WorldWideScience

Sample records for traffic impact studies

  1. The psychological impact of traffic injuries sustained in a road crash by bicyclists: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craig, Ashley; Elbers, N.A.; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Gopinath, Bamini; Kifley, Annette; Dinh, Michal; Pozzato, Ilaria; Ivers, Rebecca; Nicholas, Michael; Cameron, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) in comparison to car occupants who also sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. Methods: An inception

  2. The Mynydd Y Cemmaes windfarm impact study - Volume IIB. Traffic impact: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.; Stevenson, R.

    1995-01-01

    This study, from the Energy Technology Support Unit of the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the effect on traffic movements of the construction and operation of the Mynydd y Cemmaes windfarm in Powys. The study was conducted before, during and after the construction of the windfarm over a two year period from 1992 to 1994. A large increase in traffic was observed on the unclassified road leading to the windfarm site during its construction phase, and these levels fell during commissioning and fell again during normal operation. Public concern about the traffic impact of the windfarm was then set against the 25% increase in local traffic during the windfarms operational phase. This data will be used to make more accurate predictions of traffic movements likely to occur in future windfarm construction projects. (UK)

  3. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  4. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  5. A revealed-preference study of behavioural impacts of real-time traffic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.S.A.; Tseng, Y.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of real-time traffic information on traveller behaviour by using repeated day-to-day revealed-preference (RP) observations from a reward experiment. We estimate a trip scheduling model of morning peak behaviour that allows us to determine the impact of

  6. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  7. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  8. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcinovci, Bujar

    2017-05-01

    Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prevalent traffic and land morphology composition attributes, which have influenced and continue to have environmental impact in the city of Prishtina. According to the conceptual findings from the empirical observations, the heavy city traffic and the land morphology structure, determine the urban air pollution level. Prishtina is generally polluted due to its geomorphic position in relation to the power plants Kosovo A, and Kosova B. The impact of the above cited factors, is even bigger when the dominant winds prevail through valley, which encompasses the city. The findings from this paper propose the necessity of careful driven urban solutions.

  9. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajcinovci Bujar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prevalent traffic and land morphology composition attributes, which have influenced and continue to have environmental impact in the city of Prishtina. According to the conceptual findings from the empirical observations, the heavy city traffic and the land morphology structure, determine the urban air pollution level. Prishtina is generally polluted due to its geomorphic position in relation to the power plants Kosovo A, and Kosova B. The impact of the above cited factors, is even bigger when the dominant winds prevail through valley, which encompasses the city. The findings from this paper propose the necessity of careful driven urban solutions.

  10. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...

  11. The impact of traffic emissions on air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg region - a case study on cycling scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Many European cities continue to struggle with exceedances of NO2 limit values at measurement sites near roads, of which a large contribution is attributed to emissions from traffic. In this study, we explore how urban air quality can be improved with different traffic measures using the example of the Berlin-Brandenburg region. In order to simulate urban background air quality we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) at a horizontal resolution of 1km. We use emission input data at a horizontal resolution of 1km obtained by downscaling TNO-MACC III emissions based on local proxy data including population and traffic densities. In addition we use a statistical approach combining the simulated urban background concentrations with information on traffic densities to estimate NO2 at street level. This helps assessing whether the emission scenarios studied here can lead to significant reductions in NO2 concentrations at street level. The emission scenarios in this study represent a range of scenarios in which car traffic is replaced with bicycle traffic. Part of this study was an initial discussion phase with stakeholders, including policy makers and NGOs. The discussions have shown that the different stakeholders are interested in a scientific assessment of the impact of replacing car traffic with bicycle traffic in the Berlin-Brandenburg urban area. Local policy makers responsible for city planning and implementing traffic measures can make best use of scientific modeling results if input data and scenarios are as realistic as possible. For these reasons, the scenarios cover very idealized optimistic ("all passenger cars are replaced by bicycles") and pessimistic ("all cyclists are replaced by cars") scenarios to explore the sensitivity of simulated urban background air quality to these changes, as well as additional scenarios based on city-specific data to analyze more realistic situations. Of particular interest is how these impact

  12. The impact of medicinal drugs on traffic safety: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriols, Ludivine; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Philip, Pierre; Moore, Nicholas; Delorme, Bernard; Castot, Anne; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the quality of epidemiological research into effects of medicinal drugs on traffic safety and the current knowledge in this area. The bibliographic search was done in Medline electronic database using the keywords: ((accident* or crash*) and traffic and drug*) leading to 1141 references. Additional references were retrieved from the Safetylit website and the reference lists of selected studies. Original articles published in English or French, between 1 April 1979 and 31 July 2008, were considered for inclusion. We excluded descriptive studies, studies limited to alcohol or illicit drug involvement and investigations of injuries other than from traffic crashes. Studies based on laboratory tests, driving simulators or on-the-road driving tests were also excluded. Eligible studies had to evaluate the causal relationship between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of traffic crashes. Study quality was assessed by two independent experts, according to a grid adapted from the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Twenty two studies of variable methodological quality were included. Definition of drug exposure varied across studies and depended on the data sources. Potential confounding due to the interaction between the effects of the medicinal drug and disease-related symptoms was often not controlled. The risk of motor-vehicle crashes related to benzodiazepines has been amply studied and demonstrated. Results for other medicinal drugs remain controversial. There is a need for large studies, investigating the role of individual substances in the risk of road traffic crashes. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeibe, Christian; Ilo, Chukwudi; Oguonu, Chika; Ali, Alphonsus; Abada, Ifeanyi; Ezeibe, Ezinwanne; Oguonu, Chukwunonso; Abada, Felicia; Izueke, Edwin; Agbo, Humphrey

    2018-04-04

    This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria. The study argues that provision and maintenance of traffic signs present opportunity to promoting safety on the highways and achieving the sustainable development goals.

  14. The impact of a congestion assistant on traffic flow efficiency and safety in congested traffic caused by a lane drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie; van Arem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study conducted to investigate the impact of a Congestion Assistant on traffic efficiency and traffic safety. The Congestion Assistant is an in-vehicle system in which an active pedal supports the driver when approaching

  15. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Criminalizing Drunk Driving on Road-Traffic Injuries in Guangzhou, China: A Time-Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road-traffic injury (RTI is a major public-health concern worldwide. However, the effectiveness of laws criminalizing drunk driving on the improvement of road safety in China is not known. Methods: We collected daily aggregate data on RTIs from the Guangzhou First-Aid Service Command Center from 2009 to 2012. We performed an interrupted time-series analysis to evaluate the change in daily RTIs before (January 1, 2009, to April 30, 2011 and after (May 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012 the criminalization of drunk driving. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on RTIs using the overdispersed generalized additive model after adjusting for temporal trends, seasonality, day of the week, and holidays. Daytime/Nighttime RTIs, alcoholism, and non-traffic injuries were analyzed as comparison groups using the same model. Results: From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012, we identified a total of 54 887 RTIs. The standardized daily number of RTIs was almost stable in the pre-intervention period but decreased gradually in the post-intervention period. After the intervention, the standardized daily RTIs decreased 9.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5%–12.8%. There were similar decreases for the daily daytime and nighttime RTIs. In contrast, the standardized daily cases of alcoholism increased 38.8% (95% CI, 35.1%–42.4%, and daily non-traffic injuries increased 3.6% (95% CI, 1.4%–5.8%. Conclusions: This time-series study provides scientific evidence suggesting that the criminalization of drunk driving from May 1, 2011, may have led to moderate reductions in RTIs in Guangzhou, China.

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Criminalizing Drunk Driving on Road-Traffic Injuries in Guangzhou, China: A Time-Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Qi, Yongqing; Chen, Ailan; Chen, Xinyu; Liang, Zijing; Ye, Jianjun; Liang, Qing; Guo, Duanqiang; Li, Wanglin; Li, Shuangming; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-05

    Road-traffic injury (RTI) is a major public-health concern worldwide. However, the effectiveness of laws criminalizing drunk driving on the improvement of road safety in China is not known. We collected daily aggregate data on RTIs from the Guangzhou First-Aid Service Command Center from 2009 to 2012. We performed an interrupted time-series analysis to evaluate the change in daily RTIs before (January 1, 2009, to April 30, 2011) and after (May 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) the criminalization of drunk driving. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on RTIs using the overdispersed generalized additive model after adjusting for temporal trends, seasonality, day of the week, and holidays. Daytime/Nighttime RTIs, alcoholism, and non-traffic injuries were analyzed as comparison groups using the same model. From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012, we identified a total of 54 887 RTIs. The standardized daily number of RTIs was almost stable in the pre-intervention period but decreased gradually in the post-intervention period. After the intervention, the standardized daily RTIs decreased 9.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5%-12.8%). There were similar decreases for the daily daytime and nighttime RTIs. In contrast, the standardized daily cases of alcoholism increased 38.8% (95% CI, 35.1%-42.4%), and daily non-traffic injuries increased 3.6% (95% CI, 1.4%-5.8%). This time-series study provides scientific evidence suggesting that the criminalization of drunk driving from May 1, 2011, may have led to moderate reductions in RTIs in Guangzhou, China.

  18. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  20. Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Hansell, Anna L; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Toledano, Mireille B

    2017-12-05

    Objective  To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes. Design  Retrospective population based cohort study. Setting  Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km 2 ), UK, from 2006 to 2010. Participants  540 365 singleton term live births. Main outcome measures  Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight. Results  Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m 3 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), 73 μg/m 3 nitrogen oxides (NO x ), 14 μg/m 3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and source specific PM 2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM 2.5 traffic exhaust ) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM 2.5 traffic non-exhaust ) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM 2.5 traffic exhaust and PM 2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM 2.5 >13.8 μg/m 3 during pregnancy. Conclusions  The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  2. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on acute changes in cardiac autonomic modulation during rest and physical activity: a cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Weichenthal, Scott; Kubesch, Nadine; Foraster, Maria; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Bouso, Laura; Martínez, David; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during physical activity (PA), but it is not clear if PA modifies the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic modulation. We conducted a panel study among 28 healthy adults in Barcelona, Spain to examine how PA may modify the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants completed four 2-h exposure scenarios that included either rest or intermittent exercise in high- and low-traffic environments. Time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during each exposure period along with continuous measures of TRAP. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of TRAP on HRV as well as potential effect modification by PA. Exposure to TRAP was associated with consistent decreases in HRV; however, exposure-response relationships were not always linear over the broad range of exposures. For example, each 10 μg/m(3) increase in black carbon was associated with a 23% (95% CI: -31, -13) decrease in high frequency power at the low-traffic site, whereas no association was observed at the high-traffic site. PA modified the impact of TRAP on HRV at the high-traffic site and tended to weaken inverse associations with measures reflecting parasympathetic modulation (P ≤ 0.001). Evidence of effect modification at the low-traffic site was less consistent. The strength and direction of the relationship between TRAP and HRV may vary across exposure gradients. PA may modify the impact of TRAP on HRV, particularly at higher concentrations.

  3. Impact of nuclear waste traffic on highways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebaaly, P.E.; Siddharthan, R.; Epps, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A system was developed to evaluate the impact of nuclear waste traffic on the structural performance of highway pavements throughout the state of Nevada. The associated needs of maintenance and rehabilitations can also be evaluated along with their costs. This paper summarizes the system and provides two sample analyses

  4. The impact of navigation systems on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of navigation systems on traffic safety in the Netherlands. This study consists of four analyses: a literature survey, a database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented vehicle study. The results of the four sections show that navigation systems have a positive

  5. The impact of navigation systems on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Vonk, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of navigation systems on traffic safety in the Netherlands. This study consists of four analyses: a literature survey, a database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented vehicle study. The results of the four sections show that navigation systems have a positive

  6. Impacts of Snowy Weather Conditions on Expressway Traffic Flow Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowy weather will significantly degrade expressway operations, reduce service levels, and increase driving difficulty. Furthermore, the impact of snow varies in different types of roads, diverse cities, and snow densities due to different driving behavior. Traffic flow parameters are essential to decide what should be appropriate for weather-related traffic management and control strategies. This paper takes Beijing as a case study and analyzes traffic flow data collected by detectors in expressways. By comparing the performance of traffic flow under normal and snowy weather conditions, this paper quantitatively describes the impact of adverse weather on expressway volume and average speeds. Results indicate that average speeds on the Beijing expressway under heavy snow conditions decrease by 10–20 km/h when compared to those under normal weather conditions, the vehicle headway generally increases by 2–4 seconds, and the road capacity drops by about 33%. This paper also develops a specific expressway traffic parameter reduction model which proposes reduction coefficients of expressway volumes and speeds under various snow density conditions in Beijing. The conclusions paper provide effective foundational parameters for urban expressway controls and traffic management under snow conditions.

  7. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  8. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    OpenAIRE

    Bajcinovci Bujar

    2017-01-01

    Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prev...

  9. Impacts of Bus-stops on the Speed of Motorized Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions: A Case-Study of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of friction generators1 such as bus-stops, intersections, petrol pumps and pedestrian crossings, etc. significantly influences the speed of traffic stream. Among all the friction generators, understanding the impact of bus-stops is particularly important from planning and modeling perspective in the Indian context. Therefore, this study presents a methodology to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of other motorized vehicles (the total motorized vehicle fleet minus the buses under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The methodology was validated on the typical urban arterials in Delhi, India. Two types of data, location of bus-stops and speed profiles of motorized vehicles, were collected by GPS and V-box respectively. These two data sets were mapped and merged using ArcGIS. To understand the nature of traffic stream near bus-stops, ‘influence regions’ of bus-stops were extracted. Later, characteristic parameters such as lengths of the influence regions and average speeds in the influence regions were computed. Finally, 95% confidence intervals of these characteristic parameters were obtained and regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of motorized vehicles. The results of study suggest that the influence region of bus-stops on the corridors investigated varies from 140–170 meters and average speed of motorized vehicles in the influence region is reduced by 26–38% of the free flow speed. These findings can better inform planners about the speeds used in traffic flow and travel demand modeling under heterogeneous conditions by helping them in accounting for the speed-reducing impacts of bus-stops. Moreover, transit planners may also consider the magnitudes and characteristics of the influence regions of bus-stops while determining their locations along the corridor to minimize their adverse impacts on the speed of other motorized vehicles.

  10. Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the absence of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations of particulate matter in SSA cities, severely limits our ability to assess the real extent of air quality problems. Emitted fine particles by on-road vehicles may be particularly important in SSA cities because large concentrations of poorly maintained vehicles operate in close proximity to commercial and other activities of low-income urban residents. This scenario provokes major air quality concerns and its investigation should be of priority interest to policy makers, city planners and managers, and the affected population. As part of collaboration between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, a PM2.5 air monitoring study was carried out over two weeks in July 2009. The objectives of the study were 1) to assess average daytime PM2.5 concentrations on a range of Nairobi streets that represent important hot-spots in terms of the joint distribution of traffic, commercial, and resident pedestrian activities, 2) to relate those concentrations to motor vehicle counts, 3) to compare urban street concentrations to urban and rural background levels, and 4) to assess vertical and horizontal dispersion of PM2.5 near roadways. Portable, battery-operated PM2.5 samplers were carried by field teams at each of the five sites (three urban, one commuter highway, and one rural site), each of which operated from 7 AM to 7 PM during 10 weekdays in July 2009. Urban background monitoring took place on a rooftop at the University of Nairobi. Preliminary findings suggest highly elevated PM2.5 concentrations at the urban sites where the greatest pedestrian traffic was observed. These findings underscore the need for air

  11. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland FJ Popp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074 and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059. Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092. The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  12. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Roland Fj; Maier, Stefanie; Rothe, Siegfried; Zulley, Jürgen; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074) and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059). Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092). The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  13. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  14. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  15. Valuation of the impacts from road traffic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Energy Ltd. participated in 1993 in the MOBILE research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) by carrying out the project `Valuation of the impacts of road traffic fuels emissions`. The project was financed by the MTI, Ekono Energy Ltd and Neste Oy. The aim of the project was to assess the external costs of Finnish road traffic, which are incurred by the environmental effects of fuel related emissions (motor petrol and diesel fuel). To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on people and the environment locally, nationally and globally. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these effects. The method has been applied to road traffic emissions in 1990 and emission forecasts for 2000. The valuation calculations made should be regarded as indicative examples. The article presents a possible way of assessing the cost of effects. This kind of review indicates the cost of impacts compared with the cost of reducing emissions. It also indicates the way in which environmental taxes could be developed and reveals those impacts which should be researched and the impacts and emissions components the restricting of which should be enhanced. (author)

  16. Valuation of the impacts from road traffic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Energy Ltd. participated in 1993 in the MOBILE research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) by carrying out the project `Valuation of the impacts of road traffic fuels emissions`. The project was financed by the MTI, Ekono Energy Ltd and Neste Oy. The aim of the project was to assess the external costs of Finnish road traffic, which are incurred by the environmental effects of fuel related emissions (motor petrol and diesel fuel). To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on people and the environment locally, nationally and globally. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these effects. The method has been applied to road traffic emissions in 1990 and emission forecasts for 2000. The valuation calculations made should be regarded as indicative examples. The article presents a possible way of assessing the cost of effects. This kind of review indicates the cost of impacts compared with the cost of reducing emissions. It also indicates the way in which environmental taxes could be developed and reveals those impacts which should be researched and the impacts and emissions components the restricting of which should be enhanced. (author)

  17. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  18. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  19. Road traffic flow and impact on environment in Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Zaheer-ud-Din; Ansari, A.K.; Memon, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In Hyderabad city due to dramatic increase in traffic intensity on the roads, traffic flow have been much beyond the comfortable limits. High values of traffic flow density have been recorded on Court Road (34.05%), Tilak Road (19.87%), Risala Road (22.91%) and Cafe George (23.14%) of Hyderabad city. Above 80% people are found to be annoyed due to traffic congestion, noise and smoke resulting in health ailments. Slow Moving Vehicles (SMVs) comprising of animal and hand drawn vehicles (rehras) cause serious disruption in the traffic stream on city roads, which are ultimately causing traffic-jam condition resulting a serious impact on environment. No definite parking places exist for public vehicles because of encroachment on roads. Proper foot paths are not available for pedestrian, which results in increase in accidents. (author)

  20. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    When vector-based GIS-packages are used for traffic noise impact assessments, the buffer-technique is usually employed for the study: 1. For each road segment buffer-zones representing different noise-intervals are generated, 2. The buffers from all road segments are smoothed together, and 3....... The number of buildings within the buffers are enumerated. This technique provides an inaccurate assessment of the noise diffusion since it does not correct for buildings barrier and reflection to noise. The paper presents the results from a research project where the traditional noise buffer technique...... was compared with a new method which includes these corrections. Both methods follow the Common Nordic Noise Calculation Model, although the traditional buffer technique ignores parts of the model. The basis for the work was a digital map of roads and building polygons, combined with a traffic- and road...

  1. Lower limb and associated injuries in frontal-impact road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: To study the relationship between severity of injury of the lower limb and severity of injury of the head, thoracic, and abdominal regions in frontal-impact road traffic collisions. Methods: Consecutive hospitalised trauma patients who were involved in a frontal road traffic collision were prospectively stud-.

  2. A Study on Setting of Traffic Signal

    OpenAIRE

    本多, 義明

    1981-01-01

    In this paper,effect of traffic signal setting are Studied according to regional characteristics. Firstly, regional and accident characteristics are analized by factor analysis. Secondly,88 regions in Aichi Prefecture are clustered into six clusters. Finally,effect of traffic signal setting is discussed.

  3. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  4. Impact of air traffic on the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stief, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Agrometeorologia

    1998-12-31

    Though emission from world-wide air traffic may seem to be relatively small in comparison to that from all other anthropogenic sources, the deleterious effect on the climate of the gases and particles emitted by planes is disproportionately large. It is thought that air traffic, working together with pollutants that have already accumulated at critical heights, and depending on humidity and temperature, plays a decisive role in helping to cause the changes, presented below, in global radiation, sunshine duration, rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures which are taking place. (author) 7 refs.

  5. Impact of air traffic on the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stief, G. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Agrometeorologia

    1997-12-31

    Though emission from world-wide air traffic may seem to be relatively small in comparison to that from all other anthropogenic sources, the deleterious effect on the climate of the gases and particles emitted by planes is disproportionately large. It is thought that air traffic, working together with pollutants that have already accumulated at critical heights, and depending on humidity and temperature, plays a decisive role in helping to cause the changes, presented below, in global radiation, sunshine duration, rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures which are taking place. (author) 7 refs.

  6. Analysis of factors temporarily impacting traffic sign readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign readability can be affected by the existence of dirt on traffic sign faces. However, among damaged signs, dirty traffic signs are unique since their damage is not permanent and they just can be cleaned instead of replaced. This study aimed to identify the most important factors contributing to traffic sign dirt. To do so, a large number of traffic signs in Utah were measured by deploying a vehicle instrumented with mobile LiDAR imaging and digital photolog technologies. Each individual daytime digital image was inspected for dirt. Location and climate observations obtained from official sources were compiled using ArcGIS throughout the process. To identify contributing factors to traffic sign dirt, the chi-square test was employed. To analyze the data and rank all of the factors based on their importance to the sign dirt, Random forests statistical model was utilized. After analyzing the data, it can be concluded that ground elevation, sign mount height, and air pollution had the highest effect on making traffic signs dirty. The findings of this investigation assist transportation agencies in determining traffic signs with a higher likelihood of sign dirt. In this way, agencies would schedule to clean such traffic signs more frequently.

  7. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deVos Annemarie JBM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate

  8. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on real-time traffic. Then, the cluster analysis using the attributes of congestion time was conducted to identify the main traffic congestion areas. The result of a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the land use showed that the influence of the high proportion of commercial land use on the traffic congestion was significant. Also, we considered five types of land use through performing a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the ratio of four types of land use. The results showed that the reasonable ratio of land use types could efficiently reduce congestion time. This study makes contributions to the policy-making of urban land use.

  9. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17–42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. - Highlights: • CFD is used to study impact of traffic-flow patterns on urban air quality. • Facilitating free-flow patterns induce more turbulence in street canyons. • Traffic-generated turbulence alters pollutant levels in urban street canyons. - This study investigates the effect of vehicle-induced-turbulence generated during free-flow traffic pattern in reduction of air pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons.

  10. The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-11

    The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

  11. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Cook (Angus); A.J.B.M. Devos (Annemarie); G. Pereira; L. Jardine (Laura); P. Weinstein (Philip)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study had two principal objectives: (i) to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii) to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative

  12. Staff Recall Travel Time for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Impacted by Traffic Congestion and Distance: A Digitally Integrated Map Software Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Justin; Beare, Richard; Phan, Thanh G; Srikanth, Velandai; MacIsaac, Andrew; Tan, Christianne; Tong, David; Yee, Susan; Ho, Jesslyn; Layland, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests hospitals fail to meet guideline specified time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for a proportion of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presentations. Implicit in achieving this time is the rapid assembly of crucial catheter laboratory staff. As a proof-of-concept, we set out to create regional maps that graphically show the impact of traffic congestion and distance to destination on staff recall travel times for STEMI, thereby producing a resource that could be used by staff to improve reperfusion time for STEMI. Travel times for staff recalled to one inner and one outer metropolitan hospital at midnight, 6 p.m., and 7 a.m. were estimated using Google Maps Application Programming Interface. Computer modeling predictions were overlaid on metropolitan maps showing color coded staff recall travel times for STEMI, occurring within non-peak and peak hour traffic congestion times. Inner metropolitan hospital staff recall travel times were more affected by traffic congestion compared with outer metropolitan times, and the latter was more affected by distance. The estimated mean travel times to hospital during peak hour were greater than midnight travel times by 13.4 min to the inner and 6.0 min to the outer metropolitan hospital at 6 p.m. ( p  travel time can predict optimal residence of staff when on-call for PCI.

  13. Web application and database modeling of traffic impact analysis using Google Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2017-06-01

    Traffic impact analysis (TIA) is a traffic study that aims at identifying the impact of traffic generated by development or change in land use. In addition to identifying the traffic impact, TIA is also equipped with mitigation measurement to minimize the arising traffic impact. TIA has been increasingly important since it was defined in the act as one of the requirements in the proposal of Building Permit. The act encourages a number of TIA studies in various cities in Indonesia, including Surakarta. For that reason, it is necessary to study the development of TIA by adopting the concept Transportation Impact Control (TIC) in the implementation of the TIA standard document and multimodal modeling. It includes TIA's standardization for technical guidelines, database and inspection by providing TIA checklists, monitoring and evaluation. The research was undertaken by collecting the historical data of junctions, modeling of the data in the form of relational database, building a user interface for CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) the TIA data in the form of web programming with Google Maps libraries. The result research is a system that provides information that helps the improvement and repairment of TIA documents that exist today which is more transparent, reliable and credible.

  14. Impacts of temporary traffic control measures on vehicular emissions during the Asian games in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Yingzhi; Shen, Xianbao; Wang, Xintong; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee good traffic and air quality during the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, the government carried out two traffic control Drills before the Games and adopted traffic control measures during the Games. Vehicle activities before and during the first and second Drills, and during the Games, were surveyed. Based on the data under investigation, the impacts of control measures on traffic volumes and driving characteristics were analyzed during the first and second Drills, and the Games. The emission reduction of traffic control measures was also evaluated during the three stages using the MOBILE-China model. The results show that there were significant effects of implementing temporary traffic control measures on transportation activity and vehicular emissions. During the first and second Drills, and the Games, the average traffic volumes in monitored roads decreased, and the average speed of vehicles increased significantly The co-effects of traffic flow reduction, traffic congestion improvement, and the banning of high-emitting vehicles helped to greatly reduce the estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Guangzhou during the first and second Drills, and the Games. Estimated vehicular emissions were reduced by 38-52% during the first Drill and 28-36% for the second Drill. During the Asian Games, vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter vehicular emissions of CO, HC, NOx, and PM10. Motor vehicles have become the most prevalent source of emissions and subsequently air pollution within Chinese cities. Understanding the impacts that different control measures have on vehicular emissions is very important in order to be able to control vehicle emissions. The results of this study will be very helpful for the further control of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou in the future. In addition, the effects of temporary transportation control measures will provide

  15. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  16. Active traffic management case study: phase 1 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This study developed a systematic approach for using data from multiple sources to provide active traffic management : solutions. The feasibility of two active traffic management solutions is analyzed in this report: ramp-metering and real-time : cra...

  17. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kelly; Marcus Bradley; Ankur Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was...

  18. The assessment of traffic emissions impacts on crops pollution and contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Phytosanitary and Environment

    2009-01-01

    Impact of traffic emissions on contamination of soils and consequently of crops is usualy mentioned, but not many studies providing real and valid data were published in the CR. This is a pilot study for specific area. The aim of it is to assess potential influence of the Prague Airport on fruits and crops pollution grown around it.

  19. Study of the road traffic noise in Erzurum-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Gökdag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic noise affects a large number of people, especially in urban areas and is generally a major source of complaints. This paper refers to a study of the problem of traffic noise on roads which have been transformed into streets in the city of Erzurum. Noise levels are measured and the impacts suffered by the community are documented. Manual noise measurements were made along 12 streets exploring sources of maximum noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. The results from the measurements showed that, of 750 measured events, approximately 5% of the vehicles exceeded 70 dB(A and less than 2% exceeded 80 dB(A maximum noise level. In summary, the result showed that the most important vehicle component as regards the maximum noise level in inner city traffic was a medium-weight vehicle. Among the higher noise levels measured (>80 dB(A this type of vehicle was dominant.

  20. The role of vegetation in mitigating air quality impacts from traffic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Baldauf; L. Jackson; G. Hagler; I. Vlad; G. McPherson; D. Nowak; T. Cahill; M. Zhang; R. Cook; C. Bailey; P. Wood

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, a multidisciplinary group of researchers and policy-makers met to discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the potential of roadside vegetation to mitigate near-road air quality impacts. Concerns over population exposures to traffic-generated pollutants near roads have grown with an increasing number of health studies reporting links between proximity...

  1. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  2. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  3. A simulation study of the effects of communication delay on air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impacts of voice communications delays : characteristic of Voice Switching and Control System (VSCS) and satellite : communications systems on air traffic system performance, controller stress : and workload, a...

  4. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions. Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to obtain driver eye closure, blink frequency, and other visual physiological indicators in the traffic conditions of urban road. The regular patterns of driver visual characteristics in the corresponding scenes were analyzed in detail to provide data and theoretical support for the further research on traffic safety of urban environment from the viewpoint of driver psychology and behavior.

  5. Analysis and Mitigation of Increased Traffic Impacts on the Environment (AMITIE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metron Aviation designs and develops an integrated methodology and supporting algorithms for estimating environmental impacts of increased traffic on the surface and...

  6. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    delay, based on hours spent in traffic in a year, grew by 22% as the national average of hours spent in delay grew from 36 hours to 44 hours. Peak delay per traveler grew one-third in medium-size urban areas over the 10 year period. The traffic engineering community has developed an arsenal of integrated tools to mitigate the impacts of congestion on freeway throughput and performance, including pricing of capacity to manage demand for travel. Congestion pricing is a strategy which dynamically matches demand with available capacity. A congestion price is a user fee equal to the added cost imposed on other travelers as a result of the last traveler's entry into the highway network. The concept is based on the idea that motorists should pay for the additional congestion they create when entering a congested road. The concept calls for fees to vary according to the level of congestion with the price mechanism applied to make travelers more fully aware of the congestion externality they impose on other travelers and the system itself. The operational rationales for the institution of pricing strategies are to improve the efficiency of operations in a corridor and/or to better manage congestion. To this end, the objectives of this project were to: (1) Better understand and quantify the impacts of congestion pricing strategies on traffic operations through the study of actual projects, and (2) Better understand and quantify the impacts of congestion pricing strategies on traffic operations through the use of modeling and other analytical methods. Specifically, the project was to identify credible analytical procedures that FHWA can use to quantify the impacts of various congestion pricing strategies on traffic flow (throughput) and congestion.

  7. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  8. Traffic Predictive Control: Case Study and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    This project developed a quantile regression method for predicting future traffic flow at a signalized intersection by combining both historical and real-time data. The algorithm exploits nonlinear correlations in historical measurements and efficien...

  9. Safety Impacts of Push-Button and Countdown Timer on Nonmotorized Traffic at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the random parameters negative binominal model to investigate safety impacts of push-button and countdown timer on pedestrians and cyclists at urban intersections. To account for possible unobserved heterogeneity which could vary from one intersection to another, random parameters model is introduced. A simulation-based maximum likelihood method using Halton draws is applied to estimate the maximum likelihood of random parameters in the model. Dataset containing pedestrians’ and cyclists’ crash data of 1,001 intersections from Chicago is utilized to establish the statistical relationship between crash frequencies and potential impact factors. LIMDEP (Version 9.0 statistical package is utilized for modeling. The parameter estimation results indicate that existence of push-button and countdown timer could significantly reduce crash frequencies of pedestrians and cyclists at intersections. Increasing number of through traffic lanes, left turn lanes, and ratio of major direction AADT to minor direction AADT, tend to increase crash frequencies. Annual average daily left turn traffic has a negative impact on pedestrians’ safety, but its impact on cyclists’ crash frequency is statistically insignificant at 90% confidence level. The results of current study could provide important insights for nonmotorized traffic safety improvement projects in both planning and operational levels.

  10. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianqi; Sun, Lishan; Yao, Liya; Rong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI) and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on ...

  11. Mobile radio alternative systems study traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. T.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-06-01

    The markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States are examined for the years 1985-2000. Three market categories are identified. New Services are defined as those for which there are different expressed ideas but which are not now met by any application of available technology. The complete fulfillment of the needs requires nationwide radio access to vehicles without knowledge of vehicle location, wideband data transmission from remote sites, one- and two way exchange of short data and control messages between vehicles and dispatch or control centers, and automatic vehicle location (surveillance). The commercial and public services market of interest to the study is drawn from existing users of mobile radio in non-urban areas who are dissatisfied with the geographical range or coverage of their systems. The mobile radio telephone market comprises potential users who require access to the public switched telephone network in areas that are not likely to be served by the traditional growth patterns of terrestrial mobile telephone services. Conservative, likely, and optimistic estimates of the markets are presented in terms of numbers of vehicles that will be served and the radio traffic they will generate.

  12. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  13. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  14. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  15. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of road accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad traffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. The road traffic crashes as a neglected public health concern; an observational study from Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali; Monfared, Ayad Bahadori; Kazemi-Galougahi, Mohammad Hassan; Mehmandar, Mohammad Reza; Riahi, Mohammad; Salehi, Masoud; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes are multifactorial events caused by human factors, technical issues, and environmental conditions. The present study aimed to determine the role of human factors in traffic crashes in Iran using the proportional odds regression model. The database of all traffic crashes in Iran in 2010 (n = 592, 168) registered through the "COM.114" police forms was investigated. Human risk factors leading to traffic crashes were determined and the odds ratio (OR) of each risk factor was estimated using an ordinal regression model and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as age, gender, and lighting status within and outside of cities. The drivers' mean age ± standard deviation was 34.1 ± 14.0 years. The most prevalent risk factors leading to death within cities were disregarding traffic rules and regulations (45%), driver rushing (31%), and alcohol consumption (12.3%). Using the proportional odds regression model, alcohol consumption was the most significant human risk factor in traffic crashes within cities (OR = 6.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.88-8.65) and outside of cities (OR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.22-3.29). Public health strategies and preventive policies should be focused on more common human risk factors such as disregarding traffic rules and regulations, drivers' rushing, and alcohol consumption due to their greater population attributable fraction and more intuitive impacts on society.

  17. Traffic Flow Prediction with Rainfall Impact Using a Deep Learning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is increasingly essential for successful traffic modeling, operation, and management. Traditional data driven traffic flow prediction approaches have largely assumed restrictive (shallow model architectures and do not leverage the large amount of environmental data available. Inspired by deep learning methods with more complex model architectures and effective data mining capabilities, this paper introduces the deep belief network (DBN and long short-term memory (LSTM to predict urban traffic flow considering the impact of rainfall. The rainfall-integrated DBN and LSTM can learn the features of traffic flow under various rainfall scenarios. Experimental results indicate that, with the consideration of additional rainfall factor, the deep learning predictors have better accuracy than existing predictors and also yield improvements over the original deep learning models without rainfall input. Furthermore, the LSTM can outperform the DBN to capture the time series characteristics of traffic flow data.

  18. Impact of Primary User Traffic on Adaptive Transmission for Cognitive Radio with Partial Relay Selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    In a cognitive relay system, the secondary user is permitted to transmit data via a relay when licensed frequency bands are detected to be free. Previous studies mainly focus on reducing or limiting the interference of the secondary transmission on the primary users. On the other hand, however, the primary user traffic will also affect the data transmission performance of the secondary users. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the primary user traffic on the bit error rate (BER) of the secondary transmission, when the secondary user adopts adaptive transmission with a relay partially selected. From the numerical results, we can see that the primary user traffic seriously degrades average BER. The worse-link partial selection can perform almost as well as the global selection when the channel conditions of the source-relay links and the relay-destination links differ a lot. In addition, although the relay selection improves the spectral efficiency of the secondary transmission, numerical results show that it only has slight impact on the overall average BER, so that the robustness of the system will not be affected by the relay selection.

  19. Development of Road Traffic Assignment and Assessment Sub-Model Applied in the Traffic Study ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The described sub-model is just one small segment of theTraffic Study of the City of Zagreb, in the development of whichnumerous foreign and national experts and institutions tookpart. After comprehensive collection and processing of inputdata, the traffic experts, using the software package "MVATRIPS" for the analysis and search for optimal solutions to theproblem of traffic system, provided the models of public urbantransit for the future.This paper describes the analysis and assessment of sub-models in road traffic assignment for the morning peak, afternoonpeak and average off-peak hours. The principles of assignmentprocedure have been described as well as the convergencetests. The following has been specified: the users categories,the public transit pre-load, and the passenger car unit(PC U. The key guideline in selecting the route is a generalisedformulation of costs presented in the paper. The procedures ofcalibration and the assessment of the finite model have alsobeen defined according to the screenline flows, link flows, andtravelling times. In the end, the summary is given of the basiccharacteristics of the finite travelling matrices.

  20. Traffic safety and environmental impacts. Synergies and conflicts; Liikenteen turvallisuuden ja ympaeristoevaikutusten synergiat ja vastakkainasettelut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollanen, M.; Ahlroth, J.; Aalto, E.; Liimatainen, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Transport Research Centre Verne

    2013-06-01

    The improvement of safety and mitigation of harmful environmental effects are two key goals in developing sustainable transport. In part, the same measures can improve safety and mitigate environmental impacts. On the other hand, measures for improving safety may aggravate harmful environmental effects, and vice versa. The objective of this study is to describe the synergies and conflicts related to the objectives of improving the safety and mitigating the environmental impacts of transport and, in particular, the measures taken in pursuit of these objectives. The study conducted as a literature review complemented with expert interviews and workshops. The study focused on examining measures that could be implemented in Finland. Measures at transport system level for influencing traffic volumes and the use of different means of passenger and goods transport, as well as safety and environmental measures in road, rail, water and air traffic, were the subject of separate investigation. More than 200 measures for influencing the safety and environmental impacts of transport were reviewed in the study. A large portion of these measures only have a significant effect on one or the other of these subjects of study: the impact of safety measures is primarily directed at safety, while environmental measures mainly affect the environment. The core synergies between transport and the environment relate to vehicle mileage, since a reduced mileage translates to improved safety and reduced environmental impacts, such as lower energy consumption and fewer emissions. On the transport system level, output can be influenced by measures such as promoting remote work, alleviating the need for travel by using electronic services, and increasing the utilization of capacity in goods transport. The choice of transport mode has a large impact on safety, since different modes of transport entail significantly different risks and environmental impacts. Increasing the attractiveness of public

  1. Evaluation of dynamic message signs and their potential impact on traffic flow : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to understand the potential impact of DMS messages on traffic : flow and evaluate their accuracy, timeliness, relevance and usefulness. Additionally, Bluetooth : sensors were used to track and analyze the diversion ...

  2. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lépicier, Véronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: ► The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. ► It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. ► We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. ► The indicator is a combination of pollutant emission, dispersion, exposition factor, and substance specific

  3. Study on the effect of lead and lead compounds as pollutants on traffic air and traffic policemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alrhman, Heba Elyas Khider

    2009-05-01

    This study was conducted in Khartoum state to determine the magnitude of air pollution, resulting from traffic density, due to lead and lead compounds which had been used as additives for gasoline in the form of tetra-ethyl and tetra methyl lead. The level of lead in ambient air and SPM was determined in 14 samples taken randomly at the intersections and entrances to the bridges using personal sampler (Cassella. UK). The mean concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to be 5.77+4.04 mg/m 3 . with range between 0.85-12.50 mg/m 3 including three sites above the limit of 10 mg/m 3 allowed. The samples were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for their lead content. The average concentration of lead in the sites is found to be 0.1937±0.1768 mg/m 3 . With range between 0.000-0.5166 mg/m 3 . The concentrations in seven sites were above the limit of 0.15 mg/m 3 permitted internationally. The impact of lead pollution on traffic police men was measured by analyzing blood lead concentration of 30 members exposed to traffic air pollution, from the three cities and (10 samples) from non-exposed ( control). It was found to be 2.4601±1.4065μg/100 ml and 0.3944±1.2471 μg/ 100 ml respectively. The data analysis by used SPSS program. There is no significant difference between the two groups. A questionnaire was designed to find out some data about the exposed members including their knowledge of impact, range of age, duration of their service as traffic police, their previous work, and complaints from some of the health effects. The findings were: average age mean of 35.9 ±7.7 years, 47.48% worked for periods of more than 20 years, 74.19% did not work before joining the traffic police, 51.6% of them believe that there is a problem of high level of air pollution, 45.2% medium and 3.2%, pollution is low. As habits 38.71% are smokers. As for health complains, 61.29% have various complains of headaches, fatigue, abdominal, hypertension and anemia

  4. Impact of provincial characteristics on the number of traffic accident victims on interurban roads in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, María Pilar; Escribano Sotos, Francisco; Tejada Ponce, Ángel

    2018-02-21

    This study has two aims. The first is to determine how various factors impact on the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for the level of traffic on interurban roads in Spain. The second is to establish the number of victims per million vehicle-kilometres (veh-km) travelled on interurban roads in each province resulting from the effect of its specific characteristics. To this end, we developed six fixed effect panel data models with panel corrected standard errors for the 1999-2015 period. Our results show that while the proportion of high capacity roads, the unemployment rate and the motorization rate contribute to a reduction in the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for level of traffic, the penalty-points licence system is effective in reducing the number of fatalities and serious injuries but not the number of slight injuries. Furthermore, the specific conditions in Ávila, Toledo, Madrid, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, the Balearic Islands, Lleida and all the provinces on the Mediterranean coast cause a higher number of victims per million veh-km travelled than in the remaining provinces. Thus, greater public investment and more socially responsible behaviour are essential tools for reducing the number of traffic accident victims on Spanish interurban roads. Moreover, the provincial institutions emerge as key agents in improving road safety, due to their greater knowledge of the specific conditions and factors affecting each province. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oslo traffic study - part 2: quantifying effects of traffic measures using individual exposure modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Klaeboe, R.; Kolbenstvedt, M.

    2000-01-01

    In quantifying the benefits of air pollution reduction measures, it is desirable to compare the size of the benefits with the effects of other individual confounding factors such as smoking or passive smoking. The effect of pollution is rarely very large and in order to quantify it, exposure estimating procedures must be as accurate as possible. Dispersion models, run for hourly time intervals and controlled by measurements, are therefore used to provide estimates for specific receptor points. Results of three consecutive cross-sectional investigations in an area of Oslo characterized by heavy traffic are presented. The study was designed to provide repeated information on the effects of traffic diversion measures on the self-reporting of symptoms of reduced health of 1100 adults living in Oslo. The principal source of air pollution in Oslo is vehicular traffic. The primary pollutants of interest are nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and respirable particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ). The mean hourly concentration of exposure was estimated at each participant's home by means of a time-dependent finite dispersion model combined with subgrid models to describe the source contribution to the grid concentrations. The study controlled the confounding factors. Using the symptom fatigue, the study illustrates that by controlling the changes in population composition, estimated exposure-effect relationships for health symptoms allow the effect of the studied traffic measures on the population to be evaluated. Since the method is based on individual estimates of exposure to different pollutants, it allows standardizing the exposure to compare effects of different pollutants. The study offers a methodology that is useful in evaluating the benefits of measures by both being able to quantify and compare the effects of different compounds and effects on different population sub-groups. (author)

  6. Evaluating the safety impact of adaptive cruise control in traffic oscillations on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways. First, the occurrence of a rear-end collision in a stop-and-go wave was analyzed. A car-following model in an integrated ACC was developed for a simulation analysis. The time-to-collision based factors were calculated as surrogate safety measures of the collision risk. We also evaluated different market penetration rates considering that the application of ACC will be a gradual process. The results showed that the safety impacts of ACC were largely affected by the parameters. Smaller time delays and larger time gaps improved safety performance, but inappropriate parameter settings increased the collision risks and caused traffic disturbances. A higher reduction of the collision risk was achieved as the ACC vehicle penetration rate increased, especially in the initial stage with penetration rates of less than 30%. This study also showed that in the initial stage, the combination of ACC and a variable speed limit achieved better safety improvements on congested freeways than each single technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lower limb and associated injuries in frontal-impact road traffic collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammori, Mohannad B; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between severity of injury of the lower limb and severity of injury of the head, thoracic, and abdominal regions in frontal-impact road traffic collisions. Consecutive hospitalised trauma patients who were involved in a frontal road traffic collision were prospectively studied over 18 months. Patients with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥3 or AIS 2 injuries within two AIS body regions were included. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the severity of injury to the head, chest or abdomen. Low severity group had an AIS chest or abdominal injuries. Eighty-five patients were studied. The backward likelihood logistic regression model defining independent factors affecting severity of head injuries was highly significant (p =0.01, nagelkerke r square = 0.1) severity of lower limb injuries was the only significant factor (p=0.013) having a negative correlation with head injury (Odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45-0.91). Occupants who sustain a greater severity of injury to the lower limb in a frontal-impact collision are likely to be spared from a greater severity of head injury.

  8. An Improved Algebraic Method for Transit Signal Priority Scheme and Its Impact on Traffic Emission

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yanjie; Hu, Bo; Han, Jing; Tang, Dounan

    2014-01-01

    Transit signal priority has a positive effect on improving traffic congestion and reducing transit delay and also has an influence on traffic emission. In this paper, an optimal transit signal priority scheme based on an improved algebraic method was developed and its impact on vehicle emission was evaluated as well. The improved algebraic method was proposed on the basis of classical algebraic method and has improvements in three aspects. First, the calculation rules of split loss are more r...

  9. Traffic flow impacts of adaptive cruise control deactivation and (Re)activation with cooperative driver behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.; Li, M.; Minderhoud, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable

  10. The impact of traffic noise on mental performance considering complexity of activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: One of the most significant findings emerged from this study is that traffic noise seems to have no effect on the mentioned variables under simple activity condition. However, traffic noise has devastating effects on median reaction time, number of appeared stimuli and reactions under complex activity condition.

  11. Assessing the impact of road traffic on cycling for leisure and cycling to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham Nicholas J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the relationship between leisure and commuter cycling with objectively measured levels of road traffic and whether any relationship was affected by traffic levels directly outside of home or in local neighbourhood. Findings We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the UK European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk cohort in 2009. We used a geographical information system (GIS and gender specific multivariate models to relate 13 927 participants' reported levels of cycling with an index of road traffic volume (Road Traffic Volume Index Score - RTVIS. RTVIS were calculated around each participants home, using four distance based buffers, (0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km and 3.2 km. Models were adjusted for age, social status, education, car access and deprivation. Both genders had similar decreases in leisure cycling as traffic volumes increased at greater distances from home (OR 0.42, (95% CI 0.32-0.52, p Conclusions Traffic volumes appear to have greater impact on leisure cycling than commuter cycling. Future research should investigate the importance of traffic on different types of cycling and include psychosocial correlates.

  12. Full-chain health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khreis, Haneen; de Hoogh, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may be an important exposure contributing to its development. In the UK, Bradford is a deprived city suffering from childhood asthma rates higher than national and regional averages and TRAP is of particular concern to the local communities. We estimated the burden of childhood asthma attributable to air pollution and specifically TRAP in Bradford. Air pollution exposures were estimated using a newly developed full-chain exposure assessment model and an existing land-use regression model (LUR). We estimated childhood population exposure to NO x and, by conversion, NO 2 at the smallest census area level using a newly developed full-chain model knitting together distinct traffic (SATURN), vehicle emission (COPERT) and atmospheric dispersion (ADMS-Urban) models. We compared these estimates with measurements and estimates from ESCAPE's LUR model. Using the UK incidence rate for childhood asthma, meta-analytical exposure-response functions, and estimates from the two exposure models, we estimated annual number of asthma cases attributable to NO 2 and NO x in Bradford, and annual number of asthma cases specifically attributable to traffic. The annual average census tract levels of NO 2 and NO x estimated using the full-chain model were 15.41 and 25.68 μg/m 3 , respectively. On average, 2.75 μg/m 3 NO 2 and 4.59 μg/m 3 NO x were specifically contributed by traffic, without minor roads and cold starts. The annual average census tract levels of NO 2 and NO x estimated using the LUR model were 21.93 and 35.60 μg/m 3 , respectively. The results indicated that up to 687 (or 38% of all) annual childhood asthma cases in Bradford may be attributable to air pollution. Up to 109 cases (6%) and 219 cases (12%) may be specifically attributable to TRAP, with and without minor roads and cold starts, respectively. This is the first study undertaking full-chain health impact assessment

  13. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  14. Impact of daylight saving time on road traffic collision risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel N; Sarma, Kiran M

    2017-07-02

    Bills have been put forward in the UK and Republic of Ireland proposing a move to Central European Time (CET). Proponents argue that such a change will have benefits for road safety, with daylight being shifted from the morning, when collision risk is lower, to the evening, when risk is higher. Studies examining the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on road traffic collision risk can help inform the debate on the potential road safety benefits of a move to CET. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the impact of DST on collision risk. Major electronic databases were searched, with no restrictions as to date of publication (the last search was performed in January 2017). Access to unpublished reports was requested through an international expert group. Studies that provided a quantitative analysis of the effect of DST on road safety-related outcomes were included. The primary outcomes of interest were road traffic collisions, injuries and fatalities. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Seventeen examined the short-term impact of transitions around DST and 12 examined long-term effects. Findings from the short-term studies were inconsistent. The long-term findings suggested a positive effect of DST. However, this cannot be attributed solely to DST, as a range of road collision risk factors vary over time. The evidence from this review cannot support or refute the assertion that a permanent shift in light from morning to evening will have a road safety benefit. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. The Impact of European Traffic Policy and Traffic Routes on the Development of the Ports of Rijeka and Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Ivaković

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ports are the key segment of the traffic and economicdevelopment of maritime countries. Pan-European transportcorridors include the most important sea pmts and sea routes.They are an extension of the existing land corridors.The most important and the most promising crossings oftraffic corridors between the Central European, Pannonianand Adriatic areas, with the naturally shortest traffic routes directedtowards the Croatian sea ports are Corridor 58 ( Rijeka-Zagreb-Budapest and Corridor 5c (Ploce-Sarajevo-Osijek--Budapest. The primary purpose of this work is to study the importanceof the existing trading conditions and new investmentundertakings in the context of increase in competitiveness of theports of Rijeka and Place.The authors' attention is particularly directed to the constructionof new port terminals to increase the traffic potentialsof the Croatian sea ports. The formed conception with its characteristics,the methodology applied, and research results representthe quality starting points in determining a uniform portpolicy of the Republic of Croatia within the European trafficsystem.

  16. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  17. Emotional stress and traffic accidents: the impact of separation and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Emmanuel; Chastang, Jean-François; Gueguen, Alice; Coeuret-Pellicer, Mireille; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane

    2004-11-01

    Personal responses to stressful life events are suspected of increasing the risk of serious traffic accidents. We analyzed data from a French cohort study (the GAZEL cohort), including a retrospective driving behavior questionnaire, from 13,915 participants (10,542 men age 52-62 years and 3373 women age 47-62 years in 2001). Follow-up data covered 1993-2000. Hazard ratios for serious accidents (n = 713) were computed by Cox's proportional hazard regression with time-dependent covariates. Separate analyses were also performed to consider only at-fault accidents. Marital separation or divorce was associated with an increased risk of a serious accident (all serious accidents: hazard ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.7-5.0; at-fault accidents: 4.4, 2.3-8.3). The impact of separation and divorce did not differ according to alcohol consumption levels. Other life events associated with increased risk of serious accident were a child leaving home (all accidents: 1.2, 0.97-1.6; at-fault accidents: 1.5, 1.1-2.1), an important purchase (all accidents: 1.4, 1.1-1.7; at-fault accidents: 1.6, 1.2-2.1), and hospitalization of the partner (all accidents: 1.4, 1.1-2.0). This study suggests that recent separation and divorce are associated with an increase in serious traffic accidents.

  18. Impact of Minimum Driveway Spacing Policies on Safety Performance: An Integrated Traffic Micro-Simulation and Automated Conflict Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu C. Minh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A key strategy for successful access management is the adoption of driveway spacing guidelines that consider both safety and operations. The goal is to provide sufficient distance from one driveway to the next so that drivers can perceive and react to the conditions at each potential conflict point in succession. State DOTs across the country have adopted different driveway spacing standards that vary according to the access class and characteristics of the adjacent roadway, such as type of roadway, posted speed limit, and traffic volume. Utilizing the VISSIM microscopic traffic simulation tool and FHWA's Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM, this research examined safety implications of four different driveway spacing policies representing 13 states. The analysis involved calibrating the VISSIM model for an arterial roadway corridor in West Columbia, SC, and then using the calibrated model to simulate various operational changes to the corridor, including speed limits, traffic volumes, and the associated minimum driveway spacing criteria for the four different policies. SSAM was used to analyze vehicle trajectories derived from VISSIM to determine the number of conflict points. Experimental results indicate that posted speed limit and traffic volume are the primary impact factors for driveway safety, and thus, these parameters should be considered in establishing minimum driveway spacing. Findings from this study indicate that there are significant differences in safety impacts between the different driveway spacing policies adopted by various state DOTs.

  19. Impact of Incidents on Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mfinanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.

  20. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  1. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  2. Impact of the 1994 alcohol production and sales deregulation policy on traffic crashes and fatalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Dutt, Namrata; Arason, Neil; Pike, Ian

    2012-09-01

    . Many studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between alcohol availability and traffic crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on the Japanese population by comparing fatal and nonfatal motor vehicle crash rates before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Participants and method. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in the population. To control for potential confounders, per capita alcohol consumption, unemployment rate, and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) were also added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to the IRRs. . Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities and other traffic crashes in Japan. In the overall study results, nighttime fatalities were reduced statistically significantly by 6% since the implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Discussion. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation. Further well-designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  3. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  4. Impact of cruise control on traffic safety, energy consumption and environmental pollution : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Brouwer, R.F.T.; Malone, K.; Klunder, G.; et al

    2006-01-01

    In this subproject, the impact of Cruise Control (CC) was analysed with respect to traffic safety, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. In order to work on this topic from a European perspective, a team of European experts in the fields of driver assistance systems, human factors,

  5. IMPACT OF POLY-LINGUISTIC LOAD ON AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MONITORING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  We have defined the structure and basic characteristics of the poly-linguistic audio-acoustic channel within the framework of controller – pilot communication, and set limits of poly-linguistic load impact on air traffic control.

  6. Remote sensing applications for transportation and traffic engineering studies: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current references were surveyed for the application of remote sensing to traffic and transportation studies. The major problems are presented that concern traffic engineers and transportation managers, and the literature references that discuss remote sensing applications are summarized.

  7. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  8. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  9. The impact of a forced reduction in traffic volumes on urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuval; Broday, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Middle East military conflict of summer 2006 resulted in a few weeks in which the city of Haifa, Israel, and its environs experienced very profound variations in the commercial and personal activities. Large industrial plants continued almost normal operations but activities of small scale industry, shopping, and personal commuting were drastically reduced, leading to a dramatic decrease in the commercial and personal traffic volumes. This period of reduced activity serves as a real life experiment for assessment and demonstration of the impact that human activity, and mainly road traffic, may have on the air pollution levels in a bustling middle-sized city. The analysis is made especially sharp and reliable due to the abruptness of the beginning and the end of the reduced activity period, its length, and the stable summer meteorological conditions in the eastern Mediterranean region. The reduced traffic volumes resulted in lowered levels of NO 2 , hydrocarbons and particulate matter. The decrease in these pollutants' mean concentration was significantly larger than the reduction in the mean traffic volume. Slightly higher mean O 3 concentrations were observed during the reduced traffic period. (author)

  10. On Making Autonomous Vehicles Respect Traffic Law : a Case Study for Dutch Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.

    Among the problems that still need to be solved before autonomous vehicles can fully autonomously participate in traffic is the one of making them respect the traffic laws. This paper discusses this problem by way of a case study of Dutch traffic law. First it is discussed to what extent Dutch

  11. Operational evaluation of the RLINE dispersion model for studies of traffic-related air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad W.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) remains a key public health issue, and improved exposure measures are needed to support health impact and epidemiologic studies and inform regulatory responses. The recently developed Research LINE source model (RLINE), a Gaussian line source dispersion model, has been used in several epidemiologic studies of TRAP exposure, but evaluations of RLINE's performance in such applications have been limited. This study provides an operational evaluation of RLINE in which predictions of NOx, CO and PM2.5 are compared to observations at air quality monitoring stations located near high traffic roads in Detroit, MI. For CO and NOx, model performance was best at sites close to major roads, during downwind conditions, during weekdays, and during certain seasons. For PM2.5, the ability to discern local and particularly the traffic-related portion was limited, a result of high background levels, the sparseness of the monitoring network, and large uncertainties for certain processes (e.g., formation of secondary aerosols) and non-mobile sources (e.g., area, fugitive). Overall, RLINE's performance in near-road environments suggests its usefulness for estimating spatially- and temporally-resolved exposures. The study highlights considerations relevant to health impact and epidemiologic applications, including the importance of selecting appropriate pollutants, using appropriate monitoring approaches, considering prevailing wind directions during study design, and accounting for uncertainty.

  12. TRAFFIC: An Information Retrieval System to Evaluate the Environmental Impacts of Commercial Navigation Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    DECLASSIFICATIONIDOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING...Technical Paper 20, US Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Washington,_DC. 10 Helwig, P. C. 1969. An Experimental Study of Ship-generated Water Waves...1974. Stream Drift as a Chronobiological Phenomenon in Running Water Ecosystems, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol 5, pp 309-323. Muncy, R

  13. How Much is Much?: a Conceptual Study of Web Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Høivik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Valid and relevant statistics are required for library planning and advocacy. As libraries and their users turn to the web, library statistics must follow. In this paper we explore the use of three common traffic indicators to measure the impact of web resources from national libraries. We present and discuss the use of data on on page views, virtual visits and unique users, with examples from national, academic and public libraries. These indicators are in an early stage of development and need some conceptual and much empirical work to become good tools for strategic planning. But we note four findings: (1 the ratios between the three indicators are very unstable, so we must measure and interpret all three; (2 we find substantial differences between countries, with Denmark in a leading position; (3 in academic and national libraries the number of virtual visits is likely to overshadow the number of physical visits; (4 analysis of web traffic must be based on an understanding of J-shaped distributions (‘power laws’ rather than concepts drawn from ordinary well-behaved bell curves (‘normal distributions’.

  14. Global impact of road traffic on atmospheric chemical composition and on ozone climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Ulrike; Granier, Claire; Kornblueh, Luis; Walters, Stacy; Brasseur, Guy P.

    2006-05-01

    Automobile emissions are known to contribute to local air pollution and to photochemical smog in urban areas. The impact of road traffic on the chemical composition of the troposphere at the global scale and on climate forcing is less well quantified. Calculations performed with the chemical transport MOZART-2 model show that the concentrations of ozone and its precursors (NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) are considerably enhanced in most regions of the Northern Hemisphere in response to current surface traffic. During summertime in the Northern Hemisphere, road traffic has increased the zonally averaged ozone concentration by more than 10% in the boundary layer and in the extratropics by approximately 6% at 500 hPa and 2.5% at 300 hPa. The summertime surface ozone concentrations have increased by typically 1-5 ppbv in the remote regions and by 5-20 ppbv in industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The corresponding ozone-related radiative forcing is 0.05 Wm-2. In order to assess the sensitivity of potential changes in road traffic intensity, two additional model cases were considered, in which traffic-related emissions in all regions of the world were assumed to be on a per capita basis the same as in Europe and in the United States, respectively. In the second and most dramatic case, the surface ozone concentration increases by 30-50 ppbv (50-100%) in south Asia as compared to the present situation. Under this assumption, the global radiative forcing due to traffic-generated ozone reaches 0.27 Wm-2.

  15. Prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes: a French registry-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Orriols

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, increased attention has been focused on the impact of disabilities and medicinal drug use on road safety. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes, and estimate the attributable fraction.We extracted and matched data from three French nationwide databases: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Drivers identified by their national health care number involved in an injurious crash in France, between July 2005 and May 2008, were included in the study. Medicines were grouped according to the four risk levels of the French classification system (from 0 [no risk] to 3 [high risk]. We included 72,685 drivers involved in injurious crashes. Users of level 2 (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.31 [1.24-1.40] and level 3 (OR  = 1.25 [1.12-1.40] prescription medicines were at higher risk of being responsible for a crash. The association remained after adjustment for the presence of a long-term chronic disease. The fraction of road traffic crashes attributable to levels 2 and 3 medications was 3.3% [2.7%-3.9%]. A within-person case-crossover analysis showed that drivers were more likely to be exposed to level 3 medications on the crash day than on a control day, 30 days earlier (OR  = 1.15 [1.05-1.27].The use of prescription medicines is associated with a substantial number of road traffic crashes in France. In light of the results, warning messages appear to be relevant for level 2 and 3 medications and questionable for level 1 medications. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the impact of the warning labeling system on road traffic crash prevention.

  16. Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasano, José M.; Gonçalves, María; Soret, Albert; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h -1 on motorways in a large city by using a novel methodology combining traffic assimilation data and modelling systems implemented in a supercomputing facility. Albeit the methodology has been non-specifically developed and can be extrapolated to any large city or megacity, the case study of Barcelona is presented here. Hourly simulations take into account the entire year 2008 (when the 80 km h -1 limit has been introduced) vs. the traffic conditions for the year 2007. The data has been assimilated in an emission model, which considers hourly variable speeds and hourly traffic intensity in the affected area, taken from long-term measurement campaigns for the aforementioned years; it also permits to take into account the traffic congestion effect. Overall, the emissions are reduced up to 4%; however the local effects of this reduction achieve an important impact for the adjacent area to the roadways, reaching 11%. In this sense, the speed limitation effects assessed represent enhancements in air quality levels (5-7%) of primary pollutants over the area, directly improving the welfare of 1.35 million inhabitants (over 41% of the population of the Metropolitan Area) and affecting 3.29 million dwellers who are potentially benefited from this strategy for air quality management (reducing 0.6% the mortality rates in the area).

  17. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  18. Traffic-related air pollution, preterm birth and term birth weight in the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H.; Fischer, Paul; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Background: Maternal exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Few studies took into account the spatial and temporal variation of air pollution levels. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on

  19. A study on traffic noise of two campuses of University, Balasore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Nayak, Subrata Kumar; Pradhan, Akula Chandra; Dey, Surjendu Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Noise pollution is a significant environmental problem in many rapidly urbanizing areas of Orissa, India. Transportation sector is one of the major contributors to noise in these areas. The present study is an attempt to estimate traffic noise pollution at five places on the way from Vyasa Vihar Campus to Gyan Vigyan Vihar Campus of Fakir Mohan University, Balasore, Orissa. The sources of noise at the studied sites are predominantly attributable to motor vehicular traffic. The noise levels of all the five locations were found to be beyond permissible limit during the day time. The contributions of different types of vehicles to environmental noise were found to ranging from 70.4-94.2, 79.0-96.1, 77.8-110.2, 70.8-90.3, 71.0-87.5, 71.1-84.4, 72.5-86.9 and 74.0-85.4 dB (A) by cargo carrying Trucks, Tractors, Dumpers, Town Buses, Motor cycles, Bolero/Trucker, Pick up and Tempo respectively. The contributions of individual vehicles towards noise pollution were found to be more than the road traffic noise-limit i.e., 70 dB (A). On certain local inhabitants interviewed, the impact of noise was observed in the forms of alterations in their physical, psychological and personal aspects. This study warrants attention from all sections of people to deal with the problem of noise pollution.

  20. Analysis of Traffic Parameter Estimation and Its Impacts on Wireless Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉滨; 沙学军; 强蔚

    2004-01-01

    Wide band or broadband access was paid much attention with the development of radio transmission technique. The wireless access control procedure play an important role in this type of system and efficiency of control algorithm has a great impact on throughput of channel resource. Based on wide band network control model and the characteristics of radio channel, this paper proposed a channel traffic estimation method and then performed a dynamic parameter control procedure and give detail analysis on estimation error and its impact on channel throughput and delay performance. Computation and simulation of system performance show a positive solution on system design.

  1. Marketing and alcohol-related traffic fatalities: impact of alcohol advertising targeting minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Geller, E Scott

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol-related youth traffic fatalities continue as a major public-health concern. While state and federal laws can be useful in tackling this problem, the efficacy of many laws has not been empirically demonstrated. We examined the impact of state laws prohibiting alcohol advertising to target minors. Using statistics obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), youth alcohol-related, single-vehicle, driver traffic fatalities were compared by state as a function of whether the state has a law prohibiting alcohol advertising that targets minors. Overall, states possessing this law experienced 32.9% fewer of the above specified traffic fatalities. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The results suggest that not only are youth drinking rates affected by alcohol advertisements targeting youth, but also drink-driving behaviors. Indeed, we estimate that if this type of legislation were adopted in the 26 states that do not prohibit targeting of minors with alcohol advertising, then 400 youth lives could be saved annually.

  2. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta Zannin, Paulo Henrique; Bunn, Fernando

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property.

  3. On the impact of trees on dispersion processes of traffic emissions in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-tunnel studies of dispersion processes of traffic exhaust in urban street canyons with tree planting were performed and tracer gas concentrations using electron capture detection (ECD) and flow fields using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) were measured. It was found that tree planting reduces

  4. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S; Galatioto, Fabio; Thorpe, Neil; Namdeo, Anil K; Davies, Richard J; Bird, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to sanctioning the technique to provide additional security over the future supply of domestic energy. However, relatively high population densities in many countries and the potential negative environmental impacts that may be associated with fracking operations has stimulated controversy and significant public debate regarding if and where fracking should be permitted. Road traffic generated by fracking operations is one possible source of environmental impact whose significance has, until now, been largely neglected in the available literature. This paper therefore presents a scoping-level environmental assessment for individual and groups of fracking sites using a newly-created Traffic Impacts Model (TIM). The model produces estimates of the traffic-related impacts of fracking on greenhouse gas emissions, local air quality emissions, noise and road pavement wear, using a range of hypothetical fracking scenarios to quantify changes in impacts against baseline levels. Results suggest that the local impacts of a single well pad may be short duration but large magnitude. That is, whilst single digit percentile increases in emissions of CO2, NOx and PM are estimated for the period from start of construction to pad completion (potentially several months or years), excess emissions of NOx on individual days of peak activity can reach 30% over baseline. Likewise, excess noise emissions appear negligible (fracking water and flowback waste requirements. The TIM model is designed to be adaptable to any geographic area where the required input data are available (such as fleet characteristics, road type and quality), and we suggest could be deployed as a

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Myers-Briggs Personality Types in Air Traffic Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dollar, Carolyn S; Schroeder, David J

    2004-01-01

    .... The study investigated the relationship between MBTI types and initial success in the Air Traffic Control Academy Screen Program, subsequent field training outcomes, and transition to a supervisory...

  6. Impact of dynamic traffic management on air quality. Final report of a study on the impact of dynamic traffic management on the air quality along highways; Invloed DVM op de luchtkwaliteit. Eindrapport onderzoek naar het effect van dynamisch verkeersmanagement op de luchtkwaliteit langs snelwegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewes, W.; Fransen, W. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Within the Air Quality Innovation programme (IPL) a broad survey has been carried out on the possibilities of Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) to improve air quality. This report finalizes the survey that was carried out within the IPL, and summarizes the results of the separate reports. Next to this final report, also a recommendation was made with regard to applying DTM to improve air quality. The final report starts with a comprehensive summary of the results of all the sub-surveys. In addition, for each sub-survey and other relevant publications, used in preparing the recommendation, the key issues and abstracts are presented. [Dutch] Binnen het Innovatieprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (IPL) is breed onderzoek gedaan naar de mogelijkheden om met Dynamisch Verkeersmanagement (DVM) de luchtkwaliteit te verbeteren. Dit rapport sluit het onderzoek dat binnen het IPL is uitgevoerd af en vat de afzonderlijk gerapporteerde resultaten samen. Naast dit eindrapport is ook een toepassingsadvies gericht op het inzetten van DVM ter verbetering van de luchtkwaliteit opgesteld. Het eindrapport begint met een integrale samenvatting van de resultaten van alle deelonderzoeken. Daarnaast zijn van elk deelonderzoek en andere relevante publicaties die gebruikt zijn bij het opstellen van het toepassingsadvies de kernpunten en beknopte samenvattingen opgenomen.

  7. Impact of Automation Support on the Conflict Resolution Task in a Human-in-the-Loop Air Traffic Control Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gomez, Ashley; Gabets, Cynthia; Bienert, Nancy; Edwards, Tamsyn; Martin, Lynne; Gujral, Vimmy; Homola, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigated air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers responsibility for conflict resolution with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Furthermore, these conditions were examined across two different traffic densities; 1x (current-day traffic) and a 20 increase above current-day traffic levels (1.2x). Analyses herein offer an examination of the conflict resolution strategies employed by controllers. In particular, data in the form of elapsed time between conflict detection and conflict resolution are used to assess if, and how, the controllers involvement in the conflict detection task affected the way in which they resolved traffic conflicts.

  8. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  10. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro; Jesuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed...

  11. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. Material and Methods: For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00–9:00 a.m., afternoon (12.00–3:00 p.m. and evening (5:00–8:00 p.m. on Saturdays to Wednesdays. Results: As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A, while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq, measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A. Conclusions: The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in

  12. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Abbaspour, Majid; Nassiri, Parvin; Taghavi, Lobat

    2015-01-01

    Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00-9:00 a.m.), afternoon (12.00-3:00 p.m.) and evening (5:00-8:00 p.m.) on Saturdays to Wednesdays. As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq) was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A), while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq), measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A). The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in handling noise pollution data towards depicting noise pollution intensity caused

  13. Validation of traffic-related air pollution exposure estimates for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosbroeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of studies that investigate the validity of using outdoor concentrations and/or traffic-related indicator exposure variables as a measure for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies on the long-term effect of traffic-related air pollution. A pilot study was

  14. Power supply of Eurotunnel. Optimisation based on traffic and simulation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Stephane [SNCF, Direction de l' Ingenierie, Saint-Denis (France). Dept. des Installations Fixes de Traction Electrique; Dupont, Jean-Pierre; Findinier, Bertrand; Maquaire, Christian [Eurotunnel, Coquelles (France)

    2010-12-15

    In order to reduce electrical power costs and also to cope with the significant traffic increase, a new study was carried on feeding the tunnel section from the French power station, thus improving and reinforcing the existing network. Based on a design study established by SNCF engineering department, EUROTUNNEL chose a new electrical scheme to cope with the traffic increase and optimise investments. (orig.)

  15. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier... to Subpart A of Part 1139—Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) [Complete appendix... shareholders' equity less intangibles L. 7+L. 18 $ $ $ 20 Operating ratio (2 decimals) L. 11÷L. 9 % % % 21...

  16. Effects of mental workload on physiological and subjective responses during traffic density monitoring: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated operators' mental workload while monitoring traffic density in a city traffic control center. To determine the mental workload, physiological signals (ECG, EMG) were recorded and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered for 16 operators. The results showed that the operators experienced a larger mental workload during high traffic density than during low traffic density. The traffic control center stressors caused changes in heart rate variability features and EMG amplitude, although the average workload score was significantly higher in HTD conditions than in LTD conditions. The findings indicated that increasing traffic congestion had a significant effect on HR, RMSSD, SDNN, LF/HF ratio, and EMG amplitude. The results suggested that when operators' workload increases, their mental fatigue and stress level increase and their mental health deteriorate. Therefore, it maybe necessary to implement an ergonomic program to manage mental health. Furthermore, by evaluating mental workload, the traffic control center director can organize the center's traffic congestion operators to sustain the appropriate mental workload and improve traffic control management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Lu, Henry; Hao, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We explored whether noise modifies associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and HRV in young healthy adults. In this randomized, crossover study, 40 young healthy adults stayed for 2 h in a traffic center and, on a separate occasion, in a park. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and noise were measured and ambulatory electrocardiogram was performed. Effects were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. Traffic-related air pollution and noise were both associated with HRV, and effects of air pollutants were amplified at high noise level (>65.6 A-weighted decibels (dB[A])) compared with low noise level (≤ 65.6 dB[A]). High frequency (HF) decreased by -4.61% (95% confidence interval, -6.75% to-2.42%) per 10 μg/m(3) increment in fine particle (PM2.5) at 5-min moving average, but effects became insignificant at low noise level (P>0.05). Similar effects modification was observed for black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). We conclude that noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution on HRV.

  18. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted. PMID:21379367

  19. Energy and traffic light labelling have no impact on parent and child fast food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2013-10-25

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique- either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Using Mobile Learning to Improve the Reflection: A Case Study of Traffic Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate mobile communication technologies and a global positioning system (GPS) to construct an instant, convenient report of the mobile network service system named the Mobile Traffic Violation Reporting System (MTVRS), to improve learners' traffic violation reflection level. Data were collected using a…

  1. AHP-based spatial analysis of water quality impact assessment due to change in vehicular traffic caused by highway broadening in Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Polash; Ghose, Mrinal Kanti; Pradhan, Ratika

    2018-05-01

    Spatial analysis of water quality impact assessment of highway projects in mountainous areas remains largely unexplored. A methodology is presented here for Spatial Water Quality Impact Assessment (SWQIA) due to highway-broadening-induced vehicular traffic change in the East district of Sikkim. Pollution load of the highway runoff was estimated using an Average Annual Daily Traffic-Based Empirical model in combination with mass balance model to predict pollution in the rivers within the study area. Spatial interpolation and overlay analysis were used for impact mapping. Analytic Hierarchy Process-Based Water Quality Status Index was used to prepare a composite impact map. Model validation criteria, cross-validation criteria, and spatial explicit sensitivity analysis show that the SWQIA model is robust. The study shows that vehicular traffic is a significant contributor to water pollution in the study area. The model is catering specifically to impact analysis of the concerned project. It can be an aid for decision support system for the project stakeholders. The applicability of SWQIA model needs to be explored and validated in the context of a larger set of water quality parameters and project scenarios at a greater spatial scale.

  2. Coordinated Traffic Incident and Congestion Management (TIM-CM) : Mitigating Regional Impacts of Major Traffic Incidents in the Seattle I-5 Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Within the Seattle metropolitan area, traffic incident management (TIM) operations provide a multi-jurisdictional and coordinated strategy to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents so that traffic flow can be restored quickly and safely. The...

  3. Modeling the impact of pedestrian behavior diversity on traffic dynamics at a crosswalk with push button

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhu, Tai-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Crosswalk with push button is prevalent in lots of cities for the purpose of promoting the efficiency of the crosswalk, and thus the delays of both vehicles and pedestrians can be reduced. This strategy has been confirmed to be effective in several developed countries. However, it is a pity that application of push button is aborted in some cities in China. In this work, diverse behaviors of vehicles and pedestrians are analyzed and discussed. Then, a microscopic model is developed by incorporating the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. Numerical simulations are performed to reveal the characteristics of traffic flow and the efficiency of the signal control strategy. Also, the impacts of risker proportion and button reaction time, as well as the impacts of various behaviors as mass behavior, the patience of pedestrian and push button habit are investigated. It is expected that the results will be helpful to the strategy design of a signalized crosswalk in such developing countries as China.

  4. Impact of commuting exposure to traffic-related air pollution on cognitive development in children walking to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Cirach, Marta; de Castro, Montserrat; Esnaola, Mikel; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    A few studies have found associations between the exposure to traffic-related air pollution at school and/or home and cognitive development. The impact on cognitive development of the exposure to air pollutants during commuting has not been explored. We aimed to assess the role of the exposure to traffic-related air pollutants during walking commute to school on cognitive development of children. We performed a longitudinal study of children (n = 1,234, aged 7-10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who commuted by foot to school. Children were tested four times during a 12-month follow-up to characterize their developmental trajectories of working memory (d' of the three-back numbers test) and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error of the Attention Network Test). Average particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), Black Carbon (BC) and NO 2 concentrations were estimated using Land Use Regression for the shortest walking route to school. Differences in cognitive growth were evaluated by linear mixed effects models with age-by-pollutant interaction terms. Exposure to PM 2.5 and BC from the commutes by foot was associated with a reduction in the growth of working memory (an interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 and BC concentrations decreased the annual growth of working memory by 5.4 (95% CI [-10.2, -0.6]) and 4.6 (95% CI [-9.0, -0.1]) points, respectively). The findings for NO 2 were not conclusive and none of the pollutants were associated with inattentiveness. Efforts should be made to implement pedestrian school pathways through low traffic streets in order to increase security and minimize children's exposure to air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of young drivers' lifestyle on their road traffic accident risk in greater Athens area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T

    1999-11-01

    Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed.

  6. Study on Determination of Preceding Vehicle Motion State at the Traffic Lights Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the security of automotive safety systems and reduce traffic accidents in traffic lights intersection, In view of this, it is proposed to apply the distance measurement technology of binocular vision ranging in determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection, We study the determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection based on binocular vision. The system, which is divided into four steps, adopts the theory combining the binocular stereo vision principle and the triangulation principle. First of all, from different angles, image information with preceding vehicles and traffic lights, collected by two CCD cameras, is processed and positioned. Next, two pairs of corresponding feature matching points is obtained by using the stereo matching method. Furthermore, the distance between the cameras and the preceding vehicle, and the distance between the cameras and the traffic lights are determined, according to the camera calibration technique, the parallax disparity principle and the triangulation principle. Finally, the determination about the motion state of traffic lights intersection is determined according to the distance difference principle. Experimental results show that the design, with high measurement accuracy and application value, realize the determination of preceding vehicle’s motion state at traffic lights intersection.

  7. Automatic Generation of Least-Possible-Impact Traffic Management Initiatives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Weather accounts for 70% of the annual cost of air traffic delays and cancellations, of which about 60% are estimated to be avoidable. Traffic Management Initiatives...

  8. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  9. A proposed methodology for impact assessment of air quality traffic-related measures: The case of PM2.5 in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Tânia; Li, Peilin; Barros, Nelson; Zhao, Pengjun

    2018-08-01

    Air quality traffic-related measures have been implemented worldwide to control the pollution levels of urban areas. Although some of those measures are claiming environmental improvements, few studies have checked their real impact. In fact, quantitative estimates are often focused on reducing emissions, rather than on evaluating the actual measures' effect on air quality. Even when air quality studies are conducted, results are frequently unclear. In order to properly assess the real impact on air quality of traffic-related measures, a statistical method is proposed. The method compares the pollutant concentration levels observed after the implementation of a measure with the concentration values of the previous year. Short- and long-term impact is assessed considering not only their influence on the average pollutant concentration, but also on its maximum level. To control the effect of the main confounding factors, only the days with similar environmental conditions are analysed. The changeability of the key meteorological variables that affect the transport and dispersion of the pollutant studied are used to identify and group the days categorized as similar. Resemblance of the pollutants' concentration of the previous day is also taken into account. The impact of the road traffic measures on the air pollutants' concentration is then checked for those similar days using specific statistical functions. To evaluate the proposed method, the impact on PM 2.5 concentrations of two air quality traffic-related measures (M1 and M2) implemented in the city of Beijing are taken into consideration: M1 was implemented in 2009, restricting the circulation of yellow-labelled vehicles, while M2 was implemented in 2014, restricting the circulation of heavy-duty vehicles. To compare the results of each measure, a time-period when these measures were not applied is used as case-control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the Impact of Anomalous Noise Events on Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Urban and Suburban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orga, Ferran; Alías, Francesc; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma

    2017-12-23

    Noise pollution is a critical factor affecting public health, the relationship between road traffic noise (RTN) and several diseases in urban areas being especially disturbing. The Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC and the CNOSSOS-EU framework are the main instruments of the European Union to identify and combat noise pollution, requiring Member States to compose and publish noise maps and noise management action plans every five years. Nowadays, the noise maps are starting to be tailored by means of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN). In order to exclusively monitor the impact of RTN on the well-being of citizens through WASN-based approaches, those noise sources unrelated to RTN denoted as Anomalous Noise Events (ANEs) should be removed from the noise map generation. This paper introduces an analysis methodology considering both Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and duration of ANEs to evaluate their impact on the A-weighted equivalent RTN level calculation for different integration times. The experiments conducted on 9 h of real-life data from the WASN-based DYNAMAP project show that both individual high-impact events and aggregated medium-impact events bias significantly the equivalent noise levels of the RTN map, making any derived study about public health impact inaccurate.

  11. A Retrospective Study on the Unseen Epidemic of Road Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgrounds: Sixty percent of the global deaths and injuries occur in the developing world and mostly are due to Road traffic accidents (RTAs. looking at the etiological related factors which include, carelessness of the driver, condition of the vehicle or motorcycle, poor condition of roads, risky behavior of the driver, most of ...

  12. Web service availability-impact of error recovery and traffic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinello, Magnos; Kaa-hat niche, Mohamed; Kanoun, Karama

    2005-01-01

    Internet is often used for transaction based applications such as online banking, stock trading and shopping, where the service interruption or outages are unacceptable. Therefore, it is important for designers of such applications to analyze how hardware, software and performance related failures affect the quality of service delivered to the users. This paper presents analytical models for evaluating the service availability of web cluster architectures. A composite performance and availability modeling approach is defined considering various causes of service unavailability. In particular, web cluster systems are modeled taking into account: two error recovery strategies (client transparent and non-client-transparent) as well as two traffic models (Poisson and modulated Poisson). Sensitivity analysis results are presented to show their impact on the web service availability. The obtained results provide useful guidelines to web designers

  13. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.

  14. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  15. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). A lack of respect for the law, weak legislation and law enforcement, disregard for

  16. Preliminary study on alterations of altitude road traffic in China from 2006 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Xiang, Hongyi; Liao, Zhikang; Wang, Zhengguo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic can play an important role in strengthening regional economic activities, especially at high altitude, and it is necessary to know important traffic-related information. Although previous studies reported on road traffic in China, there has been little research on high-altitude road traffic to date. Method The annual official census of road traffic safety from 2006 to 2013 was used to obtain data on the general population, registered drivers, registered vehicles, newly built roads, road traffic accidents (RTAs), mortality rate per 100 000 populations and per 10 000 vehicles in high-altitude provinces, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Chongqing. These provincial data were reviewed retrospectively, with the national data as the reference. Statistical analysis (i.e., t test) was used to compare the estimated average annual change rate of population, number of registered drivers, registered vehicles, and newly built roads in high-altitude provinces with the national rates. Results Compared with the national data, there are significantly higher annual rates of population growth in Tibet and Xinjiang, registered drivers in Gansu, registered vehicles in Gansu, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and newly built roads in Tibet and Qinghai. Among the investigated provinces, Tibet, Qinghai, and Yunnan had a higher proportion of the roads with the high class. RTAs and RTA-induced casualties in the high-altitude provinces indicated a decreasing trend. The mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles and per 100 000 populations showed a decreasing trend, while the RTA-related mortality rate in Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu remained high. Conclusions Major changes for road traffic in high-altitude provinces have occurred over the past decade; however, the RTA-related mortality rate in high-altitude provinces has remained high. This study furthers understanding about road traffic safety in China; further studies on road traffic safety at

  17. Preliminary study on alterations of altitude road traffic in China from 2006 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available Road traffic can play an important role in strengthening regional economic activities, especially at high altitude, and it is necessary to know important traffic-related information. Although previous studies reported on road traffic in China, there has been little research on high-altitude road traffic to date.The annual official census of road traffic safety from 2006 to 2013 was used to obtain data on the general population, registered drivers, registered vehicles, newly built roads, road traffic accidents (RTAs, mortality rate per 100 000 populations and per 10 000 vehicles in high-altitude provinces, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Chongqing. These provincial data were reviewed retrospectively, with the national data as the reference. Statistical analysis (i.e., t test was used to compare the estimated average annual change rate of population, number of registered drivers, registered vehicles, and newly built roads in high-altitude provinces with the national rates.Compared with the national data, there are significantly higher annual rates of population growth in Tibet and Xinjiang, registered drivers in Gansu, registered vehicles in Gansu, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and newly built roads in Tibet and Qinghai. Among the investigated provinces, Tibet, Qinghai, and Yunnan had a higher proportion of the roads with the high class. RTAs and RTA-induced casualties in the high-altitude provinces indicated a decreasing trend. The mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles and per 100 000 populations showed a decreasing trend, while the RTA-related mortality rate in Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu remained high.Major changes for road traffic in high-altitude provinces have occurred over the past decade; however, the RTA-related mortality rate in high-altitude provinces has remained high. This study furthers understanding about road traffic safety in China; further studies on road traffic safety at high altitude should be

  18. Dementia and traffic accidents: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, CT

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic...... Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome...... selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation of absolute risks....

  19. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjour, Sarah; Jerrett, Michael; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Hanning, Cooper; Daly, Laura; Lipsitt, Jonah; Balmes, John

    2013-02-07

    A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as "Bicycle Boulevards." We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes - a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and city planners to expand infrastructure to

  20. Traffic volume and load data measurement using a portable weigh in motion system: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Faruk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, traffic loading characteristics are collected for pavement design and performance prediction purposes using permanent roadside weigh-in-motion (WIM stations. However, high installation and maintenance costs associated with these permanent WIM stations dictate that their deployment be mostly limited to major highways, such as the interstate network. Quite often however, pavement damage on high volume rural highways with heavy truck proportions is more severe than anticipated, and there is no effective way of quantifying the traffic loading on these highways. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential application of portable WIM systems as a means for bringing the WIM technology to these high volume rural highways. A portable WIM unit was deployed in the Texas overweight corridor in Hidalgo County (Pharr District near the USA-Mexico border on highway FM 1016 for collecting traffic data for a minimum of three weeks in each direction. The collected traffic data were analyzed to generate traffic parameters such as volume, load spectra, and overloading information both in terms of the gross vehicle weight (GVW and axle weight. The computed traffic parameters were successful in partially explaining some of the existing pavement conditions on this highway. Overall, the study findings indicated that the portable WIM unit can be used as a convenient and cost-effective means for collecting reliable traffic information for design, analysis, and monitoring purposes. However, proper in-situ calibration of the portable WIM unit at each site is imperative prior to any real-time traffic data collection. Keywords: Traffic data, Load spectra, Truck overweight, Weigh-in-motion (WIM, Portable WIM, Texas overweight corridor

  1. Residential exposure to traffic noise and leisure-time sports - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-08-01

    Traffic levels have been found a significant environmental predictor for physical inactivity. A recent study suggested that traffic noise annoyance was associated with lower physical activity. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and leisure-time sports. In the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from the baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). People reported participation (yes/no) and hours of leisure-time sport, from which we calculated MET hrs/week. Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2002 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression. Traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was associated with higher prevalence odds ratio of non-participation in leisure-time sports; significantly for road traffic noise (odds ratio (OR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.13) and borderline for railway noise (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99-1.07), per 10dB. In longitudinal analyses, a 10dB higher road traffic noise was associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio of ceasing (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07-1.18) and a lower prevalence odds ratio of initiating (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96) leisure-time sports. Exposure to railway noise was negatively associated with baseline MET hrs/week, whereas no association was found in longitudinal analyses, or for road traffic noise. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is negatively associated with leisure-time sports. Results for railway noise were less consistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Traffic Feasibility Study for a Grade Separator at a Busy Intersection in Vellore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    One of the byproduct of urbanization is traffic congestion and before suggesting any solutions to reduce congestion, understanding the present context becomes very important. Study of traffic volumes at busy intersections to find the percentage composition of different vehicle types, directional distribution and peak hour traffic volume is a first step towards understanding the present context of traffic. Hence in the present study, one of the busy intersections in Vellore, namely, Gandhi nagar intersection in Vellore-Katpadi road was selected and traffic flow data was collected using video surveys. It was found that at the selected intersection, the two wheelers and three wheelers alone share 80% of the total traffic when compared to other vehicle types. Nearly 700 trucks and multi axle trailers were observed to pass through the intersection during the analysis period of five hours. That is, on an average 2 trucks/multi axle trailers were passing through the intersection in each minute. As like in other major cities, entry of trucks and other heavy vehicles such as multi axle trailers into the city needs to be banned during peak hours for smooth flow of traffic within city limits. A highest hourly volume of 6939 PCU’s was observed between 4 and 5 pm at the selected intersection. By assuming a 10% uniform traffic growth every year, it was found that after about 4 years, i.e., in 2019, the traffic volume at the intersection may reach 10,000 PCU’s and may warrant for a grade separator or interchange at the intersection.

  3. Traffic risk behavior and perceptions of Thai motorcyclists: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathurng Hongsranagon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.

  4. A CFD study on the effectiveness of trees to disperse road traffic emissions at a city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A. P. R.; Hinchliffe, G.; McMullan, W. A.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effectiveness of trees at dispersing road traffic emissions on a city scale. CFD simulations of air-pollutant concentrations were performed using the OpenFOAM software platform using the k-ε model. Results were validated against the CODASC wind tunnel database before being applied to a LIDAR database of buildings and trees representing the City of Leicester (UK). Most other CFD models in the literature typically use idealised buildings to model wind flow and pollution dispersion. However, the methodology used in this study uses real buildings and trees data from LIDAR to reconstruct a 3D representation of Leicester City Centre. It focuses on a 2 × 2 km area which is on a scale larger than those usually used in other CFD studies. Furthermore, the primary focus of this study is on the interaction of trees with wind flow dynamics. It was found that in effect, trees have a regionally beneficial impact on road traffic emissions by increasing turbulence and reducing ambient concentrations of road traffic emissions by 7% at pedestrian height on average. This was an important result given that previous studies generally concluded that trees trapped pollution by obstructing wind flow in street canyons. Therefore, this study is novel both in its methodology and subsequent results, highlighting the importance of combining local and regional scale models for assessing the impact of trees in urban planning.

  5. Impact Assessment of Effective Parameters on Drivers' Attention Level to Urban Traffic Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mojtaba; Rahimi, Amir Masoud; Roshankhah, Sheida

    2016-03-01

    Traffic signs are one of the oldest safety and traffic control equipments. Drivers' reaction to installed signs is an important issue that could be studied using statistical models developed for target groups. There are 527 questionnaires have been filled up randomly in 45 days, some by drivers passing two northern cities of Iran and some by e-mail. Therefore, minimum sample size of 384 is fulfilled. In addition, Cronbach Alpha of more than 90 % verifies the questionnaire's validity. Ordinal logistic regression is used for 5-level answer variables. This relatively novel method predicts probability of different cases' considering other effective independent variables. There are 18 parameters of factor, man, vehicle, and environment are assessed and 5 parameters of number of accidents in last 5 years, occupation, driving time, number of accidents per day, and driving speed are eventually found as the most important ones. Age and gender, that are considered as key factors in other safety and accident studies, are not recognized as effective ones in this paper. The results could be useful for safety planning programs.

  6. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  7. Traffic congestion and blood pressure elevation: A comparative cross-sectional study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Samra, Patrick; El Tomb, Paul; Hosni, Mohammad; Kassem, Ahmad; Rizk, Robin; Shayya, Sami; Assaad, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    This comparative cross-sectional study examines the association between traffic congestion and elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure levels among a convenience sample of 310 drivers. Data collection took place during a gas station pause at a fixed time of day. Higher average systolic (142 vs 123 mm Hg) and diastolic (87 vs 78 mm Hg) blood pressures were detected among drivers exposed to traffic congestion compared with those who were not exposed (P<.001), while controlling for body mass index, age, sex, pack-year smoking, driving hours per week, and occupational driving. Moreover, among persons exposed to traffic congestion, longer exposure time was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the significant association between elevated blood pressure and traffic congestion. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  9. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2018-01-02

    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  10. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Trieste sediments (northern Adriatic): potential impacts of maritime traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic) is one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas in the northern Adriatic, with intense maritime traffic experienced at multiple ports. The impact of maritime traffic on contamination by hydrocarbons in this area was assessed. Concentrations of hydrocarbons were higher near the expected contamination sources and still elevated in the adjacent offshore areas. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly of petrogenic origin, with some contribution of biogenic origin. A continuous contamination by aliphatic hydrocarbons and degradation processes were hypothesized. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were generally greater near the contamination sources. Compared to the prevailing pyrolytic origin, the petrogenic PAH origin seemed to be less important, but not negligible. Results revealed that intensive maritime traffic is a probable source of contamination by hydrocarbons in the investigated area, which is largely limited to areas near the contamination sources.

  11. Residential traffic exposure and children's emergency department presentation for asthma: a spatial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gavin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that residential proximity to roadways is associated with an elevated risk of asthma exacerbation. However, there is no consensus on the distance at which these health effects diminishes to background levels. Therefore the optimal, clinically relevant measure of exposure remains uncertain. Using four spatially defined exposure metrics, we evaluated the association between residential proximity to roadways and emergency department (ED presentation for asthma in Perth, Western Australia. Method The study population consisted of 1809 children aged between 0 and 19 years who had presented at an ED between 2002 and 2006 and were resident in a south-west metropolitan area of Perth traversed by major motorways. We used a 1:2 matched case-control study with gastroenteritis and upper limb injury as the control conditions. To estimate exposure to traffic emissions, we used 4 contrasting methods and 2 independently derived sources of traffic data (video-monitored traffic counts and those obtained from the state government road authority. The following estimates of traffic exposure were compared: (1 a point pattern method, (2 a distance-weighted traffic exposure method, (3 a simple distance method and (4 a road length method. Results Risk estimates were sensitive to socio-economic gradients and the type of exposure method that was applied. Unexpectedly, a range of apparent protective effects were observed for some exposure metrics. The kernel density measure demonstrated more than a 2-fold (OR 2.51, 95% CI 2.00 - 3.15 increased risk of asthma ED presentation for the high exposure group compared to the low exposure group. Conclusion We assessed exposure using traffic data from 2 independent sources and compared the results of 4 different exposure metric types. The results indicate that traffic congestion may be one of the most important aspects of traffic-related exposures, despite being overlooked in many

  12. A Study on the Model of Traffic Flow and Vehicle Exhaust Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of traffic flow in cities causes traffic congestion and accidents as well as air pollution. Traffic problems have attracted the interest of many researchers from the perspective of theory and engineering. In order to provide a simple and practical method for measuring the exhaust emission and assessing the effect of pollution control, a model is based on the relationship between traffic flow and vehicle exhaust emission under a certain level of road capacity constraints. In the proposed model, the hydrocarbons (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen oxides (NOx are considered as the indexes of total exhaust emission, and the speed is used as an intermediate variable. To verify the rationality and practicality of the model, a case study for Beijing, China, is provided in which the effects of taxi fare regulation and the specific vehicle emission reduction policy are analyzed.

  13. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Amit H; Solanki, Jayesh D; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, Hemant B; Shah, Chinmay J; Gadhavi, Bhakti P

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), slow vital capacity (SVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  14. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to develop a particular focus on the serious road traffic injuries, to better understand their causes and effects. One of the first actions the Commission has undertaken is to develop a common definit...

  15. Epidemiological study on the human effects of traffic nuisance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-10-01

    A health survey was conducted on the inhabitants living along the roads with heavy motor traffic in Kyoto City. The subjects were 4956 housewives living along the main 28 roads and 1073 housewives living remote from the main roads. The survey utilized the questionnaires concerning symptoms of the respiratory system, symptoms of carbon monoxide intoxication, general health state, and symptoms of neurosis; the questionnaire consisting of 111 items. The results will be published after the completion of an environmental pollution survey which is now under way.

  16. Study of physio-psychological effects on traffic wardens due to traffic noise pollution; exposure-effect relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabraiz, Shamas; Ahmad, Saeed; Shehzadi, Iffat; Asif, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution has increased to alarming extent in most of the urban areas in Pakistan. It is assumed even more perilous than air and water pollution due to its direct acute and chronic physio-psychological effects. The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the psychological and physiological effects caused by traffic noise on traffic wardens and to find relation type between exposure time and effect. Three wardens check posts near roads were selected for survey in Taxila and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Survey conducted included noise measurements at aforementioned check posts for one month and Performa based interviews of traffic wardens. Analysis of results showed that noise levels varied between 85-106 dB hence violating OSHA regulations. Major psychological effects found in wardens were aggravated depression 58%, stress 65%, public conflict 71%, irritation and annoyance 54%, behavioral affects 59% and speech interference 56%. Physiological effects found were hypertension 87%, muscle tension 64%, exhaustion 48%, low performance levels 55%, concentration loss 93%, hearing impairment 69%, headache 74% and cardiovascular issue 71%. Relation between exposure time and effects were evaluated by using simple regression test in excel. Percentage of psychological and physiological effects in wardens varied with the exposure time; aggravated depression (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), stress suffering (R(2) = 0.014, P = 0.173), public conflict (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), irritation and annoyance (R(2) = 0.371, P = 0.137), behavioral affects (R(2) = 0.596, P = 0.0616) and speech interference (R(2) = 0.355, P = 0.445), hypertension (R(2) = 0.96, P = 0.00095) and cardiovascular issue (R(2) = 0.775, P = 0.044).

  17. Impact of traffic routes on the content of trace elements in soils in Warsaw agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komorowski Artur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the content of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd in soils near the main traffic routes of the Warsaw agglomeration. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of soil contamination with trace metals at different distances from the road (by the side the road and 50 meters away from the road. In the soil 50 m away from the road in Łomianki ‘low contamination’ was found for zinc and ‘elevated content’ for copper according to the IUNG guidelines, but the amounts of the trace elements were not found to exceed the permissible levels as specified in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment of 1 September 2016.

  18. Modeling the weather impact on aviation in a global air traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, S.; Hauf, T.; Rokitansky, C. H.

    2009-09-01

    Weather has a strong impact on aviation safety and efficiency. For a better understanding of that impact, especially of thunderstorms and similar other severe hazards, we pursued a modeling approach. We used the detailed simulation software (NAVSIM) of worldwide air traffic, developed by Rokitansky [Eurocontrol, 2005] and implemented a specific weather module. NAVSIM models each aircraft with its specific performance characteristics separately along preplanned and prescribed routes. The specific weather module in its current version simulates a thunderstorm as an impenetrable 3D object, which forces an aircraft to circumvent the latter. We refer to that object in general terms as a weather object. The Cb-weather object, as a specific weather object, is a heuristic model of a real thunderstorm, with its characteristics based on actually observed satellite and precipitation radar data. It is comprised of an upper volume, mostly the anvil, and a bottom volume, the up- and downdrafts and the lower outflow area [Tafferner and Forster, 2009; Kober and Tafferner 2009; Zinner et al, 2008]. The Cb-weather object is already implemented in NAVSIM, other weather objects like icing and turbulence will follow. This combination of NAVSIM with a weather object allows a detailed investigation of situations where conflicts exist between planned flight routes and adverse weather. The first objective is to simulate the observed circum-navigation in NAVSIM. Real occurring routes will be compared with simulated ones. Once this has successfully completed, NAVSIM offers a platform to assess existing rules and develop more efficient strategies to cope with adverse weather. An overview will be given over the implementation status of weather objects within NAVSIM and first results will be presented. Cb-object data provision by A. Tafferner, C. Forster, T. Zinner, K. Kober, M. Hagen (DLR Oberpfaffenhofen) is greatly acknowledged. References: Eurocontrol, VDL Mode 2 Capacity Analysis through

  19. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  20. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Impact on air quality of measures to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in Basel, Rotterdam, Xi'an and Suzhou

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Jonkers, S.; Verhagen, H.L.M.; Perez, L.; Truëb, S.; Okkerse, W.J.; Liu, J.; Pan, X.C.; Zheng, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, R.; Sabel, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Two traffic scenarios to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in two European cities (Basel and Rotterdam) and two Chinese cities (Xi'an and Suzhou) were evaluated in terms of their impact on air quality. The two scenarios, one modelling a reduction of private vehicle kilometres driven by 10% on

  2. Wind farms' influences for traffic safety. Study of distance requirements for road traffic, railway traffic, sea traffic and air travel; Tuulivoimaloiden vaikutukset liikenneturvallisuuteen. Selvitys etaeisyysvaatimuksista tie-, rautatie-, meri- ja lentoliikenteen osalta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytoenen, K.; Harju, M.; Piispanen, J.; Haulos, S.

    2012-11-15

    As wind power projects, both design and implementation, have increased rapidly, wind power manufacturers have stated that infrastructure of traffic restricts and complicates implementation of wind power projects. Failure of wind farm and both snow and ice thrown from blades and tower are commonly thought to be dangerous for settlement and for road, railway and sea traffic. Based on the accessible information accidents, which are connected to wind farms, won't cause notable harm for outsiders. Majority of the human injury and fatal accidents concerns the personnel of the wind farm in implementation and operational phases, not outsiders. Purpose of this study has been to clarify how distances requirements in different forms of traffic in Finland differ from other countries that are included in this comparison, and to find grounds for possibly revising these guidelines. In Finland there are still longest distance requirements when placing wind farm nearby the main roads, even after Finnish Traffic Agency revised guidelines in 2012. Regarding roads, differences between all the countries were minor. Also distance requirements regarding railways differ relatively little. Sweden has shortest distance requirement. Distance requirements in Finland and Denmark have been reduced in past few years. Any of these countries have not stated actual defined distance requirements related for example to shipping channels or lanes. International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has settled internationally rules for obstacle limitation surface nearby airports and marking flight obstacles. Countries have stated national aviation regulations according to these rules and for this reason these regulations are quite consistent. In this study distance requirements are recommended to be calculated for certain basis. In case of roads and railways a general minimum distance requirement is suggested to be 1 x wind farm overall height. Road owner is allowed to require higher distance for

  3. Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicles in Real Traffic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Susumu; Mizushima, Norifumi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL) (Japan); Saito, Akira; Takada, Yutaka [Organization for the Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles (LEVO)(Japan

    2012-01-15

    This report focuses on the comparison of the real-world emissions between the case of using diesel oil and BDF (biodiesel fuel) for fuel. For this purpose, the on-road driving tests were made, by applying BDF, with the latest diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission regulations while avoiding any particular modification to them. For measurement, a PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used. Note that the heavy diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission gas regulations of Japan also meet the heavy vehicle fuel economy regulations introduced by Japan ahead of other countries of the world. Since application of BDF presents problems not only for the emission gas, but also has non-negligible influence on the fuel economy, the survey was also made for the real-world fuel economy. This report has been produced as the final version deliverable from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement (Annex XXXVIII - Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicle in Real Traffic Conditions).

  4. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  5. Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Operational Constraints on the Near-Term Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management Supported Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascik, Parker D.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2016-01-01

    An economic impact market analysis was conducted for 16 leading sectors of commercial Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) applications predicted to be enabled by 2020 through the NASA UAS Traffic Management (UTM) program. Subject matter experts from seven industries were interviewed to validate concept of operations (ConOps) and market adoption assumptions for each sector. The market analysis was used to estimate direct economic impacts for each sector including serviceable addressable market, capital investment, revenue recovery potential, and operations cost savings. The resultant economic picture distinguishes the agricultural, pipeline and railroad inspection, construction, and maritime sectors of the nascent commercial UAS industry as providing the highest potential economic value in the United States. Sensitivity studies characterized the variability of select UAS sectors economic value to key regulatory or UTM ConOps requirements such as weight, altitude, and flight over populated area constraints. Takeaways from the analysis inform the validation of UTM requirements, technologies and timetables from a commercial market need and value viewpoint. This work concluded in August 2015 and reflects the state of the UAS industry and market projections at that time.

  7. Performance of FHWA model for predicting traffic noise: a case study of metropolitan city, Lucknow (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Srivastava

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and transport activities are the two major sources of noise pollution in any metropolitan city. Lucknow city, the capital of the largest populated state Uttar Pradesh in India has an area of 310 sq. km and is rapidly growing as a commercial, industrial and trading centre of northern India. The population of Lucknow city as per census 2001 is 22.45 Lacs. It is expected that by the year 2021 it will make 45 Lacs. The total vehicle population in Lucknow city on 31 March 2008, was nearly 1 million with almost 80% two wheelers, 12% cars, 1.36% three wheelers, 0.45% buses etc. A study was carried out to assess the existing status of noise levels and its impacts on the environment with a possibility of further expansion of the city. Ambient noise levels were measured at different locations selected on the basis of land use such as silence, heavy traffic and residential and commercial zones. It was found that noise levels at all selected locations were much higher (75–90 dB than the prescribed limits. The observed traffic volume and data on road geometry were used to predict noise levels using Federal Highway Administration Agency (FHWA model and the calculated noise levels were compared with the observed levels for checking the suitability of this model for predicting the future levels. It was established that the results obtained by FHWA model were very close to the observed noise levels and that the model was suitable to be used for other similar metropolitan cities in India.

  8. Effect of Traffic Noise on Sleep: A Case Study in Serdang Raya, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavani Nadaraja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise has been recognised as a serious threat to the quality of life in most industrialised nations. The rapid growth of towns, cities and population has increased the density of traffic. There are various effects of traffic noise on people and these effects are often interrelated. The most common yet serious problem is sleep disturbance. In this study field measurement and questionnaire survey were carried out to determine the overall noise level and the view and opinion of the residents on their sleep disturbance. As the LAeq was higher than the guideline values, contradictorily the survey results showed that most of the residents sleep time was not affected and they were not really annoyed by the traffic noise. This is mainly because most of the residents at the study area residing there for more than 19 years and this is sufficient enough to describe the pattern of outcome where most of the residents were get used with the traffic noise and they adapt it in their daily life as a norm. Yet, countermeasures such as construction of noise barrier are highly recommended to curb the chronic effects. So, a further study is required to establish this.

  9. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S M; Jindal, A K; Verma, A K; Mahen, A

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. In India, more than a million are injured annually and about a lakh are killed in road traffic accidents.(1) It causes the country to lose around 55,000 crores annually which is 2-3% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP).(2) This cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the role of various factors involved in road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 01 Oct 2009 and 28 Feb 2011 were included in the study. A total of 182 patients were studied. Information was collected through questionnaire, hospital records and on-site visit. OPD cases, comatose patients and deaths were excluded. Two-wheelers were the commonest vehicle involved in vehicular accidents. Most accidents happened at a speed of 40-60 km/h (37.9%). Most of the patients were aged between 20 and 30 years. Majority had a driving experience of less than 5 years. Monsoons witnessed 46.7% cases. Most cases occurred between 6 and 10 pm. Among severe injuries, the commonest was lower limb fractures (19.8%). There are multiple factors associated with road traffic accidents which due to the lack of road safety measures in the country are playing their role. It is the need of the hour to address this issue and formulate comprehensive, scientific and practical rules and regulations as well as evaluate its enforcement.

  10. Rupture of the aorta following road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom 1992-1999. The results of the co-operative crash injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, D; Kotidis, K; Neale, M; Oakley, C; Fails, A

    2003-02-01

    The true incidence and survivability of blunt traumatic aortic rupture following road traffic accidents in the UK is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in the UK after road traffic accidents and the conditions under which it occurs. Data for the study was obtained from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database. Road traffic accidents that happened between 1992 and 1999 and included in the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database were retrospectively investigated. A total of 8285 vehicles carrying 14,435 occupants were involved in 7067 accidents. There were 132 cases of blunt traumatic aortic rupture, of which the scene survival was 9% and the overall mortality was 98%. Twenty-one percent of all fatalities had blunt traumatic aortic rupture (130/613). Twenty-nine percent were due to frontal impacts and 44% were due to side impacts. Twelve percent of the blunt traumatic aortic rupture cases in frontal vehicle impacts were wearing seat belts and had airbag protection and 19% had no restraint mechanism. The Equivalent Test Speed of the accident vehicles, (where equivalent test speed provides an estimate of the vehicle impact severity and not an estimate of the vehicle speed at the time of the accident), ranged from 30 to 110 km/h in frontal impacts and from 15 to 82 km/h in side impacts. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture carries a high mortality and occurred in 21% of car occupant deaths in this sample of road traffic accidents. Impact scenarios varied but were most common from the side. The use of an airbag or seat belt does not eliminate risk. The injury can occur at low severity impacts particularly in side impact. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Evaluation of dynamic message signs and their potential impact on traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has a rich data archive of the messages posted to the : Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) and the time stamps when they were posted and taken down. The archive : also contains traffic information surrounding the ...

  12. Impact of Primary User Traffic on Adaptive Transmission for Cognitive Radio with Partial Relay Selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei; Ma, Hao; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Chen, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    transmission, when the secondary user adopts adaptive transmission with a relay partially selected. From the numerical results, we can see that the primary user traffic seriously degrades average BER. The worse-link partial selection can perform almost as well

  13. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  14. Big Data technology in traffic: A case study of automatic counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slađana R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern information and communication technologies together with intelligent devices provide a continuous inflow of large amounts of data that are used by traffic and transport systems. Collecting traffic data does not represent a challenge nowadays, but the issues remains in relation to storing and processing increasing amounts of data. In this paper we have investigated the possibilities of using Big Data technology to store and process data in the transport domain. The term Big Data refers to a large volume of information resource, its velocity and variety, far beyond the capabilities of commonly used software for storing, processing and data management. In our case study, Apache™ Hadoop® Big Data was used for processing data collected from 10 automatic traffic counters set up in Novi Sad and its surroundings. Indicators of traffic load which were calculated using the Big Data platforms were presented using tables and graphs in Microsoft Office Excel tool. The visualization and geolocation of the obtained indicators were performed using the Microsoft Business Intelligence (BI tools such as: Excel Power View and Excel Power Map. This case study showed that Big Data technologies combined with the BI tools can be used as a reliable support in monitoring of the traffic management systems.

  15. Self-organized natural roads for predicting traffic flow: a sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhao, Sijian; Yin, Junjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we extended road-based topological analysis to both nationwide and urban road networks, and concentrated on a sensitivity study with respect to the formation of self-organized natural roads based on the Gestalt principle of good continuity. Both annual average daily traffic (AADT) and global positioning system (GPS) data were used to correlate with a series of ranking metrics including five centrality-based metrics and two PageRank metrics. It was found that there exists a tipping point from segment-based to road-based network topology in terms of correlation between ranking metrics and their traffic. To our great surprise, (1) this correlation is significantly improved if a selfish rather than utopian strategy is adopted in forming the self-organized natural roads, and (2) point-based metrics assigned by summation into individual roads tend to have a much better correlation with traffic flow than line-based metrics. These counter-intuitive surprising findings constitute emergent properties of self-organized natural roads, which are intelligent enough for predicting traffic flow, thus shedding substantial light on the understanding of road networks and their traffic from the perspective of complex networks

  16. The Study of Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Self-Adaptive Control under Multiagent Markov Game Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-adaptive control as a multiagent Markov game problem. The design employs traffic signal control agent (TSCA for each signalized intersection that coordinates with neighboring TSCAs. A mathematical model for TSCAs’ interaction is built based on nonzero-sum markov game which has been applied to let TSCAs learn how to cooperate. A multiagent Markov game reinforcement learning approach is constructed on the basis of single-agent Q-learning. This method lets each TSCA learn to update its Q-values under the joint actions and imperfect information. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically. The simulation results show that the proposed method is convergent and effective in realistic traffic self-adaptive control setting.

  17. Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders among traffic agents: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Ferreira, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This study came up with the main objective to inspect the sleep quality and sleep disorders among traffic agents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out in which 118 traffic agents were surveyed. To this end, the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI) questionnaire was administered. The results demonstrate that the mean PSQI global score was 8.5 ± 2.4. Thirty four subjects had high sleep quality and 84 had low sleep quality. Global PQSI scores had ...

  18. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'building planning, the distance from the roadway and the ambient wind condition need to be considered at the early design stage whereas the size and location of the window openings, the interior layout, and the placement of fresh air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution and risk for febrile seizure: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-03-25

    Objectives Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution is suspected to increase susceptibility to viral infections - the main triggering factor for febrile seizures. No studies have examined these two exposures in relation to febrile seizures. We aimed to investigate whether exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution are associated with risk of febrile seizures in childhood. Methods From our study base of 51 465 singletons from a national birth cohort, we identified 2175 cases with febrile seizures using a nationwide registry. Residential address history from conception to six years of age were found in national registers, and road traffic noise (L den ) and air pollution (NO 2 ) were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for potential confounders, including mutual exposure adjustment. Results An interquartile range (IQR) increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution was associated with an 11% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.19) and 5% (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07) higher risk for febrile seizures, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. Weaker tendencies were seen for pregnancy exposure. In models with mutual exposure adjustment, the estimates were slightly lower, with IRR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.16) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.06) per IQR increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that residential exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution is associated with higher risk for febrile seizures.

  20. Comparison of five bicycle facility designs in signalized intersections using traffic conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Traffic conflict study comparing cyclists’ relative risk for five bicycle layouts. •Watchdog video analysis software applied to reduce video data. •Video analysis software necessary to conduct larger conflict studies. •Recessed bicycle track seems to provide the highest safety level...

  1. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  2. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection of suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic noise using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Padillo, Alejandro, E-mail: aruizp@correo.ugr.es [Industrial Engineering and Transportation Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 99 – 5° andar, Porto Alegre - CEP 90.035-190, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Civil Engineering Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ruiz, Diego P., E-mail: druiz@ugr.es [Information Technology and Communication Research Center (CITIC-UGR), Applied Physics Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Torija, Antonio J., E-mail: ajtorija@ugr.es [ISVR, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Ramos-Ridao, Ángel, E-mail: ramosr@ugr.es [Civil Engineering Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Road traffic noise is one of the most significant environmental impacts generated by transport systems. To this regard, the recent implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive by Public Administrations of the European Union member countries has led to various noise action plans (NAPs) for reducing the noise exposure of EU inhabitants. Every country or administration is responsible for applying criteria based on their own experience or expert knowledge, but there is no regulated process for the prioritization of technical measures within these plans. This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision methodology for the selection of suitable alternatives against traffic noise in each of the road stretches included in the NAPs. The methodology first defines the main criteria and alternatives to be considered. Secondly, it determines the relative weights for the criteria and sub-criteria using the fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy process as applied to the results from an expert panel, thereby allowing expert knowledge to be captured in an automated way. A final step comprises the use of discrete multi-criteria analysis methods such as weighted sum, ELECTRE and TOPSIS, to rank the alternatives by suitability. To illustrate an application of the proposed methodology, this paper describes its implementation in a complex real case study: the selection of optimal technical solutions against traffic noise in the top priority road stretch included in the revision of the NAP of the regional road network in the province of Almeria (Spain).

  4. Selection of suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic noise using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Padillo, Alejandro; Ruiz, Diego P.; Torija, Antonio J.; Ramos-Ridao, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the most significant environmental impacts generated by transport systems. To this regard, the recent implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive by Public Administrations of the European Union member countries has led to various noise action plans (NAPs) for reducing the noise exposure of EU inhabitants. Every country or administration is responsible for applying criteria based on their own experience or expert knowledge, but there is no regulated process for the prioritization of technical measures within these plans. This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision methodology for the selection of suitable alternatives against traffic noise in each of the road stretches included in the NAPs. The methodology first defines the main criteria and alternatives to be considered. Secondly, it determines the relative weights for the criteria and sub-criteria using the fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy process as applied to the results from an expert panel, thereby allowing expert knowledge to be captured in an automated way. A final step comprises the use of discrete multi-criteria analysis methods such as weighted sum, ELECTRE and TOPSIS, to rank the alternatives by suitability. To illustrate an application of the proposed methodology, this paper describes its implementation in a complex real case study: the selection of optimal technical solutions against traffic noise in the top priority road stretch included in the revision of the NAP of the regional road network in the province of Almeria (Spain).

  5. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Grivna

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC, use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. METHODS: All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37% followed by front impact collision (32%. 32 (13% of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170 vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23 motorcyclists a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  6. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2013-01-01

    To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  7. Site-Specific Study of In-Building Wireless Solutions with Poisson Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    Due to the poor outdoor-to-indoor propagation into buildings, dedicated wireless systems installed inside the buildings is often preferred for providing indoor users with high-data-rate services. We study the typical in-building wireless solutions - distributed antenna system and small cell Femto...... system - together with another multi-cell system using our proposed centralized scheduling scheme. In our previous work, their performance is evaluated and compared in the LTE downlink context with full buffer traffic. Compared to real mobile networks, the full buffer traffic model is usually a worst...

  8. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit H Makwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Results: Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1, slow vital capacity (SVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  9. Modelling the impact of cyber attacks on the traffic control centre of an urban automobile transport system by means of enhanced cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Yoana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the major role means of protection play for strengthening the cybersecurity of critical transport infrastructure by using the advanced method of simulation modelling. The simulation model of a Traffic Control Centre (TTC of an urban Automobile Transport System (ATS is created by the author in the Riverbed Modeler Academic Edition 17.5 computer networks simulation system and is exposed to the impact of a Denial-of-Service attack. In addition, logical conclusions have been made on the basis of the experimental results obtained and evaluated by comparative analysis with results from analogous previous studies.

  10. Analyzing traffic source impact on returning visitors ratio in information provider website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetio, A.; Sari, P. K.; Sharif, O. O.; Sofyan, E.

    2016-04-01

    Web site performance, especially returning visitor is an important metric for an information provider web site. Since high returning visitor is a good indication of a web site’s visitor loyalty, it is important to find a way to improve this metric. This research investigated if there is any difference on returning visitor metric among three web traffic sources namely direct, referral and search. Monthly returning visitor and total visitor from each source is retrieved from Google Analytics tools and then calculated to measure returning visitor ratio. The period of data observation is from July 2012 to June 2015 resulting in a total of 108 samples. These data then analysed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to address our research question. The results showed that different traffic source has significantly different returning visitor ratio especially between referral traffic source and the other two traffic sources. On the other hand, this research did not find any significant difference between returning visitor ratio from direct and search traffic sources. The owner of the web site can focus to multiply referral links from other relevant sites.

  11. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17-42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studying the Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in the Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Behbahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents with about 1.24 million deaths and 20 to 50 million cases of injury or disability per year are one of the most important public health challenges around the world. In Iran, traffic accidents, with an annual incidence of 32 cases per 100 thousand people, are considered as the second leading cause of death and the most common cause of injury. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological pattern and mortality rate caused by traffic accidents during year 2012 in the Khuzestan province and its cities. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, all data related to fatal traffic accident referrals to legal medicine center of Khuzestan province during year 2012 were obtained and analyzed. Road traffic accidents mortality rate during this year was calculated for the province and its cities. The data were analyzed using Stata 11 statistical software. Results In 2012, one thousand and twenty deaths related to traffic accidents occurred in Khuzestan province. The incidence of deaths due to accidents in Khuzestan province was 22.5 and the standardized age of incidence was 24.3 per 100 thousand people. Regarding gender, 78.24% of the dead individuals were male and 21.76% were female. The most common final causes of death were head trauma (76.27% cases and bleeding (12.55% cases. The most deceased people were drivers (42.55%, passengers (34.90%, and pedestrians (21.27%. The highest traffic accidents mortality rate in Khuzestan province was observed in Hoveizeh (55.43 per one hundred thousand, Omidiye (55.30 per one hundred thousand and Ramhormuz (53.12 per one hundred thousand, and the lowest incidence rates belonged to Lali (5.35 per one hundred thousand and Shadegan (9.78 per one hundred thousand. Conclusions This study showed that drivers, passengers and pedestrians were the most vulnerable road users. Regarding the fact that most of them were illiterate or had primary education and were self-employed or

  13. The impact of real-time and predictive traffic information on travelers' behavior on the I-4 corridor. Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Real time and predicted traffic information plays a key role in the successful implementation of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advance traffic management systems (ATMS). Traffic information is essentially valuable to both transport...

  14. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  15. Future flooding impacts on transportation infrastructure and traffic patterns resulting from climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "This study investigated potential impacts of climate change on travel disruption resulting from road closures in two urban watersheds in the : Portland metropolitan area. We used ensemble climate change scenarios, a hydrologic model, stream channel ...

  16. Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, Sarah V.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Vu, Kim-Phuong; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.

  17. Are air pollution and traffic noise independently associated with atherosclerosis: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Hagen; Hennig, Frauke; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Dragano, Nico; Jakobs, Hermann; Memmesheimer, Michael; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Living close to high traffic has been linked to subclinical atherosclerosis, however it is not clear, whether fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution or noise, two important traffic-related exposures, are responsible for the association. We investigate the independent associations of long-term exposure to fine PM and road traffic noise with thoracic aortic calcification (TAC), a reliable measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We used baseline data (2000-2003) from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort of 4814 randomly selected participants. We assessed residential long-term exposure to PM with a chemistry transport model, and to road traffic noise using façade levels from noise models as weighted 24 h mean noise (Lden) and night-time noise (Lnight). Thoracic aortic calcification was quantified from non-contrast enhanced electron beam computed tomography. We used multiple linear regression to estimate associations of environmental exposures with ln(TAC+1), adjusting for each other, individual, and neighbourhood characteristics. In 4238 participants (mean age 60 years, 49.9% male), PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and Lnight are both associated with an increasing TAC-burden of 18.1% (95% CI: 6.6; 30.9%) per 2.4 µg/m(3) PM2.5 and 3.9% (95% CI 0.0; 8.0%) per 5dB(A) Lnight, respectively, in the full model and after mutual adjustment. We did not observe effect measure modification of the PM2.5 association by Lnight or vice versa. Long-term exposure to fine PM and night-time traffic noise are both independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and may both contribute to the association of traffic proximity with atherosclerosis.

  18. Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control; A cued retrospective reporting study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Kirschner, P. A., & De Bock, J. J. P. R. (2010, May). Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control; A cued retrospective reporting study. Presented at the Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-tracking. Lund, Sweden.

  19. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  20. Patterns of traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in mountain areas can be revealed by lichen biomonitoring: a case study in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Tretiach, Mauro; Corana, Federica; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Kodnik, Danijela; Dainese, Matteo; Mannucci, Barbara

    2014-03-15

    In mountain areas of touristic interest the evaluation of the impact of human activities is crucial for ensuring long-term conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, functions and services. This study aimed at verifying the biological impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions due to traffic along the roads leading to seven passes of the Dolomites (SE Alps), which were recently declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Thalli of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, collected at increasing distances from the roads, were used as biomonitors. Our study revealed a gradient of decreasing PAH pollution within 300 m from the roads. Differences among passes were evident mainly for samples collected nearest to the roads, but PAH concentrations at 300 m were almost always higher than those of undisturbed reference sites, indicating that traffic PAH pollution may impact natural ecosystems and lichen diversity at relatively long distances from the emission source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Marine Traffic Density Over Port Klang, Malaysia Using Statistical Analysis of AIS Data: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masnawi MUSTAFFA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Port Klang Malaysia is the 13th busiest port in the world, the capacity at the port expected to be able to meet the demand until 2018. It is one of the busiest ports in the world and also the busiest port in Malaysia. Even though there are statistics published by Port Klang Authority showing that a lot of ships using this port, this number is only based on ships that entering Port Klang. Therefore, no study has been done to investigate on how dense the traffic is in Port Klang, Malaysia the surrounding sea including Strait of Malacca . This paper has investigated on traffic density over Port Klang Malaysia and its surrounding sea using statistical analysis from AIS data. As a preliminary study, this study only collected AIS data for 7 days to represent daily traffic weekly. As a result, an hourly number of vessels, daily number of vessels, vessels classification and sizes and also traffic paths will be plotted.

  2. Impact of a Physician-Led Social Media Sharing Program on a Medical Journal's Web Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueger, N Seth; Bokarius, Andrew V; Carroll, Stephen; April, Michael D; Thoma, Brent

    2018-01-01

    The use of social media by health professionals and medical journals is increasing. The aim of this study was to compare online views of articles in press (AIPs) released by Annals of Emergency Medicine before and after a nine-person social media team started actively posting links to AIPs using their personal Twitter accounts. An observational before-and-after study was conducted. Web traffic data for Annals were obtained from the publisher (Elsevier), detailing the number of page views to annemergmed.com by referring websites during the study period. The preintervention time period was defined as January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, and the postintervention period as July 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. The primary outcome was page views from Twitter per AIP released each month to account for the number of articles published each month. Secondary outcomes included page views from Facebook (on which there was no article-sharing intervention) and total article views per month. The median page views from Twitter per individual AIP released each month increased from 33 in the preintervention period to 130, for an effect size of 97 (95% confidence interval, 56-111; P < .001). There was a smaller increase in median page views from Facebook per individual AIP of 21 (95% confidence interval, 10-32). There was no significant increase in these median values for total page views per AIP. Twitter sharing of AIPs increased the number of page views that came from Twitter but did not increase the overall number of page views. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  3. A Quantitative Study on How Internet Search Ads Generate Consumer Traffic to Advertisers' Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Son

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the impact of these two variables on consumers' 'click-through' rates (the number of users that click on the ad compared to the number of times the ad is delivered. The result is as follows. First, search ads play a critical role in drawing consumers to advertisers' websites. Once search ads are placed, the number of visitors increased tenfold. Secondly, when search ads are keyed to highly-involved words such as 'IDC', 'hosting' and 'co-location', click-through rates significantly fluctuate according to the type of advertising message. In this case, consumers respond much more positively to ads highlighting credibility and product quality than to ads with emphasis on sales and events. Thirdly, the placement of search ads also matters. The ad placed first in the search list overpowers ads in the third or fifth place in terms of click-through rates. However, there was no significant difference of click-through rates between ads in the third place and ads in fifth. Lastly, when estimating which variable plays the bigger role in bringing traffic to advertisers' websites, consumers are more receptive to the substance of the advertising message than to its placement, under the circumstances of high involvement.

  4. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RURAL HARYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background- Accidents occur not only due to ignorance but also due to carelessness, thoughtlessness and over confidence. Human, vehicular and environmental factors play role before, during and after a Road Traffic Accidents (RTA. Road traffic injuries are partially predictable and hence preventable. Objectives- To study the pattern of road traffic accidents, socio demographic profile of road traffic injury victims seeking care at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences And Research, Mullana and to study the antecedent factors influencing the road traffic accidents. Material and Methods-The present cross-sectional study was carried out at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (MMIMSR, Mullana (Ambala. All the victims who reported to MMIMSR emergency and various OPD clinics of the institute between September 2009 to February 2011 were included in the study. Various parameters like age and sex distribution, time of occurrence, protective gears worn, injuries sustained, receipt of First -Aid, alcohol consumption, category of road user, vehicles involved in RTA, types of RTA, road conditions, environmental conditions etc were studied and valid conclusions were drawn. Results- There was a marked male preponderance (88.77 % with maximum involvement of younger age groups. Most of the accidents had taken place in the evening hours (6 pm -12 midnight. The vulnerable road users like motorized two wheeler, LMV and pedestrians constituted 41.52%, 19.39% and 13.41% respectively. Only 158 of 545 two-wheeler users wore a helmet at the time of injury. 16.24% of drivers did not have a valid driving license. Not using indicator lights and not following speed limits were two most common factors responsible for these RTA.

  5. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  6. Improved seat and manniken models to study rear impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, A.R.; Wu, P.; Shanmugavelu, I.; Mondeau, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Occupant injury in automobile rear-end collisions is rapidly becoming one of the most aggravating traffic safety problems with high human suffering and societal costs. Recent studies in Europe, Canada and Japan have found that injury claims, in particular neck injuries due to rear impact have

  7. Impact of secondary inorganic aerosol and road traffic at a suburban air quality monitoring station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, L; Negral, L; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Suárez-Peña, B; Marañón, E

    2017-03-15

    PM10 from a suburban site in the northwest of Spain was assessed using data from chemical determinations, meteorological parameters, aerosol maps and five-day back trajectories of air masses. Temporal variations in the chemical composition of PM10 were subsequently related to stationary/mobile local sources and long-range transport stemming from Europe and North Africa. The presence of secondary inorganic species (sulphates, nitrates and ammonium) in airborne particulate matter constituted one of the main focuses of this study. These chemical species formed 16.5% of PM10 on average, in line with other suburban background sites in Europe. However, a maximum of 47.8% of PM10 were recorded after several days under the influence of European air masses. Furthermore, the highest values of these three chemical species coincided with episodes of poor air circulation and influxes of air masses from Europe. The relationship between SO 4 2- and NH 4 + (R 2  = 0.57, p-valueforest fires. On isolated days, combustion was estimated to contribute up to 21.0 μg PM/m 3 (50.8% of PM10). The contribution from industrial processes to this source is also worth highlighting given the presence of Ni and Co in its profile. Furthermore, African dust outbreaks at the sampling site, characterised by an arc through the Atlantic Ocean, were usually associated with a higher concentration of Al 2 O 3 in PM10. Results evidenced the relevance of stationary (i.e., steelworks and thermal power station) and mobile sources in the air quality at the suburban site under study, with important apportionments of particulate matter coming from road traffic and as consequence of releasing precursor gases of secondary particles to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R N; Green, Ole; Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Steer and a 15 m3 Kimadan slurry tanker on two axels, was used to perform the simulated traffic treatment on the parcels. The different traffic intensities are combinations of different tire pressure (1,0 and 2,5 bar), tire load (3000 and 6000 kg), time of year and number of passes (variating from 0 to 8...... components must be determined.   The objective of this paper was to measure yield affects on clover-grass as a consequence of different traffic intensities. The experiments were carried out in the context of a full scale field trial. A 14 hectare full scale grass-clover field trial with 24 different traffic......). The harvesting procedure was preformed with a Haldrup plot harvester modified with RTK-GPS. This paper shows the initial results from measuring the yield affects References M.A. Hamza, M.A.; Anderson, W.K 2005. Soil compaction in cropping systems: A review of the nature, causes and possible solutionsRaper , R...

  9. Impacts of traffic emissions on atmospheric particulate nitrate and organics at a downwind site on the periphery of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi Ming; Tan, Hao Bo; Jie Li, Yong; Schurman, Misha I.; Li, Fei; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S. H.; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution on the peripheries of Chinese megacities can be as serious as in cities themselves. Given the substantial vehicular emissions in inner-city areas, the direct transport of primary PM (e.g., black carbon and primary organics) and effective formation of secondary PM from precursors (e.g., NOx and volatile organic compounds) can contribute to PM pollution in buffer zones between cities. To investigate how traffic emissions in inner-city areas impact these adjacent buffer zones, a suite of real-time instruments were deployed in Panyu, downwind from central Guangzhou, from November to December 2014. Nitrate mass fraction was higher on high-PM days, with the average nitrate-to-sulfate ratio increasing from around 0.35 to 1.5 as the PM mass concentration increased from 10 to 160 µg m-3. Particulate nitrate was strongly correlated with excess ammonium (([NH4+] / [SO42-] - 1.5) × [SO42-]), with higher concentrations in December than in November due to lower temperatures. The organic mass fraction was the highest across all PM1 levels throughout the campaign. While organic aerosols (OA) were dominated by secondary organic aerosols (SOA = semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosols + low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosols) as a campaign average, freshly emitted hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA) contributed up to 40 % of OA during high-OA periods, which typically occurred at nighttime and contributed 23.8 to 28.4 % on average. This was due to daytime traffic restrictions on heavy-duty vehicles in Guangzhou, and HOA almost increased linearly with total OA concentration. SOA increased as odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2) increased during the day due to photochemistry. A combination of nighttime traffic emissions and daytime photochemistry contributed to the buildup of PM in Panyu. The mitigation of PM pollution in inner-city areas by reducing vehicular traffic can potentially improve air quality in peripheral areas.

  10. Impacts of traffic and rainfall characteristics on heavy metals build-up and wash-off from urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kokot, Serge

    2010-12-01

    An investigation into the effects of changes in urban traffic characteristics due to rapid urbanisation and the predicted changes in rainfall characteristics due to climate change on the build-up and wash-off of heavy metals was carried out in Gold Coast, Australia. The study sites encompassed three different urban land uses. Nine heavy metals commonly associated with traffic emissions were selected. The results were interpreted using multivariate data analysis and decision making tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA), fuzzy clustering (FC), PROMETHEE, and GAIA. Initial analyses established high, low, and moderate traffic scenarios as well as low, low to moderate, moderate, high, and extreme rainfall scenarios for build-up and wash-off investigations. GAIA analyses established that moderate to high traffic scenarios could affect the build-up, while moderate to high rainfall scenarios could affect the wash-off of heavy metals under changed conditions. However, in wash-off, metal concentrations in 1-75 μm fraction were found to be independent of the changes to rainfall characteristics. In build-up, high traffic activities in commercial and industrial areas influenced the accumulation of heavy metal concentrations in particulate size range from 75 - >300 μm, whereas metal concentrations in finer size range of 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn from build-up, while organic matter from 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni from wash-off. Cu and Zn need to be removed as free ions from most fractions in wash-off.

  11. Road traffic accidents: Global Burden of Disease study, Brazil and federated units, 1990 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Morais, Otaliba Libânio de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva; Soares, Adauto Martins; Vasconcelos, Cíntia Honório; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    To describe the global burden of disease due to road traffic accidents in Brazil and federated units in 1990 and 2015. This is an analysis of secondary data from the 2015 Global Burden of Disease study estimates. The following estimates were used: standardized mortality rates and years of life lost by death or disability, potential years of life lost due to premature death, and years of unhealthy living conditions. The Mortality Information System was the main source of death data. Underreporting and redistribution of ill-defined causes and nonspecific codes were corrected. Around 52,326 deaths due to road traffic accidents were estimated in Brazil in 2015. From 1990 to 2015, mortality rates decreased from 36.9 to 24.8/100 thousand people, a reduction of 32.8%. Tocantins and Piauí have the highest mortality risks among the federated units (FU), with 41.7/100 and 33.1/100 thousand people, respectively. They both present the highest rates of potential years of life lost due to premature deaths. Road traffic accidents are a public health problem. Using death- or disability-adjusted life years in studies of these causes is important because there are still no sources to know the magnitude of sequelae, as well as the weight of early deaths. Since its data are updated every year, the Global Burden of Disease study may provide evidence to formulate traffic security and health attention policies, which are guided to the needs of the federated units and of different groups of traffic users.

  12. Impact studies at Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.A.; Wicks, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of subsonic impacts on nuclear reactor plant structures have been in progress at Winfrith since 1977. These studies have examined the behaviour of concrete and metal structures under the impact of missiles typifying those derived either from the plant itself or from external sources, such as crashing aircraft. During 1986 the Winfrith programme was expanded to include studies of the behaviour of radioactive materials transport containers under impact conditions. This report initially describes the experimental facilities available for impact studies at Winfrith. These include both compressed air guns, capable of delivering payloads of up to 65 kg at sonic velocity or payloads up to 2 tonnes at speeds up to 45 ms -1 , and drop test facilities for impact testing of models, up to full-scale radioactive materials transport flasks, at relatively low speeds. Supporting facilities include a small concrete manufacturing laboratory to produce concrete targets. Assessments of the resistance of concrete or metal structures to impact damage are performed using empirical or semi-empirical correlations, derived from data obtained in well-characterised experiments, or using structural dynamics finite element codes. The codes used by the analysts and the computing facilities available for impact analysis work are described. Finally the current programme of impact studies is reviewed, recent progress is summarised and future plans outlined. (author)

  13. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.W.; Hoogh, K. de; Fecht, D.; Fabbri, F.; Bell, M.; Goodman, P.S.; Elliott, P.; Hodgson, S.; Hansell, A.L.; Gulliver, J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). - Highlights: • The first implementation of CNOSSOS-EU for national scale noise exposure assessment. • Road traffic noise model performance with varying resolution of inputs is assessed. • Model performance is good with low resolution inputs (r_s = 0.75). • This model will be applied in epidemiological studies of European cohorts. - The CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise model estimates can be used for international scale exposure assessment when parameterised with freely available low resolution covering a large geographic area.

  14. Prescription medicine use by pedestrians and the risk of injurious road traffic crashes: A case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Née

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While some medicinal drugs have been found to affect driving ability, no study has investigated whether a relationship exists between these medicines and crashes involving pedestrians. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian.Data from 3 French nationwide databases were matched. We used the case-crossover design to control for time-invariant factors by using each case as its own control. To perform multivariable analysis and limit false-positive results, we implemented a bootstrap version of Lasso. To avoid the effect of unmeasured time-varying factors, we varied the length of the washout period from 30 to 119 days before the crash. The matching procedure led to the inclusion of 16,458 pedestrians involved in an injurious road traffic crash from 1 July 2005 to 31 December 2011. We found 48 medicine classes with a positive association with the risk of crash, with median odds ratios ranging from 1.12 to 2.98. Among these, benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs were among the 10 medicines most consumed by the 16,458 pedestrians. Study limitations included slight overrepresentation of pedestrians injured in more severe crashes, lack of information about self-medication and the use of over-the-counter drugs, and lack of data on amount of walking.Therapeutic classes already identified as impacting the ability to drive, such as benzodiazepines and antihistamines, are also associated with an increased risk of pedestrians being involved in a road traffic crash. This study on pedestrians highlights the necessity of improving awareness of the effect of these medicines on this category of road user.

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Zhang, Cuilin; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-11-01

    Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and noise from road traffic (L den ) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. A 10-μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 exposure during first trimester was, however, associated with an increased risk of WHO-GDM (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49). The corresponding OR associated with a 10-dB higher road traffic noise level was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.18). In mutually adjusted models the OR for NO 2 remained similar 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) whereas that for road traffic noise decreased to 1.03 (0.80, 1.32). Significant associations were also observed for exposure averaged over the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and the full pregnancy. No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO 2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Locally derived traffic-related air pollution and fetal growth restriction: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gavin; Cook, Angus G; Haggar, Fatima; Bower, Carol; Nassar, Natasha

    2012-11-01

    Fetal growth restriction has been inconsistently associated with maternal exposure to elevated levels of traffic-related air pollution. We investigated the relationship between an individualised measure of fetal growth and maternal exposure to a specific marker for traffic-related air pollution. We estimated maternal residential exposure to a marker for traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, NO2) during pregnancy for 23,452 births using temporally adjusted land-use regression. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations with small for gestational age and sex (SGA) and fetal growth restriction, defined as proportion of optimal birth weight (POBW) below the 10th percentile. Sub-populations investigated were: women who spent most time at home, women who did not move house, women with respiratory or circulatory morbidity, women living in low/middle/high socio-economic areas, women who delivered before 37 weeks gestation, and women who delivered from 37 weeks gestation. An IQR increase in traffic-related air pollution in the second trimester across all women was associated with an OR of 1.31 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) for fetal growth restriction. Effects on fetal growth restriction (low POBW) were highest among women who subsequently delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. Effects on SGA were highest among women who did not move house: OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.69). Larger effect sizes were observed for low POBW than for SGA. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in mid to late pregnancy was associated with risk of SGA and low POBW in this study.

  17. Risky driving behavior and road traffic crashes among young Asian Australian drivers: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Lam, Lawrence T

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in risky driving behavior and likelihood of traffic crash according to the country of birth of recently licensed young drivers. The groups examined include those born in Australia, those born in Asia, and those born in other countries. The DRIVE study is a prospective cohort study of drivers aged 17-24 years holding their first-year provisional driver license in New South Wales, Australia. Information obtained from 20,822 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire was linked to police-reported traffic crashes. Self-reported risky driving behaviors and police-reported traffic crashes in young drivers. Young drivers who were born in Asian countries were less likely to report engaging in risky driving behaviors than their Australian-born counterparts. The proportion of participants reporting a high level of risky driving was 31.5 percent (95% confidence intervale [CI], 30.8-32.1) among Australian-born drivers compared to 25.6 percent (95% CI, 23.1-28.2) among Asian-born drivers and 30.4 percent (95% CI, 28.4-32.5) among those born in other regions. Asian-born participants had half the risk of a crash as a driver than their Australian-born counterparts (relative risk [RR] 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) after adjusting for a number of demographic factors and driving and risk-taking behaviors. The comparative risk was even lower among those aged 17 years (RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.29-0.75). Risk estimates for people born in other regions did not differ to those for Australian-born respondents. The study highlights the lower level of risky driving and significantly reduced crash risk for Australian drivers born in Asian countries relative to those born locally. Further research is needed to examine factors underlying this reduced risk and the impact of the length of residence in the host country.

  18. Evaluating the Impacts of Red Light Camera Deployment on Intersection Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Red-light cameras (RLC) are a popular countermeasure to reduce red-light running and improve intersection safety. Studies show that the reduction in side impact crashes at RLC intersections are often accompanied by no-change or an increase in the num...

  19. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed...

  20. Modeling Driving Behavior at Roundabouts: Impact of Roundabout Layout and Surrounding Traffic on Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Min; Käthner, David; Söffker, Dirk; Jipp, Meike; Lemmer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Driving behavior prediction at roundabouts is an important challenge to improve driving safety by supporting drivers with intelligent assistance systems. To predict the driving behavior effciently steering wheel status was proven to have robust predictability based on a Support Vector Machine algorithm. Previous research has not considered potential effects of roundabout layout and surrounding traffic on driving behavior, but that consideration can certainly improve the prediction results....

  1. Digestible information: The impact of Multiple Traffic Light nutritional labeling in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Defago, Daniel; Geng, José F.; Molina, Oswaldo; Santa María, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Bad dietary habits are among the main causes of increasing obesity and other health problems. According to the literature, information asymmetry and cognitive biases may lead to suboptimal decisions by individuals regarding food consumption. Many countries have implemented different forms of nutritional labelling in order to provide individuals with better information when making choices. We assess the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) system, an alternative and simplified labelling format impleme...

  2. Dementia and Traffic Accidents: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2016-09-27

    As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual's personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation

  3. Study on Detection and Localization Algorithm of Traffic Signs from Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Zhong Han

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic detection and location of traffic signs is an important part of intelligent transportation, especially for unmanned vehicle technology research. For the morphological feature of China road traffic signs, we propose a traffic sign detection method based on color segmentation and shape analysis. Firstly, in order to solve the problems of traffic signs color cast, distortion, and cross-color in natural scenes, the images are processed by white balance, Retinex color enhancement, and affine transformation. Then, the type of traffic signs is discriminated and detected, according to the color and shape characteristics of traffic signs. The experimental results show that this method can effectively detect and recognize traffic signs.

  4. Heavy-machinery traffic impacts methane emissions as well as methanogen abundance and community structure in oxic forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Beat; Niklaus, Pascal A; Kremer, Johann; Lüscher, Peter; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Temperate forest soils are usually efficient sinks for the greenhouse gas methane, at least in the absence of significant amounts of methanogens. We demonstrate here that trafficking with heavy harvesting machines caused a large reduction in CH(4) consumption and even turned well-aerated forest soils into net methane sources. In addition to studying methane fluxes, we investigated the responses of methanogens after trafficking in two different forest sites. Trafficking generated wheel tracks with different impact (low, moderate, severe, and unaffected). We found that machine passes decreased the soils' macropore space and lowered hydraulic conductivities in wheel tracks. Severely compacted soils yielded high methanogenic abundance, as demonstrated by quantitative PCR analyses of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, whereas these sequences were undetectable in unaffected soils. Even after a year after traffic compression, methanogen abundance in compacted soils did not decline, indicating a stability of methanogens here over time. Compacted wheel tracks exhibited a relatively constant community structure, since we found several persisting mcrA sequence types continuously present at all sampling times. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a rather large methanogen diversity in the compacted soil, and most mcrA gene sequences were mostly similar to known sequences from wetlands. The majority of mcrA gene sequences belonged either to the order Methanosarcinales or Methanomicrobiales, whereas both sites were dominated by members of the families Methanomicrobiaceae Fencluster, with similar sequences obtained from peatland environments. The results show that compacting wet forest soils by heavy machinery causes increases in methane production and release.

  5. Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center of Tongass National Forest in Juneau, Alaska is experiencing vehicular and pedestrian congestion. This study was initiated by the United States Forest Service, Alaska Region, in cooperation with Western Federal L...

  6. Neighbour and traffic noise annoyance: A nationwide study of associated mental health and perceived stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi AR; Rasmussen, Birgit; Ekholm, Ola

    2018-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known risk factor for multiple adverse health effects. Annoyance is the most prevalent response to environmental noise and may result in negative emotional responses, including poor mental health and high levels of perceived stress. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the association between neighbour and traffic noise annoyance, and mental health and perceived stress. Methods Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity surveys in 2010 and 2013. The study was based on a random sample of the adult population in Denmark living in multistorey housing (n...... = 7090). Information on neighbour and traffic noise annoyance during the past 2 weeks, and mental health and perceived stress, using Short Form-12 and Perceived Stress Scale instruments, respectively, was obtained by means of self-administered questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression models were used...

  7. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  8. A study on posttraumatic experience of road traffic accident afflicted maxillofacial trauma patient at tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shrestha, Suraksha

    2017-01-01

    Patients are usually left in a vulnerable state after an accident. Because of this, they long for a good encounter when they are brought to the hospital. Physical impairment and psychological morbidities are some of the complications that can occur to them. Traditionally, surgeons tend to pay little attention to a patient's emotional and psychological perspective. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of oral and maxillofacial trauma patients due to road traffic accident right from immediate after the accident till the end of definitive treatment. Phenomenological approach of qualitative study was used to explore these patients' experience. Twenty subjects involved in road traffic accidents without any cognitive impairment aged 18 and above were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to include maximal variation sample regarding age, gender, types of injury, and types of treatment received. Semi-structured and open-ended interview approach was used to obtain in-depth information. Seven themes were identified to describe the patients' response to and experience after meeting with a road traffic accident; they are unreal experiences, emotional responses, need to inform and need for information, need for assistance, their perception toward the maxillofacial injury, their experience on treatment and staff-patient interaction. This qualitative study has provided an in-depth understanding of patients experience during maxillofacial trauma and treatment, which otherwise cannot be obtained by the use of surveys and test questions.

  9. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  10. Air pollution at an urban traffic tunnel in Lisbon, Portugal-an INAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Dung, H.M; Dionisio, I. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the results of chemical concentrations inside and outside of a Lisbon (Portugal) traffic tunnel were compared, during one week. They were obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The tunnel values largely exceed the Air Ambient legislated values and the Pearson Correlations Coefficients point out to soil re-suspension/dispersed road dust (As, Ce, Eu, Hf, Fe, Mo, Sc, Zn), traffic-markers (Ba, Cr), tire wear (Cr, Zn), break wear (Fe, Zn, Ba, Cu, Sb), exhaust and motor oil (Zn) and sea-spray (Br, Na). On all days these elements inside the tunnel were more enriched than outside; significant statistical differences were found for Co (p=0.005), Br (p=0.008), Zn (p=0.01) and Sb (p=0.005), while enrichment factors of As and Sc are statistically identical. The highest values were found for As, Br, Zn and Sb, for both inside and outside the tunnel.

  11. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  12. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  13. Effect of Road Traffic Noise Pollution on Human Work Efficiency in Government Offices, Private Organizations, and Commercial Business Centres in Agartala City Using Fuzzy Expert System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the problems of reduction of individual’s efficiency in his/her respective working places because of road traffic noise pollution in Agartala due to rapidly growing vehicular traffic. This paper deals with monitoring and modeling of the disturbances caused due to vehicular road traffic interrupted by traffic flow conditions on personal work performance. Total of two hundred seventy individuals from different road side Government Offices, Private Organizations and Commercial Business Centres on both sides of busy roads of the city were interviewed for attitudinal responses. Traffic volume count and noise indices data were collected simultaneously at six selected sites of the city. A relationship was developed between different traffic noise parameters and its harmful impact on work competency of individuals using MATLAB. Regression equations developed to predict the percentage of high annoyance among the individuals are fit based on noise parameters and parameters related to traffic movements. In addition, statistical analysis was also carried out between measured and predictive values of the percentage of highly annoyed group of individuals. The present model will draw the attention of the State Government and will help the policy maker to take the necessary steps to reduce this problem.

  14. Study on the Reduced Traffic Congestion Method Based on Dynamic Guidance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Wang, Guang-Min; Wang, Tao; Ren, Hua-Ling; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies how to generate the reasonable information of travelers’ decision in real network. This problem is very complex because the travelers’ decision is constrained by different human behavior. The network conditions can be predicted by using the advanced dynamic OD (Origin-Destination, OD) estimation techniques. Based on the improved mesoscopic traffic model, the predictable dynamic traffic guidance information can be obtained accurately. A consistency algorithm is designed to investigate the travelers’ decision by simulating the dynamic response to guidance information. The simulation results show that the proposed method can provide the best guidance information. Further, a case study is conducted to verify the theoretical results and to draw managerial insights into the potential of dynamic guidance strategy in improving traffic performance. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71471104, 71771019, 71571109, and 71471167; The University Science and Technology Program Funding Projects of Shandong Province under Grant No. J17KA211; The Project of Public Security Department of Shandong Province under Grant No. GATHT2015-236; The Major Social and Livelihood Special Project of Jinan under Grant No. 20150905

  15. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  16. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129

  17. Study of role extroversion of caused by traffic noise on mental function of the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gohari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims  contact to noise has harmful effects on operational, Pshychic and physical health. Traffic is of the most important resource of urban environments noises, some of individual differences like extroversion, temper psychoneurosis and sensitivity to noise are the effective factors in effect of noise on function. The goal of this research study of extroversion effect on mental function with traffic noise.   Methods  this study is of interferential type in which traffic noise was recorded by voice recorder sony ICD MX20 in Tehran streets and in was broadcast in laboratory as a sample. The size of sample included 44 persons of students of Medical Science University of Iran elected by accidental sampling method and include 32 samples(23 male, 9 female and 12 control (7male, 5 female. Regarding to introversion and extroversion are of the effective factors on function. Personality questioneire of eyscenk(EPI was used. The considered parameters in mental function included total true answers, false answers time average of true answers that were measured by computerized test COG.     Resultsthe results indicated that after broadcasing noises, total true answers, was increase in extroversion and males (p= 0/000 while in introversions (p=0/049 and females (p=0/010 after exposing noise, the increase was in the false answers.   Conclusion the results achieved by this research indicated that the traffic noise has the different effects on the parameters of mental function of extroverted and introverted persons., also indicate a meaningful relation between noise and size.

  18. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  19. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  20. A comparison of health outcomes in older versus younger adults following a road traffic crash injury: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available Given the aging demographics of most developed countries, understanding the public health impact of mild/moderate road traffic crash injuries in older adults is important. We aimed to determine whether health outcomes (pain severity and quality of life measures over 24 months differ significantly between older (65+ and younger adults (18-64.Prospective cohort study of 364, 284 and 252 participants with mild/moderate injury following a vehicle collision at baseline, 12 and 24 months, respectively. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre- and post-injury psychological and heath characteristics.At baseline, there were 55 (15.1% and 309 (84.9% participants aged ≥65 and 18-64 years, respectively. At 12- and 24-month follow-up, older compared to younger participants who had sustained a mild/moderate musculoskeletal injury had lower physical functioning (3.9-units lower Short Form-12 Physical Composite Score, multivariable-adjusted p = 0.03 at both examinations. After multivariable adjustment, older (n = 45 versus younger (n = 207 participants had lower self-perceived health status (8.1-units lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Visual Acuity Scale scores at 24 months, p = 0.03, 24 months later.Older compared to younger participants who sustained a mild/moderate injury following a road-traffic crash demonstrated poorer physical functioning and general health at 24 months.

  1. Impact of local traffic exclusion on near-road air quality: findings from the New York City "Summer Streets" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Thomas H; Hall, Andrew; Zhang, K Max; Anguita, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We monitored curbside airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and its proinflammatory capacity during 3 weekends when vehicle traffic was excluded from Park. Ave., New York City. Fine PM concentration peaked in the morning regardless of traffic while ultrafine PM was 58% lower during mornings without traffic. Ultrafine PM concentration varied linearly with traffic flow, while fine PM spiked sharply in response to random traffic events that were weakly correlated with the traffic signal cycle. Ultrafine PM concentrations decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with unrestricted traffic flow, reaching background levels within 100 m of the source. IL-6 induction was typically highest on Friday afternoons but showed no clear relationship to the presence of traffic. The coarse fraction (>2.5 μm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity, suggesting that coarse PM still warrants attention even as the research focus is shifting to nano-particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  3. The impact of diurnal variations of air traffic on contrail radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stuber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined high resolution aircraft flight data from the EU Fifth Framework Programme project AERO2k with analysis data from the ECMWF's integrated forecast system to calculate diurnally resolved 3-D contrail cover. We scaled the contrail cover in order to match observational data for the Bakan area (eastern-Atlantic/western-Europe.

    We found that less than 40% of the global distance travelled by aircraft is due to flights during local night time. Yet, due to the cancellation of shortwave and longwave effects during daytime, night time flights contribute a disproportional 60% to the global annual mean forcing. Under clear sky conditions the night flights contribute even more disproportionally at 76%. There are pronounced regional variations in night flying and the associated radiative forcing. Over parts of the North Atlantic flight corridor 75% of air traffic and 84% of the forcing occurs during local night, whereas only 35% of flights are during local night in South-East Asia, yet these contribute 68% of the radiative forcing. In general, regions with a significant local contrail radiative forcing are also regions for which night time flights amount to less than half of the daily total of flights. Therefore, neglecting diurnal variations in air traffic/contrail cover by assuming a diurnal mean contrail cover can over-estimate the global mean radiative forcing by up to 30%.

  4. Impact of road traffic pollution on pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2017-01-01

    addresses. Outcome and covariate data were derived from registries, hospital records, and questionnaires. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m increase in NO2 exposure during first trimester was associated with increased risk of preeclampsia (n=1,880, adjusted odds ratio = 1.07 [95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.......14]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (n=2,430, 1.07 [1.01 to 1.13]). A 10-dBhigher road traffic noise was also associated with increased risk of preeclampsia (1.10 [1.02 to 1.18]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15]). For both exposures the associations were strongest...... for mild preeclampsia (n=1,393) and early-onset preeclampsia (n=671) while higher risk for severe preeclampsia(n=487) was not evident. In mutually adjusted models estimates for both exposures decreased and only the association between NO2 and mild preeclampsia remained. CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic may...

  5. [Dynamic road vehicle emission inventory simulation study based on real time traffic information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Juan; Chen, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Deng-Guo; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Huang, Wei-Ming; Chao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The vehicle activity survey, including traffic flow distribution, driving condition, and vehicle technologies, were conducted in Shanghai. The databases of vehicle flow, VSP distribution and vehicle categories were established according to the surveyed data. Based on this, a dynamic vehicle emission inventory simulation method was designed by using the real time traffic information data, such as traffic flow and average speed. Some roads in Shanghai city were selected to conduct the hourly vehicle emission simulation as a case study. The survey results show that light duty passenger car and taxi are major vehicles on the roads of Shanghai city, accounting for 48% - 72% and 15% - 43% of the total flow in each hour, respectively. VSP distribution has a good relationship with the average speed. The peak of VSP distribution tends to move to high load section and become lower with the increase of average speed. Vehicles achieved Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards are majorities of current vehicle population in Shanghai. Based on the calibration of vehicle travel mileage data, the proportions of Euro 2 and Euro 3 standard vehicles take up 11% - 70% and 17% - 51% in the real-world situation, respectively. The emission simulation results indicate that the ratios of emission peak and valley for the pollutants of CO, VOC, NO(x) and PM are 3.7, 4.6, 9.6 and 19.8, respectively. CO and VOC emissions mainly come from light-duty passenger car and taxi, which has a good relationship with the traffic flow. NO(x) and PM emissions are mainly from heavy-duty bus and public buses and mainly concentrate in the morning and evening peak hours. The established dynamic vehicle emission simulation method can reflect the change of actual road emission and output high emission road sectors and hours in real time. The method can provide an important technical means and decision-making basis for transportation environment management.

  6. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  7. The impact of short term traffic forecasting on the effectiveness of vehicles routes planning in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubek, D.

    2016-07-01

    An impossibility to foresee in advance the accurate traffic parameters in face of dynamism phenomena in complex transportation system is a one of the major source of uncertainty. The paper presents an approach to robust optimization of logistics vehicle routes in urban areas on the basis of estimated short-term traffic time forecasts in a selected area of the urban road network. The forecast values of optimization parameters have been determined using the spectral analysis model, taking into account the forecast uncertainty degree. The robust counterparts approach of uncertain bi-criteria shortest path problem formulation is used to determining the robust routes for logistics vehicles in the urban network. The uncertainty set is created on the basis of forecast travel times in chosen sections, estimated by means of spectral analysis. The advantages and the characteristics are exemplified in the actual Krakow road network. The obtained data have been compared with classic approach wherein it is assumed that the optimization parameters are certain and accurate. The results obtained in the simulation example indicate that use of forecasting techniques with robust optimization models has a positive impact on the quality of final solutions. (Author)

  8. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  9. Integration of a driving simulator and a traffic simulator case study: Exploring drivers' behavior in response to variable message signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jeihani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a driving simulator has been integrated with a traffic simulator at the network level to allow subjects to drive in a fairly realistic environment with a realistic traffic flow and density. A 10 mi2 (25 km2 network was developed in a driving simulator and then exported to a traffic simulator. About 30 subjects drove the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions and variable message sign (VMS information, both with and without integration. Route guidance was available for the subjects. The challenges of the integration process are explained and its advantages investigated. The study concluded that traffic density, VMS reliability and compliance behavior are higher when driving and traffic simulators are integrated. To find factors affecting route diversion, researchers applied a binary logistic regression model. The results indicated that the original chosen route, displayed VMS information, subjects' attitude toward VMS information helpfulness, and their level of exposure to VMS affect route diversion. In addition, a multinomial logistic regression model was employed to investigate important factors in route choice. The results revealed that there is a significant correlation with driver route choice behavior and their actual travel time, the need for GPS, VMS exposure and also the designed scenarios. It should be noted that the paper was peer-reviewed by TRB and presented at the TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2016. Keywords: Integration, Variable message sign, Compliance behavior, Driving simulator, Traffic simulator, Discrete choice analysis

  10. Developing a Traffic Management Framework for Coastal Expressway Bridges under Adverse Weather Conditions: Case Study of Rain Day in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenming Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse weather can reduce visibility and road surface friction, lower vehicle maneuverability, and increase crash frequency and injury severity. The impacts of adverse weather and its interactions with drivers and roadway on the operation and management of expressway or expressway bridges have drawn the researchers’ and managers’ attention to develop traffic management frameworks to mitigate the negative influence. Considering the peculiar geographical location and meteorological conditions, the Guangshen Coast Expressway-Shenzhen Segment (GSCE-SS was selected as a case in this study to illustrate the proposed traffic management framework on rain days. Conditions categorized by rainfall intensity and traffic flow were the main precondition to make the management decisions. CORSIM simulator was used to develop the alternate routes choice schemes, providing reference for other systems in the proposed traffic management framework. Maps of (a entrance ramp control (ERC strategies; (b mainline control strategies; (c alternate routes choice; (d information release schemes, under scenarios of different volume and rainstorm warning grades (BLUE to RED, were drawn to present a reference or demonstration for managers of long-span expressway bridges not only in China, but even in the world.

  11. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  12. Vehicular Traffic-Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Residential histories of 1,508 participants with breast cancer (case participants) and 1,556 particpants with no breast cancer (control participants) were assessed in a population-based investigation conducted in 1996-1997. Traffic exposure estimates of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs, for the years 1960-1995 were reconstructed using a model previously shown to generate estimates consistent with measured soil PAHs, PAH-DNA adducts, and CO readings. Associations between vehicular traffic exposure estimates and breast cancer incidence were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (95% CI) was modestly elevated by 1.44 (0.78, 2.68) for the association between breast cancer and long-term 1960-1990 vehicular traffic estimates in the top 5%, compared with below the median. The association with recent 1995 traffic exposure was elevated by 1.14 (0.80, 1.64) for the top 5%, compared with below the median, which was stronger among women with low fruit/vegetable intake [1.46 (0.89, 2.40)], but not among those with high fruit/vegetable intake [0.92 (0.53, 1.60)]. Among the subset of women with information regarding traffic exposure and tumor hormone receptor subtype, the traffic-breast cancer association was higher for those with estrogen/progesterone-negative tumors [1.67 (0.91, 3.05) relative to control participants], but lower among all other tumor subtypes [0.80 (0.50, 1.27) compared with control participants]. In our population-based study, we observed positive associations between vehicular traffic

  13. Road traffic noise, air pollution and myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Theo; Björk, Jonas; Mattisson, Kristoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Rittner, Ralf; Gustavsson, Per; Jakobsson, Kristina; Östergren, Per-Olof; Albin, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Both road traffic noise and air pollution have been linked to cardiovascular disease. However, there are few prospective epidemiological studies available where both road traffic noise and air pollution have been analyzed simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between road traffic noise, air pollution and incident myocardial infarction in both current (1-year average) and medium-term (3-year average) perspective. This study was based on a stratified random sample of persons aged 18-80 years who answered a public health survey in Skåne, Sweden, in 2000 (n = 13,512). The same individuals received a repeated survey in 2005 and 2010. Diagnoses of myocardial infarction (MI) were obtained from medical records for both inpatient and outpatient specialized care. The endpoint was first MI during 2000-2010. Participants with prior myocardial infarction were excluded at baseline. Yearly average levels of noise (L DEN) and air pollution (NO x ) were estimated using geographic information system for residential address every year until censoring. The mean exposure levels for road traffic noise and air pollution in 2005 were L DEN 51 dB(A) and NO x 11 µg/m(3), respectively. After adjustment for individual confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, alcohol consumption, civil status, year, country of birth and physical activity), a 10-dB(A) increase in current noise exposure did not increase the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI, 0.99 (95 % CI 0.86-1.14). Neither did a 10-μg/m(3) increase in current NO x increase the risk of MI, 1.02 (95 % CI 0.86-1.21). The IRR for MI associated with combined exposure to road traffic noise >55 dB(A) and NO x >20 µg/m(3) was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.90-1.64) compared to noise or air pollution at moderate average exposure levels.

  14. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M.

    2007-11-01

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  15. Volcanic Ash Impacts on Air Traffic from the 2009 Mt. Redoubt Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Matus, A. V.; Hudnall, L. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Haynes, J. A.; Pippin, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The dispersion of volcanic ash during the March 2009 eruption of Mt. Redoubt created the potential for major problems for aviation. Mt. Redoubt is located 110 km west-southwest of Alaska Airlines hub in Anchorage. It last erupted in 1990 and caused an estimated $101 million cost to the aviation industry (Waythomas, 1998). This study was conducted to assist in improving warning systems, policy and procedures for addressing the impact of volcanic ash on aviation. The study had two primary components. First, the altitude and extent of SO2 dispersion was determined through analysis of synoptic meteorological conditions and satellite imagery. Second, impacts on aviation from the volcanic ash dispersion were investigated. OMI SO2 column measurements were employed to assess the altitude and extent of SO2 dispersion of volcanic ash. To accomplish this, OMI data were assimilated with CALIPSO backscatter profiles, geopotential height plots, and HYSPLIT forward model trajectories. Volcanic Ash Advisories were compared to airport and pilot reports to assess aviation impacts. The eruption produced a complex dispersion of volcanic ash. Volcanic ash altitudes estimated for 23 March 2009 indicate that the majority of the plume remained at approximately 8 km, although reports indicate that the initial plume may have reached as high as18 km (60,000 ft). A low pressure system which passed over the eruption area appears to have entrained most of the ash at approximately 8 km, however the CALIPSO satellite indicates that dispersion also extended to 10 km and 16 km. Atmospheric patterns suggest dispersion at approximately 3 km near Hudson Bay. Analysis of 25 March 2009 indicates that much of the ash plume was dispersed at higher altitudes, where CALIPSO data locates the stratospheric ash plume at approximately 14 km above mean sea level. By the time the eruptions had subsided in April, Alaska Airlines had cancelled 295 flights and disrupted the flights of over 20,000 passengers. This

  16. Indicators for traffic safety assessment and prediction and their application in micro-simulation modelling : a study of urban and suburban intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve sustainable long-term transport infrastructure development, there is a growing need for fast, reliable and effective methods to evaluate and predict the impact of traffic safety measures. Recognising this need, and the need for an active traffic safety approach, this thesis focuses on traffic safety assessment and prediction based on the use of safety indicators that measure the spatial and/or temporal proximity of safety critical events. The main advantage of such measure...

  17. Analysis of Intra-Urban Traffic Problems in Nigeria: A Study of Lagos Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raji Bashiru

    2013-07-01

    local government areas. However, the observed spatial and temporal pattern o.l vehicular traffic congestion enabled us to suggest possible measures for the reduction of traffic congestion within the metropolis.

  18. Impact of the traffic load on performance of an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    communication infrastructure supporting railway signaling. This work is based on OPNET realistic network simulations, which show the relation between the traffic load (the number of trains transmitting and receiving data in an LTE cell) and the delay performance of the European Train Control System (ETCS......Although many countries only now begin to invest in deployment of GSM-Railways (GSM-R) networks, this technology is already obsolete and reveals its significant shortcomings. The most troublesome one is the insufficient number of communication channels offered by GSM-R. This is a major problem...... obstructing railway operations at big train stations and junctions. Hence, other technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), need to be considered as an alternative to GSM-R. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity increase that railways can expect, from the introduction of LTE as internal...

  19. Impacts of Traffic Tidal Flow on Pollutant Dispersion in a Non-Uniform Urban Street Canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhen Ming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional geometrical model was established based on a section of street canyons in the 2nd Ring Road of Wuhan, China, and a mathematical model describing the fluid flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon was developed. The effect of traffic tidal flow was investigated based on the measurement results of the passing vehicles as the pollution source of the CFD method and on the spatial distribution of pollutants under various ambient crosswinds. Numerical investigation results indicated that: (i in this three-dimensional asymmetrical shallow street canyon, if the pollution source followed a non-uniform distribution due to the traffic tidal flow and the wind flow was perpendicular to the street, a leeward side source intensity stronger than the windward side intensity would cause an expansion of the pollution space even if the total source in the street is equal. When the ambient wind speed is 3 m/s, the pollutant source intensity near the leeward side that is stronger than that near the windward side (R = 2, R = 3, and R = 5 leads to an increased average concentration of CO at pedestrian breathing height by 26%, 37%, and 41%, respectively. (R is the ratio parameter of the left side pollution source and the right side pollution source; (ii However, this feature will become less significant with increasing wind speeds and changes of wind direction; (iii the pollution source intensity exerted a decisive influence on the pollutant level in the street canyon. With the decrease of the pollution source intensity, the pollutant concentration decreased proportionally.

  20. Does traffic exhaust contribute to the development of asthma and allergic sensitization in children: findings from recent cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsberg Bertil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this review was to assess the evidence from recent prospective studies that long-term traffic pollution could contribute to the development of asthma-like symptoms and allergic sensitization in children. We have reviewed cohort studies published since 2002 and found in PubMed in Oct 2008. In all, 13 papers based on data from 9 cohorts have evaluated the relationship between traffic exposure and respiratory health. All surveys reported associations with at least some of the studied respiratory symptoms. The outcome varied, however, according to the age of the child. Nevertheless, the consistency in the results indicates that traffic exhaust contributes to the development of respiratory symptoms in healthy children. Potential effects of traffic exhaust on the development of allergic sensitization were only assessed in the four European birth cohorts. Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants had no association with sensitization in ten-year-old schoolchildren in Norway. In contrast, German, Dutch and Swedish preschool children had an increased risk of sensitization related to traffic exhaust despite fairly similar levels of outdoor air pollution as in Norway. Traffic-related effects on sensitization could be restricted to individuals with a specific genetic polymorphism. Assessment of gene-environment interactions on sensitization has so far only been carried out in a subgroup of the Swedish birth cohort. Further genetic association studies are required and may identify individuals vulnerable to adverse effects from traffic-related pollutants. Future studies should also evaluate effects of traffic exhaust on the development and long term outcome of different phenotypes of asthma and wheezing symptoms.

  1. Initial Study of An Effective Fast-Time Simulation Platform for Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Rios, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs), typically 55 lbs and below, are envisioned to play a major role in surveilling critical assets, collecting important information, and delivering goods. Large scale small UAV operations are expected to happen in low altitude airspace in the near future. Many static and dynamic constraints exist in low altitude airspace because of manned aircraft or helicopter activities, various wind conditions, restricted airspace, terrain and man-made buildings, and conflict-avoidance among sUAVs. High sensitivity and high maneuverability are unique characteristics of sUAVs that bring challenges to effective system evaluations and mandate such a simulation platform different from existing simulations that were built for manned air traffic system and large unmanned fixed aircraft. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative focuses on enabling safe and efficient sUAV operations in the future. In order to help define requirements and policies for a safe and efficient UTM system to accommodate a large amount of sUAV operations, it is necessary to develop a fast-time simulation platform that can effectively evaluate requirements, policies, and concepts in a close-to-reality environment. This work analyzed the impacts of some key factors including aforementioned sUAV's characteristics and demonstrated the importance of these factors in a successful UTM fast-time simulation platform.

  2. Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam: Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobollik, Myriam; Keuken, Menno; Sabel, Clive; Cowie, Hilary; Tuomisto, Jouni; Sarigiannis, Denis; Künzli, Nino; Perez, Laura; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Green house gas (GHG) mitigation policies can be evaluated by showing their co-benefits to health. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was used to quantify co-benefits of GHG mitigation policies in Rotterdam. The effects of two separate interventions (10% reduction of private vehicle kilometers and a share of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometers) on particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC) and noise (engine noise and tyre noise) were assessed using Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). The baseline was 2010 and the end of the assessment 2020. The intervention aimed at reducing traffic is associated with a decreased exposure to noise resulting in a reduction of 21 (confidence interval (CI): 11-129) YLDs due to annoyance and 35 (CI: 20-51) YLDs due to sleep disturbance for the population per year. The effects of 50% electric-powered car use are slightly higher with a reduction of 26 (CI: 13-116) and 41 (CI: 24-60) YLDs, respectively. The two interventions have marginal effects on air pollution, because already implemented traffic policies will reduce PM2.5 and EC by around 40% and 60% respectively, from 2010 to 2020. The evaluation of planned interventions, related to climate change policies, targeting only the transport sector can result in small co-benefits for health, if the analysis is limited to air pollution and noise. This urges to expand the analysis by including other impacts, e.g. physical activity and well-being, as a necessary step to better understanding consequences of interventions and carefully orienting resources useful to build knowledge to improve public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative health impact assessment of transport policies: two simulations related to speed limit reduction and traffic re-allocation in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram-Bijkerk, D; van Kempen, E; Knol, A B; Kruize, H; Staatsen, B; van Kamp, I

    2009-10-01

    Few quantitative health impact assessments (HIAs) of transport policies have been published so far and there is a lack of a common methodology for such assessments. To evaluate the usability of existing HIA methodology to quantify health effects of transport policies at the local level. Health impact of two simulated but realistic transport interventions - speed limit reduction and traffic re-allocation - was quantified by selecting traffic-related exposures and health endpoints, modelling of population exposure, selecting exposure-effect relations and estimating the number of local traffic-related cases and disease burden, expressed in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), before and after the intervention. Exposure information was difficult to retrieve because of the local scale of the interventions, and exposure-effect relations for subgroups and combined effects were missing. Given uncertainty in the outcomes originating from this kind of missing information, simulated changes in population health by two local traffic interventions were estimated to be small (<5%), except for the estimated reduction in DALYs by less traffic accidents (60%) due to speed limit reduction. Quantitative HIA of transport policies at a local scale is possible, provided that data on exposures, the exposed population and their baseline health status are available. The interpretation of the HIA information should be carried out in the context of the quality of input data and assumptions and uncertainties of the analysis.

  4. Vehicular Traffic?Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B.; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 particip...

  5. Detecting Anomaly in Traffic Flow from Road Similarity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xinran

    2016-06-02

    Taxies equipped with GPS devices are considered as 24-hour moving sensors widely distributed in urban road networks. Plenty of accurate and realtime trajectories of taxi are recorded by GPS devices and are commonly studied for understanding traffic dynamics. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in traffic volume, especially the non-recurrent traffic anomaly caused by unexpected or transient incidents, such as traffic accidents, celebrations and disasters. It is important to detect such sharp changes of traffic status for sensing abnormal events and planning their impact on the smooth volume of traffic. Unlike existing anomaly detection approaches that mainly monitor the derivation of current traffic status from history in the past, the proposed method in this paper evaluates the abnormal score of traffic on one road by comparing its current traffic volume with not only its historical data but also its neighbors. We define the neighbors as the roads that are close in sense of both geo-location and traffic patterns, which are extracted by matrix factorization. The evaluation results on trajectories data of 12,286 taxies over four weeks in Beijing show that our approach outperforms other baseline methods with higher precision and recall.

  6. The Impact of Tourist Traffic on the Condition and Cell Structures of Alpine Swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Kycko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the effect of trampling on vegetation in high-mountain ecosystems through the electromagnetic spectrum’s interaction with plant pigments, cell structure, water content and other substances that have a direct impact on leaf properties. The aim of the study was to confirm with the use of fluorescence methods of variability in the state of high-mountain vegetation previously measured spectrometrically. The most heavily visited part of the High Tatras in Poland was divided into polygons and, after selecting the dominant species within alpine swards, a detailed analysis of trampled and reference patterns was performed. The Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD FieldSpec 3/4 were used to acquire high-resolution spectral properties of plants, their fluorescence and the leaf chlorophyll content with the difference between the plant surface temperature (ts, and the air temperature (ta as well as fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR used as reference data. The results show that, along tourist trails, vegetation adapts to trampling with the impact depending on the species. A lower chlorophyll value was confirmed by a decrease in fluorescence, and the cellular structures were degraded in trampled compared to reference species, with a lower leaf reflectance. In addition, at the extreme, trampling can eliminate certain species such as Luzula alpino-pilosa, for which significant changes were noted due to trampling.

  7. Numerical Study of Traffic Pollutant Dispersion within Different Street Canyon Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Yucong Miao; Shuhua Liu; Yijia Zheng; Shu Wang; Yuan Li

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to numerically study flow and traffic exhaust dispersion in urban street canyons with different configurations to find out the urban-planning strategies to ease the air pollution. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model used in this study—Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) software package—was firstly validated against the wind-tunnel experiment data by using three different k-ε turbulence models. And then the patterns of flow and dispe...

  8. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Multi-country willingness to pay study on road-traffic environmental health effects: are people willing and able to provide a number?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The health impacts from traffic-related pollutants bring costs to society, which are often not reflected in market prices for transportation. We set out to simultaneously assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for traffic-related air pollution and noise effect on health, using a single measurement

  10. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagyaiah, M; Shrinagesh, B

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad

  11. The prevalence of drugs and alcohol found in road traffic fatalities: a comparative study of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon; Woolacott, Helen; Braithwaite, Robin

    2009-03-01

    Researchers have studied the involvement of drugs and alcohol in fatal road traffic incidents, but with particular emphasis on the possible impairment of the driver. This paper describes a comparative study of drug and alcohol findings in various victim groups (drivers of cars, vans or lorries, car passengers, motorcyclists, motorcycle passengers, cyclists and pedestrians) between 2000 and 2006. Post-mortem blood and urine specimens submitted were analysed by immunoassay, GC-NPD, GC-FID, GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. The results of 1047 cases indicated 54% of all victims were positive for drugs and/or alcohol, with the highest percentage of positive findings occurring in pedestrians (63%). Males between the ages of 17-24 were most likely to be involved in a road traffic accident, whether being in control of a vehicle (driver) or involved indirectly (car passenger, pedestrian, motorcycle passenger). A wide range of drugs were detected (e.g., drugs of abuse, anti-convulsants, anti-histamines, anti-inflammatories, anti-psychotics, cardiac drugs and over-the-counter products), but alcohol and cannabinoids were the most frequent substances across the victim groups. When detected, alcohol was commonly above the legal driving limit in blood and urine (>63% in those in control and >60% not in control). Overall, the presence of drugs and/or alcohol was of similar frequency in those victims in control (55% of driver, 48% of motorcyclists, 33% of cyclists) and not in control of a vehicle (52% of car passengers, 63% of pedestrians). This degree of frequency strongly implicates the involvement of drugs and alcohol in road traffic incidents and infers an effect on driving ability and individual impairment.

  12. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Alfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should be encouraged or not. To address this conundrum we investigated if a bicycle journey along a busy commuting road would induce changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systematic inflammation in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 38 volunteers (mean age: 43 ± 8.6 years, 26% women cycled for about 20 minutes in real traffic near a major bypass road (road test; mean UFP exposure: 28,867 particles per cm3 in Antwerp and in a laboratory with filtered air (clean room; mean UFP exposure: 496 particles per cm3. The exercise intensity (heart rate and duration of cycling were similar for each volunteer in both experiments. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, platelet function, Clara cell protein in serum and blood cell counts were measured before and 30 minutes after exercise. Results Percentage of blood neutrophils increased significantly more (p = 0.004 after exercise in the road test (3.9%; 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2%; p = 0.003 than after exercise in the clean room (0.2%; 95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2%, p = 0.83. The pre/post-cycling changes in exhaled NO, plasma IL-6, platelet function, serum levels of Clara cell protein and number of total blood leukocytes did not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure to particles during exercise caused a small increase in the distribution of inflammatory blood cells in healthy subjects. The health significance of this isolated change is unclear.

  13. The use of a simulation model to analyze the impact of heavy transport generated by the port to the city traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiak Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the impact of transport on heavy urban traffic on Wharf Kwiatkowski using program PTV Vissim. The data for analysis were taken from the Road and Greenery in Gdynia from program PTV Visum. Attention has been focused on vehicle traffic in the afternoon the top of its intensity. Model of Kwiatkowskiego Wharf, made entirely in the PTV VISSIM, was used for microscopic simulation of traffic. With its help, it was possible to find and analyze the behavior of each autonomous vehicle and interactions on the Web. For the analysis was used as a program of traffic lights currency at these junctions. The analysis results of simulation in the PTV VISSIM are related to the movement of the two structures. The first assumes that the route will move cars and trucks, taking into account their share in the network based on the intensity of traffic during peak hours of the afternoon, the second consisted only of cars. The results presented are based on measuring the time of travel and delays on specific relationships and the average length of queues at selected inlets. The results of analysis and simulation tests were subjected to statistical analysis.

  14. Self-reported exposure to traffic pollution in relation to daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring: a questionnaire study in seven North-European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, Thorarinn; Bertelsen, Randi J; Real, Francisco Gomez; Sigsgaard, Torben; Franklin, Karl A; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Hellgren, Johan; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Forsberg, Bertil; Johannessen, Ane

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about associations between traffic exposure and sleep disturbances. We examined if self-reported exposure to traffic is associated with habitual snoring and daytime sleepiness in a general population. In the RHINE III study, 12184 adults answered questions on sleep disturbances and traffic exposure. We analysed bedrooms near roads with traffic, bedrooms with traffic noise, and travelling regularly along busy roads as proxies for traffic exposures, using logistic regression. Adjustment factors were study centre, gender, age, smoking habits, educational level, body mass index, physical activity, obstructive sleep apnoea, and sleep duration. One in ten lived near a busy road, 6% slept in a bedroom with traffic noise, and 11% travelled regularly along busy roads. Habitual snoring affected 25% and daytime sleepiness 21%. More men reported snoring and more women reported daytime sleepiness. Having a bedroom with traffic noise was associated with snoring (adjusted OR 1.29, [95% CI 1.12, 1.48]). For daytime sleepiness, on the other hand, bedroom with traffic noise and high exposure to traffic pollution have significant risk factors (adjusted ORs 1.46 [1.11, 1.92] and 1.65 [1.11, 2.45]). Results were consistent across study centres. Daytime sleepiness is associated with traffic pollution and traffic noise, while habitual snoring is only associated with traffic noise. Self-reported traffic exposure should be taken into account when diagnosing and planning treatment for patients with sleep disturbances, because reducing noise and pollution exposure in the bedroom may have a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein; Fekr Azad, Hossein; Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Rafiei, Hassan; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Tajlili, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. The design of the present study was quantitative (correlational) in which a sample population including 253 boys from Tehran (Iran) with an age range of 18 to 24 who had been referred to insurance institutions, hospitals, correctional facilities as well as prisons, were selected using stratified cluster sampling during the year 2013.The subjects completed the following questionnaires: demographic, general health, lifestyle, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), young parenting, and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, and inferential statistics including simultaneous regression, stepwise regression, and structural equations modeling were used. The findings indicated that in the psychosocial model of driving behavior (including lapses, mistakes, and intentional violations) and accidents, psychological factors, depression (P scope of these factors links accidents to other social issues and damages.

  16. Effect of a new motorway on social-spatial patterning of road traffic accidents: A retrospective longitudinal natural experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Mitchell, Richard; Ogilvie, David

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organisation reports that road traffic accidents (accidents) could become the seventh leading cause of death globally by 2030. Accidents often occur in spatial clusters and, generally, there are more accidents in less advantaged areas. Infrastructure changes, such as new roads, can affect the locations and magnitude of accident clusters but evidence of impact is lacking. A new 5-mile motorway extension was opened in 2011 in Glasgow, Scotland. Previous research found no impact on the number of accidents but did not consider their spatial location or socio-economic setting. We evaluated impacts on these, both locally and city-wide. We used STATS19 data covering the period 2008 to 2014 and describing the location and details of all reported accidents involving a personal injury. Poisson-based continuous scan statistics were used to detect spatial clusters of accidents and any change in these over time. Change in the socio-economic distribution of accident cluster locations during the study period was also assessed. In each year accidents were strongly clustered, with statistically significant clusters more likely to occur in socio-economically deprived areas. There was no significant shift in the magnitude or location of accident clusters during motorway construction or following opening, either locally or city-wide. There was also no impact on the socio-economic patterning of accident cluster locations. Although urban infrastructure changes occur constantly, all around the world, this is the first study to evaluate the impact of such changes on road accident clusters. Despite expectations to the contrary from both proponents and opponents of the M74 extension, we found no beneficial or adverse change in the socio-spatial distribution of accidents associated with its construction, opening or operation. Our approach and findings can help inform urban planning internationally.

  17. Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam: Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobollik, Myriam, E-mail: mtobollik@uni-bielefeld.de [School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany); German Environment Agency, Section Exposure Assessment and Environmental Health Indicators, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Keuken, Menno [Netherlands Applied Research Organization (TNO), Utrecht (Netherlands); Sabel, Clive [School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cowie, Hilary [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Tuomisto, Jouni [National Institute for Health and Welfare Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Sarigiannis, Denis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Künzli, Nino; Perez, Laura [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Mudu, Pierpaolo, E-mail: mudup@ecehbonn.euro.who.int [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Background: Green house gas (GHG) mitigation policies can be evaluated by showing their co-benefits to health. Method: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was used to quantify co-benefits of GHG mitigation policies in Rotterdam. The effects of two separate interventions (10% reduction of private vehicle kilometers and a share of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometers) on particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), elemental carbon (EC) and noise (engine noise and tyre noise) were assessed using Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). The baseline was 2010 and the end of the assessment 2020. Results: The intervention aimed at reducing traffic is associated with a decreased exposure to noise resulting in a reduction of 21 (confidence interval (CI): 11–129) YLDs due to annoyance and 35 (CI: 20–51) YLDs due to sleep disturbance for the population per year. The effects of 50% electric-powered car use are slightly higher with a reduction of 26 (CI: 13–116) and 41 (CI: 24–60) YLDs, respectively. The two interventions have marginal effects on air pollution, because already implemented traffic policies will reduce PM{sub 2.5} and EC by around 40% and 60% respectively, from 2010 to 2020. Discussion: The evaluation of planned interventions, related to climate change policies, targeting only the transport sector can result in small co-benefits for health, if the analysis is limited to air pollution and noise. This urges to expand the analysis by including other impacts, e.g. physical activity and well-being, as a necessary step to better understanding consequences of interventions and carefully orienting resources useful to build knowledge to improve public health. - Highlights: • We estimated co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction policies from 2010 to 2020. • The city scale health impact assessment base on real transport policy scenarios. • Effects of particulate matter, elemental carbon and noise on health are assessed. • The effects are

  18. Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam: Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobollik, Myriam; Keuken, Menno; Sabel, Clive; Cowie, Hilary; Tuomisto, Jouni; Sarigiannis, Denis; Künzli, Nino; Perez, Laura; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green house gas (GHG) mitigation policies can be evaluated by showing their co-benefits to health. Method: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was used to quantify co-benefits of GHG mitigation policies in Rotterdam. The effects of two separate interventions (10% reduction of private vehicle kilometers and a share of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometers) on particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), elemental carbon (EC) and noise (engine noise and tyre noise) were assessed using Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). The baseline was 2010 and the end of the assessment 2020. Results: The intervention aimed at reducing traffic is associated with a decreased exposure to noise resulting in a reduction of 21 (confidence interval (CI): 11–129) YLDs due to annoyance and 35 (CI: 20–51) YLDs due to sleep disturbance for the population per year. The effects of 50% electric-powered car use are slightly higher with a reduction of 26 (CI: 13–116) and 41 (CI: 24–60) YLDs, respectively. The two interventions have marginal effects on air pollution, because already implemented traffic policies will reduce PM 2.5 and EC by around 40% and 60% respectively, from 2010 to 2020. Discussion: The evaluation of planned interventions, related to climate change policies, targeting only the transport sector can result in small co-benefits for health, if the analysis is limited to air pollution and noise. This urges to expand the analysis by including other impacts, e.g. physical activity and well-being, as a necessary step to better understanding consequences of interventions and carefully orienting resources useful to build knowledge to improve public health. - Highlights: • We estimated co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction policies from 2010 to 2020. • The city scale health impact assessment base on real transport policy scenarios. • Effects of particulate matter, elemental carbon and noise on health are assessed. • The effects are rather

  19. Association between mobile phone traffic volume and road crash fatalities: A population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Bruzzone, Silvia; Pelliccioni, Armando; Forastiere, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data. A case-crossover study design was applied to estimate the relative risks of road accident for increases in each type of mobile phone traffic volumes in underlying population present in the small areas where accidents occurred. Effect modification was evaluated by weekday/weekend, hour of the day, meteorological conditions, and street densities. Positive associations between road crashes rates and the number of calls, texts, and Internet connections were found, with incremental risks of 17.2% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 7.7, 27.6), 8.4% (CI 0.7, 16.8), and 54.6% (CI 34.0, 78.5) per increases (at 15 min intervals) of 5 calls/100 people, 3 text/100 people, and 40 connections/100 people, respectively. Small differences across cities were detected. Working days, nighttime and morning hours were associated with greater phone use and more road accidents. The relationship between mobile phone use and road fatalities at population level is strong. Strict controls on cellular phone in the vehicle may results in a large health benefit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Passive monitoring using traffic noise recordings - case study on the Steinachtal Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Stähler, Simon; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Civil structures age continuously. The early recognition of potentially critical damages is an important economical issue, but also one of public safety. Continuous tracking of small changes in the medium by using passive methods would offer an extension to established active non-destructive testing procedures at relatively low cost. Here we present a case study of structural monitoring using continuous recordings of traffic noise on a 200 meter long reinforced concrete highway bridge in Germany. Over two months of continuos geophone records are used in the frequency range of 2-8 Hz. Using passive image interferometry, evaluation of hourly cross-correlations between recordings at pairs of receivers yield velocity variations in the range of -1.5% to +2.1%. We were able to correlate our outcomes with temperature measurements of the same two month period. The measured velocity changes scale with the temperature variations with on average a dv/v of 0.064% per degree Celsius. This value is in accordance with other studies of concrete response to temperature, confirming that we are able to observe subtle changes with physical origin. It is shown that traffic noise is temporally homogenenous enough to fulfill the requirements of passive image interferometry.

  1. Ecological study of road traffic injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region: country economic level, road user category and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; Laflamme, Lucie; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-02-13

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution. Register-based ecological study linking data from Global Burden of Disease Study with the United Nations Statistics Division for population and World Bank definition for country income level. Road traffic injury mortality rates and disability-adjusted life years were compiled for all ages at country level in 1995, 2005, 2015 and combined for a regional average (n = 22) and a global average (n = 122). The data were stratified by country economic level, road user category and gender. Road traffic injury mortality rates in the Region were higher than the global average for all three reference years but suggest a downward trend. In 2015 mortality rates were more than twice as high in low and high income countries compared to global income averages and motor vehicle occupants had a 3-fold greater mortality than the global average. Severe injuries decreased by more than half for high/middle income countries but remained high for low income countries; three times higher for males than females. Despite a potential downward trend, inequalities in road traffic injury mortality and morbidity burden remain high in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Action needs to be intensified and targeted to implement and enforce safety measures that prevent and mitigate severe motor vehicle crashes in high income countries especially and invest in efforts to promote public, active transport

  2. Traffic Noise Assessment at Residential Areas in Skudai, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, F. S.; Darus, N.; Mashros, N.; Haron, Z.; Yahya, K.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicles passing by on roadways in residential areas may produce unpleasant traffic noise that affects the residents. This paper presents the traffic noise assessment of three selected residential areas located in Skudai, Johor. The objectives of this study are to evaluate traffic characteristics at selected residential areas, determine related noise indices, and assess impact of traffic noise. Traffic characteristics such as daily traffic volume and vehicle speed were evaluated using automatic traffic counter (ATC). Meanwhile, noise indices like equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq), noise level exceeded 10% (L10) and 90% (L90) of measurement time were determined using sound level meter (SLM). Besides that, traffic noise index (TNI) and noise pollution level (LNP) were calculated based on the measured noise indices. The results showed an increase in noise level of 60 to 70 dBA maximum due to increase in traffic volume. There was also a significant change in noise level of more than 70 dBA even though average vehicle speed did not vary significantly. Nevertheless, LAeq, TNI, and LNP values for all sites during daytime were lower than the maximum recommended levels. Thus, residents in the three studied areas were not affected in terms of quality of life and health.

  3. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  4. Drivers' phone use at red traffic lights: a roadside observation study comparing calls and visual-manual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Véronique; Sanchez, Yann; Brusque, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N=124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual-manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual-manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Factors associated with prehospital death among traffic accident patients in Osaka City, Japan: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2018-01-02

    Although it is important to assess the factors associated with traffic accident fatalities to decrease them as a matter of public health, such factors have not been fully identified. Using a large-scale data set of ambulance records in Osaka City, Japan, we retrospectively analyzed all traffic accident patients transported to hospitals by emergency medical service personnel from 2013 to 2014. In this study, prehospital death was defined as that occurring at the scene or in the emergency department immediately after hospital arrival. We assessed prehospital factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents by logistic regression models. This study enrolled 28,903 emergency patients involved in traffic accidents, of whom 68 died prehospital. In a multivariate model, elderly patients aged ≥75 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-8.23), nighttime (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.65-4.70), and type of injured person compared to bicyclists such as pedestrians (AOR = 9.58; 95% CI, 5.07-17.99), motorcyclists (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.21-6.24), and car occupants (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.39-6.40) were significantly associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents. In addition, the AOR for automobile versus nonautomobile as the collision opponent was 4.76 (95% CI, 2.30-9.88). In this population, the factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents were elderly people, nighttime, and pedestrian as the type of patient. The proportion of prehospital deaths due to traffic accidents was also high when the collision component was an automobile.

  6. Traffic mortality and the role of minor roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Dooremalen, Coby; Jaarsma, Catharinus F

    2009-01-01

    Roads have large impacts on wildlife, as they form one of the principal causes of mortality, and disturbance and fragmentation of habitat. These impacts are mainly studied and mitigated on major roads. It is, however, a widespread misconception that most animals are killed on major roads. In this paper, we argue that minor roads have a larger impact on wildlife with respect to habitat destruction, noise load and traffic mortality. We use data on traffic related deaths in badgers (Meles meles) in The Netherlands to illustrate that traffic mortality is higher on minor roads. We ask for a more extensive investigation of the environmental impacts of minor roads. Moreover, we argue that the success of mitigation on roads drastically increases when both major and minor roads are integrated in the planning of traffic flows. Therefore, we propose a strategy based on the concept of a "traffic-calmed area". Traffic-calmed areas create opportunities for wildlife by decreasing limitations for animal movement. We ask for further studies to estimate what size traffic-calmed areas should be to maintain minimum viable animal populations.

  7. A study of the spectrum of traffic-induced bridge vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. D.; Pretlove, A. J.

    1988-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the vibration response of a bridge, in the form of a simple beam model, to the passage of random traffic. The specific objective of this work is to evaluate this method of excitation for the purpose of structural condition monitoring, though it is recognized that there are other applications of the analysis, particularly in fatigue life determinations for the structure. In-service traffic is studied because it is so convenient compared with other methods, which involve the mounting of special equipment on the bridge and possible bridge closures. To achieve this objective the dynamic response of a simply supported beam to a series of moving loads is analyzed in the time and frequency domains. The moving loads, each representing a vehicle, are separated by random time delays, and travel in both directions at constant speed. The validity of the theoretical model is assessed by comparison with measurements on a full-scale road bridge. Within the limitations of the chosen computer model it is demonstrated that the method is capable of determining the fundamental natural frequency of a bridge and possibly also the higher order natural frequencies. Further work on a more sophisticated model is suggested and, for condition monitoring purposes, the accuracy of natural frequency determinations needs to be assessed.

  8. Exploring the relationship between development and road traffic injuries: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nitin; Hyder, Adnan A

    2006-10-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major cause of mortality and disability in the world. Only after significant losses have communities in developed nations taken necessary steps to prevent crashes and their consequences. Increase in road safety is related to increasing socio-economic development. We aim to study the trends in injury and death rates in a developing country, India, define sub-national variations, and analyse these trends in relation to economic and population growth. Public sector data from India were used to develop a standardized database on traffic injuries and indicator of economic development. The data were analysed using linear regression models to test the a priori hypothesis of a positive relationship between net domestic product (NDP), and injury and death rates from road crashes across states. The absolute burden of RTI in India has been consistently rising over the past three decades. The reported rates are lower than those estimated by global health agencies and may reflect under-reporting. Population-based rates provide a better assessment of the public health burden of RTI than vehicle-based rates. There is an inverted U-shaped relationship between NDP and injury and death rates. Even with the limited data, Kuznets phenomenon is evident for within-country level comparisons. India and other developing countries could learn from the experience of highly motorized nations to avoid the expected rise in RTI and deaths with economic development, by currently investing in road safety and prevention measures.

  9. An Experimental Study of the Noise Due to Traffic in a Congested Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Sankar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Noise pollution in an urban environment is an issue of serious concern in the major cities of India. There are various factors that contribute to the increase of noise levels in urban areas. The intensity of traffic is one of the factors which contributes to a drastic increase in environmental noise. The management of noise pollution has to be considered in the decision making process. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the existing noise level due to the traffic in Velachery which is declared as a sensitive area by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF). The noise level data is collected using the MS6710 digital sound meter. The Custic simulation software version 3.2 is used for finding the propagation of noise. The spatial patterns of measurement were also calculated, in the sub-urban area of Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. A means of transmitting this data to vehicles moving in the area, through a wireless medium is simulated using NCTUns 6.0 (network simulator), to enable drivers to understand the environmental conditions. A hardware was also designed which can be used to transmit and receive the noise data using the Zigbee module. A noise transmitting station is placed at a junction, so that it can transmit this noise data to the receivers which are fitted inside the vehicles.

  10. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  11. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma:A GIS-based pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysbeck Hansen, Carl; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Baelum, Jesper

    The background for the project is that traffic-related air pollution may provoke the onset of asthma. The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure...... system (AirGIS). The project applied the following methodology. A non-smoking cohort with recently acquired asthma or wheeze as well as matched controls were identified from a large cross-sectional study. All residential and working addresses with corresponding time periods for a 10 year period were...... successfully identified for all study participants (N=33). Using AirGIS traffic-related air pollutant levels from both urban background and street level were estimated for the 10 year study period on an hourly basis. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were...

  12. Simulation Study of the Effect of Decreasing Truck Traffic Flow on Safety on Almeria-Barcelona Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashova, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the effect of truck traffic on road safety has been analyzed through simulation study. The main objective of the study is to quantify the effect of the decreasing average annual daily traffic of heavy duty vehicles (trucks) on road safety. As the road safety indicators the frequency road accidents is considered. The data used in the study were collected from one of the most crowded routes in Spain which connects Almeria (south-east) with Barcelona (northeast). The observed data covers year 2010 and were classified into 2 road types: dual carriageways and toll roads. The estimation was carried out using negative binomial model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. Using the estimation results new traffic scenarios were proposed where the traffic flow is assumed to change its values. A total of 33 scenarios were proposed and new accidents data were generated through MCMC sampling. The comparison of the simulated and observed accident data shows that the effect of decreasing truck traffic flow could meliorate road safety in the route. The simulation tool could be applied to evaluate the effects of freight modal shift from road to rail. (Author)

  13. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Orriols, Ludivine; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Taillard, Jacques; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents. A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents. As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, ptraffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, ptraffic accidents. Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  14. Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S.; Stock, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow and occupancy using long and short term information. Mechanistic interpolation using macroscopic traffic models and based on the traffic flow and occupancy forecasted (item-1), and the empirical relationships (item-2) for the specific highway configuration at the time of simulation (construction, lane closure, etc.). Statistical routine for detection and classification of anomalies and their impact on the highway capacity which are fed back to previous items.

  15. Road traffic noise and children's inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Stansfeld, Stephen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Vrijheid, Martine; de Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-11-21

    An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association was mediated by sleep duration. This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of children's inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age 8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway. An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age 8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled. Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on children's inattention. We found no mediation by sleep duration.

  16. Synchronization between Different Networks with Time-Varying Delay and Its Application in Bilayer Coupled Public Traffic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic characteristics of urban public traffic network, this paper establishes the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network based on the space R modeling method. Then regarding these two networks as the subnetwork, the paper presents a new bilayer coupled public traffic network through the transfer relationship between subway and bus, and this model well reflects the connection between the passengers and bus operating vehicles. Based on the synchronization theory of coupling network with time-varying delay and taking “Lorenz system” as the network node, the paper studies the synchronization of bilayer coupled public traffic network. Finally, numerical results are given to show the impact of public traffic dispatching, delayed departure, the number of public bus stops between bus lines, and the number of transfer stations between two traffic modes on the bilayer coupled public traffic network balance through Matlab simulation.

  17. Study on traffic noise level of Sylhet by multiple regression analysis associated with health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Alam, M. Jobair Bin Alam, M. M. Rahman, A. K. Dikshit, S. K. Khan

    Full Text Available The study reports the level of traffic-induced noise pollution in Sylhet City. For this purpose noise levels have been measured at thirty-seven major locations of the city from 7 am to 11 pm during the working days. It was observed that at all the locations the level of noise remains far above the acceptable limit for all the time. The noise level on the main road near residential area, hospital area and educational area were above the recommended level (65dBA. It was found that the predictive equations are in 60-70% correlated with the measured noise level. The study suggests that vulnerable institutions like school and hospital should be located about 60m away from the roadside unless any special arrangement to alleviate sound is used.

  18. Association Between Media Dose, Ad Tagging, and Changes in Web Traffic for a National Tobacco Education Campaign: A Market-Level Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. Objective The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media doses and ad tagging to evaluate changes in traffic to the campaign website in response to specific doses of campaign media. Methods Linear regression models were used to estimate the dose-response relationship between weekly market-level television gross rating points (GRPs) and weekly Web traffic to the Tips campaign website. This relationship was measured using unique visitors, total visits, and page views as outcomes. Ad GRP effects were estimated separately for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL and 1-800-QUIT-NOW. Results In the average media market, an increase of 100 television GRPs per week for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL was associated with an increase of 650 unique visitors (Ptraffic measure were also statistically significant (Pgenerated approximately 660,000 unique visitors, 900,000 total visits, and 1,390,000 page views for the Tips campaign website. These findings can help campaign planners forecast the likely impact of targeted advertising efforts on consumers’ use of campaign-specific websites. PMID:26887959

  19. Model for Predicting Traffic Signs Functional Service Life – The Republic of Croatia Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Babić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are the basic elements of communication between the relevant road authorities and road users. They manage, regulate, inform and warn road users to ensure their safe movement throughout transport networks. Traffic signs must be timely visible to all traffic participants in all weather and traffic conditions in order to fulfil their function, which means they must have satisfactory retroreflection properties. This paper presents a research of the deterioration of traffic signs retroreflection. The aim of this article is to develop models that will effectively enable predicting the retroreflection of traffic signs and thus optimize the maintenance activities and replacement of road signs to increase road safety. The research included measurements of retroreflection of retroreflective material Classes I and II (white, red and blue colour and Class III (red and yellow colour. Based on the collected data from the City of Zagreb (Republic of Croatia, the authors developed the models to estimate the functional service life of certain colours and materials used to make traffic signs. Considering that the average coefficient of determination for all the models is between 0.55-0.60, they present an effective tool in the traffic sign maintenance system.

  20. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-01-01

    of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income...

  1. Crash Injury Management: Emergency Medical Services for Traffic Law Enforcement Officers. Student Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    To assist in the continuing efforts to improve the safety of the motorist on the nation's highways and roads, this student guide provides a standardized approach for first responders to traffic accidents to learn emergency medical care. Training is provided in all aspects of emergency medical care required at the scene of a traffic accident.…

  2. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  3. Air traffic controllers' long-term speech-in-noise training effects: A control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, Maria T P; Plasencia, Daniel P; González, María L Z; de Miguel, Angel R; Macías, Ángel R

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and -5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=-5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions.

  4. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  5. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  6. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.; Hoek, G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Fischer, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Jerrett, M.; Hughes, E.; Armstrong, B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives: We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and

  7. Association Between Media Dose, Ad Tagging, and Changes in Web Traffic for a National Tobacco Education Campaign: A Market-Level Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Paul R; Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2016-02-17

    In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media doses and ad tagging to evaluate changes in traffic to the campaign website in response to specific doses of campaign media. Linear regression models were used to estimate the dose-response relationship between weekly market-level television gross rating points (GRPs) and weekly Web traffic to the Tips campaign website. This relationship was measured using unique visitors, total visits, and page views as outcomes. Ad GRP effects were estimated separately for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL and 1-800-QUIT-NOW. In the average media market, an increase of 100 television GRPs per week for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL was associated with an increase of 650 unique visitors (P<.001), 769 total visits (P<.001), and 1255 total page views (P<.001) per week. The associations between GRPs for ads tagged with 1-800-QUIT-NOW and each Web traffic measure were also statistically significant (P<.001), but smaller in magnitude. Based on these findings, we estimate that the 16-week 2013 Tips television campaign generated approximately 660,000 unique visitors, 900,000 total visits, and 1,390,000 page views for the Tips campaign website. These findings can help campaign planners forecast the likely impact of targeted advertising efforts on consumers' use of campaign-specific websites.

  8. A Novel Performance Framework and Methodology to Analyze the Impact of 4D Trajectory Based Operations in the Future Air Traffic Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Sergio; Lopez Leones, Javier; Ranieri, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts such as Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) may produce a significant impact in all performance areas, that is, safety, capacity, flight efficiency, and others. The performance framework in use today has been tailored to the operational needs of the current ATM system and must evolve to fulfill the new needs and challenges brought by the TBO content. This paper presents a novel performance assessment framework and methodology adapted...

  9. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Kambiz; Forouzan, Arash; Barzegari, Hassan; Asgari Darian, Ali; Rahim, Fakher; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Nabi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the 8(th) cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3(rd) rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82) were evaluated (92.4% male). Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44%) of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%). 610 (87.1%) cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53%) occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4%) cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1%) patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p accidents (p severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car-pedestrian, and motorcycle-pedestrian accidents among the agent factors.

  10. The impact of air traffic in the NAFC. Model results and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauben, W M.F.; Velthoven, P F.J. van; Kelder, H M [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric composition has been investigated with a global chemistry transport model. The model calculations show that aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides contribute to about 40-80% of the background values of nitrogen oxides in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC), and lead to an increase of the background ozone concentrations by about 3-4% in winter and 5-7% in summer. The three-dimensional distributions of ozone, nitrogen oxides and nitric acid, calculated by using analysed meteorological data, have been compared with airborne measurements performed in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor as part of the EC POLINAT project. The agreement between modelled results and observations is reasonably good for ozone, but worse for nitrogen oxides and nitric acid. (author) 12 refs.

  11. The impact of air traffic in the NAFC. Model results and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauben, W.M.F.; Velthoven, P.F.J. van; Kelder, H.M. [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric composition has been investigated with a global chemistry transport model. The model calculations show that aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides contribute to about 40-80% of the background values of nitrogen oxides in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC), and lead to an increase of the background ozone concentrations by about 3-4% in winter and 5-7% in summer. The three-dimensional distributions of ozone, nitrogen oxides and nitric acid, calculated by using analysed meteorological data, have been compared with airborne measurements performed in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor as part of the EC POLINAT project. The agreement between modelled results and observations is reasonably good for ozone, but worse for nitrogen oxides and nitric acid. (author) 12 refs.

  12. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Samuel L Combinido

    Full Text Available While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from a negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  13. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  14. Evaluating Environmental Impact of Traffic Congestion in Real Time Based on Sparse Mobile Crowd-sourced Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Traffic congestion at arterial intersections and freeway bottlenecks degrades the air quality and threatens the public health. Conventionally, air pollutants are monitored by sparsely-distributed Quality Assurance Air Monitoring Sites. Sparse mobile ...

  15. Phytoindication of the ecogenotoxic impact caused by traffic emissions through pollen abortivity in the road liner communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, D.; Micieta, K.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution refers to evaluation of ecogenotoxicity which is caused by traffic emissions at places in the vicinity. For detection of the genotoxic stress was used test of pollen grain abortivity assay with higher wild plant species. Higher plants are suitable as bioindicators of environmental pollution. From our research we could say, that the amount of pollutants from the traffic has increasing character and that accumulation of xenobiotics in plants actually exists. (authors)

  16. Linguistic Diversity and Traffic Accidents: Lessons from Statistical Studies of Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]–[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories. PMID:23967132

  17. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Roberts

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  18. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  19. A prospective study on paediatric traffic injuries : health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, LM; van der Sluis, CK; Stewart, RE; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Eisma, WH

    Objectives: To examine children's reports of their health- related quality of life ( HRQoL) following paediatric traffic injury, to explore child and parental post- traumatic stress, and to identify children and parents with adverse outcomes. Design: Prospective cohort study. Assessments: shortly

  20. Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary mortality in the USA. We aimed to assess the relation between traffic-related air pollution and mortality in participants of the Netherlands Cohort study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS),

  1. Driver’s Cognitive Workload and Driving Performance under Traffic Sign Information Exposure in Complex Environments: A Case Study of the Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers’ behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information. Forty-four drivers were recruited to conduct a traffic sign cognition experiment under static controlled environment conditions. Different complex traffic signs were used for applying the cognitive workload. The static experiment results reveal that workload is highly related to the amount of information on traffic signs and reaction time increases with the information grade, while driving experience and gender effect are not significant. This shows that the cognitive workload of subsequent driving experiments can be controlled by the amount of information on traffic signs. Second, driving characteristics and driving performance were analyzed under different secondary task driving workload levels using a driving simulator. Drivers were required to drive at the required speed on a designed highway off-ramp scene. The cognitive workload was controlled by reading traffic signs with different information, which were divided into four levels. Drivers had to make choices by pushing buttons after reading traffic signs. Meanwhile, the driving performance information was recorded. Questionnaires on objective workload were collected right after each driving task. The results show that speed maintenance and lane deviations are significantly different under different levels of cognitive workload, and the effects of driving experience and gender groups are significant. The research results can be used to analyze traffic safety in highway

  2. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  3. Environmental impacts of urban snow management - The alpine case study of Innsbruck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, C.; De Toffol, S.; Lek, I.; Rauch, W.; Dallinger, R.

    2007-01-01

    In regions with colder climate, snow at roads can accumulate significant amounts of pollutant chemicals. In northern countries various efforts have been made to face this problem, but for the alpine region little is known about the pollution of urban snow. The present case study was carried out in the city of Innsbruck (Austria). It aimed at measuring pollution of roadside snow and estimating the impact of snow management practises on environmental quality. Concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, suspended solids and chloride were determined during a series of sampling events. Various locations with low and high traffic densities and in different distances from a highway have been investigated. The concentrations of copper were generally higher at sites with high traffic density compared to locations with low traffic impact. In contrast to this, the concentrations of zinc and lead remained almost unvaried irrespective of traffic density at the different sampling sites. For cadmium, the picture was more diverse, showing moderately elevated concentrations of this metal also at the urban reference site not polluted by traffic. This indicates that there may be also other important sources for cadmium besides traffic. Suspended solids accumulated in the roadside snow, the highest concentrations were found at the sites with high traffic density. The chloride concentrations were considerable in the snow, especially at the highway. Based on the results of the present measurement campaign, the environmental impact of snow disposal in rivers was also estimated. A negative impact on rivers from snow disposal seems likely to occur, although the discharged loads could only be calculated with substantial uncertainty, considering the high variability of the measured pollutant concentrations. For a more accurate evaluation of this management practise on rivers, further investigations would be necessary

  4. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... induced traffic is partly accounted for than when it is ignored. By exaggerating the economic benefits of road capacity increase and underestimating its negative effects, omission of induced traffic can result in over-allocation of public money on road construction and correspondingly less focus on other...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...

  5. Study on the Road Traffic Survey System Based on Micro-ferromagnetic Induction Coil Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic information is the basis of road traffic management and control. Due to the special design of the sensor coil and ferromagnetic core, traffic survey system which uses micro ferromagnetic inductive coil vehicle detector, not only has the features of small size, simple installation and little road surface damage, but also has the advantages of output signal strength, simple signal processing circuit and obvious characteristics for output waveform corresponding vehicle feature. Based on the introduction of the sensor working principle, the construction of hardware and signal processing circuit for the traffic survey system is described in detail in the paper. Combined with the characteristics of the sensor output waveform, adaptive nearest neighbor clustering RBF neural network algorithm used to classify the vehicles is proposed and verified by experimental method. The result has a high vehicle classification rate and demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  6. A population-based, incidence cohort study of mid-back pain after traffic collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M S; Boyle, E; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic collisions often result in a wide range of symptoms included in the umbrella term whiplash-associated disorders. Mid-back pain (MBP) is one of these symptoms. The incidence and prognosis of different traffic injuries and their related conditions (e.g. neck pain, low back pain...... data from a population-based inception cohort of all traffic injuries occurring in Saskatchewan, Canada, during a 2-year period were used. Annual overall and age-sex-specific incidence rates were calculated, the course of recovery was described using the Kaplan-Meier technique, and associations between...... recovery was 101 days (95% CI: 99-104) and about 23% were still not recovered after 1 year. Participant's expectation for recovery, general health, extent of severely affecting comorbidities and having experienced a previous traffic injury were some of the prognostic factors identified. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Air pollution abatement by road traffic and social acceptability. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuntarelli, P.; Borrelli, G.; Brini, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome (Italy) [it

  8. Network Traffic Forensics on Firefox Mobile OS: Facebook, Twitter and Telegram as Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Mohd Najwadi; Dehghantanha, Ali; Mahmod, Ramlan

    2017-01-01

    Development of mobile web-centric OS such as Firefox OS has created new challenges, and opportunities for digital investigators. Network traffic forensic plays an important role in cybercrime investigation to detect subject(s) and object(s) of the crime. In this chapter, we detect and analyze residual network traffic artefacts of Firefox OS in relation to two popular social networking applications (Facebook and Twitter) and one instant messaging application (Telegram). We utilized a Firefox O...

  9. Investigating the role of transportation models in epidemiologic studies of traffic related air pollution and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Valois, Marie-France; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan; Ross, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2015-07-01

    In two earlier case-control studies conducted in Montreal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related air pollution was found to be associated with the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies relied on a land use regression model (LUR) for NO2 that is commonly used in epidemiologic studies for deriving estimates of traffic-related air pollution. Here, we investigate the use of a transportation model developed during the summer season to generate a measure of traffic emissions as an alternative to the LUR model. Our traffic model provides estimates of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the level of individual roads, as does the LUR model. Our main objective was to compare the distribution of the spatial estimates of NOx computed from our transportation model to the distribution obtained from the LUR model. A secondary objective was to compare estimates of risk using these two exposure estimates. We observed that the correlation (spearman) between our two measures of exposure (NO2 and NOx) ranged from less than 0.3 to more than 0.9 across Montreal neighborhoods. The most important factor affecting the "agreement" between the two measures in a specific area was found to be the length of roads. Areas affected by a high level of traffic-related air pollution had a far better agreement between the two exposure measures. A comparison of odds ratios (ORs) obtained from NO2 and NOx used in two case-control studies of breast and prostate cancer, showed that the differences between the ORs associated with NO2 exposure vs NOx exposure differed by 5.2-8.8%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Visualizing Volcanic Clouds in the Atmosphere and Their Impact on Air Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Tobias; Schulze, Maik; Friederici, Anke; Theisel, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are not only hazardous in the direct vicinity of a volcano, but they also affect the climate and air travel for great distances. This article sheds light on the Grímsvötn, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, and Nabro eruptions in 2011. The authors study the agreement of the complementary satellite data, reconstruct sulfate aerosol and volcanic ash clouds, visualize endangered flight routes, minimize occlusion in particle trajectory visualizations, and focus on the main pathways of Nabro's sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere. The results here were developed for the 2014 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest, which centers around the fusion of multiple satellite data modalities to reconstruct and assess the movement of volcanic ash and sulfate aerosol emissions. Using data from three volcanic eruptions that occurred in the span of approximately three weeks, the authors study the agreement of the complementary satellite data, reconstruct sulfate aerosol and volcanic ash clouds, visualize endangered flight routes, minimize occlusion in particle trajectory visualizations, and focus on the main pathways of sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere. This video provides animations of the reconstructed ash clouds. https://youtu.be/D9DvJ5AvZAs.

  11. A Study to Assess the Factors and Out of Pocket Expenditures in the Patients of Road Traffic Accidents Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital in a Central India District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava DK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic injuries are estimated to be the eighth leading cause of death globally, with an impact similar to that caused by many communicable diseases, such as malaria. road traffic injuries are estimated to cost low- and middle-income countries between 1–2 % of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP, an estimate of about US$ 100 billion a year. Objectives: To study the epidemiological profile of Road Traffic Injuries among the patients admitted in a tertiary care centre and too find out the various out of pocket expenditure in the patients of Road Traffic Accidents. Material and Method: The present study was a hospital based Descriptive Prospective Study. A list of all the patients admitted due to Road Traffic Accident in last one week was obtained from the ward sisters of Orthopedic Department. All the selected participants were interviewed on the two fixed days. A pre tested structured open ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the 48 participants interviewed, 34male and 14 females. Most common age group affected was 21-25 years followed by 16-20 years. The rate of accidents was most common on the weekends. The rate of accidents was more in users of two wheelers. Majority of the expenditure in the First week of admission was on the purchase of medicines followed by diagnosis. Majority of the victims also suffered huge financial loss due to loss of salary, closure of shop, loss due to daily wages etc. Conclusion: The present study hereby concludes that there is an urgent need for creating awareness about Road Traffic Accident. The study also concludes that majority of the out of pocket expenditure in the first week of admission is on the medication.

  12. Numerical Study of Traffic Pollutant Dispersion within Different Street Canyon Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to numerically study flow and traffic exhaust dispersion in urban street canyons with different configurations to find out the urban-planning strategies to ease the air pollution. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model used in this study—Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM software package—was firstly validated against the wind-tunnel experiment data by using three different k-ε turbulence models. And then the patterns of flow and dispersion within three different kinds of street canyon configuration under the perpendicular approaching flow were numerically studied. The result showed that the width and height of building can dramatically affect the pollution level inside the street canyon. As the width or height of building increases, the pollution at the pedestrian level increases. And the asymmetric configuration (step-up or step-down street canyon could provide better ventilation. It is recommended to design a street canyon with nonuniform configurations. And the OpenFOAM software package can be used as a reliable tool to study flows and dispersions around buildings.

  13. On the Impact of Multi-User Traffic Dynamics on Low Latency Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerardino, Guillermo Andrés Pocovi; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the downlink latency performance in a multi-user cellular network. We use a flexible 5G radio frame structure, where the TTI size is configurable on a per-user basis according to their specific service requirements. Results show that at low system loads using a short TTI (e.......g. 0.25 ms) is an attractive solution to achieve low latency communications (LLC). The main benefits come from the low transmission delay required to transmit the payloads. However, as the load increases, longer TTI configurations with lower relative control overhead (and therefore higher spectral...... efficiency) provide better performance as these better cope with the non-negligible queuing delay. The presented results allow to conclude that support for scheduling with different TTI sizes is important for LLC and should be included in the future 5G....

  14. Tornado missile impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    UCRL-15910 specifies wind and tornado missiles for moderate- and high-hazard DOE facilities. Wall-barrier specimens have been tested at the Tornado Missile Impact Facility at Texas Tech University. The facility has an air-activated tornado missile cannon capable of firing 2x4 timber planks weighing 12 lb at speeds up to 150 mph and 3-in-diameter steel pipes weighing 75 lb at speeds to 7 5 mph. Wall barriers tested to date include reinforced concrete walls from 4-in. to 10-in. thick; 8-in. and 12-in. walls of reinforced concrete masonry units (CMU); two other masonry wall configurations consisting of an 8-in. CMU with a 4-in. clay-brick veneer and a 10-in. composite wall with two wythes of 4-in. clay brick. The impact test series is designed to determine the impact speed that will produce backface spall of each wall barrier. A set of 15 wall sections has been constructed and tested at this time. Preliminary finding suggest that all cells of CMU walls must be grouted to prevent missile penetration. Walls recommended in the workshop on UCRL-15910 provide acceptable protection if cracking can be accepted

  15. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  16. Associations between traffic noise, particulate air pollution, hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension in adults: the KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babisch, Wolfgang; Wolf, Kathrin; Petz, Markus; Heinrich, Joachim; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the association between traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases have rarely considered air pollution as a covariate in the analyses. Isolated systolic hypertension has not yet been in the focus of epidemiological noise research. The association between traffic noise (road and rail) and the prevalence of hypertension was assessed in two study populations with a total of 4,166 participants 25-74 years of age. Traffic noise (weighted day-night average noise level; LDN) at the facade of the dwellings was derived from noise maps. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations at residential addresses were estimated by land-use regression. Hypertension was assessed by blood pressure readings, self-reported doctor-diagnosed hypertension, and antihypertensive drug intake. In the Greater Augsburg, Germany, study population, traffic noise and air pollution were not associated with hypertension. In the City of Augsburg population (n = 1,893), where the exposure assessment was more detailed, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 10-dB(A) increase in noise was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.30) after additional adjustment for PM2.5. The adjusted OR for a 1-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.27) after additional adjustment for noise. For isolated systolic hypertension, the fully adjusted OR for noise was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.86) and for PM2.5 was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.34). Traffic noise and PM2.5 were both associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. Mutually adjusted associations with hypertension were positive but no longer statistically significant.

  17. Speed Distribution on Two-Lane Rural Highways with Mixed Traffic: A Case Study in North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pritam; Roy, Nabanita; Sarkar, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Manish

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on minimising inaccuracies in distributional assumptions of speed data on two-lane roads with heterogeneous traffic to improve accuracy in capacity and level of service analysis. Accordingly, field study was conducted on a two-lane highway in India that exhibits heterogeneity in its traffic composition. Two distribution functions, namely, normal and logistic were examined for the observed speed data. The appropriate function was chosen using a methodology based on K-S test and field validation. Logistic distribution function was found to exhibit its aptness in describing speed under such traffic and was, thereby, considered in estimating the limiting speed of slower vehicles that tends to obstruct the flow of traffic. Vehicles that move at or below this speed cause delay to the faster ones resulting in formation of platoons at moderate and heavy flow when passing is restricted. Since the percent time-spent-following, a performance measure to assess level-of-service of two-lane highways, considers proportion of vehicles that are trapped inside platoons, it is imperative to estimate the limiting speed of slower vehicles correctly to approximate the delayed vehicles.

  18. Traffic analysis toolbox volume XI : weather and traffic analysis, modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a weather module for the traffic analysis tools program. It provides traffic engineers, transportation modelers and decisions makers with a guide that can incorporate weather impacts into transportation system analysis and mode...

  19. Traffic-related air pollution increased the risk of Parkinson's disease in Taiwan: A nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Liu, Li-Ling; Sun, Yu; Chen, Yu-An; Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Ritz, Beate

    2016-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with many health conditions, but little is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient air pollution on PD in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan. We identified 11,117 incident PD patients between 2007 and 2009 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database and selected 44,468 age- and gender-matched population controls from the longitudinal health insurance database. The average ambient pollutant exposure concentrations from 1998 through the onset of PD were estimated using quantile-based Bayesian Maximum Entropy models. Basing from logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ambient pollutant exposures and PD risk. We observed positive associations between NO x , CO exposures, and PD. In multi-pollutant models, for NO x and CO above the 75th percentile exposure compared with the lowest percentile, the ORs of PD were 1.37 (95% CI=1.23-1.52) and 1.17 (95% CI=1.07-1.27), respectively. This study suggests that ambient air pollution exposure, especially from traffic-related pollutants such as NO x and CO, increases PD risk in the Taiwanese population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of exposure to traffic pollution using the ExTra index: study of validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reungoat, Patrice; Chiron, Mireille; Gauvin, Stephanie; Le Moullec, Y.; Momas, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    The ExTra index, produced by the French Scientific Center for Building Physics, evaluates ambient concentrations of transport-related pollutants in front of the work and living places of urban dwellers. This study contributes to the validation of the ExTra index by carrying out measurements in four French cities. It compares nitrogen oxide concentrations (NO x ) measured over 6 weeks with passive samplers, and NO x calculated concentrations using the ExTra index. The study takes into account traffic density, topographical parameters (building height, road, and pavement width), weather conditions (wind direction and strength), and background pollution levels. The model was tested at 100 street canyons sites. There were highly significant correlations (0.90 in Grenoble, 0.95 in Nice, 0.89 in Paris, and 0.89 in Toulouse) and good intraclass correlation coefficients (0.75 in Grenoble, 0.91 in Nice, 0.89 in Paris, and 0.86 in Toulouse) between the two series of values. These results suggest that if the ExTra index were to be applied to all the different residences and workplaces of a subject throughout his (her) life, it could be a useful epidemiological tool for studying the long-term health effects of transport-related emissions and for reconstructing individual exposure to such pollution in order to avoid misclassification

  1. Study on the Traffic Air Pollution inside and outside a Road Tunnel in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Chanzhen; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Heng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Limin; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the vehicle induced air pollution situations both inside and outside the tunnel, the field measurement of the pollutants concentrations and its diurnal variations was performed inside and outside the Xiangyin tunnel in Shanghai from 13:00 on April 24th to 13:00 on April 25th, 2013. The highest hourly average concentrations of pollutants were quantified that CO, NO, NO2 and NOX inside the tunnel were 13.223 mg/m3, 1.829 mg/m3, 0.291 mg/m3 and 3.029 mg/m3, respectively, while the lowest ones were 3.086 mg/m3, 0.344 mg/m3, 0.080 mg/m3 and 0.619 mg/m3. Moreover, the concentrations of pollutants were higher during the daytime, and lower at night, which is relevant to the traffic conditions inside the tunnel. Pollutants concentrations inside the tunnel were much higher than those outside the tunnel. Then in a case of slow wind, the effect of wind is much smaller than the impact of pollution sources. Additionally, the PM2.5 concentrations climbed to the peak sharply (468.45 µg/m3) during the morning rush hours. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 inside the tunnel were 37.09–99.06 µg/m3 and 22.69–137.99 µg/m3, respectively. Besides, the OC/EC ratio ranged from 0.72 to 2.19 with an average value of 1.34. Compared with the results of other tunnel experiments in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China, it could be inferred that the proportion of HDVs through the Xiangyin tunnel is relatively lower. PMID:25386920

  2. Application of Source-Sink Landscape Influence Values to Commuter Traffic: A Case Study of Xiamen Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape patterns are closely related to ecological processes. Different spatial scales and research methods may lead to different results. Therefore, it is crucial to choose suitable research methods when studying different landscape patterns and ecological processes. In the present study, the methods of source-sink landscape theory were applied to the interactions between urban landscape characteristics and commuter traffic behavior around the arterial roads in Xiamen Island. After classification of land use types using remote sensing images from the IKONOS satellite and ArcGIS software (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA, the landscape patterns of areas surrounding arterial roads (within 1 km were evaluated using source-sink landscape influence (SLI. The results showed that Xiamen Island’s urban expressway had the highest SLI value (0.191, followed by the state highways (0.067, the provincial highways (0.030, and the county roads (0.025. When considering all road types, the correlation between a road’s SLI value and its commuter traffic flow was 0.684. This result was explained by three observations: (1 The contribution of the core area of each landscape pattern to traffic flow was positively correlated with the traffic flow. (2 Areas surrounding the urban expressway and the state highways had lower values for Shannon’s diversity index, indicating that these areas had a lower degree of landscape fragmentation. (3 The landscape patterns surrounding the urban expressway and the state highways were more concentrated and complex than those around other road types. The application of source-sink landscape pattern theory allows for researchers to integrate the relationships between landscape patterns surrounding roads and commuter traffic flow on those roads and to analyze the reasons for these relationships.

  3. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias; Pedersen, Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-10-01

    Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth. From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses. Associations between exposures and indicators of newborn's size at birth: birth weight, placental weight and head and abdominal circumference were analyzed by linear and logistic regression, and adjusted for potential confounders. In mutually adjusted models we found a 10μg/m(3) higher time-weighted mean exposure to NO2 during pregnancy to be associated with a 0.35mm smaller head circumference (95% confidence interval (CI): 95% CI: -0.57; -0.12); a 0.50mm smaller abdominal circumference (95% CI: -0.80; -0.20) and a 5.02g higher placental weight (95% CI: 2.93; 7.11). No associations were found between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. This study indicates that air pollution may result in a small reduction in offspring's birth head and abdominal circumference, but not birth weight, whereas traffic noise seems not to affect newborn's size at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  5. The Mynydd y Cemmaes wind farm impact study: V. 1. Summary: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The impacts of windfarms in the United Kingdom have been studied to assess their effects on the local visual, traffic, noise, ecological and economic environment. The study reported here on Mynydd y Cemmaes windfarm took place between 1992 and 1994 before construction started and was completed a year and a half after commissioning. A summary of results from a sociological impact study, undertaken as a two-stage public attitude survey, is also reported here. (UK)

  6. CITYZEN climate impact studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutz, Martin (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    We have estimated the impact of climate change on the chemical composition of the troposphere due to changes in climate from current climate (2000-2010) looking 40 years ahead (2040-2050). The climate projection has been made by the ECHAM5 model and was followed by chemistry-transport modelling using a global model, Oslo CTM2 (Isaksen et al., 2005; Srvde et al., 2008), and a regional model, EMEP. In this report we focus on carbon monoxide (CO) and surface ozone (O3) which are measures of primary and secondary air pollution. In parallel we have estimated the change in the same air pollutants resulting from changes in emissions over the same time period. (orig.)

  7. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Johnni; Loft, Steffen; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-05

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Mean levels of NO₂ at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.51, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate fruit and vegetables per day, the MRR was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13-1.87) for mortality from cardiovascular disease and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11-1.42) for mortality from all causes. Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  8. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaschou-Nielsen Ole

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate  Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  9. Data mining and gap analysis for weather responsive traffic management studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Weather causes a variety of impacts on the transportation system. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory study estimated the : delay experienced by American drivers due to snow, ice, and fog in 1999 at 46 million hours. While severe winter storms, : hurric...

  10. An antibody toolkit for the study of membrane traffic in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Riedel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism has been pivotal to understanding the developmental processes of metazoans. However, the use of flies for studying subcellular organization is hampered by a paucity of reliable reagents to label specific organelles. Here, we describe the generation of mouse monoclonal antibodies against a set of markers of the secretory and endocytic pathways, along with goat polyclonal antibodies against two Golgi proteins. We show that the monoclonal antibodies are highly specific and sufficiently sensitive to detect endogenous proteins in crude extracts by immunoblotting with little background staining. By immunofluorescence the major compartments of the membrane traffic system (including the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi, and early and late endosomes are labeled by at least one antibody. Moreover, the antibodies can be used to label organelles in fly tissues including salivary glands and wing imaginal discs. We anticipate that these antibodies will provide a useful tool kit to facilitate the investigation of how the endomembrane system functions and varies in the diverse tissue types of metazoans.

  11. On the study of a sick building: the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assimakopoulos, V.D.; Helmis, C.G. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that in many cases the responsibility for the formation of the sick-building syndrome lies with the inappropriate envelope design, the misuse of the building by the inhabitants and the combination of indoor-outdoor pollution sources. In the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), sick syndrome episodes were reported by the employees. In the present study, recently obtained indoor air quality measurements, during selected meteorological conditions, taken in the ATCT, are presented and discussed. These include concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which in many cases were thought responsible for the poor indoor environment. The measurements cover the indoor and outdoor environment of selected building regions, the ventilation systems and the plenum under the floor. The data indicates that there are certain places in the building where the VOCs concentrations were well above outdoor levels, while in others the concentrations were lower. Further analysis of the results showed that the central ventilation system is not sufficient for the building needs and that in some areas, either due to cleaning negligence or to the construction material used, VOCs pollution sources have developed. In order to eliminate these problems and to improve the indoor environment certain actions were taken. Following these interventions a second set of measurements were collected, inside and outside the ATCT building, which indicated a substantial improvement of the indoor air quality. (author)

  12. Awareness of driving while sleepy and road traffic accidents: prospective study in GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Hermann; Guéguen, Alice; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane; Zins, Marie; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2006-07-08

    To examine the association between self assessed driving while sleepy and the risk of serious road traffic accidents (RTAs). Prospective cohort study. France. 13 299 of the 19 894 living members of the GAZEL cohort, workers and recent retirees of a French national utility company followed up since 1989. Frequency of driving while sleepy in the previous 12 months, reported in 2001; rate ratios for serious RTAs in 2001-3, estimated by using generalised linear Poisson regression models with time dependent covariates. The risk of serious RTAs increased proportionally with the frequency of self reported driving while sleepy. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, driving behaviour variables, work conditions, retirement, medical conditions and treatments, depressive symptoms, and sleep disorders, the adjusted rate ratios of serious RTAs for participants who reported driving while sleepy in the previous 12 months "a few times" or "once a month or more often" were 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.0) and 2.9 (1.3 to 6.3) respectively compared with those who reported not driving while sleepy over the same period. These associations were not explained by any reported sleep disorders. Self assessed driving while sleepy was a powerful predictor of serious RTAs, suggesting that drivers' awareness of their sleepiness while driving is not sufficient to prevent them from having RTAs. Messages on prevention should therefore focus on convincing sleepy drivers to stop driving and sleep before resuming their journey.

  13. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  14. Application of Source-Sink Landscape Influence Values to Commuter Traffic: A Case Study of Xiamen Island

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wu; Lina Tang; Huaxiang Chen; Ziyan Wang; Quanyi Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Landscape patterns are closely related to ecological processes. Different spatial scales and research methods may lead to different results. Therefore, it is crucial to choose suitable research methods when studying different landscape patterns and ecological processes. In the present study, the methods of source-sink landscape theory were applied to the interactions between urban landscape characteristics and commuter traffic behavior around the arterial roads in Xiamen Island. After classif...

  15. Application of magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods in environmental studies of urban pollution generated by road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucko, M.

    2012-11-01

    Road traffic is at present one of the major sources of environmental pollution in urban areas. Magnetic particles, heavy metals and other compounds generated by traffic can greatly affect ambient air quality and have direct implications for human health. The general aim of this research was to identify and characterize magnetic vehicle-derived particulates using magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods. A combination of three different methods was used to discriminate sources of particular anthropogenic particles. Special emphasis was placed on the application of various collectors (roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags) to monitor spatial and temporal distribution of traffic pollution on roadsides. The spatial distribution of magnetic parameters of road dust accumulated in roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags indicates that the highest concentration of magnetic particles is in the sampling points situated closest to the road edge. The concentration of magnetic particles decreases with increasing distance from the road indicating vehicle traffic as a major source of emission. Significant differences in horizontal distribution of magnetic susceptibility were observed between soil and snow. Magnetic particles derived from road traffic deposit on soil within a few meters from the road, but on snow up to 60 m from the road. The values of magnetic susceptibility of road dust deposited near busy urban motorway are significantly higher than in the case of low traffic road. These differences are attributed to traffic volume, which is 30 times higher on motorway than on local road. Moss bags placed at the edge of urban parks situated near major roads show higher values of magnetic susceptibility than moss bags from parks located near minor routes. Enhanced concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co) were observed in the studied samples. This may be associated with specific sources of vehicle emissions (e.g. exhaust and non

  16. In-Trail Procedure Air Traffic Control Procedures Validation Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Ryan C.; Hewitt, Katrin P.; Sweeney, Peter B.; Graff, Thomas J.; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2007, Airservices Australia (Airservices) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a validation experiment of the air traffic control (ATC) procedures associated with the Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In-Trail Procedure (ITP). ITP is an Airborne Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSA) application designed for near-term use in procedural airspace in which ADS-B data are used to facilitate climb and descent maneuvers. NASA and Airservices conducted the experiment in Airservices simulator in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve current operational air traffic controllers participated in the experiment, which identified aspects of the ITP that could be improved (mainly in the communication and controller approval process). Results showed that controllers viewed the ITP as valid and acceptable. This paper describes the experiment design and results.

  17. On the Impact of Zero-padding in Network Coding Efficiency with Internet Traffic and Video Traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) theoretical results typically assume that packets have equal sizes while in reality, data traffic presents a random packet size distribution. Conventional wisdom considers zero-padding of original packets as a viable alternative, but its effect can reduce the e...

  18. Evolution of traffic emissions in European urban areas: Milan case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, M.; Cemin, A.; Cernuschi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The worldwide increasing role of mobile sources on the air quality of urban areas requires a careful evaluation of all the potential intervention policies for the reduction of traffic related emissions. The accurate description of the evolution of the source, following the renewal of the fleet with vehicles regulated by stricter emission standards, represents the basic premise for this evaluation. This paper outlines a proposed methodology for the evaluation of the trend of mobile source emissions, implemented on the calculation program EMISMOB, and reports the results obtained with its application to predict the evolution of traffic emissions in the urban area of Milan (Italy) until the year 2010

  19. Quantification of traffic generation and its environmental impacts through decisions, frameworks and measures indirectly influencing transportation; Quantifizierung der Verkehrsentstehung und deren Umweltauswirkungen durch Entscheidungen, Regelwerke und Massnahmen mit indirektem Verkehrsbezug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz-Rau, C.; Hesse, M.; Geier, S.; Holzhey, A.; Rau, P.; Schreiner, J.; Schenk, E. [Buero fuer Integrierte Planung, Herdecke (Germany); Arndt, W.H.; Flaemig, H.; Rogge, L.; Steinfeld, M. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    Legislation (e.g. at the Federal or State level) outside the transportation policy sphere may have indirect impacts on traffic structure and generation. Four case studies have been carried out in order to analyse transport related impact chains, to quantify possible transportation impacts and to identify potential strategies for minimising impacts generated by non-transport-specific legislation. One result is a questionnaire designed as a further element of transportation impact assessment. The goal is to quickly evaluate potential impacts and to modify such proposed legislation in order to minimise negative impacts. Interestingly, the quantification of certain transportion impacts, a difficult task, proved not to be essential. (orig.) [German] Von Vorhaben ausserhalb des Verkehrsbereichs (z.B. Bundesgesetze oder Landesrichtlinien) koennen indirekte Effekte auf die Verkehrsstrukturen ausgehen. Fuer vier Fallbeispiele wurden verkehrsrelevante Wirkungsketten analysiert, die Verkehrseffekte ansatzweise quantifiziert und potentielle Handlungsansaetze fuer eine verkehrssparsamere Modifikation der Vorhaben identifiziert. Es wurde ein Frageschema entwickelt, dessen Anwendung als Fortsetzung einer Verkehrsauswirkungspruefung zur fruehzeitigen Beruecksichtigung von Verkehrseffekten und zur verkehrssparsamen Modifikation von Vorhaben mit indirektem Verkehrsbezug beitragen kann. Eine Quantifizierung der Verkehrseffekte erwies sich dazu in der Regel als entbehrlich. (orig.)

  20. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  1. The relationship of dangerous driving with traffic offenses: A study on an adapted measure of dangerous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Dragoş; Sârbescu, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Using data from three different samples and more than 1000 participants, the current study examines differences in dangerous driving in terms of age, gender, professional driving, as well as the relationship of dangerous driving with behavioral indicators (mileage) and criteria (traffic offenses). The study uses an adapted (Romanian) version of the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI, Dula and Ballard, 2003) and also reports data on the psychometric characteristics of this measure. Findings suggest that the Romanian version of the DDDI has sound psychometric properties. Dangerous driving is higher in males and occasional drivers, is not correlated with mileage and is significantly related with speeding as a traffic offense, both self-reported and objectively measured. The utility of predictive models including dangerous driving is not very large: logistic regression models have a significant fit to the data, but their misclassification rate (especially in terms of sensitivity) is unacceptable high. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of new urban motorway infrastructure on road traffic accidents in the local area: a retrospective longitudinal study in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Mitchell, Richard; Mackay, Daniel F; Humphreys, David K; Ogilvie, David

    2016-11-01

    The M74 motorway extension, Glasgow, opened in June 2011. One justification for construction was an expectation that it would reduce road traffic accidents (RTAs) on local non-motorway roads. This study evaluated the impact of the extension on the number of RTAs, stratifying by accident severity. Data for the period 1997-2014 were extracted from a UK database of reported RTAs involving a personal injury. RTA severity was defined by the level of injury: minor, severe or fatal. RTAs were assigned to (1) the local area surrounding the motorway extension, (2) a comparator area surrounding an existing motorway or (3) a control area elsewhere in the conurbation. Interrupted time-series regression with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors was used to determine longitudinal between-area differences in change in the number of RTAs, which might indicate an intervention effect. Glasgow and surrounding local authorities saw a 50.6% reduction in annual RTAs (n: 5901 to 2914) between 1997 and 2014. In the intervention area, the number of recorded RTAs decreased by 50.7% (n: 758 to 374), and that of fatal/severe RTAs by 57.4% (n: 129 to 55), with similar reductions in the comparator/control areas. The interrupted time-series analysis showed no significant between-area differences in temporal trends. The reduction of pedestrian casualties was attenuated in the intervention area relative to Glasgow and surrounding authorities. Reduction in RTAs was not associated with the motorway extension. Our findings suggest that in planning future investment, it should not be taken for granted that new road infrastructure alone will reduce RTAs in local areas. Urbanisation is proceeding rapidly worldwide, and evidence of infrastructure changes is lacking; this novel study provides important findings for future developments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Monitoring the distributed impact wave on a concrete slab due to the traffic based on polarization dependence on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Xiaoyi; Zhang Chunshu; Li Wenhai; Eisa, M; El-Gamal, S; Benmokrane, B

    2008-01-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, distributed impact waves due to the highway traffic on concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars are monitored in real time using stimulated Brillouin scattering. The impact wave is caused by the traffic passing on the highway pavement at high speed (>100 km h −1 ), which induced pressure on the concrete slabs, and in turn created a local birefringence change, leading to variation of the local state of polarization change (SOP). The pump and probe waves of the stimulated Brillouin scattering 'see' the SOP change and react with a decrease of the Brillouin gain or loss signal, when the pump and probe waves have the same input polarization state. The frequency difference between the pump and probe waves are locked at the static-strain-related Brillouin frequency. Optical fiber was embedded throughout the concrete pavement continuously reinforced with FRP bars in Highway 40 East, Montréal, Quebec to detect impact waves caused by cars and trucks passing on these pavements at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. A spatial resolution of 2 m was used over a sensing length of 300 m

  4. STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ACCIDENT VICTIMS ADMITTED IN GAUHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocket Chandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the present scenario, road traffic accidents have become a major cause of human mortality and morbidity. Accidents are increasing at alarming rates in India. The objective of our study was to assess the socio-demographic profile of road traffic accident victims admitted in a tertiary care setting, and to assess the pattern of injuries. METHODOLOGY The present study is prospective and analytical hospital based study. RESULTS The present studies show that more than 70% of the victims are in the age group of below 45 years (n=3196 and with male preponderance. Out of 14364 accident patients visiting the emergency department of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, 4953 patients were admitted. The majorities of the patients (n=2995 were admitted in surgery department and 1586 in orthopaedic department. CONCLUSIONS Several factors are responsible for causing road accidents such as drunk driving, lack of awareness of traffic rules, nonadherence to safety measures. To reduce morbidity and mortality following road accidents, comprehensive policy has to be adopted by the government

  5. The challenge of regional accents for aviation English language proficiency standards: a study of difficulties in understanding in air traffic control-pilot communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R

    2010-02-01

    Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.

  6. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme Lucie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Methods Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. Results The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training, more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. Conclusion The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both

  7. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Mohammadi, Reza; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Laflamme, Lucie; Bikmoradi, Ali; Haglund, Bo J A

    2009-12-23

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training), more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both an integrated system to coordinate RTI activities and prevention

  8. Unveiling Flat Traffic on the Internet: An SSH Attack Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Mattijs; Hofstede, R.J.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Many types of brute-force attacks are known to exhibit a characteristic ‘flat’ behavior at the network-level, meaning that connections belonging to an attack feature a similar number of packets and bytes, and duration. Flat traffic usually results from repeating similar application-layer actions,

  9. A study on traffic weaving segment level of service on Malaysia urban highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rohaya; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research is to observe weaving problems, analyze the capacity of the weaving segment and to identify the behavior of the Malaysian driver at urban freeway weaving segment. Field data collected during non - peak hours at km. 138.6-138.2 (north bound) Seberang Jaya: Penang Bridge, km.16.8 to km.17.0 Sunway Mentari: Damansara-Puchong Highway and km.21.4 to km.21.9 Puchong Intan: Damansara-Puchong Highway. These segments behave as a bottleneck during peak hour. The data collected are traffic volume, vehicle composition and the road geometry. The drivers behavior pattern at the freeway weaving segment is observed. This research analyses by two different methodologies, the first analysis is by referring to the US Highway Capacity Manual 2010 and the second analysis through a modified method to suit the local traffic composition. The consideration of motorcycle and light heavy vehicle in the analysis lead to a different evaluation of weaving segment capacity. The analysis results show a slight difference between both methods. LOS, weaving speed and density prediction by the modified method is slightly higher than the HCM method. These results, suggest that the numbers of light heavy vehicle and motorcycle contribute to the amount of traffic volume because the value factors of Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE). The adoption of the widely used method without taking consideration of local traffic condition, might lead to improper road planning or design or road operation management.

  10. Air pollution from traffic and cancer incidence: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle engine exhaust includes ultrafine particles with a large surface area and containing absorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, transition metals and other substances. Ultrafine particles and soluble chemicals can be transported from the airways to other organs, such as the liver, kidneys......, and brain. Our aim was to investigate whether air pollution from traffic is associated with risk for other cancers than lung cancer....

  11. Study on network traffic forecast model of SVR optimized by GAFSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, RuiXue

    2016-01-01

    There are some problems, such as low precision, on existing network traffic forecast model. In accordance with these problems, this paper proposed the network traffic forecast model of support vector regression (SVR) algorithm optimized by global artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA). GAFSA constitutes an improvement of artificial fish swarm algorithm, which is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm with a significant effect of optimization. The optimum training parameters used for SVR could be calculated by optimizing chosen parameters, which would make the forecast more accurate. With the optimum training parameters searched by GAFSA algorithm, a model of network traffic forecast, which greatly solved problems of great errors in SVR improved by others intelligent algorithms, could be built with the forecast result approaching stability and the increased forecast precision. The simulation shows that, compared with other models (e.g. GA-SVR, CPSO-SVR), the forecast results of GAFSA-SVR network traffic forecast model is more stable with the precision improved to more than 89%, which plays an important role on instructing network control behavior and analyzing security situation.

  12. Traffic Flow Prediction Using MI Algorithm and Considering Noisy and Data Loss Conditions: An Application to Minnesota Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow forecasting is useful for controlling traffic flow, traffic lights, and travel times. This study uses a multi-layer perceptron neural network and the mutual information (MI technique to forecast traffic flow and compares the prediction results with conventional traffic flow forecasting methods. The MI method is used to calculate the interdependency of historical traffic data and future traffic flow. In numerical case studies, the proposed traffic flow forecasting method was tested against data loss, changes in weather conditions, traffic congestion, and accidents. The outcomes were highly acceptable for all cases and showed the robustness of the proposed flow forecasting method.

  13. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  14. A retrospective study on the unseen epidemic of road traffic injuries and deaths due to accidents in Mwanza City - Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngallaba, S E; Majinge, C; Gilyoma, J; Makerere, D J; Charles, E

    2013-06-01

    Sixty percent of the global deaths and injuries occur in the developing world and mostly are due to Road traffic accidents (RTAs. looking at the etiological related factors which include, carelessness of the driver, condition of the vehicle or motorcycle, poor condition of roads, risky behavior of the driver, most of these factors can be prevented to some extent. This study therefore, determined the pattern of cases and deaths due to traffic road accidents in Mwanza City Tanzania. In this retrospective study, records, registers and case notes In the surgical ward and causality, medical records and central police station from 2008 to 2011 were used. The study focused on the two referral hospitals (Sekouture regional hospital and Bugando Medical Center). There were 3450 cases due to accidents reported at both centers (Sekouture regional hospital and Bugando Medical Center of which 3224 (93.4%) had complete information for analysis.2225 (69%) were male and 999 (31%) were female, and the most affected group were male. Among the RTAs2809 cases (87%) were due to motor cycle accidents which were the leading cause of RTAs with case fatality rate of 5% while motor vehicle has case fatality rate of 24% which is 5 times that of motor cycle. Among all RTAs the leading cause of injuries is Motor cycle traffic accidents followed by motor vehicle. RTAs are on increase particularly the motor cycle traffic accidents and has claimed a good number of innocent people's lives however most of them are preventable, therefore driving course to be introduced to motor cycle drivers with emphasize on the road posters signal, rules and regular checkup of their motor cycles especially commercial motor cycle.

  15. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  16. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi V; Chen, Fu-Lin; Xue, Jianping

    2017-12-15

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR) models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD), All-Traffic Density (ATD) and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD) which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT), and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT) in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC), a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS). The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with -0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m) that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM) analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses indicate that

  17. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi V. Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD, All-Traffic Density (ATD and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT, and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC, a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS. The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with −0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses

  18. STUDY ON SUPPORTING FOR DRAWING UP THE BCP FOR URBAN EXPRESSWAY NETWORK USING BY TRAFFIC SIMULATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Masashi; Shiraki, Wataru; Inomo, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Keiichi

    The urban expressway network is an important infrastructure to execute a disaster restoration. Therefore, it is necessary to draw up the BCP (Business Continuity Plan) to enable securing of road user's safety and restoration of facilities, etc. It is important that each urban expressway manager execute decision and improvement of effective BCP countermeasures when disaster occurs by assuming various disaster situations. Then, in this study, we develop the traffic simulation system that can reproduce various disaster situations and traffic actions, and examine some methods supporting for drawing up the BCP for an urban expressway network. For disaster outside assumption such as tsunami generated by a huge earthquake, we examine some approaches securing safety of users and cars on the Hanshin Expressway Network as well as on general roads. And, we aim to propose a tsunami countermeasure not considered in the current urban expressway BCP.

  19. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malý Marek

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146 and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446 was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p 95= 1.76–4.01 times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p 95 = 1.14–3.03 for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16, higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.39–9.59 for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64, and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89–135.66 for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem.

  20. Traffic Perturbation

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM

  1. A study of modelling simplifications in ground vibration predictions for railway traffic at grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germonpré, M.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2017-10-01

    Accurate computational models are required to predict ground-borne vibration due to railway traffic. Such models generally require a substantial computational effort. Therefore, much research has focused on developing computationally efficient methods, by either exploiting the regularity of the problem geometry in the direction along the track or assuming a simplified track structure. This paper investigates the modelling errors caused by commonly made simplifications of the track geometry. A case study is presented investigating a ballasted track in an excavation. The soil underneath the ballast is stiffened by a lime treatment. First, periodic track models with different cross sections are analyzed, revealing that a prediction of the rail receptance only requires an accurate representation of the soil layering directly underneath the ballast. A much more detailed representation of the cross sectional geometry is required, however, to calculate vibration transfer from track to free field. Second, simplifications in the longitudinal track direction are investigated by comparing 2.5D and periodic track models. This comparison shows that the 2.5D model slightly overestimates the track stiffness, while the transfer functions between track and free field are well predicted. Using a 2.5D model to predict the response during a train passage leads to an overestimation of both train-track interaction forces and free field vibrations. A combined periodic/2.5D approach is therefore proposed in this paper. First, the dynamic axle loads are computed by solving the train-track interaction problem with a periodic model. Next, the vibration transfer to the free field is computed with a 2.5D model. This combined periodic/2.5D approach only introduces small modelling errors compared to an approach in which a periodic model is used in both steps, while significantly reducing the computational cost.

  2. New analytical techniques for traffic management on the basis of system studies in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Павлович Кіркін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's market conditions, it is necessary for enterprises to constantly maintain their competitiveness. This is achieved through raising customer service standards and use of the latest management techniques. In most cases, enterprises adhere to the logistic principles to optimize production. Over time, however, the development of logistics resulted in emergence of its principal subdivisions: transport, storage, etc. Thus, nowadays there are several parallel methodological developments in the field of logistics and making up logistics chains and systems at different stages of the life cycle of the goods. System research in the field of warehouse logistics showed that the majority of its analytical models of management are based on task conflict. Similar tasks of managing traffic flows in transport logistics are solved by methods of SMO, graph theory, linear programming and differential equations of state etc. These methods are not more accurate than the methods of warehouse logistics, have similar important assumptions and simplifications, and require appropriate mathematical training and knowledge in the field of transport, and sometimes lack visible correlation with economic performance. New analytical techniques for the management of transportation systems based on task conflict will reduce the time and resources for optimization and finding solutions. Methods of warehousing logistics can only be used for the continuous transport quantities (intensity, speed, performance, capacity, execution of works, etc.. In the static condition the search for the optimal service intensity can be found in warehouse logistics. In the study of object in dynamics it is better to use transport approach. Some problems such as supplement of warehouse logistics models with elements of the transport task, are still to be decided

  3. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study. 2; Evaluating Detect and Avoid Technology and Communication Delays in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of communications delays and winds on air traffic controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from Detect and Avoid (DAA) self-separation algorithms (Stratway+) displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Control System. This guidance consisted of amber "bands" on the heading scale of the UAS navigation display indicating headings that would result in a loss of well clear between the UAS and nearby traffic. Winds tested were successfully handled by the DAA algorithms and did not affect the controller acceptability ratings of the HMDs. Voice communications delays for the UAS were also tested and included one-way delay times of 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS. Information from this study will also be of value to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 228 - Minimum Performance Standards for UAS.

  4. Presenting a practical model for governmental political mapping on road traffic injuries in Iran in 2008: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, E; Soori, Hamid; Mahfozphoor, S; Movahedinejad, Aa

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the relevant specialists. After receiving written consent from the main responsible stakeholders, the questionnaire was filled in by trained experts. Themes were determined and content was analysed in each part. Main responsible stakeholders. By comparing other countries' political mappings which were found in the library and by Internet searching, political mapping of RTI in Iran was suggested. Subjects were 26 experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. The main proposed leading agencies were traffic police and presidency (13% each). Findings showed that only 31% of our political mapping was formed according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In 94% of cases, the involved organizations had unspecified roles; the reason was poor monitoring for RTI in 39% of organizations. Lack of adequate authority and suitable legislation, appropriate laws and tasks definition were 94% and 18%, respectively. The most essential policy to overcome problems was defined as appropriate legislation (21%), and the most frequent type of support needed was mentioned as adequate budgeting (25%). Traffic police can play the leading agency role by government support, with strong leadership, appropriate legislation, defined tasks and adequate budget.

  5. Impact of traffic on δ15N, δ13C and δ18O of needles and annual tree rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of nitrogen depositions, as oxidized (NOx and reduced (NHx compounds, has important implications on ecosystem nitrogen cycle. NOx comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion in car engines and industrial processes, while agricultural activities (cattle farming, fertilizations are the main sources for NHx emissions. Such fertilisations could stimulate growth and, therefore, productivity of forests, especially in temperate forests, where nitrogen is a limiting factor. On the other hand an excess of nitrogen can lead to an acidification of the soil and have a negative impact on the microbial fauna and structure of plants. NOx and NHx depositions can be separated with the help of stable isotopes with different 15N-values reported for NOx originating from combustion sources. Consequently it was observed that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the vegetation reflects the isotopic signature of nitrogen sources. Our preliminary results on needles of Norway spruce trees exposed to NOx emissions along a transect perpendicular to a highway close to Faido and Brittnau show a clear isotopic enrichment in 15N in trees growing closer to traffic pollution, indicating an uptake of atmospheric nitrogen by stomatal pathway. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition measured in tree rings reveals the physiological response in plants. Trees more exposed to air pollution from traffic show an increase in δ13C and δ18O in tree rings, since mid sixties next to Erstfeld. This could mean a higher photosynthetic activity, enhanced by NOx traffic emissions, under low or not changed stomatal conductance. Our results confirm that stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen measured in needles and tree rings represent an important tool to monitor the impact of NOx load on tree physiology.

  6. How Might People Near National Roads Be Affected by Traffic Noise as Electric Vehicles Increase in Number? A Laboratory Study of Subjective Evaluations of Environmental Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian; Kennedy, John; Martin, Susanna; Rice, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We face a likely shift to electric vehicles (EVs) but the environmental and human consequences of this are not yet well understood. Simulated auditory traffic scenes were synthesized from recordings of real conventional and EVs. These sounded similar to what might be heard by a person near a major national road. Versions of the simulation had 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% EVs. Participants heard the auditory scenes in random order, rating each on five perceptual dimensions such as pleasant-unpleasant and relaxing-stressful. Ratings of traffic noise were, overall, towards the negative end of these scales, but improved significantly when there were high proportions of EVs in the traffic mix, particularly when there were 80% or 100% EVs. This suggests a shift towards a high proportion of EVs is likely to improve the subjective experiences of people exposed to traffic noise from major roads. The effects were not a simple result of EVs being quieter: ratings of bandpass-filtered versions of the recordings suggested that people's perceptions of traffic noise were specifically influenced by energy in the 500-2000 Hz band. Engineering countermeasures to reduce noise in this band might be effective for improving the subjective experience of people living or working near major roads, even for conventional vehicles; energy in the 0-100 Hz band was particularly associated with people identifying sound as 'quiet' and, again, this might feed into engineering to reduce the impact of traffic noise on people.

  7. A Modeling Investigation of Human Exposure to Select Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in the Tampa Area: Spatiotemporal Distributions of Concentrations, Social Distributions of Exposures, and Impacts of Urban Design on Both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei

    Increasing vehicle dependence in the United States has resulted in substantial emissions of traffic-related air pollutants that contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. Exposure to urban air pollutants trigger a number of public health concerns, including the potential of inequality of exposures and health effects among population subgroups. To better understand the impact of traffic-related pollutants on air quality, exposure, and exposure inequality, modeling methods that can appropriately characterize the spatiotemporally resolved concentration distributions of traffic-related pollutants need to be improved. These modeling methods can then be used to investigate the impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, pollution exposures, and related inequality. This work will address these needs with three objectives: 1) to improve modeling methods for investigating interactions between city and transportation design choices and air pollution exposures, 2) to characterize current exposures and the social distribution of exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the case study area of Hillsborough County, Florida, and 3) to determine expected impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, air pollution exposures, and exposure inequality. To achieve these objectives, the impacts of a small-scale transportation management project, specifically the '95 Express' high occupancy toll lane project, on pollutant emissions and nearby air quality was investigated. Next, a modeling method capable of characterizing spatiotemporally resolved pollutant emissions, concentrations, and exposures was developed and applied to estimate the impact of traffic-related pollutants on exposure and exposure inequalities among several population subgroups in Hillsborough County, Florida. Finally, using these results as baseline, the impacts of sprawl and compact urban forms, as well as vehicle fleet electrification

  8. Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with mortality? A small-area study in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B.; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Ghosh, Rebecca; Anderson, H. Ross; Beevers, Sean D.; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Wilkinson, Paul; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants may be harmful for health but few studies have investigated effects on mortality. We examined associations for six primary traffic pollutants with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 2003–2010 at small-area level using linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models. In linear models most pollutants showed negative or null association with all-cause, cardiovascular or respiratory mortality. In the piecewise models we observed positive associations in the lowest exposure range (e.g. relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality 1.07 (95% credible interval (CI) = 1.00–1.15) per 0.15 μg/m"3 increase in exhaust related primary particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM_2_._5)) whereas associations in the highest exposure range were negative (corresponding RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91–0.96). Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. That we found the strongest positive associations in the lowest exposure group may reflect residual confounding by unmeasured confounders that varies by exposure group. - Highlights: • Evidence of association between primary traffic pollutants and mortality is scarce. • We examined this in a large city using most recent small-area statistical methods. • Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. - Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations between long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants and mortality for all, cardiovascular or respiratory causes.

  9. Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Reduced Forced Vital Capacity: A Study Using Personal Monitors for Outdoor Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Paula Santos

    Full Text Available The effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function in adults are still controversial.Evaluate the effects of exposure to different levels of traffic-generated PM2.5 on workers' lung functions in São Paulo, Brazil.To cover a wide range of exposures, 101 non-smoking workers from three occupations (taxi drivers, traffic controllers, and forest rangers were selected for the study. After clinical evaluation, the participants were scheduled to attend four consecutive weekly visits in which they received a 24-hour personal PM2.5 sampler and had lung function tests measured on the following day. The association between the spirometric variables and the averaged PM2.5 levels was assessed using robust regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, time at the job, daily work hours, diabetes or hypertension and former smoking habits.Relative to workers in the lowest exposed group (all measures 39.6 μg/m3 showed a reduction of predicted FVC (-12.2%; CI 95%: [-20.0% to -4.4%], a marginal reduction of predicted FEV1 (-9.1%; CI 95%: [-19.1% to 0.9%] and an increase of predicted FEF25-75%/FVC (14.9%; CI 95%: [2.9% to 26.8%] without changes of FEV1/FVC.Exposure to vehicular traffic air pollution is associated with a small but significant reduction of FVC without a reduction of FEV1/FVC.

  10. Heavy-Machinery Traffic Impacts Methane Emissions as Well as Methanogen Abundance and Community Structure in Oxic Forest Soils▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Beat; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Kremer, Johann; Lüscher, Peter; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Temperate forest soils are usually efficient sinks for the greenhouse gas methane, at least in the absence of significant amounts of methanogens. We demonstrate here that trafficking with heavy harvesting machines caused a large reduction in CH4 consumption and even turned well-aerated forest soils into net methane sources. In addition to studying methane fluxes, we investigated the responses of methanogens after trafficking in two different forest sites. Trafficking generated wheel tracks with different impact (low, moderate, severe, and unaffected). We found that machine passes decreased the soils' macropore space and lowered hydraulic conductivities in wheel tracks. Severely compacted soils yielded high methanogenic abundance, as demonstrated by quantitative PCR analyses of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, whereas these sequences were undetectable in unaffected soils. Even after a year after traffic compression, methanogen abundance in compacted soils did not decline, indicating a stability of methanogens here over time. Compacted wheel tracks exhibited a relatively constant community structure, since we found several persisting mcrA sequence types continuously present at all sampling times. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a rather large methanogen diversity in the compacted soil, and most mcrA gene sequences were mostly similar to known sequences from wetlands. The majority of mcrA gene sequences belonged either to the order Methanosarcinales or Methanomicrobiales, whereas both sites were dominated by members of the families Methanomicrobiaceae Fencluster, with similar sequences obtained from peatland environments. The results show that compacting wet forest soils by heavy machinery causes increases in methane production and release. PMID:21742929

  11. The Combined Effect of Signal Strength and Background Traffic Load on Speech Quality in IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pocta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with measurements of the combined effect of signal strength and background traffic load on speech quality in IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The ITU-T G.729AB encoding scheme is deployed in this study and the Distributed Internet Traffic Generator (D-ITG is used for the purpose of background traffic generation. The speech quality and background traffic load are assessed by means of the accomplished PESQ algorithm and Wireshark network analyzer, respectively. The results show that background traffic load has a bit higher impact on speech quality than signal strength when both effects are available together. Moreover, background traffic load also partially masks the impact of signal strength. The reasons for those findings are particularly discussed. The results also suggest some implications for designers of wireless networks providing VoIP service.

  12. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N Bayapa; Hanumantha; Madithati, Pallavi; Reddy, N Nagarjuna; Reddy, C Sainarasimha

    2014-04-01

    The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%), most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%); and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%). Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3%) victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%), sternum was 6 (8.4%), and vertebrae 6 (8.4%) of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3%) followed by the heart 2 (7.6%). Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1%) than contusions 5 (20.8%). Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6%) followed by spleen 9 (18.3%). Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the planners to take safety measures, to implement strict traffic rules, to

  13. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia, 2014: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigus Gebremedhin Asefa

    Full Text Available The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies.This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130 and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582 taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers' involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey.Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188 of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33-0.78, while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05-7.44, receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67-7.85, and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81-8.61 were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24-2.92 and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00-2.28 were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement.The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties.

  15. Impact of local traffic exclusion on near-road air quality: Findings from the New York City 'Summer Streets' campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Thomas H., E-mail: thw2@cornell.edu [Department of Horticulture, 23 Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hall, Andrew; Zhang, K. Max [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Anguita, Juan [Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We monitored curbside airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and its proinflammatory capacity during 3 weekends when vehicle traffic was excluded from Park. Ave., New York City. Fine PM concentration peaked in the morning regardless of traffic while ultrafine PM was 58% lower during mornings without traffic. Ultrafine PM concentration varied linearly with traffic flow, while fine PM spiked sharply in response to random traffic events that were weakly correlated with the traffic signal cycle. Ultrafine PM concentrations decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with unrestricted traffic flow, reaching background levels within 100 m of the source. IL-6 induction was typically highest on Friday afternoons but showed no clear relationship to the presence of traffic. The coarse fraction (>2.5 {mu}m) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity, suggesting that coarse PM still warrants attention even as the research focus is shifting to nano-particles. - Highlights: > During a period of traffic exclusion morning PM2.5 concentration remained high. > Ultrafine concentrations were lower during mornings without traffic. > While ultrafine PM varied linearly with traffic flow, fine PM was unrelated to flow. > Ultrafine PM decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with traffic. > The coarse fraction (>2.5 mm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity. - Traffic exclusion had variable effects on local particle concentrations and biomarker induction that were inconsistent with the simple expectation that air would be cleaner without traffic.

  16. Grouping of body areas affected in traffic accidents. A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alba Luz; Ascuntar-Tello, Johana; Valderrama-Molina, Carlos Oliver; Giraldo, Nelson Darío; Constaín, Alfredo; Puerta, Andrés; Restrepo, Camilo; Jaimes, Fabián

    2018-03-01

    Traffic accidents are considered a public health problem and, according to the World Health Organization, currently is the eighth cause of death in the world. Specifically, pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists contribute half of the fatalities. Adequate clinical management in accordance with aggregation patterns of the body areas involved, as well as the characteristics of the accident, will help to reduce mortality and disability in this population. Secondary data analysis of a cohort of patients involved in traffic accidents and admitted to the emergency room (ER) of a high complexity hospital in Medellín, Colombia. They were over 15 years of age, had two or more injuries in different areas of the body and had a hospital stay of more than 24 h after admission. A cluster analysis was performed, using Ward's method and the linfinity similarity measure, to obtain clusters of body areas most commonly affected depending on the type of vehicle and the type of victim. Among 2445 patients with traffic accidents, 34% (n = 836) were admitted into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the overall hospital mortality rate was 8% (n = 201). More than 50% of the patients were motorcycle riders but mortality was higher in pedestrian-car accidents (16%, n = 34). The clusters show efficient performance to separate the population depending on the severity of their injuries. Pedestrians had the highest mortality after having accidents with cars and they also had the highest number of body parts clustered, mainly on head and abdomen areas. Exploring the cluster patterns of injuries and body areas affected in traffic accidents allow to establish anatomical groups defined by the type of accident and the type of vehicle. This classification system will accelerate and prioritize ER-care for these population groups, helping to provide better health care services and to rationalize available resources.

  17. Prediction, Expectation, and Surprise: Methods, Designs, and Study of a Deployed Traffic Forecasting Service

    OpenAIRE

    Horvitz, Eric J.; Apacible, Johnson; Sarin, Raman; Liao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We present research on developing models that forecast traffic flow and congestion in the Greater Seattle area. The research has led to the deployment of a service named JamBayes, that is being actively used by over 2,500 users via smartphones and desktop versions of the system. We review the modeling effort and describe experiments probing the predictive accuracy of the models. Finally, we present research on building models that can identify current and future surprises, via efforts on mode...

  18. A qualitative study of consumer perceptions and use of traffic light food labelling in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Waters, William F; Rivas-Mariño, Gabriela; Nguyen, Tien; Rivas, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    To analyse patterns of knowledge, comprehension, attitudes and practices regarding the traffic light label placed on processed food packages to inform Ecuadorian consumers about levels of added fat, sugar and salt. Twenty-one focus group discussions organized by age group, sex and place of residence. Interviews with representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods. Analysis of regulations and structured observations of processed food labels. Cities and towns in Ecuador's coastal, highland and eastern lowland regions. One hundred and seventy-eight participants in twenty-one focus group discussions and nine key informants. Focus group participants knew about the traffic light label and understood the information it conveys, but not all changed their attitudes and practices related to the purchase and consumption of processed foods. Children, adolescents and adult males reported using the information infrequently; adolescents interested in health and adult women used the label the most to select products. Representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods generally opposed the policy, stating that the information is misleading. Nevertheless, some companies have reduced levels of added fat, sugar or salt in their products. The traffic light label is an effective tool for conveying complex information. Its potential contribution to reduce consumption of products with high levels of fat, sugar and salt could be enhanced by promoting healthy diets among consumers who have not changed purchasing and consumption behaviour, by placing the label on front panels and by monitoring the production and marketing of processed foods.

  19. A study of pedestrian compliance with traffic signals for exclusive and concurrent phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, John N; McKernan, Kevin; Zhang, Yaohua; Ravishanker, Nalini; Mamun, Sha A

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison of pedestrian compliance at traffic signals with two types of pedestrian phasing: concurrent, where both pedestrians and vehicular traffic are directed to move in the same directions at the same time, and exclusive, where pedestrians are directed to move during their own dedicated phase while all vehicular traffic is stopped. Exclusive phasing is usually perceived to be safer, especially by senior and disabled advocacy groups, although these safety benefits depend upon pedestrians waiting for the walk signal. This paper investigates whether or not there are differences between pedestrian compliance at signals with exclusive pedestrian phasing and those with concurrent phasing and whether these differences continue to exist when compliance at exclusive phasing signals is evaluated as if they had concurrent phasing. Pedestrian behavior was observed at 42 signalized intersections in central Connecticut with both concurrent and exclusive pedestrian phasing. Binary regression models were estimated to predict pedestrian compliance as a function of the pedestrian phasing type and other intersection characteristics, such as vehicular and pedestrian volume, crossing distance and speed limit. We found that pedestrian compliance is significantly higher at intersections with concurrent pedestrian phasing than at those with exclusive pedestrian phasing, but this difference is not significant when compliance at exclusive phase intersections is evaluated as if it had concurrent phasing. This suggests that pedestrians treat exclusive phase intersections as though they have concurrent phasing, rendering the safety benefits of exclusive pedestrian phasing elusive. No differences were observed for senior or non-senior pedestrians. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The big and intricate dreams of little organelles: Embracing complexity in the study of membrane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allen P; Botelho, Roberto J; Antonescu, Costin N

    2017-09-01

    Compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells into dynamic organelles that exchange material through regulated membrane traffic governs virtually every aspect of cellular physiology including signal transduction, metabolism and transcription. Much has been revealed about the molecular mechanisms that control organelle dynamics and membrane traffic and how these processes are regulated by metabolic, physical and chemical cues. From this emerges the understanding of the integration of specific organellar phenomena within complex, multiscale and nonlinear regulatory networks. In this review, we discuss systematic approaches that revealed remarkable insight into the complexity of these phenomena, including the use of proximity-based proteomics, high-throughput imaging, transcriptomics and computational modeling. We discuss how these methods offer insights to further understand molecular versatility and organelle heterogeneity, phenomena that allow a single organelle population to serve a range of physiological functions. We also detail on how transcriptional circuits drive organelle adaptation, such that organelles may shift their function to better serve distinct differentiation and stress conditions. Thus, organelle dynamics and membrane traffic are functionally heterogeneous and adaptable processes that coordinate with higher-order system behavior to optimize cell function under a range of contexts. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of organellar phenomena will increasingly require combined use of reductionist and system-based approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Impacto del tráfico de equipos durante la cosecha de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum Impact of traffic equipment during sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar el impacto del tráfico sobre el suelo, el cultivo y el consumo energético durante la cosecha de caña de azúcar en el valle del río Cauca (Colombia, se establecieron experimentos de cuatro repeticiones con diferentes sistemas de cosecha. En cada sitio se cosecharon mecánicamente parcelas con vagones de auto volteo, HD8000, HD12000 y HD20000, se evaluaron por la intensidad de tráfico (IT, el pisoteo directo sobre la cepa, la resistencia a la penetración y el consumo energético. Vagones grandes y pesados causaron mayor IT y mayor efecto por compactación y pisoteo. La IT varió entre 241 y 317 Mg km ha-1. El pisoteo en la cabecera varió de 8 a 18 m por surco y sobre la cepa los vagones pisaron entre 5 y 24% de su ancho. Hubo diferencias no significativas en productividad hasta de 13,9% favorable a los vagones livianos. En cosecha semimecánica, realizada con trenes de vagones, disminuyó la IT al rango 60-113 Mg km ha-1; pero aumentó el pisoteo en las cabeceras hasta 39 m por surco, hubo diferencias no significativas en productividad hasta del 4% entre sistemas de vagones livianos y pesados. Además, los vagones livianos con manejo adecuado de la cosecha, llegan a ser favorables por menor consumo de combustible y emisiones.This study was carried out to determine the impact of traffic on soil compaction, crop and energy consumption during the sugarcane harvest in the Cauca river valley (Colombia. Four experiments with four replicates were harvested with different systems. Plots were mechanically harvested with self tipping, HD8000, HD12000 and HD20000 trailers and evaluated by traffic intensity (IT, direct stool traffic, penetration resistance and fuel consumption. Heavy trailers caused a greater effect due to a greater IT and direct stool traffic. IT varied between 241 and 317 Mg km ha-1. Stool traffic at the end of field varied from 8 to 18 m per furrow, meanwhile stool traffic along the furrow varied from 5 to 24

  2. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  3. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sunyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development.We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories via computerized tests (n = 10,112. Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm] was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor and inside the classroom (indoor simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability, superior working memory (three-back detectability, and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error. Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024. Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%. Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely

  4. Exposure to long-term air pollution and road traffic noise in relation to cholesterol: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Ketzel, Matthias; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms behind are not yet clear. We aimed to investigate whether the two exposures were associated with levels of cholesterol in a cross-sectional design. In 1993–1997, 39,863 participants aged 50–64 year and living in the Greater Copenhagen area were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. For each participant, non-fasting total cholesterol was determined in whole blood samples on the day of enrolment. Residential addresses 5-years preceding enrolment were identified in a national register and road traffic noise (Lden) were modeled for all addresses. For air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was modeled at all addresses using a dispersion model and PM2.5 was modeled at all enrolment addresses using a land-use regression model. Analyses were done using linear regression with adjustment for potential confounders as well as mutual adjustment for the three exposures. Baseline residential exposure to the interquartile range of road traffic noise,NO2 and PM2.5 was associated with a 0.58 mg/dl (95% confidence interval: −0.09; 1.25), a 0.68 mg/dl (0.22; 1.16) and a 0.78 mg/dl (0.22; 1.34) higher level of total cholesterol in single pollutant models, respectively. In two pollutant models with adjustment for noise in air pollution models and vice versa, the association between air pollution and cholesterol remained for both air pollution variables (NO2: 0.72 (0.11; 1.34); PM2.5: 0.70 (0.12; 1.28) mg/dl), whereas there was no association for noise (−0.08mg/dl). In three-pollutant models (NO2, PM2.5 and road traffic noise), estimates for NO2 and PM2.5 were slightly diminished (NO2: 0.58 (−0.05; 1.22); PM2.5: 0.57 (−0.02; 1.17) mg/dl). Air pollution and possibly also road traffic noise may be associated with slightly higher levels of cholesterol, though associations for the two exposures were difficult to separate.

  5. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely; however

  6. Outer Synchronization between Two Coupled Complex Networks and Its Application in Public Traffic Supernetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the existing bus network modeling method, consisting of the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network. We investigate the synchronization problem of urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the coupled complex network’s outer synchronization theory. Analytical and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the impact of traffic dispatching frequency and traffic lines optimization to the urban public traffic supernetwork balance.

  7. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  8. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  9. The impact of traffic-related pollution and temperature on adverse birth outcomes in Madrid. An analysis of time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (< 37 weeks, low birth weight (< 2500 g and fetal mortality are perinatal morbi-mortality causes impacting public health, society and the economy. Their etiology is multifaceted. There is scientific evidence pointing to environmental variables being risk factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze and quantify the impact on a daily and a weekly basis of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 (μg/m3, noise levels (Leq, and temperature (°C on variables detrimental to health in Madrid from 2001 till 2009. Poisson regression models were prepared from an ecological study of time series, and the results were expressed in terms of the Relative Risk (RR. The environmental variables were included in previously identified explanatory delays. 298,705 births were analyzed: the average weekly prematurity was 7.5, the average low weight 6.9, and the average fetal mortality 3.7. In the case of preterm births, a relation with PM2.5 during the 2nd quarter of pregnancy [RR: 1.026 (1.018-1.034] and with Leq in the week prior to childbirth [RR: 1.020 (1.012-1.028] was detected. This impact was also noticeable in the daily results. In addition, heat waves also affect prematurity. With regard to low birth weight, noise levels had an impact throughout the pregnancy and the effect of NO2 during the 2nd quarter thereof. As for fetal mortality, the most significant effects were those of the three analyzed pollutants during the 2nd and 3rd quarters. The gestating population is a group that is particularly vulnerable to the analyzed environmental factors, so it should be taken into account in the existing prevention plans.

  10. Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Mohammed; Azazh, Aklilu; Enquselassie, Fikre; Yisma, Engida

    2015-05-20

    Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world's roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in Africa. A prospective hospital based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of fatalities among the road traffic crash victims. A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims' ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age of the victims (ß = 0.16, p road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.

  11. Despite some concerns, impact study reveals support for nuke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of 37 Hartsville, Tennessee community leaders indicates the community supports construction of a nuclear generating plant and does not see any major environmental impacts. The leaders do anticipate growth-related disruptions during the construction phase. The ERDA-sponsored social impact study is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to serve as a guide in planning future energy projects and for comparison with a coal-fired project under development in Georgia. Statistics from the survey are summarized. General observations note that the leaders tend to overestimate opposition to the nuclear plant and that local concerns focus on housing and traffic problems. The Tennessee Valley Authority is supplying funds for a mitigation plan, which is generally well received by the community

  12. Night traffic and health: Results of laboratory and field studies; Naechtlicher Verkehrslaerm und Gesundheit: Ergebnisse von Labor- und Feldstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschke, C. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Akustik; Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden-, und Lufthygiene; Arndt, D. [Robert Koch-Institut, Medizinische Diagnostik - Umweltmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    The present article summarizes the results obtained in the Berlin laboratory and field studies on `noise-induced stress reactions`. Unaccustomed air-traffic noise at night leads to elevated epinephrine and cortisol levels. If road traffic noise at night rises above the accustomed level, this leads to enhanced renal cortisol secretion. Noise at night deserves to be termed a stressor because it is able to activate both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and the hypothalamic-adrenomedullar control loop. Elevation of epinephrine secretion was more distinct in the air-traffic field study than it was in the laboratory study. The relative elevation of cortisol secretion in the field study was of the same order as that of epinephrine secretion. Noise-induced noctural elevation of epinephrine secretion seems only to occur in the case of unaccustomed noise levels. If exposure to noise is prolonged, it subsides in an adaptive process and gives way to an elevated cortisol secretion. Elevation of both cortisol and epinephrine secretion is indicative of a stressing traffic noise situation. Air-traffic noise was found to impair subjective sleep quality and lead to a rise in epinephrine secretion both in the laboratory and the field study. No correlation was found between noise emission from low-flying aircraft and epinephrine or cortisol secretion in the field study. Neither the field nor the laboratory study showed a correlation between the number of night flights and catecholamine secretion. Cortisol secretion remained equally unaffected by the number of flights. The present results confirm the hypothesis that air and road traffic noise cause bodily distress. Chronic exposure to noise at night must therfore be regarded as a health hazard. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ungewohnter naechtlicher Fluglaerm fuehrt zu einer erhoehten Adrenalin-und Cortisolausscheidung. Wird die Intensitaet eines gewohnten naechtlichen Strassenverkehrslaerms erhoeht, ist eine vermehrte renale

  13. Assessing the air quality impact of nitrogen oxides and benzene from road traffic and domestic heating and the associated cancer risk in an urban area of Verona (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Redivo, Martina; Antonacci, Gianluca; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Zardi, Dino; Giovannini, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of emission and dispersion of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are performed in an urban area of Verona (Italy), characterized by street canyons and typical sources of urban pollutants. Two dominant source categories are considered: road traffic and, as an element of novelty, domestic heaters. Also, to assess the impact of urban air pollution on human health and, in particular, the cancer risk, simulations of emission and dispersion of benzene are carried out. Emissions from road traffic are estimated by the COPERT 4 algorithm, whilst NOx emission factors from domestic heaters are retrieved by means of criteria provided in the technical literature. Then maps of the annual mean concentrations of NOx and benzene are calculated using the AUSTAL2000 dispersion model, considering both scenarios representing the current situation, and scenarios simulating the introduction of environmental strategies for air pollution mitigation. The simulations highlight potentially critical situations of human exposure that may not be detected by the conventional network of air quality monitoring stations. The proposed methodology provides a support for air quality policies, such as planning targeted measurement campaigns, re-locating monitoring stations and adopting measures in favour of better air quality in urban planning. In particular, the estimation of the induced cancer risk is an important starting point to conduct zoning analyses and to detect the areas where population is more directly exposed to potential risks for health.

  14. The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Hahn, Intaek; Fortune, Christopher R; Rodes, Charles E; Portzer, Jeffrey W; Lee, Sangdon; Wiener, Russell W; Smith, Luther A; Wheeler, Michael; Seagraves, Jeremy; Stein, Mark; Eisner, Alfred D; Brixey, Laurie A; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Brouwer, Lydia H; Ellenson, William D; Baldauf, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study examined indoor and outdoor exposure to traffic-generated air pollution by studying the individual processes of generation of traffic emissions, transport and dispersion of air contaminants along a roadway, and infiltration of the contaminants into a residence. Real-time instrumentation was used to obtain highly resolved time-series concentration profiles for a number of air pollutants. The B-TRAPPED field study was conducted in the residential Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, USA, in May 2005. The neighborhood contained the Gowanus Expressway (Interstate 278), a major arterial road (4(th) Avenue), and residential side streets running perpendicular to the Gowanus Expressway and 4(th) Avenue. Synchronized measurements were obtained inside a test house, just outside the test house façade, and along the urban residential street canyon on which the house was located. A trailer containing Federal Reference Method (FRM) and real-time monitors was located next to the Gowanus Expressway to assess the source. Ultrafine particulate matter (PM), PM(2.5), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction were monitored. Different sampling schemes were devised to focus on dispersion along the street canyon or infiltration into the test house. Results were obtained for ultrafine PM, PM(2.5), criteria gases, and wind conditions from sampling schemes focused on street canyon dispersion and infiltration. For comparison, the ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) results were compared with an existing data set from the Los Angeles area, and the criteria gas data were compared with measurements from a Vancouver epidemiologic study. Measured ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) concentration levels along the residential urban street canyon and at the test house façade in Sunset Park

  15. Multi-country willingness to pay study on road-traffic environmental health effects: are people willing and able to provide a number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-05-09

    The health impacts from traffic-related pollutants bring costs to society, which are often not reflected in market prices for transportation. We set out to simultaneously assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for traffic-related air pollution and noise effect on health, using a single measurement instrument and approach. We investigated the proportion and determinants of "protest vote/PV responses (people who were against valuing their health in terms of money)" and "don't know"/DK answers, and explored the effect of DK on the WTP distributions. Within the framework of the EU-funded project INTARESE, we asked over 5,200 respondents in five European countries to state their WTP to avoid health effects from road traffic-related air pollution and noise in an open-ended web-based questionnaire. Determinants of PV and DK were studied by logistic regression using variables concerning socio-demographics, income, health and environmental concern, and risk perception. About 10% of the respondents indicated a PV response and between 47-56% of respondents gave DK responses. About one-third of PV respondents thought that costs should be included in transportation prices, i.e. the polluter should pay. Logistic regression analyses showed associations of PV and DK with several factors. In addition to social-demographic, economic and health factors known to affect WTP, environmental concern, awareness of health effects, respondent's ability to relax in polluted places, and their view on the government's role to reduce pollution and on policy to improve wellbeing, also affected the PV and DK response. An exploratory weighting and imputation exercise did not show substantial effects of DK on the WTP distribution. With a proportion of about 50%, DK answers may be a more relevant issue affecting WTP than PV's. The likelihood to give PV and DK response were influenced by socio-demographic, economic and health factors, as well as environmental concerns and appreciation of environmental

  16. Evaluation of daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Egyed, Marika; Brion, Orly; Johnson, Markey

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to traffic and traffic-related air pollution is associated with a wide array of health effects. Time spent in a vehicle, in active transportation, along roadsides, and in close proximity to traffic can substantially contribute to daily exposure to air pollutants. For this study, we evaluated daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians using the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2 results. Approximately 4-7% of daily time was spent in on- or near-road locations, mainly associated with being in a vehicle and smaller contributions from active transportation. Indoor microenvironments can be impacted by traffic emissions, especially when located near major roadways. Over 60% of the target population reported living within one block of a roadway with moderate to heavy traffic, which was variable with income level and city, and confirmed based on elevated NO 2 exposure estimated using land use regression. Furthermore, over 55% of the target population ≤ 18 years reported attending a school or daycare in close proximity to moderate to heavy traffic, and little variation was observed based on income or city. The results underline the importance of traffic emissions as a major source of exposure in Canadian urban centers, given the time spent in traffic-influenced microenvironments.

  17. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  18. Grid Mapping for Spatial Pattern Analyses of Recurrent Urban Traffic Congestion Based on Taxi GPS Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most serious problems that impact urban transportation efficiency, especially in big cities. Identifying traffic congestion locations and occurring patterns is a prerequisite for urban transportation managers in order to take proper countermeasures for mitigating traffic congestion. In this study, the historical GPS sensing data of about 12,000 taxi floating cars in Beijing were used for pattern analyses of recurrent traffic congestion based on the grid mapping method. Through the use of ArcGIS software, 2D and 3D maps of the road network congestion were generated for traffic congestion pattern visualization. The study results showed that three types of traffic congestion patterns were identified, namely: point type, stemming from insufficient capacities at the nodes of the road network; line type, caused by high traffic demand or bottleneck issues in the road segments; and region type, resulting from multiple high-demand expressways merging and connecting to each other. The study illustrated that the proposed method would be effective for discovering traffic congestion locations and patterns and helpful for decision makers to take corresponding traffic engineering countermeasures in order to relieve the urban traffic congestion issues.

  19. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  20. STUDY OF ASPHALT BINDER OIL RESIDUE AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ASH TO BE USED IN LOW TRAFFIC PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michéle Dal Toé Casagrande

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The great generation of urban solid has been a concern in several countries. This work presents a study with two materials: the asphalt binder oil residue accumulated in the bottom of asphalt tanks and the municipal solid waste ash, to be used, respectively, as a substitute of conventional binder in asphalt mixtures and for soil stabilization in pavements base layers. Were evaluated properties as the mechanical behavior of the mixtures through experimental tests. The results show the potential of incorporating these residues for low traffic roads, allowing the construction of low cost roads and an environmental use of the residue.

  1. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  2. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  3. Millifluidics as a simple tool to optimize droplet networks: Case study on drop traffic in a bifurcated loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that modular millifluidic networks are simpler, more cost-effective alternatives to traditional microfluidic networks, and they can be rapidly generated and altered to optimize designs. Droplet traffic can also be studied more conveniently and inexpensively at the millimeter scale, as droplets are readily visible to the naked eye. Bifurcated loops, ladder networks, and parking networks were made using only Tygon® tubing and plastic T-junction fittings and visualized using an iPod® camera. As a case study, droplet traffic experiments through a millifluidic bifurcated loop were conducted, and the periodicity of drop spacing at the outlet was mapped over a wide range of inlet drop spacing. We observed periodic, intermittent, and aperiodic behaviors depending on the inlet drop spacing. The experimentally observed periodic behaviors were in good agreement with numerical simulations based on the simple network model. Our experiments further identified three main sources of intermittency between different periodic and/or aperiodic behaviors: (1) simultaneous entering and exiting events, (2) channel defects, and (3) equal or nearly equal hydrodynamic resistances in both sides of the bifurcated loop. In cases of simultaneous events and/or channel defects, the range of input spacings where intermittent behaviors are observed depends on the degree of inherent variation in input spacing. Finally, using a time scale analysis of syringe pump fluctuations and experiment observation times, we find that in most cases, more consistent results can be generated in experiments conducted at the millimeter scale than those conducted at the micrometer scale. Thus, millifluidic networks offer a simple means to probe collective interactions due to drop traffic and optimize network geometry to engineer passive devices for biological and material analysis. PMID:25553188

  4. The Impact of Selected Individual and External Factors on the Occurrence of Severe Injuries: Case Study of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Tominc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the importance of different determinants and their impact on the severity of injuries of individuals in road traffic accidents, so that measures that are supposed to prevent or reduce severe injury consequences can be developed. In this paper three research models have been built. Model I was built to study the impact of demographic factors (gender and age on the individual’s likelihood to wear a seat-belt while Model II to study the impact of demographic factors (gender and age and the impact of wearing a seat belt on the likelihood that fatal injuries of individuals in road traffic accidents occur. Model III was formed to study the impact of several environmental factors on the likelihood that the accident involves severe or fatal injuries of road traffic accident participants. Altogether our study revealed that middle-aged individuals (over 25 years and up to 65 years old are less likely to wear a seat belt and at the same time more likely to suffer fatal injuries in road traffic accidents. This is the result that implies that the targeted policy measures to the population between 25 and 65 years of age are needed to reduce the fatal injuries occurrence in Slovenia.

  5. Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsham Mazaheri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

  6. Traffic-related air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihlén Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that air pollution from traffic has adverse long-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in children, but there are few studies and more inconclusive results in adults. We examined associations between residential traffic and asthma and COPD in adults in southern Sweden. A postal questionnaire in 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years provided disease status, and self-reported exposure to traffic. A Geographical Information System (GIS was used to link geocoded residential addresses to a Swedish road database and an emission database for NOx. Results Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/minute (compared with having no heavy road within this distance was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04–1.89, and COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.11–2.4, as well as asthma and chronic bronchitis symptoms. Self-reported traffic exposure was associated with asthma diagnosis and COPD diagnosis, and with asthma symptoms. Annual average NOx was associated with COPD diagnosis and symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. Conclusion Living close to traffic was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis, COPD diagnosis, and symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. This indicates that traffic-related air pollution has both long-term and short-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in adults, even in a region with overall low levels of air pollution.

  7. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  8. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  9. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  10. A Study on Assessment Method of Traffic Load Effect of Bridge in Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pan; Dajian, Han

    2010-05-01

    Because of overloading usually occur in highway in China today, it is found that the traffic load and the load effects given by Specification for Inspection and Evaluation of Load-bearing Capacity of Highway Bridge[1] cannot be adequately estimated. Especially, the extreme values in a service period can not be predicted. In this paper, a model is first developed for a better estimation of the actual traffic flow, as well as the service load effect level of a bridge. Based on a five-day collection data of the vehicle samples passing through the exit of Guangyuan to Shahe of the North-Ring Highway in Guangzhou, The Qiaole Bridge of the highway is taken as an example to illustrate the assessment model. Then, a threshold model is applied to estimate the tail distribution of the maximum load effect of a fleet. And threshold point process is used to infer the maximum value distribution for prediction of the load effect level of the bridge in a future time period. Finally, a 0.95 quantile is obtained to compare with the result given by specification[1]. The results show that the assessment method proposed in this paper is valid and feasible.

  11. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety.

  12. Finite Element Method Study on Stress State in Soil Induced by Agricultural Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Molnar-Irimie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, when a tyre is running on a deformable soil, the soil compaction will occur not only on surface layers, but also on soil profile, in deeper layers. This leads to a series of negative effects not only on physical and mechanical properties of soil, but also influences the crops growth and the crop yield. For these reasons, currently are needed solutions to reduce soil compaction, caused mainly by agricultural implements passing on the soil surface in order to aply the specific crop production technologies. From our simulation we can draw the following conclusions: the soil stresses decreased with depth; the soil displacements magnitude increased with soil water content due to lower friction forces between soil particles (water acts like a lubricant between soil particles; decreasing rate for soil displacement is influenced by load magnitude and tyre inflation pressure; the soil particles moved in vertical plain from the top to the bottom, but also in horizontal direction, from the center to the edge in cross section and in longitudinal direction; the dimensions of the geometric shape of the mentioned soil volume is influenced by load and tyre inflation pressure. In this paper the agricultural traffic and its influence on stress state in soil, it was used a software application based on Finite Element Method, that has been proved to be a useful tool for soil compaction assessment in order to find the right decisions for a proper field traffic management.

  13. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool (ACAT) provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA air traffic management...

  14. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  15. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Zhu Chengjuan; Jia Bin; Wu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion. (general)

  16. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  17. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution and noise exposure with blood pressure in 12-year-olds. Blood pressure was measured at age 12 years in 1432 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study. Annual average exposure to traffic-related air pollution [NO2, mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the participants' home and school addresses at the time of blood pressure measurements was estimated by land-use regression models. Air pollution exposure on the days preceding blood pressure measurements was estimated from routine air monitoring data. Long-term noise exposure was assessed by linking addresses to modelled equivalent road traffic noise levels. Associations of exposures with blood pressure were analysed by linear regression. Effects are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) [mmHg] 0.83 (0.06 to 1.61) and 0.75 (-0.08 to 1.58), respectively], but not with systolic blood pressure. We found no association of blood pressure with short-term air pollution or noise exposure. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase diastolic blood pressure in children. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Hierarchical and coupling model of factors influencing vessel traffic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available Understanding the characteristics of vessel traffic flow is crucial in maintaining navigation safety, efficiency, and overall waterway transportation management. Factors influencing vessel traffic flow possess diverse features such as hierarchy, uncertainty, nonlinearity, complexity, and interdependency. To reveal the impact mechanism of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow, a hierarchical model and a coupling model are proposed in this study based on the interpretative structural modeling method. The hierarchical model explains the hierarchies and relationships of the factors using a graph. The coupling model provides a quantitative method that explores interaction effects of factors using a coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is obtained by determining the quantitative indicators of the factors and their weights. Thereafter, the data obtained from Port of Tianjin is used to verify the proposed coupling model. The results show that the hierarchical model of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow can explain the level, structure, and interaction effect of the factors; the coupling model is efficient in analyzing factors influencing traffic volumes. The proposed method can be used for analyzing increases in vessel traffic flow in waterway transportation system.

  19. Hierarchical and coupling model of factors influencing vessel traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Liu, Jingxian; Li, Huanhuan; Li, Zongzhi; Tan, Zhirong; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of vessel traffic flow is crucial in maintaining navigation safety, efficiency, and overall waterway transportation management. Factors influencing vessel traffic flow possess diverse features such as hierarchy, uncertainty, nonlinearity, complexity, and interdependency. To reveal the impact mechanism of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow, a hierarchical model and a coupling model are proposed in this study based on the interpretative structural modeling method. The hierarchical model explains the hierarchies and relationships of the factors using a graph. The coupling model provides a quantitative method that explores interaction effects of factors using a coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is obtained by determining the quantitative indicators of the factors and their weights. Thereafter, the data obtained from Port of Tianjin is used to verify the proposed coupling model. The results show that the hierarchical model of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow can explain the level, structure, and interaction effect of the factors; the coupling model is efficient in analyzing factors influencing traffic volumes. The proposed method can be used for analyzing increases in vessel traffic flow in waterway transportation system.

  20. Estimating traffic volume on Wyoming low volume roads using linear and logistic regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Apronti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic volume is an important parameter in most transportation planning applications. Low volume roads make up about 69% of road miles in the United States. Estimating traffic on the low volume roads is a cost-effective alternative to taking traffic counts. This is because traditional traffic counts are expensive and impractical for low priority roads. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of two alternative means of cost-effectively estimating traffic volumes for low volume roads in Wyoming and to make recommendations for their implementation. The study methodology involves reviewing existing studies, identifying data sources, and carrying out the model development. The utility of the models developed were then verified by comparing actual traffic volumes to those predicted by the model. The study resulted in two regression models that are inexpensive and easy to implement. The first regression model was a linear regression model that utilized pavement type, access to highways, predominant land use types, and population to estimate traffic volume. In verifying the model, an R2 value of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 73.4% were obtained. The second model was a logistic regression model that identified the level of traffic on roads using five thresholds or levels. The logistic regression model was verified by estimating traffic volume thresholds and determining the percentage of roads that were accurately classified as belonging to the given thresholds. For the five thresholds, the percentage of roads classified correctly ranged from 79% to 88%. In conclusion, the verification of the models indicated both model types to be useful for accurate and cost-effective estimation of traffic volumes for low volume Wyoming roads. The models developed were recommended for use in traffic volume estimations for low volume roads in pavement management and environmental impact assessment studies.

  1. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  2. [Neuro-otological Studies of Patients Suffering from Dizziness with Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypovolemia after Traffic Accident-associated Whiplash Injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shimoda, Satoe

    2015-05-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common clinical manifestations after traffic accident-associated whiplash injury. Recently, Shinonaga et al. (2001) suggested that more than 80% of patients with whiplash injury complaining of these symptoms showed cerebrospinal (CSF) hypovolemia on radioisotope (RI) cisternography (111In-DTPA). However, neuro-otological studies to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these symptoms have been insufficient. In the present study, patients complaining of these symptoms with CSF hypovolemia after traffic accidents were investigated with posturography and electronystagmography (ENG). Fourteen patients (4 men, 10 women; 24-52 yr) were examined with posturography and showed parameters (tracking distance & area) significantly (p<0.01) larger than those of healthy subjects. Among them, five cases (1 man, 4 women; 31-52 yr) were further investigated with ENG. The slow phase peak velocities of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic-after nystagmus (OKAN) were significantly (p<0.01) reduced (62.64±6.9 SD deg/sec, 60.76±10.74 SD deg/sec, respectively) and frequencies of OKN were reduced (139.7±10.75 SD), while the ocular smooth pursuit was relatively preserved. Magnetic resonance images (sagittal view) of these five patients demonstrated the downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and flattening of the pons, which are characteristic features of CSF hypovolemia, called "brain sagging." Our results suggest that brain sagging due to CSF hypovolemia impairs vestibular and vestibulocerebellar functions, which may cause dizziness and vertigo.

  3. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  4. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis audit and questionnaire study: Traffic Light Poster improves adherence to protocol in gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michaella; Jones, Stacey; Adedeji, Olufunso

    2015-07-01

    To measure adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) protocol amongst surgeons and anesthetists and explore their understanding of AP prescribing in practice. A prospective audit of AP in gastrointestinal surgery and re-audit after intervention. A questionnaire survey of practice. 58 (38%- clean; 62%- clean contaminated) operations were audited and 73 (48%-clean; 51%-clean contaminated) operations were re-audited after intervention with "Traffic Light Poster" (TFP) .55 colleagues (32 consultants and 23 trainees) were recruited for questionnaire survey in three West Midlands hospitals. Audit and Re-Audits. Only 31% of procedures followed the protocol correctly in the initial audit and this increased to 73% in the re-audit. 73% of patients undergoing clean procedures received AP inappropriately in the initial audit but reduced significantly to 20% (p audit. In the initial audit, 62% of clean contaminated procedures did not receive the appropriate first line AP but this fell to 35% (p audit. Questionnaire Survey- Only 30% of respondents would not give AP in clean surgery as recommended. 45% would use appropriate AP for clean-contaminated wounds. 73% of respondents will give AP at induction, 20% 1 h pre op and 7% just before incision. There is poor compliance with AP protocols in gastrointestinal surgery in part due to general lack of awareness. An educational intervention in the form of a 'Traffic Light Poster' improved adherence to AP protocol two fold. There was improved rationalizing of AP. Clean procedures, in particular, had less inappropriate prescribing. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with mortality? A small-area study in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Ghosh, Rebecca; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Wilkinson, Paul; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants may be harmful for health but few studies have investigated effects on mortality. We examined associations for six primary traffic pollutants with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 2003-2010 at small-area level using linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models. In linear models most pollutants showed negative or null association with all-cause, cardiovascular or respiratory mortality. In the piecewise models we observed positive associations in the lowest exposure range (e.g. relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality 1.07 (95% credible interval (CI) = 1.00-1.15) per 0.15 μg/m(3) increase in exhaust related primary particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5)) whereas associations in the highest exposure range were negative (corresponding RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91-0.96). Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. That we found the strongest positive associations in the lowest exposure group may reflect residual confounding by unmeasured confounders that varies by exposure group. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of outlier detection for large-scale traffic data by one-class SVM and kernel density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Henry Y. T.; Yung, Nelson H. C.; Yeh, Anthony G. O.

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims at presenting a comparative study of outlier detection (OD) for large-scale traffic data. The traffic data nowadays are massive in scale and collected in every second throughout any modern city. In this research, the traffic flow dynamic is collected from one of the busiest 4-armed junction in Hong Kong in a 31-day sampling period (with 764,027 vehicles in total). The traffic flow dynamic is expressed in a high dimension spatial-temporal (ST) signal format (i.e. 80 cycles) which has a high degree of similarities among the same signal and across different signals in one direction. A total of 19 traffic directions are identified in this junction and lots of ST signals are collected in the 31-day period (i.e. 874 signals). In order to reduce its dimension, the ST signals are firstly undergone a principal component analysis (PCA) to represent as (x,y)-coordinates. Then, these PCA (x,y)-coordinates are assumed to be conformed as Gaussian distributed. With this assumption, the data points are further to be evaluated by (a) a correlation study with three variant coefficients, (b) one-class support vector machine (SVM) and (c) kernel density estimation (KDE). The correlation study could not give any explicit OD result while the one-class SVM and KDE provide average 59.61% and 95.20% DSRs, respectively.

  8. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  9. The Effect of Alcohol and Road Traffic Policies on Crash Rates in Botswana, 2004–2011: A Time-Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sebego, Miriam; Naumann, Rebecca B.; Rudd, Rose A.; Voetsch, Karen; Dellinger, Ann M.; Ndlovu, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In Botswana, increased development and motorization have brought increased road traffic-related death rates. Between 1981 and 2001, the road traffic-related death rate in Botswana more than tripled. The country has taken several steps over the last several years to address the growing burden of road traffic crashes and particularly to address the burden of alcohol-related crashes. This study examines the impact of the implementation of alcohol and road safety-related policies on crash rates, ...

  10. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  12. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shao, Li-guo; Xu, Ling; Shang, Jin-cheng

    2009-10-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy, society, transport, the environment and resources. To accomplish this, we generated simulation models comprising interrelated subsystems designed to utilize changes in the economy, society, road construction, changes in the number of vehicles, the capacity of the road network capacity, nitrogen oxides emission, traffic noise, land used for road construction and fuel consumption associated with traffic to estimate dynamic trends in the environmental impacts associated with Jilin's transport planning. Two simulation scenarios were then analyzed comparatively. The results of this study indicated that implementation of Jilin transport planning would improve the current urban traffic conditions and boost the local economy and development while benefiting the environment in Jilin City. In addition, comparative analysis of the two scenarios provided additional information that can be used to aid in scientific decision-making regarding which aspects of the transport planning to implement in Jilin City. This study demonstrates that our application of the SD method, which is referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is feasible for use in urban transport planning.

  13. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  14. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under Heavy Traffic (HT) conditions,

  15. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was about the design and development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS) that would ease storage and retrieval of traffic offence cases in the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and the Traffic department of Nigeria Police force. The method used to manage traffic cases is manual; information ...

  16. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  17. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  18. The Impact of Traffic-Induced Bridge Vibration on Rapid Repairing High-Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Pavement Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on forced vibration tests for high-performance concrete (HPC, the influence of bridge vibration induced by traveling vehicle on compressive strength and durability of HPC has been studied. It is concluded that 1 d and 2 d compressive strength of HPC decreased significantly, and the maximum reduction rate is 9.1%, while 28 d compressive strength of HPC had a slight lower with a 3% maximal drop under the action of two simple harmonic vibrations with 2 Hz, 3 mm amplitude, and 4 Hz, 3 mm amplitude. Moreover, the vibration had a slight effect on the compressive strength of HPC when the simple harmonic vibration had 4 Hz and 1 mm amplitude; it is indicated that the amplitude exerts a more prominent influence on the earlier compressive strength with the comparison of the frequency. In addition, the impact of simple harmonic vibration on durability of HPC can be ignored; this shows the self-healing function of concrete resulting from later hydration reaction. Thus, the research achievements mentioned above can contribute to learning the laws by which bridge vibration affects the properties of concrete and provide technical support for the design and construction of the bridge deck pavement maintenance.

  19. Cellular Automata Models of Traffic Behavior in Presence of Speed Breaking Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Parthasarathy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we study traffic flow in the presence of speed breaking structures. The speed breakers are typically used to reduce the local speed of vehicles near certain institutions such as schools and hospitals. Through a cellular automata model we study the impact of such structures on global traffic characteristics. The simulation results indicate that the presence of speed breakers could reduce the global flow under moderate global densities. However, under low and high global density traffic regime the presence of speed breakers does not have an impact on the global flow. Further the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker creates a phase distinction. For a given global density and slowdown probability, as the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker increases, the traffic moves from the reduced flow phase to maximum flow phase. This underlines the importance of proper design of these structures to avoid undesired flow restrictions. (general)

  20. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  1. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  2. Early stages of Alzheimer's disease are alarming signs in injury deaths caused by traffic accidents in elderly people (≥60 years of age): A neuropathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Printha; Gorrie, Catherine; Shankar, S K; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Hulathduwa, Sanjayah; Kumara, K Sunil; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Steinbusch, H W M; De Silva, K Ranil D

    2017-01-01

    There is little information available in the literature concerning the contribution of dementia in injury deaths in elderly people (≥60 years). This study was intended to investigate the extent of dementia-related pathologies in the brains of elderly people who died in traffic accidents or by suicide and to compare our findings with age- and sex-matched natural deaths in an elderly population. Autopsy-derived human brain samples from nine injury death victims (5 suicide and 4 traffic accidents) and nine age- and sex-matched natural death victims were screened for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathologies using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. For the analysis, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was used. There was a greater likelihood for Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related changes in the elders who succumbed to traffic accidents (1 out of 4) comp