's first digit law) is a long standing issue in science, and has interesting mathematical and philosophical consequences. It was identified by Newcomb in 1881 and reinvented later by Benford in 1938. The law states that the distribution of the first digit of numbers taken from various sources like magazines, scientific publications, wealth statistics, etc. . . follows the law P d = lg (1 + 1/d) (d = 1, 2, ..., 9), where d is the given digit. It was reported recently that the satisfaction of the law was observed in nuclear decay half-life datasets. Based on this fact, it was implied that the law is helpful as a test for nuclear decay models, as well as it can be used to search for new physical phenomena (like self organized criticality) which can be responsible for the satisfaction of the law. The mathematical conundrum of the Newcomb-Benford law has been solved in 2008 for numbers coming from a data set with a given distribution. The 'Benford compliance theorem' uses the Fourier transform of the probability distribution function of the numbers to identify the characteristics of the distribution responsible for the satisfaction of the law. In our work we confirmed that the halflives of radioactive nuclei satisfy the law by using two standard techniques: direct plotting and the 'ones scaling test' method. We also showed that the distribution of the half-life values closely resembles a log-normal distribution stretching through about 54 orders of magnitude. By using the Fourier transform of the distribution function we showed that the numbers with such a distribution automatically satisfy the Newcomb-Benford law, due to the compliance theorem. Thus we concluded that the satisfaction of the law provides no additional clue on whether a nuclear model is valid or not, given it produces a similar distribution of halflives as observed.

  19. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  20. Security practices and regulatory compliance in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Juhee; Johnson, M Eric

    2013-01-01

    Securing protected health information is a critical responsibility of every healthcare organization. We explore information security practices and identify practice patterns that are associated with improved regulatory compliance. We employed Ward's cluster analysis using minimum variance based on the adoption of security practices. Variance between organizations was measured using dichotomous data indicating the presence or absence of each security practice. Using t tests, we identified the relationships between the clusters of security practices and their regulatory compliance. We utilized the results from the Kroll/Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society telephone-based survey of 250 US healthcare organizations including adoption status of security practices, breach incidents, and perceived compliance levels on Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Red Flags rules, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and state laws governing patient information security. Our analysis identified three clusters (which we call leaders, followers, and laggers) based on the variance of security practice patterns. The clusters have significant differences among non-technical practices rather than technical practices, and the highest level of compliance was associated with hospitals that employed a balanced approach between technical and non-technical practices (or between one-off and cultural practices). Hospitals in the highest level of compliance were significantly managing third parties' breaches and training. Audit practices were important to those who scored in the middle of the pack on compliance. Our results provide security practice benchmarks for healthcare administrators and can help policy makers in developing strategic and practical guidelines for practice adoption.

  1. The law concerning liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    This treatise outlines the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Law No. 147, June 17, 1961) and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (Law, No. 148, June 17, 1961) which are both came into effect in March, 1962, and describes how these laws will be executed if an accident occurs actually in nuclear facilities. The first law which prescribes various provisions for compensation of nuclear damage is characterised as having the principle of no-fault liability and hence making a nuclear enterpriser responsible for securing adequate financial resources to indemnify general public for their damages from nuclear accidents. Thus, in compliance with the law a nuclear enterpriser should effect both the contract of the indemnity responsible insurance and the indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage. The second law deals with the indemnity agreement which is concluded by a nuclear enterpriser with the government and constitutes a full measure for compensation of nuclear damage supplementing the indemnity responsible insurance. The indemnity agreement is to insure compensation liabilities for nuclear damages which the indemnity responsible insurance can not cover-that is, damages caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and also damages from normal operations of nuclear facilities and those occurs after 10 years of an accident. Then, the author describes in detail how these laws apply in a nuclear accident to damages to third parties and those to facilities of related nuclear enterpriser himself and to his employees. Finally, the author refers to the legal systems for compensation of nuclear damage in the United States, Britain, France and West Germany. (Matsushima, A.)

  2. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  3. Traffic noise in Hyderabad city. part I: road traffic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Shaikh, Q.

    2000-01-01

    Traffic noise survey was conducted at 20 sites in different areas and localities in Hyderabad city and each site noise data was collected continuously from 0800 to 2000 h. The data was analyzed for L/sub A99/, L/sub A90/, L/sub A50/, L/sub 10/ and L/sub A1/, and approximate values of L/sub Aeq12h/ were evaluated for each site. The results are discussed with reference to some criteria for community annoyance and means and ways to limit high-level traffic noise are suggested. (author)

  4. Trafficability Analysis at Traffic Crossing and Parameters Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In city traffic, it is important to improve transportation efficiency and the spacing of platoon should be shortened when crossing the street. The best method to deal with this problem is automatic control of vehicles. In this paper, a mathematical model is established for the platoon’s longitudinal movement. A systematic analysis of longitudinal control law is presented for the platoon of vehicles. However, the parameter calibration for the platoon model is relatively difficult because the platoon model is complex and the parameters are coupled with each other. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization method is introduced to effectively optimize the parameters of platoon. The proposed method effectively finds the optimal parameters based on simulations and makes the spacing of platoon shorter.

  5. Tax compliance costs in the public sector : a case study in a public company services.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Carvalho Pinto de Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    Tax compliance costs are sacrifices of resources to understand and comply with all formalities which are required by tax law. In Brazil, those formalities of the tax laws are among the most complex and bureaucratic in the world and this has a direct influence on business costs, either for the payment of taxes in itself, is to meet the requirements of the legislation. The theme has attracted scientific interest, with the relatively recent development of research in the world, yet there are few...

  6. An epidemiological survey on road traffic crashes in Iran: application of the two logistic regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Mehmandar, Mohammad Reza; Mirbagheri, Babak; Hariri, Gholam Reza; Delpisheh, Ali; Soori, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors of human-related traffic crashes are the most important and preventable challenges for community health due to their noteworthy burden in developing countries in particular. The present study aims to investigate the role of human risk factors of road traffic crashes in Iran. Through a cross-sectional study using the COM 114 data collection forms, the police records of almost 600,000 crashes occurred in 2010 are investigated. The binary logistic regression and proportional odds regression models are used. The odds ratio for each risk factor is calculated. These models are adjusted for known confounding factors including age, sex and driving time. The traffic crash reports of 537,688 men (90.8%) and 54,480 women (9.2%) are analysed. The mean age is 34.1 ± 14 years. Not maintaining eyes on the road (53.7%) and losing control of the vehicle (21.4%) are the main causes of drivers' deaths in traffic crashes within cities. Not maintaining eyes on the road is also the most frequent human risk factor for road traffic crashes out of cities. Sudden lane excursion (OR = 9.9, 95% CI: 8.2-11.9) and seat belt non-compliance (OR = 8.7, CI: 6.7-10.1), exceeding authorised speed (OR = 17.9, CI: 12.7-25.1) and exceeding safe speed (OR = 9.7, CI: 7.2-13.2) are the most significant human risk factors for traffic crashes in Iran. The high mortality rate of 39 people for every 100,000 population emphasises on the importance of traffic crashes in Iran. Considering the important role of human risk factors in traffic crashes, struggling efforts are required to control dangerous driving behaviours such as exceeding speed, illegal overtaking and not maintaining eyes on the road.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, 'Environmental Standards for Management and Storage'; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. 300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. 2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  9. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  10. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  11. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  12. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  13. Integrated Quality Management System in Public Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Pašagić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Public urban traffic (PUT requirements are based on thespecific characteristics that dictate the requirements themselves.The problems faced by all the big cities regarding public urbantransport are very similar, and they range from unacceptabilityof the very organisational structure of the system facing the populationgrowth, limitations and congestions of the traffic routesloaded by an increasing number of automobiles, to the chroniclack of economic funds for the investments that would createthe necessary conditions for positive shifts. In PUT there aremany random parameters whose statistical laws are not easy todetermine and it is often the topic of research of various profilesof scientists. There is always the satisfaction, that is, the lack ofsatisfaction by the final user of the public urban transport andall the other involved groups. The result is that the potential usersof public urban transport give up and try to find other solutionsfor their transport needs, turning in principle to individualtraffic. Consequently, the number of passenger cars on the trafficroutes increases along with all the resulting negative effects.The complex systems of public urban transport facing the increasingrequirements to improve efficiency have to be subjectedto certain changes in order to achieve physical sustainability oftraffic at all, and to satisfy the environmental requirements thatoccur as counterbalance to the pollution of the urban area.With the aim of achieving optimal conditions for the qualityof service, and by introducing acceptable traffic solutionscombined with the integrated quality management systembased on the standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 high-qualityshifts are made possible. The integration of these standards resultsin the rational combining of the quality management systeminto a single efficient system, reflected in achieving high-quality traffic and transport service, improved informationflow, unique documentation, positive

  14. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  15. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  16. On vehicular traffic data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Mahnke, Reinhard [Institute of Physics, Rostock University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This contribution consists of analysis of empirical vehicular traffic flow data. The main focus lies on the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) data. The first findings show that there are artificial structures within the data due to errors of monitoring as well as smoothing position measurement data. As a result speed data show discretisation in 5 feet per second. The aim of this investigation is to construct microscopic traffic flow models which are in agreement to the analysed empirical data. The ongoing work follows the subject of research summarized by Christof Liebe in his PhD thesis entitled ''Physics of traffic flow: Empirical data and dynamical models'' (Rostock, 2010).

  17. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossoe, K.S., E-mail: kwami.sossoe@irt-systemx.fr [TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE SYSTEMX (France); Lebacque, J-P., E-mail: jean-patrick.lebacque@ifsttar.fr [UPE/IFSTTAR-COSYS-GRETTIA (France)

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  18. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  19. Obeying Environmental Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations regulations and policies to protect human health and the environment. June 27, 2012 Pyramid showing compliance at the base, and sustainability at the top Compliance with environmental regulations and policies is

  20. Environmental management compliance reengineering project, FY 1997 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanVliet, J.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    Through an integrated reengineering effort, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is successfully implementing process improvements that will permit safe and compliant operations to continue during the next 5 years, even though $80 million was removed from the Environmental Management (EM) program budget. A 2-year analysis, design, and implementation project will reengineer compliance-related activities and reduce operating costs by approximately $17 million per year from Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 through 2002, while continuing to meet the INEEL''s environment, safety, and health requirements and milestone commitments. Compliance reengineer''s focus is improving processes, not avoiding full compliance with environmental, safety, and health laws. In FY 1997, compliance reengineering used a three-phase approach to analyze, design, and implement the changes that would decrease operating costs. Implementation for seven specific improvement projects was completed in FY 1997, while five projects will complete implementation in FY 1998. During FY 1998, the three-phase process will be repeated to continue reengineering the INEEL

  1. Environmental management compliance reengineering project, FY 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanVliet, J.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    Through an integrated reengineering effort, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is successfully implementing process improvements that will permit safe and compliant operations to continue during the next 5 years, even though $80 million was removed from the Environmental Management (EM) program budget. A 2-year analysis, design, and implementation project will reengineer compliance-related activities and reduce operating costs by approximately $17 million per year from Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 through 2002, while continuing to meet the INEEL`s environment, safety, and health requirements and milestone commitments. Compliance reengineer`s focus is improving processes, not avoiding full compliance with environmental, safety, and health laws. In FY 1997, compliance reengineering used a three-phase approach to analyze, design, and implement the changes that would decrease operating costs. Implementation for seven specific improvement projects was completed in FY 1997, while five projects will complete implementation in FY 1998. During FY 1998, the three-phase process will be repeated to continue reengineering the INEEL.

  2. THE ROLE OF BROADCASTING AGENCY TO BUILD THE LEGAL COMPLIANCE OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Rukitasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Broadcasting has become part of peoples’ lives needs for information, entertainment and education. Broadcasting agency as mass communication media play a role to shape the behavior of political, social, and economic in every society, in order to establish the public legal compliance through broadcasting activities that are counseling and law clarification, it takes effective communication media so that the target is expected to be achieved through increased the quality broadcast programs and attractive containing understanding and knowledge about the law will be able to increase publics’ consciousness and legal compliance. This study using sociological-juridical approach by analyzing the empirical data in order to understand the social and legal responsibilities and functions of broadcasting as a mass communication media is effective in disseminating the law and the formation of values, the result of study drawn through the broadcast media were able to create a culture norms, it means the function of media is not only as a transmitter of information to disseminate the law to the public but also it can have the effect of influencing and encouraging the change of behavior towards the law-abiding. Keywords: Broadcasting Agency, Law Compliance, Society

  3. Property law in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Rebecca Frances

    2012-01-01

    Jersey law, and within it Jersey property law, has received little academic attention. This thesis seeks to examine, and provide a systematic account of, the Jersey law of property. Specific aspects of substantive law are explored. From these, general observations about the nature and structure of property law are made. Unsurprisingly, given the small size of the island, Jersey has a relatively limited amount of indigenous legal material to offer, much of it in French. Inevitab...

  4. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  5. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  6. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females [1].The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses [2]. It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries [3].In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doWEDjiHlVoI feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses

  7. Marketing and alcohol-related traffic fatalities: impact of alcohol advertising targeting minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Geller, E Scott

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol-related youth traffic fatalities continue as a major public-health concern. While state and federal laws can be useful in tackling this problem, the efficacy of many laws has not been empirically demonstrated. We examined the impact of state laws prohibiting alcohol advertising to target minors. Using statistics obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), youth alcohol-related, single-vehicle, driver traffic fatalities were compared by state as a function of whether the state has a law prohibiting alcohol advertising that targets minors. Overall, states possessing this law experienced 32.9% fewer of the above specified traffic fatalities. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The results suggest that not only are youth drinking rates affected by alcohol advertisements targeting youth, but also drink-driving behaviors. Indeed, we estimate that if this type of legislation were adopted in the 26 states that do not prohibit targeting of minors with alcohol advertising, then 400 youth lives could be saved annually.

  8. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    6 South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (2014) 7(1) SACENDU ... From this useful data, a few salient points emerge. First .... Psychotropic Substances (1971) (CPS)35 and the Convention Against Illicit Traffic in .... treatment centre.55 It has become known as “big business that feeds on itself” because.

  9. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  10. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  11. Fuzzy Multiobjective Traffic Light Signal Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahsavari Pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major concern for many cities throughout the world. In a general traffic light controller, the traffic lights change at a constant cycle time. Hence it does not provide an optimal solution. Many traffic light controllers in current use are based on the “time-of-the-day” scheme, which use a limited number of predetermined traffic light patterns and implement these patterns depending upon the time of the day. These automated systems do not provide an optimal control for fluctuating traffic volumes. In this paper, the fuzzy traffic light controller is used to optimize the control of fluctuating traffic volumes such as oversaturated or unusual load conditions. The problem is solved by genetic algorithm, and a new defuzzification method is introduced. The performance of the new defuzzification method (NDM is compared with the centroid point defuzzification method (CPDM by using ANOVA. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the competency of proposed algorithm.

  12. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  13. Traffic control concepts for incident clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This document discusses various aspects of traffic control for incidents with the focus on the traffic control roles and responsibilities of the responders as well as the safety of the responders and the motoring public. It also recognizes that activ...

  14. ICF's Plant Compliance Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Government and private industrial facilities must manage wastes that are both radioactive and (chemically) hazardous. Until recently, these mixed wastes have been managed under rules established under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Low-Level Waste Policy At, and rules that derive from environmental legislation have not been applied. Both sets of rules now apply to mixed wastes, creating situations in which significant changes to waste steams must be made in order to bring them into compliance with environmental regulations. The first step in bringing waste streams into compliance is to determine their status with respect to the newly-applicable regulations. This process of compliance assessment is difficult because requirements to minimize human exposure to radiation can conflict with requirements of environmental regulations, many regulations are potentially applicable, the regulations are changing rapidly, and because waste streams designed to operate under AEA rules frequently cannot be easily modified to incorporate the additional regulations. Modern personal computer (PC) tools are being developed to help regulatory analysts manage the large amounts of information required to asses the compliance status of complex process plants. This paper presents the Plant Compliance Assessment System (PCAS), which performs this function by relating a database containing references to regulatory requirements to databases created to describe relevant aspects of the facility to be assessed

  15. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 1998 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Ecological Services

    1998-10-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U. S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 1998. Twenty-one sites for seven projects were surveyed for the presence of state or federally protected species. Three projects were in or near habitat of the threatened desert tortoise and required special clearance and transect surveys. All geospatial data collected were entered into Bechtel Nevada's Ecological Geographic Information system for use in ongoing ecosystem management of the NTS.

  16. 78 FR 63245 - Certification of Compliance With the Statutory Eligibility Requirements of the Violence Against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... criminal justice system's response to violence against women. It envisions a partnership among law... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office on Violence Against Women [OMB Number 1122-0001] Certification of Compliance With the Statutory Eligibility Requirements of the Violence Against Women Act as Amended for...

  17. Environmental Compliance Audit Handbook (ECAH): U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schell, Donna

    1998-01-01

    .... The concept was to combine the Code of Federal Regulations with good management practices and risk-management issues into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and specific items of operations to review. This handbook is continually updated to address new environmental compliance laws and regulations.

  18. Environmental Compliance Audit Handbook (ECAH): U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schell, Donna

    2000-01-01

    .... The concept was to combine the Code of Federal Regulations with good management practices and risk management issues into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and specific items of operations to review. This handbook is continually updated to address new environmental compliance laws and regulations.

  19. Environmental Compliance Audit Handbook (ECAH): U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schell, Donna

    1999-01-01

    .... The concept was to combine the Code of Federal Regulations with good management practices and risk-management issues into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and specific items of operations to review. This handbook is continually updated to address new environmental compliance laws and regulations.

  20. Suggestions for Local School District Compliance with Title IX Rules and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This guidebook is designed to help local districts determine how well they comply with the spirit of the Title IX requirements against sex discrimination, which in turn could aid in compliance with the letter of the law. The document's first section presents samples of required antidiscrimination policy statements issued by two districts. The…

  1. Approaches for Intelligent Traffic System: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pratishtha Gupta; G.N Purohit; Amrita Dadhich

    2012-01-01

    This survey presents various approaches for intelligent traffic systems. The potential research fields in which Intelligent Traffic System emerges as an important application area are highlighted andvarious issues have been identified which need to be handled while developing such a system for an urban area, where an efficient traffic management has become the need of hour.A model is also proposed capable of managing intelligent traffic system using CCTV cameras and WAN. The proposed model wi...

  2. Physics of traffic gridlock in a city

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2011-01-01

    Based of simulations of a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that at a signalized city intersection under small link inflow rates at which a vehicle queue developed during the red phase of light signal dissolves fully during the green phase, i.e., no traffic gridlock should be expected, nevertheless, traffic breakdown with the subsequent city gridlock occurs with some probability after a random time delay. This traffic breakdown is initiated by a first-order phase transition...

  3. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  4. An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model

    OpenAIRE

    Attaullah, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and...

  5. Equality, reasonableness and gender in the process of constitutionalization and internationalization of law

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernando Quinche-Ramírez; Angélica Armenta Ariza

    2012-01-01

    The themes of this paper are equality, reasonableness and gender rights in the dynamics of two sequential and convergent processes: the constitutionalization of judicial law, and the internationalization of constitutional law. The thesis of this paper is that in the face of non-compliance of the obligation to regulate, guarantee and protect gender rights, the best option has been to strengthen judicial law, which has enabled the development of rules for protection, the ado...

  6. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  7. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    and analysis, and person re-identification. In traffic sign detection, the work comprises a thorough survey of the state of the art, assembly of the worlds largest public dataset with U.S. traffic signs, and work in machine learning based detection algorithms. It was shown that detection of U.S. traffic signs...

  8. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  9. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  10. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and

  11. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  12. Some random models in traffic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth, U.

    1996-06-01

    We give an overview of stochastic models for the following traffic phenomena. Models for traffic flow including gaps and capacities for lanes, crossings and roundabouts. Models for wanted and achieved speed distributions. Mode selection models including dispersed equilibrium models and traffic accident models. Also some statistical questions are discussed. 60 refs, 1 tab

  13. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  14. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP)

  17. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    head of traditional central government, the headman was the head of the ward, and the family head exercised leadership at family level.13 Accordingly, the nature of traditional governance in South Africa was that of an unspecialised legal system where the king or chief was creator of laws, the executor of laws and the judge ...

  18. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  19. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  20. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road