WorldWideScience

Sample records for traffic condition information

  1. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  2. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  3. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  4. Traveller Information System for Heterogeneous Traffic Condition: A Case Study in Thiruvananthapuram City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyakumar, M.; Anil, R.; Sreeja, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10-11% every year, resulting severe congestion especially in urban areas. Because of the limitation of spaces it is not always possible to construct new roads. Road users rely on travel time information for journey planning and route choice decisions, while road system managers are increasingly viewing travel time as an important network performance indicator. More recently Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) are being developed to provide real-time information to roadway users. For ATIS various methodologies have been developed for dynamic travel time prediction. For this work the Kalman Filter Algorithm was selected for dynamic travel time prediction of different modes. The travel time data collected using handheld GPS device were used for prediction. Congestion Index were calculated and Range of CI values were determined according to the percentage speed drop. After prediction using Kalman Filter, the predicted values along with the GPS data was integrated to GIS and using Network Analysis of ArcGIS the offline route navigation guide was prepared. Using this database a program for route navigation based on travel time was developed. This system will help the travelers with pre-trip information.

  5. Decline traffic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  6. Traffic Flow Prediction Using MI Algorithm and Considering Noisy and Data Loss Conditions: An Application to Minnesota Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow forecasting is useful for controlling traffic flow, traffic lights, and travel times. This study uses a multi-layer perceptron neural network and the mutual information (MI technique to forecast traffic flow and compares the prediction results with conventional traffic flow forecasting methods. The MI method is used to calculate the interdependency of historical traffic data and future traffic flow. In numerical case studies, the proposed traffic flow forecasting method was tested against data loss, changes in weather conditions, traffic congestion, and accidents. The outcomes were highly acceptable for all cases and showed the robustness of the proposed flow forecasting method.

  7. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  8. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  9. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  10. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  11. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  12. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  13. The relation between the perception of safe traffic and the comprehension of road signs in conditions of ambiguous and redundant information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bortei-Doku, Shaun; Prato, Carlo G.

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes the investigation of the relations between the perception of safety improvement, the provision of information with road signs, the amount of provided information, and observable and unobservable traits of road users. A web-based survey collected information about the estimation...... of conflicts and the perception of safety improvement in 12 traffic locations grouped according to (i) low amount of information that generated ambiguity and (ii) high amount of information that generated redundancy. Moreover, the web-based survey gathered information about socioeconomic characteristics......) and experience with redundant information (for the purpose of having a sample familiar with one of the issues). A Structural Equation Modelling approach allowed estimating a system of relations that suggested the following: (i) the perception of safety improvement is not related only to road sign comprehension...

  14. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  15. Problem of Information Security Traffic on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet information traffic becomes greater and moreimportant. With increasing growth of information importancerequirement for its security becomes indispensable. Theinformation security problem especially affect large and smallcompanies whose prosperity is depending on Internet presence.This affecting the three areas of Internet commerce: credit cardtransactions, virtual private networks and digital certification.To ensure information traffic it is necessary to find a solution,in a proper way, for three major problems: frontier problem,market problem and government problem. While the eventualemergence of security standards for Internet transactions isexpected, it will not automatically result in secure Internettransactions. In future, there is a wealth of security issues thatwill continue to require attention: internal security, continuedhacking, social engineering, malicious code, reliability andperformance, skills shortages and denial of se1vice attacks.

  16. Intelligent Traffic Information System a Real-Time Traffic Information System on the Shiraz Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodagaran Amir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic information system is an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS that allows commuters to make their traveling plan better. In this regard, an intelligent and real-time traffic information system was developed based on the video detection and an image processing algorithm was applied to measure traffic-flow according to the average speed of vehicles. Then, traffic status of each pass way is broadcasted to the electronic boards installed on all decision making entrance / exit. Different levels of congestion related to the routes ahead are shown on the boards with different colors in order to assist commuters. This system was implemented on the Shiraz Dry River’s bypasses which account as vital routes to moderate traffic of city center. Experimental results are promising due to the proximity of determined traffic status by the system compared to the detection done by traffic experts. Average speed improvement is another result of using this system. This intelligent system developed and implemented in Shiraz city for the first time in Iran.s.

  17. Trajectories for Novel and Detailed Traffic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    the central metric free-flow speed from trajectories, instead of using point-based measurements such as induction-loops. This free-flow speed is widely used to compute and monitor the congestion level. The paper argues that the actual travel-time is a more accurate metric. The paper suggests a novel approach...... are correctly coordinated, and navigational device manufacturers to advice drivers in real-time on expected behavior of signalized intersections. The main conclusion is that trajectories can provide novel insight into the actual traffic situation that is not possible using existing approaches. Further...... to analyzing individual intersections that enables traffic analysts to compute queue lengths and estimated time to pass an intersection. Finally, the paper uses associative rule mining for evaluating green waves on road stretches. Such information can be used to verify that signalized intersections...

  18. Overtaking as Indicator of Road Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking is presemed as one of the indicators of roadtraffic flow. The possibility of overtaking depends on the existenceof an intetval in the opposing traffic flow sufficient to performovertaking. It also analyses the probability of overtakingby applying adequate equations and graphical presentations

  19. Impacts of Snowy Weather Conditions on Expressway Traffic Flow Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowy weather will significantly degrade expressway operations, reduce service levels, and increase driving difficulty. Furthermore, the impact of snow varies in different types of roads, diverse cities, and snow densities due to different driving behavior. Traffic flow parameters are essential to decide what should be appropriate for weather-related traffic management and control strategies. This paper takes Beijing as a case study and analyzes traffic flow data collected by detectors in expressways. By comparing the performance of traffic flow under normal and snowy weather conditions, this paper quantitatively describes the impact of adverse weather on expressway volume and average speeds. Results indicate that average speeds on the Beijing expressway under heavy snow conditions decrease by 10–20 km/h when compared to those under normal weather conditions, the vehicle headway generally increases by 2–4 seconds, and the road capacity drops by about 33%. This paper also develops a specific expressway traffic parameter reduction model which proposes reduction coefficients of expressway volumes and speeds under various snow density conditions in Beijing. The conclusions paper provide effective foundational parameters for urban expressway controls and traffic management under snow conditions.

  20. Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S.; Stock, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow and occupancy using long and short term information. Mechanistic interpolation using macroscopic traffic models and based on the traffic flow and occupancy forecasted (item-1), and the empirical relationships (item-2) for the specific highway configuration at the time of simulation (construction, lane closure, etc.). Statistical routine for detection and classification of anomalies and their impact on the highway capacity which are fed back to previous items.

  1. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  2. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  3. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  4. Online Traffic Condition Evaluation Method for Connected Vehicles Based on Multisource Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-wei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of connected vehicle (CV and Vehicle to X (V2X communication, more traffic data is being collected from the road network. In order to predict future traffic condition from connected vehicles’ data in real-time, we present an online traffic condition evaluation model utilizing V2X communication. This model employs the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the multilevel fuzzy set theory to fuse multiple sources of information for prediction. First, the contemporary vehicle data from the On Board Diagnostic (OBD is fused with the static road data in the Road Side Unit (RSU. Then, the real-time traffic evaluation scores are calculated using the variable membership model. The real data collected by OBU in field test demonstrates the feasibility of the evaluation model. Compared with traditional evaluation systems, the proposed model can handle more types of data but demands less data transfer.

  5. Implementation of Traffic Information Zone in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of airspace, defined as traffic information zone for small aerodromes in the Czech Republic. This airspace should be around uncontrolled aerodromes introducing IFR operation to replace aerodrome traffic zone and to ensure the safe operation of aircraft flying by instruments.

  6. Traffic Information Zone and its implementation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Volena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility of introduction of a new type of airspace in the Czech Republic – Traffic Information Zone. It states status quo of uncontrolled aerodromes in the Czech Republic, defines Traffic Information Zone and subsequently copes with the implementation suitability of this airspace in the Czech Republic from the point of view of suitable aerodromes, necessary legislative changes and also appropriate approaches.

  7. Use of a Phase Transition Concept for Traffic Flow Condition Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin Oleg N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the main models of traffic flow conditions, analyzes the condition estimation criteria, and provides the classification of models. The article provides the grounds for the use of the phase transition concept for traffic flow condition estimation. The models of the aggregate condition of free and congested traffic have been developed, the phase boundaries between free and congested traffic have been defined. Applicability conditions for the models of the aggregate condition of have been analyzed.

  8. Cellular automata model for traffic flow with safe driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lárraga María Elena; Alvarez-Icaza Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a recently introduced cellular automata (CA) model is used for a statistical analysis of the inner microscopic structure of synchronized traffic flow. The analysis focuses on the formation and dissolution of clusters or platoons of vehicles, as the mechanism that causes the presence of this synchronized traffic state with a high flow. This platoon formation is one of the most interesting phenomena observed in traffic flows and plays an important role both in manual and automated highway systems (AHS). Simulation results, obtained from a single-lane system under periodic boundary conditions indicate that in the density region where the synchronized state is observed, most vehicles travel together in platoons with approximately the same speed and small spatial distances. The examination of velocity variations and individual vehicle gaps shows that the flow corresponding to the synchronized state is stable, safe and highly correlated. Moreover, results indicate that the observed platoon formation in real traffic is reproduced in simulations by the relation between vehicle headway and velocity that is embedded in the dynamics definition of the CA model. (general)

  9. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  10. Value of Information for Optimal Adaptive Routing in Stochastic Time-Dependent Traffic Networks: Algorithms and Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Real-time information is important for travelers' routing decisions in uncertain networks by enabling online adaptation to revealed traffic conditions. Usually there are spatial and/or temporal limitations in traveler information. In this research, a...

  11. Valuing attributes of enhanced traffic information: an experience in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Basu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traffic information considers a single item like travel time or delay. In the present work, enhanced traffic information displaying instantaneous travel time and its variation from the previous interval to the present, is considered. An initial investigation is made on the effectiveness of such traffic information on route choice behavior of trip makers by valuation of attributes of the traffic information. Taking a case study of two urban corridors in the Kolkata metro city, India, the valuation is done separately for private car and taxi trip makers. The stated preference (choice based data collected from trip makers are analyzed using both multinomial logit (MNL and mixed logit (ML modeling techniques. Assuming sparsely used constrained triangular distribution of random parameters, two different types of ML model are developed: one with independent choice sets and the other one by accounting heterogeneity around the mean of random parameter(s. Both family income and trip purpose are found to decompose heterogeneity around the mean estimate(s. The values of travel time and their variation presented in the paper encourage further investigation on such type of traffic information for management of congestion on alternative urban corridors both spatially and temporally.

  12. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  13. Effects of the amount of feedback information on urban traffic with advanced traveler information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2017-09-01

    In a real traffic system, information feedback has already been proven to be a good way to alleviate traffic jams. However, due to the massive traffic information of real system, the procedure is often difficult in practice. In this paper, we study the effects of the amount of feedback information based on a cellular automaton model of urban traffic. What we found most interesting is that when providing the traffic information of a part of a road to travelers, the performance of the system will be better than that providing the road's full traffic information. From this basis, we can provide more effective routing strategy with less information. We demonstrate that only providing the traffic information of about first half road from upstream to downstream can maximize the traffic capacity of the system. We also give an explanation for these phenomena by studying the distribution pattern of vehicles and the detailed turning environment at the intersections. The effects of the traffic light period are also provided.

  14. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  15. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  16. Explaining regional disparities in traffic mortality by decomposing conditional probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gregory P; Clark, David E; Travis, Lori L; Haskins, Amy E

    2011-04-01

    In the USA, the mortality rate from traffic injury is higher in rural and in southern regions, for reasons that are not well understood. For 1754 (56%) of the 3142 US counties, we obtained data allowing for separation of the deaths/population rate into deaths/injury, injuries/crash, crashes/exposure and exposure/population, with exposure measured as vehicle miles travelled. A 'decomposition method' proposed by Li and Baker was extended to study how the contributions of these components were affected by three measures of rural location, as well as southern location. The method of Li and Baker extended without difficulty to include non-binary effects and multiple exposures. Deaths/injury was by far the most important determinant in the county-to-county variation in deaths/population, and accounted for the greatest portion of the rural/urban disparity. After controlling for the rural effect, injuries/crash accounted for most of the southern/northern disparity. The increased mortality rate from traffic injury in rural areas can be attributed to the increased probability of death given that a person has been injured, possibly due to challenges faced by emergency medical response systems. In southern areas, there is an increased probability of injury given that a person has crashed, possibly due to differences in vehicle, road, or driving conditions.

  17. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Zhang, Li [Mississippi State University (MSU); Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Wen, Yi [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  18. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujing Ye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line. Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  19. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhoujing; Wang, Linbing; Xu, Wen; Gao, Zhifei; Yan, Guannan

    2017-12-05

    In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line). Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  20. The impact of real-time and predictive traffic information on travelers' behavior on the I-4 corridor. Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Real time and predicted traffic information plays a key role in the successful implementation of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advance traffic management systems (ATMS). Traffic information is essentially valuable to both transport...

  1. Klinefelter Syndrome (KS): Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condition Information Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Klinefelter Syndrome (KS): Condition Information What is KS? The term " ... such as XXYY. This is called poly-X Klinefelter syndrome, and it causes more severe symptoms. 1 Klinefelter, ...

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REAL TIME INTEGRATED TRAFFIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (RITIS FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofyar Z. TAMIN

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important information is the best routes from each origin zone to each destination zone which have already considered the effect of congestion. This information will be the main data for the development of the Route Guidance System (RGS so that each driver can choose his best route through the road network. The best route information will be changed in a short-time-interval basis depending on the traffic condition. Moreover, this approach can also be extended to provide the short-time-interval environmental information. The system has been tested and validated in Bandung and it showed remarkably good results for Bandung condition.

  3. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). NINDS pituitary tumors information page . ...

  4. Analysis Of Traffic Conditions Based On The Percentage Of Drivers Using The Instructions Displayed On VMS Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Smolarek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to show the influence of human factor on traffic conditions during the traffic incident. The publication also depicts the functionality of the model at which the simulation was performed. The model was constructed in the VISSIM and VISUM software also using Visual Basic for Applications – Excel, [8,9]. By coordinating programs VBA and VISSIM was automated turned on or off the incident as well as turned on or off the VMS with information about the proposed of the alternative route. The additional differentiation of the percentage of drivers using the information displayed enabled to compare the data with identical external conditions influencing at traffic. For statistical analysis of data was used statistical program Statgraphics Centurion which made possible to build a model describing the impact of the behavior of drivers on traffic conditions. It is an innovative approach to modeling the impact on traffic conditions accepted by drivers information transmitted on the boards.

  5. Robust Vehicle and Traffic Information Extraction for Highway Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chia-Hung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust vision-based traffic monitoring system for vehicle and traffic information extraction is developed in this research. It is challenging to maintain detection robustness at all time for a highway surveillance system. There are three major problems in detecting and tracking a vehicle: (1 the moving cast shadow effect, (2 the occlusion effect, and (3 nighttime detection. For moving cast shadow elimination, a 2D joint vehicle-shadow model is employed. For occlusion detection, a multiple-camera system is used to detect occlusion so as to extract the exact location of each vehicle. For vehicle nighttime detection, a rear-view monitoring technique is proposed to maintain tracking and detection accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of background extraction, which usually serves as the first step in any vehicle detection processing. Experimental results are given to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient for vision-based highway surveillance.

  6. State Traffic Safety Information - 2010-2015 FARS Accident File data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  7. Calibration of CORSIM models under saturated traffic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study proposes a methodology to calibrate microscopic traffic flow simulation models. : The proposed methodology has the capability to calibrate simultaneously all the calibration : parameters as well as demand patterns for any network topology....

  8. Crash risk analysis during fog conditions using real-time traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2018-05-01

    This research investigates the changes of traffic characteristics and crash risks during fog conditions. Using real-time traffic flow and weather data at two regions in Florida, the traffic patterns at the fog duration were compared to the traffic patterns at the clear duration. It was found that the average 5-min speed and the average 5-min volume were prone to decreasing during fog. Based on previous studies, a "Crash Risk Increase Indicator (CRII)" was proposed to explore the differences of crash risk between fog and clear conditions. A binary logistic regression model was applied to link the increase of crash risks with traffic flow characteristics. The results suggested that the proposed indicator worked well in evaluating the increase of crash risk under fog condition. It was indicated that the crash risk was prone to increase at ramp vicinities in fog conditions. Also, the average 5-min volume during fog and the lane position are important factors for crash risk increase. The differences between the regions were also explored in this study. The results indicated that the locations with heavier traffic or locations at the lanes that were closest to the median in Region 2 were more likely to observe an increase in crash risks in fog conditions. It is expected that the proposed indicator can help identify the dangerous traffic status under fog conditions and then proper ITS technologies can be implemented to enhance traffic safety when the visibility declines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of Optical Packet Switched WDM Networks without Packet Synchronisation Under Bursty Traffic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Kloch, Allan

    1999-01-01

    We show that complex packet synchronisation may be avoided in optical packetswitched networks. Detailed traffic analysis demonstrates that packet lossratios of 1e-10 are feasible under bursty traffic conditions for a highcapacity network consisting of asynchronously operated add-drop switch...

  10. The effects of redundancy and information manipulation on traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Berk; Ozel, Berk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the most frequently encountered problems in real life. It is not only a scientific concern of scholars, but also an inevitable issue for most of the individuals living in urban areas. Since every driver in traffic networks tries to minimize own journey length, and volume of the traffic prevents coordination between individuals, a cooperative behavior will not be provided spontaneously in order to decrease the total cost of the network and the time spent on traffic...

  11. Traffic Flow Condition Classification for Short Sections Using Single Microwave Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiş Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily observed traffic flow can show different characteristics varying with the times of the day. They are caused by traffic incidents such as accidents, disabled cars, construction activities and other unusual events. Three different major traffic conditions can be occurred: "Flow," "Dense" and "Congested". Objective of this research is to identify the current traffic condition by examining the traffic measurement parameters. The earlier researches have dealt only with speed and volume by ignoring occupancy. In our study, the occupancy is another important parameter of classification. The previous works have used multiple sensors to classify traffic condition whereas our work uses only single microwave sensor. We have extended Multiple Linear Regression classification with our new approach of Estimating with Error Prediction. We present novel algorithms of Multiclassification with One-Against-All Method and Multiclassification with Binary Comparison for multiple SVM architecture. Finaly, a non-linear model of backpropagation neural network is introduced for classification. This combination has not been reported on previous studies. Training data are obtained from the Corsim based microscopic traffic simulator TSIS 5.1. All performances are compared using this data set. Our methods are currently installed and running at traffic management center of 2.Ring Road in Istanbul.

  12. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  13. Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David

    2017-12-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  15. Study on the Reduced Traffic Congestion Method Based on Dynamic Guidance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Wang, Guang-Min; Wang, Tao; Ren, Hua-Ling; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies how to generate the reasonable information of travelers’ decision in real network. This problem is very complex because the travelers’ decision is constrained by different human behavior. The network conditions can be predicted by using the advanced dynamic OD (Origin-Destination, OD) estimation techniques. Based on the improved mesoscopic traffic model, the predictable dynamic traffic guidance information can be obtained accurately. A consistency algorithm is designed to investigate the travelers’ decision by simulating the dynamic response to guidance information. The simulation results show that the proposed method can provide the best guidance information. Further, a case study is conducted to verify the theoretical results and to draw managerial insights into the potential of dynamic guidance strategy in improving traffic performance. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71471104, 71771019, 71571109, and 71471167; The University Science and Technology Program Funding Projects of Shandong Province under Grant No. J17KA211; The Project of Public Security Department of Shandong Province under Grant No. GATHT2015-236; The Major Social and Livelihood Special Project of Jinan under Grant No. 20150905

  16. Pedestrian Traffic Conditions of Rural Roads and Built-Up Areas: The Analysis of the Existing Situation and Possibilities of Improving Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemunas Abukauskas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of lengthy thorough investigations into traffic safety situation show that the percentage of pedestrians getting involved in road traffic accidents on Lithuanian roads is significantly higher (more than 33 % of the total number of injury and fatal accidents than that compared to the other European Union member-states. The article studies traffic safety problems and their factors causing the largest influence on the occurrence of these accidents. Considering valuable experience gained by foreign countries, investigation was carried out to establish general and main factors causing insufficient road safety conditions and significance of these factors to road safety. The article also shows the main activity improving road safety in Lithuania and discusses the effectiveness of strategic and local (temporary and long term measures to improve conditions for pedestrian road safety. Article in Lithuanian

  17. A Multi-Classification Method of Improved SVM-based Information Fusion for Traffic Parameters Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the enrichment of perception methods, modern transportation system has many physical objects whose states are influenced by many information factors so that it is a typical Cyber-Physical System (CPS. Thus, the traffic information is generally multi-sourced, heterogeneous and hierarchical. Existing research results show that the multisourced traffic information through accurate classification in the process of information fusion can achieve better parameters forecasting performance. For solving the problem of traffic information accurate classification, via analysing the characteristics of the multi-sourced traffic information and using redefined binary tree to overcome the shortcomings of the original Support Vector Machine (SVM classification in information fusion, a multi-classification method using improved SVM in information fusion for traffic parameters forecasting is proposed. The experiment was conducted to examine the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results reveal that the method can get more accurate and practical outcomes.

  18. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. Methods This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. Results GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Conclusion Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information. PMID:28848627

  19. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach's alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information.

  20. Analyzing Traffic Crash Severity in Work Zones under Different Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated various factors that contribute to the severity of work zone crashes. However, little has been done on the specific effects of light conditions. Using the data from the Enhanced Tennessee Roadway Information Management System (E-TRIMS, crashes that occurred in the Tennessee work zones during 2003–2015 are categorized into three light conditions: daylight, dark-lighted, and dark-not-lighted. One commonly used decision tree method—Classification and Regression Trees (CART—is adopted to investigate the factors contributing to crash severity in highway work zones under these light conditions. The outcomes from the three decision trees with differing light conditions show significant differences in the ranking and importance of the factors considered in the study, thereby indicating the necessity of examining traffic crashes according to light conditions. By separately considering the crash characteristics under different light conditions, some new findings are obtained from this study. The study shows that an increase in the number of lanes increases the crash severity level in work zones during the day while decreasing the severity at night. Similarly, drugs and alcohol are found to increase the severity level significantly under the dark-not-lighted condition, while they have a limited influence under daylight and dark-lighted conditions.

  1. Hierarchical Matching of Traffic Information Services Using Semantic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongtao Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Service matching aims to find the information similar to a given query, which has numerous applications in web search. Although existing methods yield promising results, they are not applicable for transportation. In this paper, we propose a multilevel matching method based on semantic technology, towards efficiently searching the traffic information requested. Our approach is divided into two stages: service clustering, which prunes candidate services that are not promising, and functional matching. The similarity at function level between services is computed by grouping the connections between the services into inheritance and noninheritance relationships. We also developed a three-layer framework with a semantic similarity measure that requires less time and space cost than existing method since the scale of candidate services is significantly smaller than the whole transportation network. The OWL_TC4 based service set was used to verify the proposed approach. The accuracy of offline service clustering reached 93.80%, and it reduced the response time to 651 ms when the total number of candidate services was 1000. Moreover, given the different thresholds for the semantic similarity measure, the proposed mixed matching model did better in terms of recall and precision (i.e., up to 72.7% and 80%, respectively, for more than 1000 services compared to the compared models based on information theory and taxonomic distance. These experimental results confirmed the effectiveness and validity of service matching for responding quickly and accurately to user queries.

  2. Driver’s Cognitive Workload and Driving Performance under Traffic Sign Information Exposure in Complex Environments: A Case Study of the Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers’ behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information. Forty-four drivers were recruited to conduct a traffic sign cognition experiment under static controlled environment conditions. Different complex traffic signs were used for applying the cognitive workload. The static experiment results reveal that workload is highly related to the amount of information on traffic signs and reaction time increases with the information grade, while driving experience and gender effect are not significant. This shows that the cognitive workload of subsequent driving experiments can be controlled by the amount of information on traffic signs. Second, driving characteristics and driving performance were analyzed under different secondary task driving workload levels using a driving simulator. Drivers were required to drive at the required speed on a designed highway off-ramp scene. The cognitive workload was controlled by reading traffic signs with different information, which were divided into four levels. Drivers had to make choices by pushing buttons after reading traffic signs. Meanwhile, the driving performance information was recorded. Questionnaires on objective workload were collected right after each driving task. The results show that speed maintenance and lane deviations are significantly different under different levels of cognitive workload, and the effects of driving experience and gender groups are significant. The research results can be used to analyze traffic safety in highway

  3. Information Technology Systems Vulnerabilities Detecting based on Network’s Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes traffic analysis procedure that is very effective and sometimes single countermeasure on counteracting of network attacks and information leakage channels (hidden control channels. Traffic analysis envisages certain measures to control the security of the Russian Federation information technology infrastructure and, most importantly, to establish the reasons of the occurred and predictable computer incidents.

  4. Using stationary image based data collection method for evaluation of traffic sign condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transportation asset management helps monitor the transportation systems and optimize the construction, operation, and maintenance of assets. Many state Department of Transportations (DOTs have already established asset management systems for high cost and low quantity assets, e.g., bridge and tunnel assets. However, due to the sheer number of traffic signs deployed by DOTs, statewide sign inventory and condition information are not well developed. Currently, using handheld devices is the most selected method by agencies to measure signs. To address safety challenge and high cost of data collection, an innovative stationary image based method has recently been proposed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of such image based method over using handheld devices in terms of the accuracy, possibility and consistency of data, speed, safety, maintenance, and cost. At its completion, this study provides suggestions to tackle the issues associated with image based method.

  5. Application of travel time information for traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes findings and implementations of probe vehicle data collection based on Bluetooth MAC address matching : technology. Probe vehicle travel time data are studied in the following field deployment case studies: analysis of traffic ...

  6. Application of travel time information for traffic management : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using conventional methods, it is extremely costly to measure detailed traffic characteristics in high quality spatial or temporal resolution. For analyzing travel characteristics on roadways, the floating car method, developed in the 1920s, has hist...

  7. Dynamics in two-elevator traffic system with real-time information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Takashi, E-mail: wadokeioru@yahoo.co.jp

    2013-12-17

    We study the dynamics of traffic system with two elevators using a elevator choice scenario. The two-elevator traffic system with real-time information is similar to the two-route vehicular traffic system. The dynamics of two-elevator traffic system is described by the two-dimensional nonlinear map. An elevator runs a neck-and-neck race with another elevator. The motion of two elevators displays such a complex behavior as quasi-periodic one. The return map of two-dimensional map shows a piecewise map.

  8. Characterizing Traffic Conditions from the Perspective of Spatial-Temporal Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichao Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conditions are usually characterized from the perspective of travel time or the average vehicle speed in the field of transportation, reflecting the congestion degree of a road network. This article provides a method from a new perspective to characterize traffic conditions; the perspective is based on the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. A novel measurement, the ratio of areas (RA in a rank-size plot, is included in the proposed method to capture the heterogeneity. The proposed method can be performed from the perspective of both spatial heterogeneity and temporal heterogeneity, being able to characterize traffic conditions of not only a road network but also a single road. Compared with methods from the perspective of travel time, the proposed method can characterize traffic conditions at a higher frequency. Compared to methods from the perspective of the average vehicle speed, the proposed method takes account of the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated with real-life traffic data of Shenzhen (a coastal urban city in China, and the advantage of the proposed RA has been verified by comparisons to similar measurements such as the ht-index and the CRG index.

  9. 76 FR 39153 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Traffic and Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... responsibilities relating to airline competition and consolidation. Traffic Forecasting The FAA uses traffic... FAA develops ways of increasing airport capacity at congested airports. Airline Industry Status... Seguin, Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E34-418, RITA, BTS, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...

  10. [Dynamic road vehicle emission inventory simulation study based on real time traffic information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Juan; Chen, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Deng-Guo; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Huang, Wei-Ming; Chao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The vehicle activity survey, including traffic flow distribution, driving condition, and vehicle technologies, were conducted in Shanghai. The databases of vehicle flow, VSP distribution and vehicle categories were established according to the surveyed data. Based on this, a dynamic vehicle emission inventory simulation method was designed by using the real time traffic information data, such as traffic flow and average speed. Some roads in Shanghai city were selected to conduct the hourly vehicle emission simulation as a case study. The survey results show that light duty passenger car and taxi are major vehicles on the roads of Shanghai city, accounting for 48% - 72% and 15% - 43% of the total flow in each hour, respectively. VSP distribution has a good relationship with the average speed. The peak of VSP distribution tends to move to high load section and become lower with the increase of average speed. Vehicles achieved Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards are majorities of current vehicle population in Shanghai. Based on the calibration of vehicle travel mileage data, the proportions of Euro 2 and Euro 3 standard vehicles take up 11% - 70% and 17% - 51% in the real-world situation, respectively. The emission simulation results indicate that the ratios of emission peak and valley for the pollutants of CO, VOC, NO(x) and PM are 3.7, 4.6, 9.6 and 19.8, respectively. CO and VOC emissions mainly come from light-duty passenger car and taxi, which has a good relationship with the traffic flow. NO(x) and PM emissions are mainly from heavy-duty bus and public buses and mainly concentrate in the morning and evening peak hours. The established dynamic vehicle emission simulation method can reflect the change of actual road emission and output high emission road sectors and hours in real time. The method can provide an important technical means and decision-making basis for transportation environment management.

  11. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G; Simone, A.; Simone, A.; Traverso, M.; Nicolosi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  12. Research on the Application of Wireless Network in Collecting Road Traffic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Hui-jiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of variability and dispersion in traffic information, to get the reliable real-time traffic information has been a bottleneck in the development of intelligent transportation systems. However, with the development of wireless network technology and mobile Internet, the mobile phones are rapidly developed and more popular, so it is possible to get road traffic information by locating the mobile phones in vehicles. The system structure for the road traffic information collection is designed based on wireless network and mobile phones in vehicles, and the vehicle recognition and its information computation methods are given and discussed. Also the simulation is done for vehicle recognition and computation based on fuzzy cluster analysis method and the results are obtained and analyzed.

  13. South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) regional traveler information system for weather responsive traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    FHWAs Road Weather Management Program partnered : with the South Dakota DOT to develop and implement a : Weather Responsive Traffic Management (WRTM) : strategy that involves mobile data collection and traveler : information dissemination during w...

  14. The usefulness of the proximate status indication as represented by symbol fill on cockpit displays of traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) displays depict traffic advisories, resolution advisories, and information on other aircraft. Symbols for other aircraft include the proximate status indication where the symbols of proximate...

  15. [Hospital information system performance for road traffic accidents analysis in a hospital recruitment based area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, A-S; Fauconnier, J

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents in France are mainly analyzed through reports completed by the security forces (police and gendarmerie). But the hospital information systems can also identify road traffic accidents via specific documentary codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether hospital stays consecutive to road traffic accident were truly identified by these documentary codes in a facility that collects data routinely and to study the consistency of results from hospital information systems and from security forces during the 2002-2008 period. We retrieved all patients for whom a documentary code for road traffic accident was entered in 2002-2008. We manually checked the concordance of documentary code for road traffic accident and trauma origin in 350 patient files. The number of accidents in the Grenoble area was then inferred by combining with hospitalization regional data and compared to the number of persons injured by traffic accidents declared by the security force. These hospital information systems successfully report road traffic accidents with 96% sensitivity (95%CI: [92%, 100%]) and 97% specificity (95%CI: [95%, 99%]). The decrease in road traffic accidents observed was significantly less than that observed was significantly lower than that observed in the data from the security force (45% for security force data against 27% for hospital data). Overall, this study shows that hospital information systems are a powerful tool for studying road traffic accidents morbidity in hospital and are complementary to security force data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  17. Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Hsu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients’ biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient’s biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios.

  18. Day-to-day evolution of the traffic network with Advanced Traveler Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Wu Jianjun; Zhu Chengjuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We develop a dynamical system with Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS). → We use the dynamical system to study stability of the traffic network with ATIS. → It is found that some periodic attractors appear in some cases. → A road pricing is implemented to alleviate the instability of the traffic network with ATIS. - Abstract: Since the notion of user equilibrium (UE) was proposed by Wardrop , it has become a cornerstone for traffic assignment analysis. But, it is not sufficient to only ask whether equilibrium exists or not; it is equally important to ask whether and how the system can achieve equilibrium. Meanwhile, stability is an important performance in the sense that if equilibrium is unsustainable, both the equilibrium and the trajectory are sensitive to disturbances, even a small perturbation will result in the system evolution away from the equilibrium point. These incentive a growing interest in day-to-day dynamics. In this paper, we develop a dynamical system with Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and study the stability of the network with ATIS. A simple network is used to simulate the model, and the results show that there exist periodic attractors in the traffic network in some cases (for example, the market penetration level of ATIS is 0.25 and traffic demand is 2 unit). It is found that the logit parameter of the dynamical model and the traffic demand can also affect the stability of the traffic network. More periodic attractors appear in the system when the traffic demand is large and the low logit parameter can delay the appearance of periodic attractors. By simulation, it can be concluded that if the range of the periodic attractors' domain of the simple network is known, the road pricing based on the range of the attraction domain is effective to alleviate the instability of the system.

  19. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  20. [Effects of calorie information and nutrition traffic light on alimentation behaviour in public catering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, A; Honekamp, W; Hackl, J M

    2013-08-01

    Due to the significant increase in overweight and obese people, action is needed to raise eating behaviour awareness. A significant main meal (lunch) is witnessing a growing trend in the catering (part of the out-of-home nutrition). The aim of this study is to determine whether the selection of lunch menus is affected through the display of nutritional information in the form of number of calories or a traffic light model. In this exploratory study, quantitative data were collected in a cross-sectional design. In addition to the established measurement instruments, socio-demographic and socio-economic information of the subjects based on the study were evaluated. The survey took place in 2008 in 2 passes (time t A/t B). The identical lunch menu of a catering company was applied twice respectively for 4 weeks. In the second run (t B) the lunch menu contained additional nutritional information (big 4 instructions) in the form of calories or a traffic light nutrition. The test of group differences was based on scientific statistical analysis in SPSS. The overall results for the illustration of kilocalories or traffic light do not have a unique significance in the direction of a low average number of calories at the time t B in comparison to the time t A. The food participants, on average, choose a lower calorie-containing menu, when a combination of traffic light and calories is given. The nutrition behaviour is accompanied by an oversupply of unhealthy foods. Lunch participants are sensitised for the selection of healthier lunch menus by a traffic light nutrition information or calories information. Nutrition labelling for lunch menus in the form of calories nutrition information or a coloured traffic light could trigger preventive effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Information-Aided Smart Schemes for Vehicle Flow Detection Enhancements of Traffic Microwave Radar Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Jan Ho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For satisfactory traffic management of an intelligent transport system, it is vital that traffic microwave radar detectors (TMRDs can provide real-time traffic information with high accuracy. In this study, we develop several information-aided smart schemes for traffic detection improvements of TMRDs in multiple-lane environments. Specifically, we select appropriate thresholds not only for removing noise from fast Fourier transforms (FFTs of regional lane contexts but also for reducing FFT side lobes within each lane. The resulting FFTs of reflected vehicle signals and those of clutter are distinguishable. We exploit FFT and lane-/or time stamp-related information for developing smart schemes, which mitigate adverse effects of lane-crossing FFT side lobes of a vehicle signal. As such, the proposed schemes can enhance the detection accuracy of both lane vehicle flow and directional traffic volume. On-site experimental results demonstrate the advantages and feasibility of the proposed methods, and suggest the best smart scheme.

  2. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nakamiya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method” using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”. Our new method detects vehicles based on tires’ thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8% out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  3. Robust vehicle detection under various environmental conditions using an infrared thermal camera and its application to road traffic flow monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-17

    We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as "our previous method") using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as "our new method"). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires' thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  4. Travelers' use of the WSDOT traffic conditions web site : customer satisfaction evaluation -- Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative : Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-28

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of public use of the Washington State Department of Transportation's (WSDOT) traffic conditions web site. This research was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation to assess customer satisfac...

  5. Development and application of traffic flow information collecting and analysis system based on multi-type video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mujie; Shang, Wenjie; Ji, Xinkai; Hua, Mingzhuang; Cheng, Kuo

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, intelligent transportation system (ITS) has already become the new direction of transportation development. Traffic data, as a fundamental part of intelligent transportation system, is having a more and more crucial status. In recent years, video observation technology has been widely used in the field of traffic information collecting. Traffic flow information contained in video data has many advantages which is comprehensive and can be stored for a long time, but there are still many problems, such as low precision and high cost in the process of collecting information. This paper aiming at these problems, proposes a kind of traffic target detection method with broad applicability. Based on three different ways of getting video data, such as aerial photography, fixed camera and handheld camera, we develop a kind of intelligent analysis software which can be used to extract the macroscopic, microscopic traffic flow information in the video, and the information can be used for traffic analysis and transportation planning. For road intersections, the system uses frame difference method to extract traffic information, for freeway sections, the system uses optical flow method to track the vehicles. The system was applied in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, and the application shows that the system for extracting different types of traffic flow information has a high accuracy, it can meet the needs of traffic engineering observations and has a good application prospect.

  6. ROLE OF INFORMATION PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET IN PROVIDING TRAFFIC CONTROL DRUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Solovjov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial questions of the pharmaceutical market informatization are considered. The main principles and legal frameworks to manage population ensure with medicines based on use of information technology are proposed. The logic and conception framework of related information automatization for hospitals and population under the current legislation are discussed.

  7. A revealed-preference study of behavioural impacts of real-time traffic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.S.A.; Tseng, Y.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of real-time traffic information on traveller behaviour by using repeated day-to-day revealed-preference (RP) observations from a reward experiment. We estimate a trip scheduling model of morning peak behaviour that allows us to determine the impact of

  8. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destination IP addresses of DDoS attacks, traffic characteristics of services are analyzed based on conditional entropy. The algorithm is provided with perception ability of DDoS attacks on SOA services by introducing time dimension. Simulation results show that the novel method can realize DDoS traffic perception with analyzing abrupt variation of conditional entropy in time dimension.

  9. Complex Security System for Premises Under Conditions of Large Volume of Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsystems of the design of a complex security system for premises under conditions of large volume of passenger traffic are considered. These subsystems provide video- and thermal imaging control, radio wave tomography, and gas analysis. Simultaneous application of all examined variants will essentially increase the probability of timely prevention of dangerous situations with the probability of false alarm as low as possible. It is important that finally, this will provide protection of population and will facilitate the work of intelligence services.

  10. Measurement of traffic parameters in image sequence using spatio-temporal information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Daeho; Park, Youngtae

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measurement of traffic parameters, such as the number of passed vehicles, velocity and occupancy rate, by video image analysis. The method is based on a region classification followed by spatio-temporal image analysis. Local detection region images in traffic lanes are classified into one of four categories: the road, the vehicle, the reflection and the shadow, by using statistical and structural features. Misclassification at a frame is corrected by using temporally correlated features of vehicles in the spatio-temporal image. This capability of error correction results in the accurate estimation of traffic parameters even in high traffic congestion. Also headlight detection is employed for nighttime operation. Experimental results show that the accuracy is more than 94% in our test database of diverse operating conditions such as daytime, shadowy daytime, highway, urban way, rural way, rainy day, snowy day, dusk and nighttime. The average processing time is 30 ms per frame when four traffic lanes are processed, and real-time operation could be realized while ensuring robust detection performance even for high-speed vehicles up to 150 km h −1

  11. Analyzing traffic source impact on returning visitors ratio in information provider website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetio, A.; Sari, P. K.; Sharif, O. O.; Sofyan, E.

    2016-04-01

    Web site performance, especially returning visitor is an important metric for an information provider web site. Since high returning visitor is a good indication of a web site’s visitor loyalty, it is important to find a way to improve this metric. This research investigated if there is any difference on returning visitor metric among three web traffic sources namely direct, referral and search. Monthly returning visitor and total visitor from each source is retrieved from Google Analytics tools and then calculated to measure returning visitor ratio. The period of data observation is from July 2012 to June 2015 resulting in a total of 108 samples. These data then analysed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to address our research question. The results showed that different traffic source has significantly different returning visitor ratio especially between referral traffic source and the other two traffic sources. On the other hand, this research did not find any significant difference between returning visitor ratio from direct and search traffic sources. The owner of the web site can focus to multiply referral links from other relevant sites.

  12. A framework for privacy and security analysis of probe-based traffic information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    Most large scale traffic information systems rely on fixed sensors (e.g. loop detectors, cameras) and user generated data, this latter in the form of GPS traces sent by smartphones or GPS devices onboard vehicles. While this type of data is relatively inexpensive to gather, it can pose multiple security and privacy risks, even if the location tracks are anonymous. In particular, creating bogus location tracks and sending them to the system is relatively easy. This bogus data could perturb traffic flow estimates, and disrupt the transportation system whenever these estimates are used for actuation. In this article, we propose a new framework for solving a variety of privacy and cybersecurity problems arising in transportation systems. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. The resulting framework is very flexible, and can in particular be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or carry out attacks on location tracks. Numerical implementations are performed on experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment to validate this framework. © 2013 ACM.

  13. Collective benefits in traffic during mega events via the use of information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanyan; González, Marta C

    2017-04-01

    Information technologies today can inform each of us about the route with the shortest time, but they do not contain incentives to manage travellers such that we all get collective benefits in travel times. To that end we need travel demand estimates and target strategies to reduce the traffic volume from the congested roads during peak hours in a feasible way. During large events, the traffic inconveniences in large cities are unusually high, yet temporary, and the entire population may be more willing to adopt collective recommendations for collective benefits in traffic. In this paper, we integrate, for the first time, big data resources to estimate the impact of events on traffic and propose target strategies for collective good at the urban scale. In the context of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, we first predict the expected increase in traffic. To that end, we integrate data from mobile phones, Airbnb, Waze and transit information, with game schedules and expected attendance in each venue. Next, we evaluate different route choice scenarios for drivers during the peak hours. Finally, we gather information on the trips that contribute the most to the global congestion which could be redirected from vehicles to transit. Interestingly, we show that (i) following new route alternatives during the event with individual shortest times can save more collective travel time than keeping the routine routes used before the event, uncovering the positive value of information technologies during events; (ii) with only a small proportion of people selected from specific areas switching from driving to public transport, the collective travel time can be reduced to a great extent. Results are presented online for evaluation by the public and policymakers (www.flows-rio2016.com (last accessed 3 September 2017)). © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Fair and adaptive data dissemination for traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.; IEEE,

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  15. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic. Most prior work falls into two categories: (1 methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2 systems that require deployment of dedicated sensors. These approaches are difficult and costly to execute and maintain. In addition, most prior work uses dedicated sensors designed for a single purpose, resulting in deployment of multiple sensor systems. This further increases costs. Meanwhile, with the increasing demands of structural health monitoring, many vibration sensors are being deployed in commercial buildings. Traffic events create ground vibration that propagates to nearby building structures inducing noisy vibration responses. We present an information-theoretic method for train event monitoring using commonly existing vibration sensors deployed for building health monitoring. The key idea is to represent the wave propagation in a building induced by train traffic as information conveyed in noisy measurement signals. Our technique first uses wavelet analysis to detect train events. Then, by analyzing information exchange patterns of building vibration signals, we infer the category of the events (i.e., southbound or northbound train. Our algorithm is evaluated with an 11-story building where trains pass by frequently. The results show that the method can robustly achieve a train event detection accuracy of up to a 93% true positive rate and an 80% true negative rate. For direction categorization, compared with the traditional signal processing method, our information-theoretic approach reduces categorization error from 32.1 to 12.1%, which is a 2.5× improvement.

  16. Digestible information: The impact of Multiple Traffic Light nutritional labeling in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Defago, Daniel; Geng, José F.; Molina, Oswaldo; Santa María, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Bad dietary habits are among the main causes of increasing obesity and other health problems. According to the literature, information asymmetry and cognitive biases may lead to suboptimal decisions by individuals regarding food consumption. Many countries have implemented different forms of nutritional labelling in order to provide individuals with better information when making choices. We assess the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) system, an alternative and simplified labelling format impleme...

  17. Orange County Transit/traffic Management Integration And Traveler Information Project: Evaluation Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, R.; Hickman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This document focuses on a Field Operational Test (FOT) to develop an integrated information system for transit and traffic management and for traveler information that relies on Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buses as probe vehicles. The document provides the evaluation plan for the FOT. The plan covers three principal elements: 1) Institutional, TMC Operator and Bus Operator, 2) Public Knowledge and Perceptions, and 3) System performance. The document provides an overall evaluatio...

  18. Information Presentation and Control in a Modern Air Traffic Control Tower Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.; Doubek, Sharon; Rabin, Boris; Harke, Stanton

    1996-01-01

    The proper presentation and management of information in America's largest and busiest (Level V) air traffic control towers calls for an in-depth understanding of many different human-computer considerations: user interface design for graphical, radar, and text; manual and automated data input hardware; information/display output technology; reconfigurable workstations; workload assessment; and many other related subjects. This paper discusses these subjects in the context of the Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) currently under construction at NASA's Ames Research Center, a full scale, multi-manned, air traffic control simulator which will provide the "look and feel" of an actual airport tower cab. Special emphasis will be given to the human-computer interfaces required for the different kinds of information displayed at the various controller and supervisory positions and to the computer-aided design (CAD) and other analytic, computer-based tools used to develop the facility.

  19. Influence of traffic conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Yingxia; Yang, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were quantified in sieved street dusts from eight sampling sites with different traffic conditions in Beijing. The parent diagnostic ratio test and multi-regression analysis were used to identify the different PAH pollution sources. Results showed that more than 93% of the cumulative 16 priority pollutant PAHs (Sigma 16EPA-PAH) load was present in street dust with a diameter less than 300 microm across all the sampling sites. The concentration of Sigma 4-6 ring PAHs was 93 to 284% higher than that of Sigma 2-3 ring PAHs for most of the sites except the cycle lane site, indicating the dominance of pyrogenic inputs in street dusts at these sites. Cooking oil is an important PAH source in street dusts for all the sampling sites. Tire debris and vehicle emissions were also identified as significant contributors to the PAH loading in the heavy traffic zone, vehicle parking areas, the frequent brake usage zone, and the construction area.

  20. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  1. Developing a Traffic Management Framework for Coastal Expressway Bridges under Adverse Weather Conditions: Case Study of Rain Day in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenming Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse weather can reduce visibility and road surface friction, lower vehicle maneuverability, and increase crash frequency and injury severity. The impacts of adverse weather and its interactions with drivers and roadway on the operation and management of expressway or expressway bridges have drawn the researchers’ and managers’ attention to develop traffic management frameworks to mitigate the negative influence. Considering the peculiar geographical location and meteorological conditions, the Guangshen Coast Expressway-Shenzhen Segment (GSCE-SS was selected as a case in this study to illustrate the proposed traffic management framework on rain days. Conditions categorized by rainfall intensity and traffic flow were the main precondition to make the management decisions. CORSIM simulator was used to develop the alternate routes choice schemes, providing reference for other systems in the proposed traffic management framework. Maps of (a entrance ramp control (ERC strategies; (b mainline control strategies; (c alternate routes choice; (d information release schemes, under scenarios of different volume and rainstorm warning grades (BLUE to RED, were drawn to present a reference or demonstration for managers of long-span expressway bridges not only in China, but even in the world.

  2. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  3. Modelling Altitude Information in Two-Dimensional Traffic Networks for Electric Mobility Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevation data is important for electric vehicle simulation. However, traffic simulators are often two-dimensional and do not offer the capability of modelling urban networks taking elevation into account. Specifically, SUMO - Simulation of Urban Mobility, a popular microscopic traffic simulator, relies on networks previously modelled with elevation data as to provide this information during simulations. This work tackles the problem of adding elevation data to urban network models - particularly for the case of the Porto urban network, in Portugal. With this goal in mind, a comparison between different altitude information retrieval approaches is made and a simple tool to annotate network models with altitude data is proposed. The work starts by describing the methodological approach followed during research and development, then describing and analysing its main findings. This description includes an in-depth explanation of the proposed tool. Lastly, this work reviews some related work to the subject.

  4. Does front-of-pack nutrition information improve consumer ability to make healthful choices? Performance of warnings and the traffic light system in a simulated shopping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2018-02-01

    The inclusion of more attention-grabbing and easily interpretable front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition information is one of the public policies that can be implemented to empower consumers to identify unhealthful food products and to make more informed food choices. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two FOP nutrition labelling schemes - the traffic light labelling and the warning scheme - on consumer food purchases when facing a health goal. The study was conducted with 1182 people from Montevideo (Uruguay), recruited using a Facebook advertisement. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three between-subjects experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no FOP nutrition information, (ii) FOP nutrition information using a modified version of the traffic light system including information about calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content per portion, and (iii) FOP nutrition information using the Chilean warning system including separate signs for high calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content. Respondents were asked to imagine that they had to purchase food in order to prepare a healthy dinner for themselves and their family, using the website of an online grocery store. Results showed that FOP nutrition information effectively improved the average healthfulness of participants' choices compared to the control condition, both in terms of the average nutritional composition of the purchased products and expenditure in specific product categories. No relevant differences between the effect of the traffic light and the warning system were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chunhua; Xu, Guoqing; Xu, Kun; Pan, Zhongming; Liang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information. • Vehicle velocity profile and fuel consumption are optimized at the same time. • It is proved that a further energy saving is achieved by the proposed approach. • The proposed approach is useful especially for autonomous hybrid vehicles. - Abstract: The traffic preview information is very helpful for hybrid vehicles when distributing the power requirement of the vehicle to power sources and when determining the next driving route of the vehicle. In this research, an energy management approach for hybrid vehicles is proposed, which optimizes the vehicle velocity profile while minimizing the fuel consumption with the help of the traffic preview information, so that a further energy saving for hybrid vehicles can be achieved. The Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is adopted on the proposed approach. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) is selected as an example, and the proposed energy management approach is applied to the FCHV in a computer simulation environment for the offline and online cases respectively. Simulation results show that the fuel economy of the FCHV is improved by the proposed energy management approach compared to a benchmark case where the driving cycle is fixed and only the hybrid power split (allocation) ratio is optimized. The proposed energy management approach is useful especially for the autonomous hybrid vehicles.

  6. Local and nonlocal information in a traffic network: how important is the horizon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in distributed sensor network technology have changed the landscape of traffic optimization in which small, mobile devices are able to sense local information and communicate in real time with one another. Naive optimization algorithms that operate solely on the local or global level are inherently flawed, as global optimization requires every local sensor to communicate with a centralized base-station, creating prohibitive bandwidth, robustness, and security concerns, while local optimization methods are limited by a near information horizon as they are unable to propagate or react to information beyond their immediate vicinity. This paper investigates an intermediate approach where individual sensors are able to propagate congestion information over a variable distance that is determined in real-time. This strategy consistently out-performs a naive strategy where every car simply takes the shortest path to its destination, but does worse than a simpler optimization algorithm that only incorporates local information. This is most likely because the intermediate solution directs cars along the same alternate path when attempting to free a congested area, thus creating new congestion along the detour. The results suggest that local information might set an upper bound on performance in models of cascading in- formation. Further work is required to confirm this observation and develop an algorithm able to join both local and global information to effectively diffuse traffic around congestion. (author)

  7. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  8. A multi-sectoral approach to capture information on road traffic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Geetha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regularly available data is shown to be inadequate for developing, implementing, and evaluating injury prevention and control programs in India. The present study was undertaken in the hospitals of Bangalore and Pune, to examine the feasibility of gathering information on injuries using multiple sources. Materials and Methods: Stakeholders meeting and training programs were held for the hospital staff, police personnel, and traffic and transport staff, to identify their roles and responsibilities. Prospective data on morbidity and mortality due to injuries were collected by trained staff from Emergency Departments on a pre-tested questionnaire. The information gathered was cross-checked with the hospital and police records. Results: The stakeholders meeting and training programs were able to motivate the departments to provide the correct data. Data on 32188 patients could be extracted from hospital and police records during the study period. Injuries accounted for 16% of the emergency cases. Unintentional injuries were 64%, and 32% were intentional. Road traffic injuries accounted for 44% of all the injuries. One-third of the injured were children and young adults below 25 years. Among the injured, two wheeler riders were 29% and pedestrians were 23%. Conclusion: It was possible to improve the data on injuries by adequate training and a data linking mechanism between the Police, Hospital, and Transport Departments. The problem of road traffic injuries could be highlighted and addressed by a good data capture mechanism.

  9. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley K.H. Wesson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. Methods: In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Results: Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Discussion: Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings.

  10. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) for highway traffic noise analysis : case studies of select transportation agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Noise from highway traffic can be pervasive in areas near roadways. How and to what extent noise travels is strongly influenced by geospatial features such as terrain and elevation. Thus geographic information systems (GIS), which enable users to mor...

  11. Evaluating traffic informers: testing the behavioral and social-cognitive effects of an adolescent bicycle safety education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, 12-24 years old are over-represented in the total number of traffic fatalities and injuries. In this study, the traffic informer program - designed to promote safe traffic behavior in the pre-driver population - was experimentally evaluated, with a specific focus on bicycle use. Students were subjected to graphic videos of traffic accidents and listened to a first-person narrative provided by a traffic accident victim. The influence of the program on concepts derived from the theory of planned behavior and protection motivation theory (attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, risk-perception, intention and behavior) was assessed. Students from various schools (N=1593;M age=15 years, SD=.84) participated in a quasi-experimental study, either in an experimental or a control group, completing self-report questionnaires one week prior to the program implementation and approximately one month after the program implementation. Mixed regression analyses showed significant positive and negative time × intervention interaction effects on attitude toward traffic violations, relative attitude toward traffic safety, and risk comparison, but not on intention and behavior. More research is needed to find effective behavioral change techniques (other than increasing risk awareness) for promoting safe traffic behavior in adolescents. Research is also needed to address how these can be translated into effective interventions and educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of autonomy, traffic conditions and driver personality traits on attitudes and trust towards in-vehicle agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, H.; Evers, V.; Kemper, N.; Wielinga, B.; Li, Y.; Pasi, G.; Zhang, C.; Cercone, N.; Cao, L.

    2008-01-01

    In-vehicle agents can potentially avert dangerous driving situations by adapting to the driver, context and traffic conditions. However, perceptions of system autonomy, the way agents offer assistance, driving contexts and users’ personality traits can all affect acceptance and trust. This paper

  13. THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO AUTOMATE FUZZY SYNTHESIS OF TRAFFIC LIGHT UAV IN ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the applicability of known application software systems for automated synthesis of fuzzy control traffic light UAV during its flight in adverse weather conditions. The solution is based on a previously formulated and put into consideration the principle of permissible limited a priori estimation of the uncertainty of aerodynamic characteristics of UAVs.

  14. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E.S.

    2015-05-22

    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  15. An assessment of the skid resistance effect on traffic safety under wet-pavement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardillo Mayora, José M; Jurado Piña, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    Pavement-tire friction provides the grip that is required for maintaining vehicle control and for stopping in emergency situations. Statistically significant negative correlations of skid resistance values and wet-pavement accident rates have been found in previous research. Skid resistance measured with SCRIM and crash data from over 1750km of two-lane rural roads in the Spanish National Road System were analyzed to determine the influence of pavement conditions on safety and to assess the effects of improving pavement friction on safety. Both wet- and dry-pavement crash rates presented a decreasing trend as skid resistance values increased. Thresholds in SCRIM coefficient values associated with significant decreases in wet-pavement crash rates were determined. Pavement friction improvement schemes were found to yield significant reductions in wet-pavement crash rates averaging 68%. The results confirm the importance of maintaining adequate levels of pavement friction to safeguard traffic safety as well as the potential of pavement friction improvement schemes to achieve significant crash reductions.

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicles in Real Traffic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Susumu; Mizushima, Norifumi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL) (Japan); Saito, Akira; Takada, Yutaka [Organization for the Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles (LEVO)(Japan

    2012-01-15

    This report focuses on the comparison of the real-world emissions between the case of using diesel oil and BDF (biodiesel fuel) for fuel. For this purpose, the on-road driving tests were made, by applying BDF, with the latest diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission regulations while avoiding any particular modification to them. For measurement, a PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used. Note that the heavy diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission gas regulations of Japan also meet the heavy vehicle fuel economy regulations introduced by Japan ahead of other countries of the world. Since application of BDF presents problems not only for the emission gas, but also has non-negligible influence on the fuel economy, the survey was also made for the real-world fuel economy. This report has been produced as the final version deliverable from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement (Annex XXXVIII - Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicle in Real Traffic Conditions).

  17. Impacts of Bus-stops on the Speed of Motorized Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions: A Case-Study of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of friction generators1 such as bus-stops, intersections, petrol pumps and pedestrian crossings, etc. significantly influences the speed of traffic stream. Among all the friction generators, understanding the impact of bus-stops is particularly important from planning and modeling perspective in the Indian context. Therefore, this study presents a methodology to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of other motorized vehicles (the total motorized vehicle fleet minus the buses under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The methodology was validated on the typical urban arterials in Delhi, India. Two types of data, location of bus-stops and speed profiles of motorized vehicles, were collected by GPS and V-box respectively. These two data sets were mapped and merged using ArcGIS. To understand the nature of traffic stream near bus-stops, ‘influence regions’ of bus-stops were extracted. Later, characteristic parameters such as lengths of the influence regions and average speeds in the influence regions were computed. Finally, 95% confidence intervals of these characteristic parameters were obtained and regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of motorized vehicles. The results of study suggest that the influence region of bus-stops on the corridors investigated varies from 140–170 meters and average speed of motorized vehicles in the influence region is reduced by 26–38% of the free flow speed. These findings can better inform planners about the speeds used in traffic flow and travel demand modeling under heterogeneous conditions by helping them in accounting for the speed-reducing impacts of bus-stops. Moreover, transit planners may also consider the magnitudes and characteristics of the influence regions of bus-stops while determining their locations along the corridor to minimize their adverse impacts on the speed of other motorized vehicles.

  18. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  19. Horizontal Conflict Resolution Maneuvers with a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Jago, S.; Dubord, M.

    1981-01-01

    Pilot resolution of potential conflicts in the horizontal plane when the only information available on the other aircraft was presented on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is investigated. The pilot's task was to assess the situation and if necessary maneuver so as to avoid the other aircraft. No instructions were given on evasive strategy or on what was considered to be an acceptable minimum separation. The results indicate that pilots had a strong bias of turning toward the intruder aircraft in order to pass behind it. In more than 50% of the encounters with a 90 degree crossing angle in which the intruder aircraft was programmed to pass behind the aircraft, the pilots maneuvered so as to pass behind the intruder. This bias was not as strong with the display which showed a prediction of the intruder's relative velocity. The average miss distance for all encounters was about 4500 feet.

  20. AIS as key component in modern vessel traffic management and information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, W. [DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA), Ulm (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide information in respect to universal shipborne identification system (UAIS) as main sensor in various vessel traffic applications. The presented paper will give general information concerning AIS functionality and the standardisation process. Based on experience from recent projects and various IALA working group activities, a typical future VTMIS architectures is also presented being based on AIS as key sensor. The required key performance of AIS associated with the HW components will be described. The results from European technology study Indris are presented and discussed. Finally, a summary and conclusion from the presented material will complete the technical paper. The elaboration of this presentation has been carried out as a joint task between Mr. Andre van Berg, MDS Suedafrika und Mr. Walter Lamers, DASA Ulm. (orig.)

  1. Conditioning from an information processing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R.

    2003-04-28

    The framework provided by Claude Shannon's [Bell Syst. Technol. J. 27 (1948) 623] theory of information leads to a quantitatively oriented reconceptualization of the processes that mediate conditioning. The focus shifts from processes set in motion by individual events to processes sensitive to the information carried by the flow of events. The conception of what properties of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are important shifts from the tangible properties to the intangible properties of number, duration, frequency and contingency. In this view, a stimulus becomes a CS if its onset substantially reduces the subject's uncertainty about the time of occurrence of the next US. One way to represent the subject's knowledge of that time of occurrence is by the cumulative probability function, which has two limiting forms: (1) The state of maximal uncertainty (minimal knowledge) is represented by the inverse exponential function for the random rate condition, in which the US is equally likely at any moment. (2) The limit to the subject's attainable certainty is represented by the cumulative normal function, whose momentary expectation is the CS-US latency minus the time elapsed since CS onset. Its standard deviation is the Weber fraction times the CS-US latency.

  2. Traffic days '95 at AUC. Conference report. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann-Hansen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Volume one of Traffic days '95 at AUC (Aalborg University, Denmark) contains 28 papers presented at the conference held on August 21 - 22, 1995, at Aalborg University in Jutland, Denmark. The papers in this volume are ranged under the general headings of: The road to sustainable transport, the evaluation of traffic and infrastructure planning - decision-making procedures, traffic and the environment in towns, railways, traffic information + signals, and environmental conditions relative to shipping

  3. The Data Reliability of Volunteered Geographic Information with Using Traffic Accident Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, H. K.; Karaş, I. R.

    2017-11-01

    The development of mobile technologies is important in the lives of humans. Mobile devices constitute a great part of the daily lives of people. It has come to such a point that when people first wake up, they check their smart phones for the first thing. Users may share their positions with the GNSS sensors in mobile devices or they can add information about their positions in mobile applications. Users contribute to Geographical Information System with this sharing. These users consist of native (citizens) living in that geographical position not of the CBS specialists. Creating, collecting, sharing and disseminating the geographical data provided by voluntary individuals constitute the Volunteered Geographic Information System. The data in the Volunteered Geographic Information System are received from amateur users. "How reliable will the data received from amateur users instead of specialists of the field be in scientific terms?" In this study, the reliability between the data received from the voluntary users through Volunteered Geographic Information System and real data is investigated. The real data consist of the traffic accident coordinates. The data that will be received from users will be received through the speed values in the relevant coordinates and the marking of the users for possible accident points on the map.

  4. Radio Data System-Platform for traffic and travel information services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan BARCA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current National and European context where the public information is simultaneously spread on multiple channels and especially through mass-media channels, the text messaging services from public radio channels proved to be very useful and efficient for this purpose. Over the years, the use of a warning system like Radio Data System (RDS, at a global level shown, through text message or sound alarms is useful for the drivers to know the traffic, as well as for being aware of any emergency situations (fires, floods, earth-quakes. In this paper we present the characteristics of an RDS system with the Alert feature, as well as the study of radio covering of four from the Romanian National Radio News network's broadcasting points.

  5. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Susu; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic). Most prior work falls into two categories: (1) methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2) systems that require deployment of dedicated ...

  6. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rGIS-based regression models offer a promising approach to assess individual levels of

  7. Practical Aspects Regarding Conditions of Closing Traffic and Setting Traffic Restrictions for Both the Execution of Works in Public Roads Area and/or the Protection of Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vasile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions and authorities involved in organizing, structuring and signaling traffic are represented, on one hand, by the Romanian Police through its structures of traffic police as the main body with responsibilities in the field and, on the other, by the administrators of public roads depending on material and territorial competence.

  8. Traffic safety program for school children through safe action and safe condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono, Mahmudah, Amirotul Musthofiah Hidayah; Santoso, Anjar Budi

    2017-06-01

    The facts indicate that the rights of pedestrians is on the wane. Many motorists are unwilling to provide a space for pedestrians, even when they want to cross the road at zebra-cross facility. The data of traffic accident in Surakarta City showed that 7.0% of accident victims in 2014 to 2015 were children aged 5-15 or the group of school-aged children. In general, the location of schools is on the edge of the road where a lot of vehicles run at high speed. Hence, it is very dangerous for the school children to cross the road. Pertaining to this issue, the Department of Transportation implements a program named School Safety Zone (ZoSS). ZoSS is a time-dependent speed control zone consisting of road markings, traffic signs, optional traffic signals, and rumble strips. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ZoSS based on the perception of the users, including the students, teachers, parents, and community. This study was conducted through a series of activities including the distribution of questionnaire to obtain the road users' perceptions. The results showed that most of the respondents understood the meaning, aim, and benefit of ZoSS. However, it also found that traffic sign and method of cross the road (Four-T) was not recognized appropriately by the respondents. ZoSS program was generally ineffective since the pedestrians felt unsafe to cross the road due to the high-speed vehicles.

  9. Automobile pollution in Paris, France, influences traffic and meteorological conditions; La pollution automobile a Paris influence du trafic et des conditions meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Rene; Donati, Jacques; Viellard, Henri [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police, Paris (France)

    1995-06-22

    The improvement of urban air quality is a major challenge namely for NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide), a toxic pollutant controlled by the European Regulation EEC n85-203. We now know that catalytic converters reduce car emissions and we believe that a reduction in traffic (already enforced in some cities) and the restriction of vehicle road traffic, applied to some European towns, is an area for further research. In Paris, the existence of periods of serious pollution (essentially due to NO{sub 2} levels reaching >200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in periods of several hours) has made the public and public administration aware of the importance of this problem. Thus, a commitment has been made to reduce these periods of severe pollution. The study being presented deals with the search for a correlation between vehicle traffic (vehicle flow/hour) and measured concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2} and CO at two sites in Paris, in 1992. This relation has been established by plotting the traffic levels against concentrations of each gaseous effluent. When the pollutants are well dispersed it is possible to plot the concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2}. The slope is much steeper for NO than for NO{sub 2}. On the other hand, when meteorological conditions are unfavourable (high pressure zone, stability of the atmosphere, temperature inversion or strong solar radiance) no significant correlation could be observed. This proves the predominance of meteorological conditions on NO{sub 2} levels during high pollution periods. The study also confirmed that NO is a very good indicator of car pollution, taking into account the increasing number of diesel powered vehicles in France

  10. Variations in Driver Behavior: An Analysis of Car-Following Behavior Heterogeneity as a Function of Road Type and Traffic Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Microsimulation modeling is a tool used by practitioners and researchers to predict and evaluate the flow of traffic on real transportation networks. These models are used in practice to inform decisions and thus must reflect a high level of accuracy...

  11. Modeling correlated information change: from conditional beliefs to quantum conditionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    In this paper, we propose a unified logical framework for representing and analyzing various forms of correlated information change. Our main thesis is that “logical dynamics,” in the sense of van Benthem (Exploring logical dynamics. CSLI Publications, Stanford, 1996; Logical dynamics of information

  12. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  13. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  14. Traffic Perturbation

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM

  15. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Duley, Jacqueline A.; Legan, Brian M.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2001-01-01

    A predominant research focus in the free flight community has been on the type of information required on the flight deck to enable pilots to "autonomously" maintain separation from other aircraft. At issue are the relative utility and requirement for information exchange between aircraft regarding the current "state" and/or the "intent" of each aircraft. This paper presents the experimental design and some initial findings of an experimental research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared in a piloted simulation. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective data results are presented that generally indicate pilot consensus in favor of the strategic mode.

  16. Construction and simulation of a novel continuous traffic flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yao-Hsin; Yu, Jui-Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to propose a novel mathematical model for traffic flow and apply a newly developed characteristic particle method to solve the associate governing equations. As compared with the existing non-equilibrium higher-order traffic flow models, the present one is put forward to satisfy the following three conditions: 1.Preserve the equilibrium state in the smooth region. 2.Yield an anisotropic propagation of traffic flow information. 3.Expressed with a conservation law form for traffic momentum. These conditions will ensure a more practical simulation in traffic flow physics: The current traffic will not be influenced by the condition in the behind and result in unambiguous condition across a traffic shock. Through analyses of characteristics, stability condition and steady-state solution adherent to the equation system, it is shown that the proposed model actually conform to these conditions. Furthermore, this model can be cast into its characteristic form which, incorporated with the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, is appropriate to be simulated by the characteristic particle method to obtain accurate computational results. - Highlights: • The traffic model expressed with the momentum conservation law. • Traffic flow information propagate anisotropically and preserve the equilibrium state in the smooth region. • Computational particles of two families are invented to mimic forward-running and backward-running characteristics. • Formation of shocks will be naturally detected by the intersection of computational particles of same family. • A newly developed characteristic particle method is used to simulate traffic flow model equations.

  17. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  18. Cellular automata models for diffusion of information and highway traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Henryk

    In the first part of this work we study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents degree of 'anticipatory driving'. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: 'conservative' driving with high speed limit and 'anticipatory' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered. For rule 184, we present exact calculations of the order parameter in a transition from the moving phase to the jammed phase using the method of preimage counting, and use this result to construct a solution to the density classification problem. In the second part we propose a probabilistic cellular automaton model for the spread of innovations, rumors, news, etc., in a social system. We start from simple deterministic models, for which exact expressions for the density of adopters are derived. For a more realistic model, based on probabilistic cellular automata, we study the influence of a range of interaction R on the shape of the adoption curve. When the probability of adoption is proportional to the local density of adopters, and individuals can drop the innovation with some probability p, the system exhibits a second order phase transition. Critical line separating regions of parameter space in which asymptotic density of adopters is positive from the region where it is equal to zero converges toward the mean-field line when the range of the interaction increases. In a region between R=1 critical line and the mean-field line asymptotic density of adopters depends on R, becoming zero if R is too small (smaller than some critical value). This result demonstrates the importance of connectivity in

  19. Effects of Symbol Brightness Cueing on Attention During a Visual Search of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Liao, Min-Ju; Granada, Stacie

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated visual search performance for target aircraft symbols on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). Of primary interest was the influence of target brightness (intensity) and highlighting validity (search directions) on the ability to detect a target aircraft among distractor aircraft. Target aircraft were distinguished by an airspace course that conflicted with Ownship (that is, the participant's aircraft). The display could present all (homogeneous) bright aircraft, all (homogeneous) dim aircraft, or mixed bright and dim aircraft, with the target aircraft being either bright or dim. In the mixed intensity condition, participants may or may not have been instructed whether the target was bright or dim. Results indicated that highlighting validity facilitated better detection times. However, instead of bright targets being detected faster, dim targets were found to be detected more slowly in the mixed intensity display than in the homogeneous display. This relative slowness may be due to a delay in confirming the dim aircraft to be a target when it it was among brighter distractor aircraft. This hypothesis will be tested in future research. Funding for this work was provided by the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project of NASA's Airspace Operation Systems Program.

  20. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  1. Effect of changing driving conditions on driver behavior towards design of a safe and efficient traffic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This simulation-based study explores the effects of different work zone configurations, varying distances : between traffic signs, traffic density and individual differences on drivers behavior. Conventional Lane : Merge (CLM) and Joint Lane Merge...

  2. LOTIR: A Routing Protocol for Multi-hop V-to-I Communication Using Local Traffic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-chan Lan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is an emerging technology that can be applied to safety, transport efficiency, or infotainment applications for roads and highways. However, due to its unique features, such as dynamic mobility patterns and uneven distributions of vehicles, VANET faces many challenging research issues for robust data dissemination in the network. Many routing protocols have been proposed for VANET in the past few years, and the idea of utilizing a navigation system to assist the routing protocol for selecting the next best forwarder has become increasingly popular. However, it might not be realistic to assume that every vehicle is equipped with a navigation system. In addition, due to privacy concerns, drivers might not want to reveal their planned routes to other cars. In this work, we propose a new routing protocol, called LOTIR (LOcal Traffic Information Routing, that relies on only local traffic information and does not require the assistance of a navigation system. LOTIR is a DTN-based routing protocol that utilizes the car-following theory and traffic light information to decide the next carrier to forward the data to. We implement LOTIR in NS-2, and our results show that it can achieve similar performance as prior work which depends on the availability of global network topology information.

  3. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores MarcoJavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  4. Traffic condition with road upgrading during construction and operation stages based on level-of-service (LOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A. C.; Lee, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, traffic survey was done at signalized intersection of both ends of an upgrading road during morning and afternoon peak hours throughout construction period. The intersections of Tudan Road located at Miri City in Sarawak State, Malaysia were chosen as study sites. The aim of this research was to investigate the traffic condition for the signalized intersections of a R3 secondary road that being upgrading to standard U5 dual carriageway during peak hours for construction and operation stages. Data collected from these sites were analyzed according to Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. From the results, the level-of-services (LOS) of Kuala Baram By Pass Road intersection improved from Level F to Level E at operation stage for weekday during peak hours in the morning. LOS of Lutong-Kuala Baram Road intersection at construction stage were Level C during peak hours in the morning and Level D during peak hours in the afternoon for weekends. However, the LOS during both peak hours for weekends were projected to improve to Level B at the operation stage. It proved that the road construction has affected LOS, and this temporary issue can be solved after the upgraded road is in operation.

  5. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  6. Implementation of Controlled Traffic in the Canadian Prairies: Soil and Plant Dynamics under Simulated and Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Achieving resiliency in agroecosystems may be accomplished through the incorporation of contemporary management systems and the diversification of crop rotations with pulse crops, such as controlled traffic farming (CTF) and faba beans (Vicia faba L.). As these practices become more common in the Canadian Prairies, it is imperative to have a well-rounded understanding of how faba beans interact with the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in conditions found in contemporary management systems. Simulated field conditions emulated soil compaction found in both the trafficked and un-trafficked areas of a CTF system, in which the presence of high water availability was shown to offset the negative results of large applications of compactive effort. Furthermore, low water availability exacerbated differences in plant responses between compaction treatments. The simulated treatment of 1.2 gcm-3 coupled with high water content yielded the most optimal results for most measured parameters, with a contrasting detrimental treatment of 1.4 gcm-3 at low water availability. The simulated field conditions were further bridged through an analysis of two commercial sites in Alberta, Canada that compared both trafficked and un-trafficked soil properties. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. The measured soil physical and hydraulic properties of bulk density, macroporosity, S-Index, PAWC and Km were shown to be heavily influenced by the CTF traffic regime, while soil nutrient properties of AN, pH, STN SOC were determined to be dependent on both management and landscape features.

  7. Modelling CO concentrations under free-flowing and congested traffic conditions in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, B; Budd, U; Misstear, B [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity Coll. Dublin (Ireland); Ceburnis, D; Jennings, S G [Dept. of Experimental Physics, National Univ. of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    The assessment and management of air quality is required under the EU Air Quality Framework Directive and its Daughter Directives (CEC, 1996, 1999, 2000) which specify the limits for certain pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO). Air quality modelling is used to predict the future impact of road improvements, often as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment. The U.S. National Commission on Air Quality found in 1981 that such models may typically overpredict or underpredict actual concentrations by a factor of two. Even twenty years later the U.K. Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions (UK DETR, 2001) concurred that ''If the prediction of an annual mean concentration lies within {+-}50% of the measurement, a user would not consider that the model has behaved badly.'' The Daughter Directive (CEC, 2000) concerned with CO allows 50% uncertainty in modelling of the eight-hour average concentration. An assessment of CALINE4 was performed for two contrasting sites: a free-flowing motorway and a periodically-congested roundabout. Air quality was continuously monitored over a one-year period at both sites. The data collected was compared with model predictions based on local and regional meteorological data, site geometry and traffic volumes. The modelled and monitored results were compared through both graphical and statistical analysis (Broderick B.M. et al., 2003). (orig.)

  8. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  9. Urban traffic information system prototype: Use for Rome downtown area traffic control; 200 S.I.T.U. prototipo del sistema informativo per il traffico urbano: La sua applicazione allo studio della regolamentazione dell`accesso ai centri storici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, L; Mattucci, A; Frondaroli, A

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the characteristics, in terms of type of information and systems approaches utilized, of a prototype urban traffic simulator developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment). With reference to the development of the functional and architectural elements of this simulator, a preliminary review is made of problematics relevant to transportation system design, urban planning, and traffic control. The data base incorporated by the simulator is described and a comparison is made of different traffic modelling codes and man-machine interface methods. The paper concludes with an assessment of the results obtained with the first experimental application of the simulator in the control of the flow of traffic in Rome`s heavily congested downtown area.

  10. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  11. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  12. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  13. Traffic incident and crisis management : challenges and obstacles in information sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbruggen, J.G.M.; Nijkamp, P.; Smits, J.M.; Mohabir, G.

    2012-01-01

    Disaster Management and Traffic Incident Management involves the coordinated interactions of many public and private actors. On many levels, there is clearly a strong relation be-tween the road infrastructure and the effective handling of large scale disasters. To support these tasks in an effective

  14. Simulation of intersection of complicated information signals in air traffic control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Коба

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered is the problem of complicated system simulation with customers incoming flows. Developed is an algorithm accelerated of finding probability of the superposition of complicated customers. Derived are the top and bottom estimates of damage-factor which are connected with complical customers superposition. Noticed is connection with simulation problem of air traffic control system

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLICY TO PROVIDE THE TRAFFIC INFORMATION IN THE CASE OF EARTHQUAKES AN EXAMPLE ON THE NOTO PENINSULA EARTHQUAKE, ISHIKAWA PREFECTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masanori; Takayama, Jun-Ichi; Nakayama, Shoichiro

    Noto Peninsula earthquake occurred in Ishikawa Pref., in March, 2007, and the Noto Yuryo, and many arterial roads were damaged. This led to the conosiderable confusion of the road traffic in Noto Peninsula area and gave the influence on all kinds of social/economic activities. Therefore, an method of providing the traffic information for drivers is important in the case of disasters such as earthquakes. We carried out a questionnaire survey for local inhabitants and investigated the road use situation at the time of the Noto Peninsula earthquake and the information acquisition situation about it. We also analyzed whether or not the method of providing the traffic information was appropriate. In addition, we examined the best traffic information in the case of earthquakes.

  16. Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen F. Grumert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.

  17. 42 CFR 486.330 - Condition: Information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Information management. 486.330 Section...: Information management. An OPO must establish and use an electronic information management system to maintain the required medical, social and identifying information for every donor and transplant recipient and...

  18. TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL OF BICYCLING TRAFFIC CONDITION IN THE CENTRE OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current methods to determine the slope and proposes the method to model the topography of the road network using computer modeling of geographic information systems. The results obtained allow classifying the road network of Kharkоv according to the on the difficulty level for cycling.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel. PMID:25923722

  1. Link State Relationships Under Incident Conditions: Using a CTM-Based Linear Programming Dynamic Traffic Assignment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Urban transportation networks, consisting of numerous links and nodes, experience traffic incidents such as accidents and road maintenance work. A typical consequence of incidents is congestion which results in long queues and causes high travel time...

  2. Link state relationships under incident conditions : using a CTM-based linear programming dynamic traffic assignment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Urban transportation networks, consisting of numerous links and nodes, experience traffic incidents such as accidents and road : maintenance work. A typical consequence of incidents is congestion which results in long queues and causes high travel ti...

  3. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of macroscopic traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  4. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  5. Basic Investigations of Dynamic Travel Time Estimation Model for Traffic Signals Control Using Information from Optical Beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutani, Iwao; Mitsui, Tatsuro; Nakada, Yusuke

    In this paper put forward are neuron-type models, i.e., neural network model, wavelet neuron model and three layered wavelet neuron model(WV3), for estimating traveling time between signalized intersections in order to facilitate adaptive setting of traffic signal parameters such as green time and offset. Model validation tests using simulated data reveal that compared to other models, WV3 model works very fast in learning process and can produce more accurate estimates of travel time. Also, it is exhibited that up-link information obtainable from optical beacons, i.e., travel time observed during the former cycle time in this case, makes a crucial input variable to the models in that there isn't any substantial difference between the change of estimated and simulated travel time with the change of green time or offset when up-link information is employed as input while there appears big discrepancy between them when not employed.

  6. The effect advertisements on VMSs may have on the perception of relevant traffic information: an unexpected insight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Ilse M.; Dijksterhuis, Christiaan; Jelijs, Lambertus H.; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract - Authorities around the globe struggle with the question whether variable message signs (VMSs) should solely be used for traffic management or can also be used to display traffic-irrelevant messages, such as commercial advertisements. The main questions in this matter concern 1) traffic

  7. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  8. Qualifying information on deaths and serious injuries caused by road traffic in five Brazilian capitals using record linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandacaru, Polyana Maria Pimenta; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Rocha, Marli Souza; Aguiar, Fernanda Pinheiro; Nogueira, Maria Sueli M; Girodo, Anne Marielle; Pedrosa, Ana Amélia Galas; Oliveira, Vera Lídia Alves de; Alves, Marta Maria Malheiros; Paixão, Lúcia Maria Miana M; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de

    2017-09-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity. This study linked different data sources to measure the numbers of deaths and serious injuries and to estimate the percentage of corrections regarding the underlying cause of death, cause of injury, and the severity injury in victims in matched pairs from record linkage in five representative state capitals of the five macro-regions of Brazil. This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the Hospital Information System (HIS), Mortality Information System (MIS), and Police Road Traffic database of Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, Palmas, and Teresina, for the year 2013 for Teresina, and 2012 for the other capitals. RecLink III was used to perform probabilistic record linkage by identifying matched pairs to calculate the global correction percentage of the underlying cause of death, the circumstance that caused the road traffic injury, and the injury severity of the victims in the police database. There was a change in the cause of injury in the HIS, with an overall percentage of correction estimated at 24.4% for Belo Horizonte, 96.9% for Campo Grande, 100.0% for Palmas, and 33.2% for Teresina. The overall percentages of correction of the underlying cause of death in the MIS were 29.9%, 11.9%, 4.2%, and 33.5% for Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, and Teresina, respectively. The correction of the classification of injury severity in police database were 100.0% for Belo

  9. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I α (A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one

  10. Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

  11. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  12. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  13. A Visual Analytics Approach for Extracting Spatio-Temporal Urban Mobility Information from Mobile Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a visual analytics approach for deriving spatio-temporal patterns of collective human mobility from a vast mobile network traffic data set. More than 88 million movements between pairs of radio cells—so-called handovers—served as a proxy for more than two months of mobility within four urban test areas in Northern Italy. In contrast to previous work, our approach relies entirely on visualization and mapping techniques, implemented in several software applications. We purposefully avoid statistical or probabilistic modeling and, nonetheless, reveal characteristic and exceptional mobility patterns. The results show, for example, surprising similarities and symmetries amongst the total mobility and people flows between the test areas. Moreover, the exceptional patterns detected can be associated to real-world events such as soccer matches. We conclude that the visual analytics approach presented can shed new light on large-scale collective urban mobility behavior and thus helps to better understand the “pulse” of dynamic urban systems.

  14. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  15. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Providing Advanced and Real-Time Travel/Traffic Information to Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) analyze and communicate information that can enhance travel efficiency, alleviate congestion, and increase safety. In Texas, tourists (i.e., tripmakers unacquainted with the state) constitute an important ...

  17. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  18. ROAD TRAFFIC ESTIMATION USING BLUETOOTH SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika N. BUGDOL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bluetooth standard is a low-cost, very popular communication protocol offering a wide range of applications in many fields. In this paper, a novel system for road traffic estimation using Bluetooth sensors has been presented. The system consists of three main modules: filtration, statistical analysis of historical, and traffic estimation and prediction. The filtration module is responsible for the classification of road users and detecting measurements that should be removed. Traffic estimation has been performed on the basis of the data collected by Bluetooth measuring devices and information on external conditions (e.g., temperature, all of which have been gathered in the city of Bielsko-Biala (Poland. The obtained results are very promising. The smallest average relative error between the number of cars estimated by the model and the actual traffic was less than 10%.

  19. Conditioned [corrected] stimulus informativeness governs conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus associability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D; Gallistel, C R; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus ([CS]) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (unconditioned stimulus [US]). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we showed that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increased in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we showed that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both had no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C/T ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges.

  20. Eye Movement Analysis of Information Processing under Different Testing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)

  1. Experienced teachers' informal workplace learning and perceptions of workplace conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of

  2. Measuring Effectiveness of Persuasive Games Using an Informative Control Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Soekarjo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effectiveness of persuasive games is still emerging. This article presents a literature review of studies that empirically evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive games. The review concluded that limited empirical evidence is currently available to prove their effectiveness in attitude change. It further revealed that almost no study employed an informative control condition, making it difficult to conclude that the game was more effective than a control condition. Next, in a pretest-posttest design an empirical study tested whether change in attitude was different for people playing the persuasive game "EnerCities" compared to a control condition where participants read a document with highly similar information. No significant differences in increase of attitude or knowledge between participants that played the game and participants in the informative control condition were found. Based on the results of the literature review and the empirical study presented, it hence cannot be concluded that playing a game leads to a greater change in attitude or knowledge acquisition than experiencing conventional media would. Future work should employ designs with proper control conditions and focus on which game features lead to significant effects.

  3. Use of color on airport moving maps and cockpit displays of traffic information (CDTIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Color can be an effective method for coding visual information, making it easier to find and identify symbols on a display (Christ, 1975). However, careful consideration should be given when applying color because excessive or inappropriate use of co...

  4. Organizing safety: conditions for successful information assurance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Jeff; Coleman, Johnathan; Sostrom, Kristen; Wright, Willie

    2004-01-01

    Organizations must continuously seek safety. When considering computerized health information systems, "safety" includes protecting the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information assets such as patient information, key components of the technical information system, and critical personnel. "High Reliability Theory" (HRT) argues that organizations with strong leadership support, continuous training, redundant safety mechanisms, and "cultures of high reliability" can deploy and safely manage complex, risky technologies such as nuclear weapons systems or computerized health information systems. In preparation for the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), the Offices of the Surgeons General of the United States Army, Navy and Air Force, and the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command sponsored organizational, doctrinal, and technical projects that individually and collectively promote conditions for a "culture of information assurance." These efforts include sponsoring the "P3 Working Group" (P3WG), an interdisciplinary, tri-service taskforce that reviewed all relevant Department of Defense (DoD), Miliary Health System (MHS), Army, Navy and Air Force policies for compliance with the HIPAA medical privacy and data security regulations; supporting development, training, and deployment of OCTAVE(sm), a self-directed information security risk assessment process; and sponsoring development of the Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR), a Web-enabled enterprise portal about health information assurance.

  5. METHODS OF MANAGING TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenko, Viktor; Persiyanova, Elena; Belotskyy, Oleksiy; Malyeyeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of the article is information and communication networks (ICN) of critical infrastructure systems (CIS). The goal of the work is to create methods for managing the data flows and resources of the ICN of CIS to improve the efficiency of information processing. The following tasks were solved in the article: the data flow model of multi-level ICN structure was developed, the method of adaptive distribution of data flows was developed, the method of network resource assignment...

  6. The effect advertisements on VMSs may have on drivers’ reaction to relevant traffic information: an unexpected finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Ilse M.; Dijksterhuis, Christiaan; Jelijs, Lambertus; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Road authorities around the globe struggle with the question whether variable message signs (VMSs) should solely be used for traffic management or can also be used to display traffic-irrelevant messages, such as commercial advertisements. The main questions in this matter concern 1)

  7. [Glucocorticoid therapy: what is the information sought by patients? Traffic analysis of the website cortisone-info.fr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, J; Six, M; Morin, C; Fardet, L

    2013-05-01

    About 1% of the general population are receiving systemic glucocorticoids. The information about this treatment sought by patients is unknown. The website www.cortisone-info.fr aims to provide therapeutic information about glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid therapy. It was posted on January 16, 2012. The information available on the website is documented and based on the recent medical literature. The website is made of 43 pages divided into five main sections (generalities about glucocorticoids, adverse events, measures associated with glucocorticoid therapy, discontinuation of glucocorticoids and, situations requiring attention). The website traffic between February 1st, 2012 and January 4, 2013 was analyzed using Google Analytics. During the study period, the website was visited by 67,496 people (average number of visitors per day: 33 in February 2012, 326 in December 2012). The number of page views was 230,496 or an average of 3.5 pages per visitor. Of these 230,496 page views, 145,431 (63.1%) were related to adverse events and 37,722 (16.4%) were related to generalities about glucocorticoids (e.g., what is cortisone? For which disease? How does it work?). Information particularly sought by visitors was related to the diet to follow during glucocorticoid therapy (page accessed 11,946 times), data about what cortisone is (page accessed 11,829 times) and the effects of glucocorticoids on weight (page accessed 10,442 times). Knowledge of glucocorticoid-treated patients' expectations may help physicians to optimize information they give, thereby helping to reduce patients' concerns about glucocorticoids and to improve adherence to the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy for equipment condition identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia; Chen, Xuefeng; Zuo, Ming J; Yuan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Condition identification of mechanical equipment from vibration measurement data is significant to avoid economic loss caused by unscheduled breakdowns and catastrophic accidents. However, this task still faces challenges due to the complexity of equipment and the harsh environment. This paper provides a possibility for equipment condition identification by proposing a method called customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy. Benefiting from the properties of multi-resolution analysis and multiple wavelet basis functions, the multiwavelet method has advantages in characterizing non-stationary vibration signals. In order to realize the accurate detection and identification of the condition features, a customized lifting multiwavelet packet is constructed via a multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then the vibration signal from the mechanical equipment is processed by the customized lifting multiwavelet packet transform. The relative energy in each frequency band of the multiwavelet packet transform coefficients that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy is taken as the probability. The normalized information entropy is obtained based on the relative energy to describe the condition of a mechanical system. The proposed method is applied to the condition identification of a rolling mill and a demountable disk–drum aero-engine. The results support the feasibility of the proposed method in equipment condition identification. (paper)

  9. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  10. Monitoring overloaded vehicles: Improving traffic control centre performance by using management information systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muronga, K

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is an important function of management and to facilitate decision making that is relevant to any organisation, it is imperative that managers have the correct information at the right time. Since the 1990’s, the Transport Systems...

  11. Travelers' need for information in traffic and transit: results from a web survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Molin, E.J.E.; Wee, van G.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates (determinants of) travelers' needs concerning travel information, based on a web survey filled out by 488 individuals. It aims at narrowing down three identified gaps in empirical literature available on this topic. Firstly, instead of focusing on the influence of manifest

  12. On the applicability of fair and adaptive data dissemination in traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  13. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  14. Air Traffic Management and Space Transportation - System Wide Information Management and the Integration in European Airspace

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens; Jakobi, Jörn; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2015-01-01

    Space Travel becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. The integration of space vehicles in airspace therefore is an increasingly important topic to be considered on an international scale. With the Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe, requirements have been defined for Shared and Reference Business Trajectories as well as System Wide Information Management (SWIM). The s...

  15. Learning-based traffic signal control algorithms with neighborhood information sharing: An application for sustainable mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhu, Feng [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering; Ukkusuri, Satish V. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering

    2017-10-04

    Here, this research applies R-Markov Average Reward Technique based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm, namely RMART, for vehicular signal control problem leveraging information sharing among signal controllers in connected vehicle environment. We implemented the algorithm in a network of 18 signalized intersections and compare the performance of RMART with fixed, adaptive, and variants of the RL schemes. Results show significant improvement in system performance for RMART algorithm with information sharing over both traditional fixed signal timing plans and real time adaptive control schemes. Additionally, the comparison with reinforcement learning algorithms including Q learning and SARSA indicate that RMART performs better at higher congestion levels. Further, a multi-reward structure is proposed that dynamically adjusts the reward function with varying congestion states at the intersection. Finally, the results from test networks show significant reduction in emissions (CO, CO2, NOx, VOC, PM10) when RL algorithms are implemented compared to fixed signal timings and adaptive schemes.

  16. Reserving Charging Decision-Making Model and Route Plan for Electric Vehicles Considering Information of Traffic and Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of battery energy technology, electric vehicles (EV are catching more and more attention. One of the influencing factors of electric vehicles large-scale application is the availability of charging stations and convenience of charging. It is important to investigate how to make reserving charging strategies and ensure electric vehicles are charged with shorter time and lower charging expense whenever charging request is proposed. This paper proposes a reserving charging decision-making model for electric vehicles that move to certain destinations and need charging services in consideration of traffic conditions and available charging resources at the charging stations. Besides, the interactive mechanism is described to show how the reserving charging system works, as well as the rolling records-based credit mechanism where extra charges from EV is considered to hedge default behavior. With the objectives of minimizing driving time and minimizing charging expenses, an optimization model with two objective functions is formulated. Then the optimizations are solved by a K shortest paths algorithm based on a weighted directed graph, where the time and distance factors are respectively treated as weights of corresponding edges of transportation networks. Case studies show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed route plan and reserving charging decision-making model.

  17. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA, a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  18. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  19. Methodological Approach Into Researching Traffic Under Extraordinary Security Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Anthony Ercegovac

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of researching traffic under extraordinaryconditions in order to implement a more efficient and functionaltraffic management strategy under both normal and irregularconditions- as well as the grey zone of when the changefrom normal into extraordinary traffic conditions actually occur-provides the researcher with numerous methodologicalproblems.Starting from the viewpoint that the field of traffic scienceneeds an increase into the capacity of research into traffic underextraordinary conditions we have chosen to define withinthis article a specific methodological approach that undertakesa study into the exposure, menace, threat and risk faced by trafficsystems under extraordinary conditions through utilisingmethods utilised by the military that allow for the possible resolutionof such problems through compatible testing of both simulatedand real life conditions that such systems may face.In searching for possible applicable solutions to such demandingparametres we believe that the use of concrete informationin real time and real space in order to bring about amore efficient functioning of traffic under extraordinary conditionscan be achieved through the use of the analytical capacityof traffic systems information gathering attained through theusage of Uninhabited Flying Vehicles (UFVs in monitoringroad, rail and maritime traffic and transport.

  20. INFORMATION USE ABOUT THE LEVEL OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS GROUND PROVISION TO PLAN AIR TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the task of building up the best aircraft route on the basis of information about the level of flight ground provision. Disadvantages of traditional radar surveillance facilities are given. Four types of Russian Feder- ation aerospace depending on the level of ground radio flight provision are considered. Relevance of selecting an aircraft route from the view of necessity to plan aerospace is substantiated. The formula to calculate probabilities of obtaining not correct aircraft navigation data is given. The analysis of errors arising while building up the aircraft route linked with both operational navigation and communication equipment faults as well as with a human factor is carried out. Formulas of wrong route selecting probability when an aircraft track changes or is maintained are suggested. A generalized weighted index of losses on the basis of various factors affecting an aircraft track change is introduced. Importance of these factors are considered. A rule of aircraft transition to the next route point is formulated. The conclusion is made which route is the most rational in case of following the rule of route selecting at every flight stage. Practical recommendations which can be used to solve conflict between aircraft cruising under the given rule are suggested.

  1. Conditional Mutual Information Based Feature Selection for Classification Task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal; Pudil, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4756 (2007), s. 417-426 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Pattern classification * feature selection * conditional mutual information * text categorization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  2. Conditional mutual information of bipartite unitaries and scrambling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Dawei; Hayden, Patrick; Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-28

    One way to diagnose chaos in bipartite unitary channels is via the tripartite information of the corresponding Choi state, which for certain choices of the subsystems reduces to the negative conditional mutual information (CMI). We study this quantity from a quantum information-theoretic perspective to clarify its role in diagnosing scrambling. When the CMI is zero, we find that the channel has a special normal form consisting of local channels between individual inputs and outputs. However, we find that arbitrarily low CMI does not imply arbitrary proximity to a channel of this form, although it does imply a type of approximate recoverability of one of the inputs. When the CMI is maximal, we find that the residual channel from an individual input to an individual output is completely depolarizing when the other input is maximally mixed. However, we again find that this result is not robust. We also extend some of these results to the multipartite case and to the case of Haar-random pure input states. Finally, we look at the relationship between tripartite information and its Rényi-2 version which is directly related to out-of-time-order correlation functions. In particular, we demonstrate an arbitrarily large gap between the two quantities.

  3. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada B. Rabie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Keywords: Rhizopus, Immunocompetent, Air conditioning

  4. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  5. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  6. Toxicity and mutagenicity of exhaust from compressed natural gas: Could this be a clean solution for megacities with mixed-traffic conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Avinash K; Ateeq, Bushra; Gupta, Tarun; Singh, Akhilendra P; Pandey, Swaroop K; Sharma, Nikhil; Agarwal, Rashmi A; Gupta, Neeraj K; Sharma, Hemant; Jain, Ayush; Shukla, Pravesh C

    2018-04-20

    Despite intensive research carried out on particulates, correlation between engine-out particulate emissions and adverse health effects is not well understood yet. Particulate emissions hold enormous significance for mega-cities like Delhi that have immense traffic diversity. Entire public transportation system involving taxis, three-wheelers, and buses has been switched from conventional liquid fuels to compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Mega-city of Delhi. In this study, the particulate characterization was carried out on variety of engines including three diesel engines complying with Euro-II, Euro-III and Euro-IV emission norms, one Euro-II gasoline engine and one Euro-IV CNG engine. Physical, chemical and biological characterizations of particulates were performed to assess the particulate toxicity. The mutagenic potential of particulate samples was investigated at different concentrations using two different Salmonella strains, TA98 and TA100 in presence and absence of liver S9 metabolic enzyme fraction. Particulates emitted from diesel and gasoline engines showed higher mutagenicity, while those from CNG engine showed negligible mutagenicity compared to other test fuels and engine configurations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed onto CNG engine particulates were also relatively fewer compared to those from equivalent diesel and gasoline engines. Taken together, our findings indicate that CNG is comparatively safer fuel compared to diesel and gasoline and can offer a cleaner transport energy solution for mega-cities with mixed-traffic conditions, especially in developing countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Features of formation of car-traffic in a regional transportation system in conditions the multi-agents organization of a railway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Leonidovich Kazakov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of structural reform of Russian railways, a host of agents that provide customers with loading resources, especially wagons for transport by railway. These processes reduce in efficiency of the car fleet, increasing transportation costs, shortage of cars for many customers, an increase of empty runs and, as a result, a depletion of a number of sections of the network carrying capacity at a reduced total volume of rail traffic. The article describes the reasons for this situation due to the mismatch occurred heterogeneity of rolling stock to existing planning conditions and tariffs. It is also shown that the inefficiency of decentralized car fleet contributes to the predominance of tree-type network, and the importance of this factor in the new environment has increased substantially. To ensure the efficient operation of rail transport as a systemic industry, providing mass-haul transport, it is proposed for integration into a regional logistics. Freight terminals regional logistics transportation and distribution system (RLTRS is appropriate to create on the basis of major freight railway stations. Thus, the adaptation of planning car traffic volume and train formation to modern standards, the establishment of tariff incentives and long-term changes in network configuration are considered as a prerequisite for the transformation of local transport and technological systems on the network of Russian railways into the integrated transport and logistics systems.

  8. Simulating and evaluating an adaptive and integrated traffic lights control system for smart city application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuana, E.; Rahardjo, K.; Gozali, F.; Tan, S.; Rambung, R.; Adrian, D.

    2018-01-01

    A city could be categorized as a smart city when the information technology has been developed to the point that the administration could sense, understand, and control every resource to serve its people and sustain the development of the city. One of the smart city aspects is transportation and traffic management. This paper presents a research project to design an adaptive traffic lights control system as a part of the smart system for optimizing road utilization and reducing congestion. Research problems presented include: (1) Congestion in one direction toward an intersection due to dynamic traffic condition from time to time during the day, while the timing cycles in traffic lights system are mostly static; (2) No timing synchronization among traffic lights in adjacent intersections that is causing unsteady flows; (3) Difficulties in traffic condition monitoring on the intersection and the lack of facility for remotely controlling traffic lights. In this research, a simulator has been built to model the adaptivity and integration among different traffic lights controllers in adjacent intersections, and a case study consisting of three sets of intersections along Jalan K. H. Hasyim Ashari has been simulated. It can be concluded that timing slots synchronization among traffic lights is crucial for maintaining a steady traffic flow.

  9. Maintenance Planning of Offshore Wind Turbine using Condition Monitoring Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Deterioration processes such as fatigue and corrosion are typically affecting offshore structures. To "control" this deterioration, inspection and maintenance activities are developed. Probabilistic methodologies represent an important tool to identify the suitable strategy to inspect and control...... the deterioration in structures such as offshore wind turbines (OWT). Besides these methods, the integration of condition monitoring information (CMI) can optimize the mitigation activities as an updating tool. In this paper, a framework for risk-based inspection and maintenance planning (RBI) is applied for OWT....... With the integration of CMI by means Bayesian inference, a slightly change of first inspection times are coming up, influenced by the reduction of the uncertainty and harsher or milder external agents....

  10. Facial Recognition in Uncontrolled Conditions for Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qinghan; Yang, Xue-Dong

    2010-12-01

    With the increasing use of computers nowadays, information security is becoming an important issue for private companies and government organizations. Various security technologies have been developed, such as authentication, authorization, and auditing. However, once a user logs on, it is assumed that the system would be controlled by the same person. To address this flaw, we developed a demonstration system that uses facial recognition technology to periodically verify the identity of the user. If the authenticated user's face disappears, the system automatically performs a log-off or screen-lock operation. This paper presents our further efforts in developing image preprocessing algorithms and dealing with angled facial images. The objective is to improve the accuracy of facial recognition under uncontrolled conditions. To compare the results with others, the frontal pose subset of the Face Recognition Technology (FERET) database was used for the test. The experiments showed that the proposed algorithms provided promising results.

  11. Facial Recognition in Uncontrolled Conditions for Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghan Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of computers nowadays, information security is becoming an important issue for private companies and government organizations. Various security technologies have been developed, such as authentication, authorization, and auditing. However, once a user logs on, it is assumed that the system would be controlled by the same person. To address this flaw, we developed a demonstration system that uses facial recognition technology to periodically verify the identity of the user. If the authenticated user's face disappears, the system automatically performs a log-off or screen-lock operation. This paper presents our further efforts in developing image preprocessing algorithms and dealing with angled facial images. The objective is to improve the accuracy of facial recognition under uncontrolled conditions. To compare the results with others, the frontal pose subset of the Face Recognition Technology (FERET database was used for the test. The experiments showed that the proposed algorithms provided promising results.

  12. Risk Informed Optimization of Nuclear Instrumentation for Emergency Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Emergency conditions after a nuclear accident are different in each case and cannot be predicted accurately. The accident at TMI did not contaminate the environment. The accident at Chernobyl had a large, early release of nuclear contamination, widely dispersed over many countries. Although there was no large, early release of contamination at Fukushima Daiichi, the timeline of the accident included days of later contamination of various degrees of severity. A large amount of the contamination has been released to the ocean and an exclusion zone still exists around the station. In all of these accidents there were no adequate radiation monitoring systems distant from the origin point that could provide accurate status to the authorities and the local population. In the recent years a number of new nuclear monitoring systems have been implemented or are under development to be installed in areas that might be exposed to nuclear contamination in emergencies. Based on the risk informed optimization methodology, this paper provides recommendations for selecting the quantity and type of instrumentation, the location and sampling of data, and the real-time processing of information. (authors)

  13. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  14. Using petrographic techniques to evaluate the induced effects of NaCl, extreme climatic conditions, and traffic load on Spanish road surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Pérez-Fortes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The asphalt surface layer is the most exposed to weather and traffic conditions on roads, especially those subjected to winter maintenance. Therefore, a deep knowledge of the mechanisms which can damage this layer is necessary to improve its design, construction and long-term use. With this purpose, two types of asphalt mixtures used on roads from NW Spain were subjected to durability tests (freezing-thaw and thermal-stress with a saturated NaCl solution. After the durability tests, a wheel tracking test was performed on the samples, and the resultant material was analyzed by optical polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. This analysis showed that the binder-aggregate low adhesion was the main responsible of the asphalt mixture damage. This damage was concentrated in the aggregates because the binder acted as an impermeable wall. Consequently, the NaCl solution penetrated and degraded the aggregates quickly and strongly.

  15. Using petrographic techniques to evaluate the induced effects of NaCl, extreme climatic conditions, and traffic load on Spanish road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Fortes, A.F.; Varas-Muriel, M.J.; Castiñeiras, P.

    2017-01-01

    The asphalt surface layer is the most exposed to weather and traffic conditions on roads, especially those subjected to winter maintenance. Therefore, a deep knowledge of the mechanisms which can damage this layer is necessary to improve its design, construction and long-term use. With this purpose, two types of asphalt mixtures used on roads from NW Spain were subjected to durability tests (freezing-thaw and thermal-stress) with a saturated NaCl solution. After the durability tests, a wheel tracking test was performed on the samples, and the resultant material was analyzed by optical polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. This analysis showed that the binder-aggregate low adhesion was the main responsible of the asphalt mixture damage. This damage was concentrated in the aggregates because the binder acted as an impermeable wall. Consequently, the NaCl solution penetrated and degraded the aggregates quickly and strongly. [es

  16. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Nada B; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O

    2012-03-01

    Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automatic Traffic Data Collection under Varying Lighting and Temperature Conditions in Multimodal Environments: Thermal versus Visible Spectrum Video-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based monitoring systems using visible spectrum (regular video cameras can complement or substitute conventional sensors and provide rich positional and classification data. Although new camera technologies, including thermal video sensors, may improve the performance of digital video-based sensors, their performance under various conditions has rarely been evaluated at multimodal facilities. The purpose of this research is to integrate existing computer vision methods for automated data collection and evaluate the detection, classification, and speed measurement performance of thermal video sensors under varying lighting and temperature conditions. Thermal and regular video data was collected simultaneously under different conditions across multiple sites. Although the regular video sensor narrowly outperformed the thermal sensor during daytime, the performance of the thermal sensor is significantly better for low visibility and shadow conditions, particularly for pedestrians and cyclists. Retraining the algorithm on thermal data yielded an improvement in the global accuracy of 48%. Thermal speed measurements were consistently more accurate than for the regular video at daytime and nighttime. Thermal video is insensitive to lighting interference and pavement temperature, solves issues associated with visible light cameras for traffic data collection, and offers other benefits such as privacy, insensitivity to glare, storage space, and lower processing requirements.

  18. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively.

  19. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  20. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grössing, G; Fussy, S; Pascasio, J Mesa; Schwabl, H

    2016-01-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively. (paper)

  1. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and validation of a multilevel model for predicting workload under routine and nonroutine conditions in an air traffic management center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew; Hannah, Sam; Sanderson, Penelope; Bolland, Scott; Mooij, Martijn; Murphy, Sean

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model capable of predicting variability in the mental workload experienced by frontline operators under routine and nonroutine conditions. Excess workload is a risk that needs to be managed in safety-critical industries. Predictive models are needed to manage this risk effectively yet are difficult to develop. Much of the difficulty stems from the fact that workload prediction is a multilevel problem. A multilevel workload model was developed in Study I with data collected from an en route air traffic management center. Dynamic density metrics were used to predict variability in workload within and between work units while controlling for variability among raters.The model was cross-validated in Studies 2 and 3 with the use of a high-fidelity simulator. Reported workload generally remained within the bounds of the 90% prediction interval in Studies 2 and 3. Workload crossed the upper bound of the prediction interval only under nonroutine conditions. Qualitative analyses suggest that nonroutine events caused workload to cross the upper bound of the prediction interval because the controllers could not manage their workload strategically. The model performed well under both routine and nonroutine conditions and over different patterns of workload variation. Workload prediction models can be used to support both strategic and tactical workload management. Strategic uses include the analysis of historical and projected workflows and the assessment of staffing needs.Tactical uses include the dynamic reallocation of resources to meet changes in demand.

  3. Methodology for measurement of diesel particle size distributions from a city bus working in real traffic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armas, O; Gómez, A; Mata, C

    2011-01-01

    The study of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides emissions of diesel engines is nowadays a necessary step towards pollutant emission reduction. For a complete evaluation of PM emissions and its size characterization, one of the most challenging goals is to adapt the available techniques and the data acquisition procedures to the measurement and to propose a methodology for the interpretation of instantaneous particle size distributions (PSD) of combustion-derived particles produced by a vehicle during real driving conditions. In this work, PSD from the exhaust gas of a city bus operated in real driving conditions with passengers have been measured. For the study, the bus was equipped with a rotating disk diluter coupled to an air supply thermal conditioner (with an evaporating tube), the latter being connected to a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer spectrometer. The main objective of this work has been to propose an alternative procedure for evaluating the influence of several transient sequences on PSD emitted by a city bus used in real driving conditions with passengers. The transitions studied were those derived from the combination of four possible sequences or categories during real driving conditions: idle, acceleration, deceleration with fuel consumption and deceleration without fuel consumption. The analysis methodology used in this work proved to be a useful tool for a better understanding of the phenomena related to the determination of PSD emitted by a city bus during real driving conditions with passengers

  4. Methodology for measurement of diesel particle size distributions from a city bus working in real traffic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, O.; Gómez, A.; Mata, C.

    2011-10-01

    The study of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides emissions of diesel engines is nowadays a necessary step towards pollutant emission reduction. For a complete evaluation of PM emissions and its size characterization, one of the most challenging goals is to adapt the available techniques and the data acquisition procedures to the measurement and to propose a methodology for the interpretation of instantaneous particle size distributions (PSD) of combustion-derived particles produced by a vehicle during real driving conditions. In this work, PSD from the exhaust gas of a city bus operated in real driving conditions with passengers have been measured. For the study, the bus was equipped with a rotating disk diluter coupled to an air supply thermal conditioner (with an evaporating tube), the latter being connected to a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer spectrometer. The main objective of this work has been to propose an alternative procedure for evaluating the influence of several transient sequences on PSD emitted by a city bus used in real driving conditions with passengers. The transitions studied were those derived from the combination of four possible sequences or categories during real driving conditions: idle, acceleration, deceleration with fuel consumption and deceleration without fuel consumption. The analysis methodology used in this work proved to be a useful tool for a better understanding of the phenomena related to the determination of PSD emitted by a city bus during real driving conditions with passengers.

  5. Guaranteed safety information for rising traffic safety at roads main junctions using infrastructure-aided driver-assistance systems; Sichere Information durch infrastrukturgestuetzte Fahrerassistenzsysteme zur Steigerung der Verkehrssicherheit an Strassenknotenpunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltschko, T.

    2004-07-01

    Progress of development of driver assistance systems have more and more lead to systems assisting the driver on guidance level. These systems allow direct or indirect driving process contact thus being safety relevant vehicle systems, and their operation requires high safety and reliability standards. To realize the necessary driver assistance, complete collection and interpretation of traffic actions are required and a number of information and information sources has to be integrated, especially in case of traffic situations at junctions in urban areas. The requirements, however, cannot only be reduced to technical reliability of the system and system components but have also to be extended to the information in- and output thus guaranteeing safe operation. This information has to reach the required quality thus avoiding any hazards during the complete time of information use. It is evident that none of the existing models and methods allow a uniform description of information quality of driver assistance systems. The thesis shows a quality concept for description and evaluation of information quality within information processing systems. The quality concept consists of a quality model and an analysing procedure. The quality model is the basis of the quality concept. All types of information are described by a fixed set of quality characteristic, and suitable parameters are used for concretion and quantification. (orig.)

  6. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Zhu Chengjuan; Jia Bin; Wu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion. (general)

  7. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  8. Urban traffic pollution and citizens information; Misure anti inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino. Uno studio di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P; Borrelli, G; Brini, S [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The following report is strictly connected to studies for introducing certain actions useful to effort the problem of urban traffic pollution. Technologies are today available to reduce traffic pollution and it is possible to verify effectiveness during the implementation. On the other hand it is not always possible to verify effectiveness of these measures on the citizen customs and quality of life. Frequently policies aiming to limit environmental risk are viewed by citizens as an insupportable coercion. In the case of urban traffic it is particularly true because the measures in this field are limited to a certain numbers of prohibitions limiting the moving freedom of citizens inside urban areas. This research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome. [Italian] Il lavoro presentato di seguito si inserisce in un filone di studi che tendono a individuare quelle azioni capaci di sciogliere il nodo ormai cruciale dell'inquinamento da traffico nelle aree urbane. Azioni efficaci ne sono state individuate numerose ma, mentre per quanto riguarda le misure tecnologiche l'efficacia intrinseca della misura viene verificata nell'applicazione, non sempre si puo' dire la stessa cosa per quanto riguarda le misure che incidono sulle abitudini di vita dei cittadini. Sempre piu' spesso le politiche tese a limitare i danni ambientali sono vissute dal cittadino come una insopportabile coercizione. Nel caso del traffico urbano cio' e' particolarmente vero proprio perche' le misure di questo settore si limitano spesso a una serie di divieti che oggettivamente limitano la liberta' di movimento del cittadino. I blocchi del traffico, le zone blu, sono gli esempi piu' lampanti di questo tipo di limitazione. Questa ricerca sul campo, svolta tramite questionario e su un campione di cittadini di due quartieri di

  9. Urban traffic pollution and citizens information; Misure anti inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino. Uno studio di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P.; Borrelli, G.; Brini, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The following report is strictly connected to studies for introducing certain actions useful to effort the problem of urban traffic pollution. Technologies are today available to reduce traffic pollution and it is possible to verify effectiveness during the implementation. On the other hand it is not always possible to verify effectiveness of these measures on the citizen customs and quality of life. Frequently policies aiming to limit environmental risk are viewed by citizens as an insupportable coercion. In the case of urban traffic it is particularly true because the measures in this field are limited to a certain numbers of prohibitions limiting the moving freedom of citizens inside urban areas. This research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome. [Italian] Il lavoro presentato di seguito si inserisce in un filone di studi che tendono a individuare quelle azioni capaci di sciogliere il nodo ormai cruciale dell'inquinamento da traffico nelle aree urbane. Azioni efficaci ne sono state individuate numerose ma, mentre per quanto riguarda le misure tecnologiche l'efficacia intrinseca della misura viene verificata nell'applicazione, non sempre si puo' dire la stessa cosa per quanto riguarda le misure che incidono sulle abitudini di vita dei cittadini. Sempre piu' spesso le politiche tese a limitare i danni ambientali sono vissute dal cittadino come una insopportabile coercizione. Nel caso del traffico urbano cio' e' particolarmente vero proprio perche' le misure di questo settore si limitano spesso a una serie di divieti che oggettivamente limitano la liberta' di movimento del cittadino. I blocchi del traffico, le zone blu, sono gli esempi piu' lampanti di questo tipo di limitazione. Questa ricerca sul campo, svolta tramite questionario e

  10. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  11. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  12. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  13. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  14. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control: Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm with Experience Replay and Target Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Juntao; Shen, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Ito, Minoru; Shiratori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive traffic signal control, which adjusts traffic signal timing according to real-time traffic, has been shown to be an effective method to reduce traffic congestion. Available works on adaptive traffic signal control make responsive traffic signal control decisions based on human-crafted features (e.g. vehicle queue length). However, human-crafted features are abstractions of raw traffic data (e.g., position and speed of vehicles), which ignore some useful traffic information and lead t...

  15. 78 FR 68909 - Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Crystal Rennie, Enterprise Records... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Knee and Lower Leg...

  16. Assistance System for Traffic Signs Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zídek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We can see arising trend in the automotive industry in last years – autonomous cars that are driven just by on-board computers. The traffic signs tracking system must deal with real conditions with data that are frequently obtained in poor light conditions, fog, heavy rain or are otherwise disturbed. Completely same problem is solved by mapping companies that are producing geospatial data for different information systems, navigations, etc. They are frequently using cars equipped with a wide range of measuring instruments including panoramic cameras. These measurements are frequently done during early morning hours when the traffic conditions are acceptable. However, in this time, the sun position is usually not optimal for the photography. Most of the traffic signs and other street objects are heavily underexposed. Hence, it is difficult to find an automatic approach that can identify them reliably. In this article, we focus on methods designed to deal with the described conditions. An overview of the state-of-the-art methods is outlined. Further, where it is possible, we outline an implementation of the described methods using well-known Open Computer Vision library. Finally, emphasis is placed on the methods that can deal with low light conditions, fog or other situations that complicate the detection process.

  17. Resolving embarrassing medical conditions with online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redston, Sarah; de Botte, Sharon; Smith, Carl

    2018-06-01

    Reliance on online health information is proliferating and the Internet has the potential to revolutionize the provision of public health information. The anonymity of online health information may be particularly appealing to people seeking advice on 'embarrassing' health problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether data generated by the embarrassingproblems.com health information site showed any temporal patterns in problem resolution, and (2) whether successful resolution of a medical problem using online information varied with the type of medical problem. We analyzed the responses of visitors to the embarrassingproblems.com website on the resolution of their problems. The dataset comprised 100,561 responses to information provided on 77 different embarrassing problems grouped into 9 classes of medical problem over an 82-month period. Data were analyzed with a Bernoulli Generalized Linear Model using Bayesian inference. We detected a statistically important interaction between embarrassing problem type and the time period in which data were collected, with an improvement in problem resolution over time for all of the classes of medical problem on the website but with a lower rate of increase in resolution for urinary health problems and medical problems associated with the mouth and face. As far as we are aware, this is the first analysis of data of this nature. Findings support the growing recognition that online health information can contribute to the resolution of embarrassing medical problems, but demonstrate that outcomes may vary with medical problem type. The results indicate that building data collection into online information provision can help to refine and focus health information for online users. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Globalization on Trial: The Human Condition and the Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    What is the human condition at the dawning of the global age? ... scholars,and students in the social sciences and, particularly, the humanities; donors, ... affecting the nature of human civilization, and with the interaction between Islamic and ...

  19. Mobile geographic information system (GIS) solution for pavement condition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    This report discusses the design and implementation of a software-based solution that will improve the data collection processes during the Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) conducted by the State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida Department of Tr...

  20. Mobile geographic information system solution for pavement condition surveys [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida : Department of Transportation (FDOT) performs : annual Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) of : the Departments extensive pavement network. : This work is performed by single-person crews in : inertial...

  1. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ling; Hu, Yanqing; Li, Baowen; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2015-01-01

    Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR) model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.

  2. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Feng

    Full Text Available Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.

  3. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Foot (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract... (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY...)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  4. 78 FR 68906 - Agency Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900-- NEW (Back (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Questionnaire''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

  5. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability...

  6. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Hand and Finger Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Finger Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Hand and Finger Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Hand and Finger Conditions Disability Benefits...

  7. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans... Control No. 2900- NEW (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability...

  8. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans... Control No. 2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: (Neck (Cervical Spine...

  9. Users’ Perception And Reported Effects Of Long-term Access To In-Vehicle Traffic Information Services Mediated Through Nomadic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoglund Tor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ICT-mediated traffic information has been argued to contribute to a more sustainable transport system through affecting drivers. Nevertheless, long-term effects of travellers having access to nomadic in-vehicle systems for traveller information are not well known. This study presents the results from a multi-national large-scale field operational test (FOT. The results show that the users in general were positive to the tested systems and that there were several effects on their driving behaviour but in many cases the effects were limited. Moreover the effects varied between system types. Positive effects were related to comfort, as well as individual and system efficiency. One could also notice that perceived effects were not as high as the participants had expected, leading to some disappointment. Most of the times this was due to the tested systems functioning in a less than optimal way.

  10. Fuzzy Multiobjective Traffic Light Signal Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahsavari Pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major concern for many cities throughout the world. In a general traffic light controller, the traffic lights change at a constant cycle time. Hence it does not provide an optimal solution. Many traffic light controllers in current use are based on the “time-of-the-day” scheme, which use a limited number of predetermined traffic light patterns and implement these patterns depending upon the time of the day. These automated systems do not provide an optimal control for fluctuating traffic volumes. In this paper, the fuzzy traffic light controller is used to optimize the control of fluctuating traffic volumes such as oversaturated or unusual load conditions. The problem is solved by genetic algorithm, and a new defuzzification method is introduced. The performance of the new defuzzification method (NDM is compared with the centroid point defuzzification method (CPDM by using ANOVA. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the competency of proposed algorithm.

  11. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics from the Abilene network on a weekly basis. At that time, the network connected 230 research institutes with a 10Gb/s link. Although these reports were limited to the behavior of the Albeline's users,...

  12. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  13. International exchange of radiological information in emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; De Vries, G.; Breitenbach, L.; Fraser, G.; Vade, S.

    1998-01-01

    Description of the current system, experience gained, and expected future developments is given for the ECURIE system and, in particular, the EURDEP European-wide radiological information exchange system. It is concluded that the existing situation continues to be inhomogeneous. Although EURDEP foresees a common format for data exchange, which has been successfully implemented in 9 European countries, and regular exercises for data have been performed for a few years, important efforts will still have to be made to come to a more homogeneous and consistent European system for radiological information exchange. (P.A.)

  14. Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Jian-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering the effect of the front vehicle's speed, the influence of the brake light and the conflict of the traffic flow, we established a cellular automata model called CE-NS for traffic flow at the intersection in the non-vehicle networking environment. According to the information interaction of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), introducing parameters describing the congestion and the accurate speed of the front vehicle into the CE-NS model, we improved the rules of acceleration, deceleration and conflict, and finally established a cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections of IoV. The relationship between traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, flow and average travel time is obtained by numerical simulation of two models. Based on this, we compared the traffic situation of the non-vehicle networking environment with conditions of IoV environment, and analyzed the influence of the different degree of IoV on the traffic flow. The results show that the traffic speed is increased, the travel time is reduced, the flux of intersections is increased and the traffic flow is more smoothly under IoV environment. After the vehicle which achieves IoV reaches a certain proportion, the operation effect of the traffic flow begins to improve obviously.

  15. Inferring the Directionality of Coupling with Conditional Mutual Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Paluš, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2008), Art.no.-026214 ISSN 1539-3755 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 517133 - BRACCIA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : directionality * chaotic oscillators * time series analysis * information theory * phase dynamics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2008

  16. Globalization on Trial: The Human Condition and the Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    He also focuses on our education system and how it will have to adapt to meet the new challenges of our global, information age. Globalization on Trial will interest ... Farhang Rajaee is a Visiting Associate Professor at the College of the Humanities, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Professor Rajaee received his PhD ...

  17. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under Heavy Traffic (HT) conditions,

  18. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  19. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  20. Understanding the limit order book: Conditioning on trade informativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran, Héléna; Grammig, Joachim; Menkveld, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic limit order books are ubiquitous in markets today. However, theoretical models for limit order markets fail to explain the real world data well. Sandas (2001) tests the classic Glosten (1994) model for order book equilibrium and rejects it. We reconfirm this result for one of the largest European stock markets. We then relax one of the model's assumptions and allow the informational content of trades to change over time. Adapting Hasbrouck's (1991a,b) methodology to estimate time v...

  1. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  2. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was about the design and development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS) that would ease storage and retrieval of traffic offence cases in the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and the Traffic department of Nigeria Police force. The method used to manage traffic cases is manual; information ...

  3. A CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF DRIVER INFORMATION SYSTEMS; THE NEED IN LARGE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihan GÜNAY

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of traffic has exacerbated a number of problems like congestion and delay. In the field of dynamic traffic management, providing systems that disseminate necessary information to drivers and guide traffic according to the most efficient paths considering the current traffic conditions has been a central idea. Information technology gained predominance as the limitations of traditional traffic engineering became apparent. This paper elaborates on Driver Information and reviews critically current technologies available. Need for the applications of such systems is also addressed.

  4. WORKING AND HEALTH CONDITIONS REPORTED BY INFORMAL COMMERCE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Andrade Rios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo describir las características sociodemográficas y laborales y las condiciones de trabajo y salud de los trabajadores del comercio informal en el municipio de Jequie, Bahia. Estudio epidemiológico, un estudio transversal llevó a cabo con 434 trabajadores informales Trade Center Supply Jequie. Los datos se analizaron de forma descriptiva con SPSS 15.0. Se encontró que 54,6% eran varones, con una edad media 42,7 años, 50,9 % estaban casadas, el 44,6 con 1% de grado de la educación incompleta. Las características ocupacionales mostraron que la dificultad en conseguir un trabajo era la razón más informado que llevó a las personas al desarrollo de las actividades informales (39,9 %. Hubo variación en el ingreso promedio mensual y horas de trabajo. De acuerdo con el análisis del modelo de control de la demanda, la mayoría de los trabajadores se enmarcó como alta tensión (28,1 %. El dolor lumbar y la hipertensión fueron los más morbilidades auto-reporte. Sufrieron accidentes en el trabajo 140 personas (32,3%. Se sugiere fortalecer las políticas públicas en materia de salud ocupacional dirigidas a trabajadores informales.

  5. Developing a long-term condition's information service in collaboration with third sector organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Lesley; Greenwell, Kate; Corbett, Sally; Walker, Richard

    2014-06-01

    People with long-term conditions need to be signposted to high quality information and advice to understand and manage their condition. Information seeking tools combined with third sector information could help address their information needs. To describe the development and implementation of an information service for people living with long-term conditions at one NHS acute trust in the Northeast of England. An information service was trialled using bespoke information models for three long-term conditions in collaboration with third sector organisations. These guided people to relevant, timely and reliable information. Both clinician and service user questionnaires were used to evaluate satisfaction with the service. Appropriately designed information models can be used interchangeably across all services. Between 75% and 91% of users agreed that they were satisfied with various aspects of the service. Generally, users received relevant, understandable and high quality information at the right time. Nearly all health professionals (94-100%) felt the service was accessible, provided high quality information and did not significantly impact on their consultation time. The developed information service was well received by service users and health professionals. Specifically, the use of information prescriptions and menus facilitated access to information for people with long-term conditions. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  6. 78 FR 36643 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract: The VA Form 21... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits.... This notice solicits comments on information needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits...

  7. 78 FR 36308 - Proposed Information Collection: (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...-NEW (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... comments on information needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a claimant's...

  8. Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning. Journal of Digital Information, 10(2), 4-24.

  9. A Machine Learning Approach to Air Traffic Route Choice Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Rodrigo; García-Cantú, Oliva; Herranz, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM) is one of the constituent parts of Air Traffic Management (ATM). The goal of ATFCM is to make airport and airspace capacity meet traffic demand and, when capacity opportunities are exhausted, optimise traffic flows to meet the available capacity. One of the key enablers of ATFCM is the accurate estimation of future traffic demand. The available information (schedules, flight plans, etc.) and its associated level of uncertainty differ across the...

  10. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  11. Reds are more important than greens: how UK supermarket shoppers use the different information on a traffic light nutrition label in a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Eyles, Helen; Kaur, Asha; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Rayner, Mike

    2015-12-12

    Colour coded front-of-pack nutrition labelling ('traffic light labelling') has been recommended for use in the UK since 2006. The voluntary scheme is used by all the major retailers and some manufacturers. It is not clear how consumers use these labels to make a single decision about the relative healthiness of foods. Our research questions were: Which of the four nutrients on UK traffic light labels (total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt) has the most influence on decisions? Do green lights or red lights have a greater influence? Are there age and gender differences in how people use the colour and nutrient information? We recruited participants from a UK supermarket chain membership list to conduct an online choice experiment in May 2014. We analysed data using multilevel logisitic models with food choices (n = 3321) nested in individuals (n = 187) as the unit of analysis. A food with more reds was 11.4 (95% confidence intervals: 10.3, 12.5) times less likely to be chosen as healthy, whereas a food with more greens was 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) times more likely to be chosen as healthy. Foods with better colours on saturated fat and salt were 7.3 (6.7, 8.0) and 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) times more likely to be chosen as healthy - significantly greater than for total fat (odds ratio 4.8 (4.4, 5.3)) and sugar (5.2 (4.7, 5.6)). Results were broadly similar for different genders and age groups. We found that participants were more concerned with avoiding reds than choosing greens, and that saturated fat and salt had a greater influence on decisions regarding healthiness than total fat and sugar. This could influence decisions about food reformulation and guidance on using nutrition labelling.

  12. "Sistema de Información Sanitaria sobre Lesionados de Tráfico" (SISLET: Fuentes de información Information Sources of a Health Information System on Traffic Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ricart i de Mesones

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un sistema de información sanitaria sobre lesionados de tráfico. Los objetivos de este sistema de información son: conocer las características del grupo susceptible de lesionarse por accidente de trafico; saber la dimensión del problema; conocer las necesidades de recursos sanitarios; difundir los resultados en vistas a desarrollar campañas preventivas. Descripción de las medidas utilizadas y de los indicadores más importantes. Descripción y limitaciones de las fuentes de información adecuadas para un SISLET y de las fases de ejecución del sistema.Description of a system of sanitary information on injured persons of traffic. The aims(lenses are: to know the characteristics of the group capable of getting hurt for traffic accident; to know the dimension of the problem; to know the needs of sanitary resources; to spread the results in conference to developing preventive campaigns. Description of the used measurements and of the most important indicators. Description and limitations of the sources(fountains of information suitable(adapted for a SISLET and of the phases of execution of the system.

  13. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  14. Model for Predicting Traffic Signs Functional Service Life – The Republic of Croatia Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Babić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are the basic elements of communication between the relevant road authorities and road users. They manage, regulate, inform and warn road users to ensure their safe movement throughout transport networks. Traffic signs must be timely visible to all traffic participants in all weather and traffic conditions in order to fulfil their function, which means they must have satisfactory retroreflection properties. This paper presents a research of the deterioration of traffic signs retroreflection. The aim of this article is to develop models that will effectively enable predicting the retroreflection of traffic signs and thus optimize the maintenance activities and replacement of road signs to increase road safety. The research included measurements of retroreflection of retroreflective material Classes I and II (white, red and blue colour and Class III (red and yellow colour. Based on the collected data from the City of Zagreb (Republic of Croatia, the authors developed the models to estimate the functional service life of certain colours and materials used to make traffic signs. Considering that the average coefficient of determination for all the models is between 0.55-0.60, they present an effective tool in the traffic sign maintenance system.

  15. Reducing travel delay by in-car advice on speed, headway and lane use based on downstream traffic flow conditions - a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.J.; Klunder, G.; van Arem, B.; Harmsen, E.; Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    A new advisory ADAS system is implemented in micro simulation to asses the effects on traffic flow as well as on safety. The system uses loop detector data from which situations may be recognized where advices are given to drivers in-car. Advice is given on speed, headway and lane use. Effectively

  16. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2011, Series Information File for the 2010 Census Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) State-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  18. Information, communication and control systems for vehicle, road and traffic management. Contribution OECD Seminar on Micro-electronics for Road and Traffic Management. Tokyo, October 29 - November 2, 1984, Session V, p. 236-241.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1984-01-01

    The application of micro-electronics for vehicle, road and traffic management has increased rapidly in the past 10 to 15 years. The approach, however, is very often rather isolated, resulting in problems regarding consistency, continuity, uniformity and compatibility. The whole field of possible

  19. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  20. Protecting the Accounting Information in the Conditions of Outsourcing with Use of the Information-Computer Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakhovych Halyna І.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing measures of protection of accounting information in the conditions of outsourcing, using modern information-computer technologies. On the basis of processing of scientific works, the approaches to development of system of protection of the accounting information were generalized, measures of protection were grouped by users of data with definition of subjects of provision in the conditions of outsourcing. Special attention is paid to the characterization and content of internal organizational measures of protection of accounting information (normative, personnel, structural. The complex of measures on protection of the information of accountance for large and small-size enterprises has been defined. The prospect of further research is the issue of information risk management in accounting outsourcing.

  1. The Australian REEFREP System: A Coastal Vessel Traffic Information Service and Ship Reporting System for the Torres Strait Region and the Inner Route of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John C.

    The new Australian ship reporting system, identifier , will be the core component of a Vessel Traffic Information Service (VTIS) covering the Torres Strait region and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). It is the first such system to be considered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) under the terms of the new SOLAS 74 regulation v/8-1, which entered into force on 1 January 1996 and allows for ship reporting systems adopted by the Organization to be made mandatory for all, or certain categories of vessels.The REEFREP system, planned for implementation on 1 January 1997, extends for some 900 n.m. or about 1500 km along the Queensland coastline. It will be a VHF radio-based system with radars covering three selected focal points in the Torres Strait, off Cairns and in the southern approaches to the inner route. The system will provide a capability for a single Ship Reporting Centre to interact with shipping, enabling the provision of improved information on the presence, movements and patterns of shipping in the area and the ability to respond more quickly to an incident or pollution should this occur.An interesting feature and a major factor in the system design is the remoteness of most equipment sites and the limited infrastructure available to support communications and data transmission requiring the application of advanced technology and video transmission, solar power generation and software engineering skills of a high order.

  2. Website Detection Using Remote Traffic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xun; Kiyavash, Negar; Schear, Nabíl; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in traffic analysis has shown that traffic patterns leaked through side channels can be used to recover important semantic information. For instance, attackers can find out which website, or which page on a website, a user is accessing simply by monitoring the packet size distribution. We show that traffic analysis is even a greater threat to privacy than previously thought by introducing a new attack that can be carried out remotely. In particular, we show that, to perform traffi...

  3. 78 FR 19026 - Submission for Review: Request to Disability Annuitant for Information on Physical Condition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request to Disability Annuitant for Information on Physical Condition and Employment, RI 30-1 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... information collection request (ICR) 3206-0143, Request to Disability Annuitant for Information on Physical...

  4. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  5. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  6. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  7. Remark on the Causes of Traffic Accidents and Traffic Awareness: Examples of Usak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan ÖZEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents cause important losses on the social and economics structure of countries. While economic losses are able to be compensated in a short time, it isn’t possible to compensate social and communal losses. This study tackles with not the economic aspect of traffic accidents but the social dimension, evaluates the causes of the traffic accidents with respect to views of individuals on traffic and aims to measure the levels of awareness of individuals about traffic. To achieve these goals, a group of 506 people were surveyed in Uşak province and the acquired data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA test in SPSS 16 program. According to the analysis results, drivers and pedestrians are considered to have significant flaws in traffic accidents. But alongside this thought, the idea that traffic accidents are caused by the road having technical and physical problems has come to the fore. This results present a valid motive for the established approach “Vision Zero” , being practised in Sweden, to be adopted in Turkey. When the level of awareness about traffic is examined, it is seen that individuals generally have got inadequate information related traffic rules and traffic authorities. Besides, the fact that individuals are inadequate in terms of courtesy and respect in traffic and that more serious efforts on traffic education is needed to be spent come out as the important findings of this study. The findings of this study can be thought as a directive tool to the policy makers.

  8. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  9. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  10. Development of a Traffic Management Decision Support Tool for Freeway Incident Traffic Management (FITM) Plan Deployment : Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In designing an effective traffic management plan for non-recurrent congestion, it is critical for responsible highway agencies to have some vital information, such as estimated incident duration, resulting traffic queues, and the expected delays. Ov...

  11. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  12. Creation of integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' object premises condition to support the works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postil, S.D.; Ermolenko, A.I.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kotlyarov, V.T.

    2002-01-01

    A technology for creation of integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' Object premises conditions was developed on the basis of geoinformation system AutoCad. DB Access and instrumental utility 3D MAX. Information models and database for conditions of 'Ukryttia' object's premises located between 0.000 and 67.000 marks in axes 41-52, row G-T, were created. Using integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' object premises conditions, 3D surface distribution of radiation field in the object premises on level 0.000 has been received. It is revealed that maximum values of radiation field are concentrated over the clusters of fuel-containing materials

  13. Context-Aware Fusion of RGB and Thermal Imagery for Traffic Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alldieck, Thiemo; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    In order to enable a robust 24-h monitoring of traffic under changing environmental conditions, it is beneficial to observe the traffic scene using several sensors, preferably from different modalities. To fully benefit from multi-modal sensor output, however, one must fuse the data. This paper...... introduces a new approach for fusing color RGB and thermal video streams by using not only the information from the videos themselves, but also the available contextual information of a scene. The contextual information is used to judge the quality of a particular modality and guides the fusion of two...

  14. 36 CFR 1004.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road, except as authorized by the Executive Director, or in the event of an accident or other condition... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 1004.13 Section 1004.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.13...

  15. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or parking a vehicle upon a park road, except as authorized by the superintendent, or in the event of an accident or other condition beyond the control of the operator. (b) Operating a vehicle so slowly as to...

  16. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  17. Traffic volume and load data measurement using a portable weigh in motion system: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Faruk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, traffic loading characteristics are collected for pavement design and performance prediction purposes using permanent roadside weigh-in-motion (WIM stations. However, high installation and maintenance costs associated with these permanent WIM stations dictate that their deployment be mostly limited to major highways, such as the interstate network. Quite often however, pavement damage on high volume rural highways with heavy truck proportions is more severe than anticipated, and there is no effective way of quantifying the traffic loading on these highways. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential application of portable WIM systems as a means for bringing the WIM technology to these high volume rural highways. A portable WIM unit was deployed in the Texas overweight corridor in Hidalgo County (Pharr District near the USA-Mexico border on highway FM 1016 for collecting traffic data for a minimum of three weeks in each direction. The collected traffic data were analyzed to generate traffic parameters such as volume, load spectra, and overloading information both in terms of the gross vehicle weight (GVW and axle weight. The computed traffic parameters were successful in partially explaining some of the existing pavement conditions on this highway. Overall, the study findings indicated that the portable WIM unit can be used as a convenient and cost-effective means for collecting reliable traffic information for design, analysis, and monitoring purposes. However, proper in-situ calibration of the portable WIM unit at each site is imperative prior to any real-time traffic data collection. Keywords: Traffic data, Load spectra, Truck overweight, Weigh-in-motion (WIM, Portable WIM, Texas overweight corridor

  18. Roundabout in front of Building 14: traffic restrictions

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    Re-surfacing work is scheduled on the roundabout at the junction of Pauli, Lawrence and Démocrite roads on 24 and 25 November 2009. The work may cause disruptions to traffic and users are requested to comply with the road signs erected. Work should last 2 days, but the precise dates will depend on the prevailing weather conditions. The GS/SEM Group thanks all road users for their understanding. For more information, please call 74188 or 16 4314.

  19. 78 FR 36308 - Proposed Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online through the... INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-4. OMB...

  20. [Challenges in Traffic for Blind and Visually Impaired People and Strategies for their Safe Participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högner, N

    2015-08-01

    Blind and visually impaired people experience special risks and hazards in road traffic. This refers to participation as a driver, bicycle rider and pedestrian. These risks are shown by a review of international research studies and a study by the author, where 45 people with Usher syndrome were asked about their accident rates and causes as driver, bicycle rider and pedestrian. In addition, basic legal information has been worked out to demonstrate the visual conditions of people with visual impairment for participation in road traffic. The research studies show that blind and visually impaired persons are particularly exposed to experience high risks in traffic. These risks can be reduced through acquisition of skills and coping strategies such as training in orientation and mobility. People with visual impairment need special programmes which help to reduce traffic hazards. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. 76 FR 64109 - Comment Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection: Labor Condition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Information Form WH-4, OMB Control No. 1205-0310 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... for the information collection, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number 1205-0310... Condition Application for Nonimmigrants (electronic version); Form ETA 9035CP--General Instructions for the...

  2. 77 FR 44670 - Information Collection Activities: National Historic Landmarks (NHL) Condition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... information regarding the condition of designated landmarks. A questionnaire will be designed and used to... the design of the questionnaire that is the subject of this request. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1024... address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying information in your comment, you...

  3. 47 CFR 64.4005 - Unreasonable terms or conditions on the provision of customer account information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provision of customer account information. 64.4005 Section 64.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Customer Account Record Exchange Requirements § 64.4005 Unreasonable terms or conditions on the provision of customer account information. To the extent that a carrier incurs costs associated with providing...

  4. Condition monitoring approach for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives based on the INFORM method

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Padilla, J.; Sumner, M.; Gerada, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a monitoring scheme based on saliency tracking to assess the health condition of PMSM drives operating under non stationary conditions. The evaluated scheme is based on the INFORM methodology, which is associated to the accurate sensorless control of PM drives without zero speed limitation. The result is a monitoring scheme that is able to detect faults that would be very difficult to evaluate under nonstationary conditions. A relevant aspect of the proposed scheme is that...

  5. Bayesian Data Assimilation for Improved Modeling of Road Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the optimal use of existing models that predict certain phenomena of the road traffic system. Such models are extensively used in Advanced Traffic Information Systems (ATIS), Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) or Model Predictive Control (MPC) approaches in order to improve the

  6. Integration of a driving simulator and a traffic simulator case study: Exploring drivers' behavior in response to variable message signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jeihani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a driving simulator has been integrated with a traffic simulator at the network level to allow subjects to drive in a fairly realistic environment with a realistic traffic flow and density. A 10 mi2 (25 km2 network was developed in a driving simulator and then exported to a traffic simulator. About 30 subjects drove the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions and variable message sign (VMS information, both with and without integration. Route guidance was available for the subjects. The challenges of the integration process are explained and its advantages investigated. The study concluded that traffic density, VMS reliability and compliance behavior are higher when driving and traffic simulators are integrated. To find factors affecting route diversion, researchers applied a binary logistic regression model. The results indicated that the original chosen route, displayed VMS information, subjects' attitude toward VMS information helpfulness, and their level of exposure to VMS affect route diversion. In addition, a multinomial logistic regression model was employed to investigate important factors in route choice. The results revealed that there is a significant correlation with driver route choice behavior and their actual travel time, the need for GPS, VMS exposure and also the designed scenarios. It should be noted that the paper was peer-reviewed by TRB and presented at the TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2016. Keywords: Integration, Variable message sign, Compliance behavior, Driving simulator, Traffic simulator, Discrete choice analysis

  7. Mands for Information Using "How" Under EO-Absent and EO-Present Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingsburg, M Alice; Bowen, Crystal N; Valentino, Amber L

    2014-06-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on teaching "How?" mands for information to children with autism. The experimental preparation involved mand training in the context of completing preferred activities and included training and testing under conditions when the establishing operation (EO) was present and absent. Results show that two children with autism acquired mands for information using How? only in situations where information was valuable (i.e., the EO was present); they then consistently made use of the information provided in activity completion. Generalization to novel, untaught situations was assessed.

  8. [Women in informal economy health and work conditions Bogotá. 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Suárez, Nidia R; Quiroz-Arcentáles, Jorge L; Mahecha-Montilla, Charo P; López-Sánchez, Paola A

    2012-06-01

    To determine work and health conditions of women working in informal economy in Bogotá, as well as to recommend priority action plans for preventing illnesses and accidents related to work and their consequences. Descriptive observational study. This study analyzed information collected by local groups in work-related contexts during 2007 as part of a set of forms of intervention established according to the Plan de Atención Básica (Primary Care Plan). This plan included 3 715 units of informal work from every point of the city. 3 936 women registers in all were analyzed. This study reveals evident precariousness conditions of women in this economic sector. Specifically, there are certain evident conditions that had shown in this study such as low education levels, incomes below the minimum legal standards, high exposure to damaging health work conditions, long work hours, and few hours for leisure and free time. Furthermore, 75 % of women included in this study are female head of household. This condition makes them more vulnerable to a heavier family and social burden. Closer attention to informal economy phenomenon is suggested in order to avoid vulnerable conditions of working women. Besides, it is necessary to improve the articulation between Academy and forms of intervention through public policies for knowing deeply repeated phenomena regarding the population of study. This articulation can be thought for implementing programs designed for improving women's quality of life.

  9. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  10. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicles based on similar traffic operating characteristics are grouped into ... of distances to the video monitor involved using a measuring wheel to mark ... Secondly, the observers reviewed the videotape to sample traffic entity ...... makes a strong case for including service lanes for slow moving vehicles for improving the.

  11. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  12. OPERATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON THE SECTIONS OF RAILWAY OPERATING DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Моzolevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The task of the operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of operating domain is the optimization one. It is solved in the operational conditions by the dispatch station. The article sets the problem of formalizing and finding the new ways to solve this urgent problem. Methodology. A new approach to solving the problem of operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of the rail network with a choice of routes for all train traffics was proposed. Findings. A study of possible routes for the train traffic handle on the operating domain used for mass freight transportations between Krivyi Rih and Donbas was carried out. The use of the proposed method allowed us to obtain a rational distribution of trains on the rail network sections. Originality. The method of train traffic volume distribution in the network under operational conditions was improved. The method, as opposed to the current one allows one to select the route of separate units handle (according to the criteria of the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo. Practical value. The use of the proposed technology of the operational distribution of train traffic volume will increase the efficiency of the railways in general and ensure the competitiveness of rail transportations. The methodology implementation involves the use of railway dispatch station for the automated workplaces with appropriate informational support.

  13. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  14. Remotely Sensed Information and Field Data are both Essential to Assess Biodiversity CONDITION!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Schaefer, M.; Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Lowe, A. J.; O'Neill, S.; Thurgate, N.; Wundke, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past year the TERN Ausplots facility has hosted a process to determine the definition of Biodiversity Condition in an Australian Continental Context, and conducted a wide collaborative process to determine which environmental attributes are required to be measures to accurately inform on biodiversity condition. A major output from this work was the acknowledgement that good quality data from both remotely sensed sources and good quality field collected data are both essential to provide the best information possible on biodiversity condition. This poster details some background to the project, the assesment of which attributes to measure, and if the are sources primarily from field based or remotely sensed measures. It then proceeds to provide three examples of ways in which the combination of data types provides a superior product as output, with one example being provided for the three cornerstone areas of condition: Structure, Function and Composition.

  15. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  16. Perception and eye movements in simulated traffic situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, J

    1984-01-01

    In an experiment to simulate the perception task of a driver, subjects were shown uninterrupted series of colour slides of different kinds of highway scenes. The dependent variables were eye fixations, fixation times and conscious perceptions for the part of the traffic signs and roadside advertisements. Perceptions were achieved mostly as a result of fixation, but partly also by using peripheral vision. On the other hand fixation did not always cause perception. The lengthening of fixation time increased the number of correct perceptions. When the traffic sign and the roadside advertisement were in the same slide, the advertisement disturbed the perception of the sign, but in the daylight conditions this effect was not noticed as an alteration of the fixation of the sign, but as prevention of further information processing. The disturbing influence of the advertisement was increased by its bad information ergonomics which caused a long fixation time.

  17. A New Method of Reliability Evaluation Based on Wavelet Information Entropy for Equipment Condition Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Z J; Zhang, X L; Chen, X F

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at reliability evaluation of condition identification of mechanical equipment, it is necessary to analyze condition monitoring information. A new method of reliability evaluation based on wavelet information entropy extracted from vibration signals of mechanical equipment is proposed. The method is quite different from traditional reliability evaluation models that are dependent on probability statistics analysis of large number sample data. The vibration signals of mechanical equipment were analyzed by means of second generation wavelet package (SGWP). We take relative energy in each frequency band of decomposed signal that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy as probability. Normalized information entropy (IE) is obtained based on the relative energy to describe uncertainty of a system instead of probability. The reliability degree is transformed by the normalized wavelet information entropy. A successful application has been achieved to evaluate the assembled quality reliability for a kind of dismountable disk-drum aero-engine. The reliability degree indicates the assembled quality satisfactorily.

  18. Information about the model's unconditioned stimulus and response in vicarious classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygge, S

    1976-06-01

    Four groups with 16 observers each participated in a differential, vicarious conditioning experiment with skin conductance responses as the dependent variable. The information available to the observer about the model's unconditioned stimulus and response was varied in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Results clearly showed that information about the model's unconditioned stimulus (a high or low dB level) was not necessary for vicarious instigation, but that information about the unconditioned response (a high or low emotional aversiveness) was necessary. Data for conditioning of responses showed almost identical patterns to those for vicarious instigation. To explain the results, a distinction between factors necessary for the development and elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was introduced, and the effectiveness of information about the model's response on the elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was considered in terms of an expansion of Bandura's social learning theory.

  19. A participatory model for improving occupational health and safety: improving informal sector working conditions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manothum, Aniruth; Rukijkanpanich, Jittra; Thawesaengskulthai, Damrong; Thampitakkul, Boonwa; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Arphorn, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of an Occupational Health and Safety Management Model for informal sector workers in Thailand. The studied model was characterized by participatory approaches to preliminary assessment, observation of informal business practices, group discussion and participation, and the use of environmental measurements and samples. This model consisted of four processes: capacity building, risk analysis, problem solving, and monitoring and control. The participants consisted of four local labor groups from different regions, including wood carving, hand-weaving, artificial flower making, and batik processing workers. The results demonstrated that, as a result of applying the model, the working conditions of the informal sector workers had improved to meet necessary standards. This model encouraged the use of local networks, which led to cooperation within the groups to create appropriate technologies to solve their problems. The authors suggest that this model could effectively be applied elsewhere to improve informal sector working conditions on a broader scale.

  20. Modern development strategies of the Russian education in the conditions of the information society

    OpenAIRE

    Boguslavskii Mikhail V.; Lelchitskii Igor D.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents current development strategies of the Russian education in the conditions of information society. Western-liberal and traditional-conservative strategies of modern Russian education development are substantively presented. The ways of harmonization of these strategies in the area of national education in the information age are characterized. Approaches to the implementation of historical and pedagogical expertise of modern development strategies of the Russian education ...

  1. MaTech - the BMFT ''new materials'' materials research program - 1994 annual report about new materials for innovative information technology, energy technology, traffic engineering, medical engineering and production engineering applications, and about general materials research and new fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillack, D.; Gilbert, I.; Runte, S.

    1995-01-01

    This annual report gives a survey of projects supported within the framework of the Matfo and Ma-Tech programs. These projects focus on research into materials for innovative: 1. information technology, 2. energy technology, 3. traffic engineering, 4. medical engineering, and 5. production engineering applications and on 6. general materials research and new fields. The descriptions of individual projects indicate project goals and work schedules, names of important sub-contractors, and total costs and the funds contributed by BMFT. Information added in an annex includes inter alia a list of publications, lectures, contracts, or patents resulting from project activities in the year 1994. (MM) [de

  2. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  3. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  4. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Control System for Regional Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McLin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system using traffic microsimulation demonstrates that it has the potential to improve system conditions during traffic incidents. In addition, several enhancements were identified which will make the system more robust in a real traffic control setting. An assessment of the control system elements indicates that there are no substantial technical barriers in implementing this system in a large traffic network.

  6. 78 FR 36307 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract: The VA Form 21-0960M-16... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... solicits comments on information needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a...

  7. Informal Workplace Learning among Nurses: Organisational Learning Conditions and Personal Characteristics That Predict Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…

  8. PROJECT EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL CONDITION OF SHIP STRUCTURES WITH USE OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Алексеевна КАЗИМИРЕНКО

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for evaluation of technical conditions of ship constructions were investigated and was developed a new specialized informational and search system for the collection, analysis and processing the defects of new materials during the designing, construction, operation of ships and floating structures for transportation of goods 1, 4, 6-8 classes of danger.

  9. Using spatial context to support prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Finnerty, Dannielle; Remington, Roger W

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to examine whether prospective memory error and response costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation could be reduced by providing spatial context. Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action at an appropriate point in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. For this study, three conditions of participants performed an air traffic control task that required them to accept and hand off aircraft and to prevent conflicts. The prospective memory task required participants to remember to press an alternative key rather than the routine key when accepting target aircraft. A red line separated the display into upper and lower regions. Participants in the context condition were told that the prospective memory instruction would apply only to aircraft approaching from one region (upper or lower). Those in the standard condition were not provided this information. In the control condition, participants did not have to perform the prospective memory task. In the context condition, participants made fewer prospective memory errors than did those in the standard condition and made faster acceptance decisions for aircraft approaching from irrelevant compared with relevant regions. Costs to hand-off decision time were also reduced in the context condition. Spatial context provided no benefit to conflict detection. Participants could partially localize their allocation of attentional resources to the prospective memory task to relevant display regions. The findings are potentially applicable to air traffic control, whereby regularities in airspace structure and standard traffic flows allow controllers to anticipate the location of specific air traffic events.

  10. Sex differences in the use of social information emerge under conditions of risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte O. Brand

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Social learning provides an effective route to gaining up-to-date information, particularly when information is costly to obtain asocially. Theoretical work predicts that the willingness to switch between using asocial and social sources of information will vary between individuals according to their risk tolerance. We tested the prediction that, where there are sex differences in risk tolerance, altering the variance of the payoffs of using asocial and social information differentially influences the probability of social information use by sex. In a computer-based task that involved building a virtual spaceship, men and women (N = 88 were given the option of using either asocial or social sources of information to improve their performance. When the asocial option was risky (i.e., the participant’s score could markedly increase or decrease and the social option was safe (i.e., their score could slightly increase or remain the same, women, but not men, were more likely to use the social option than the asocial option. In all other conditions, both women and men preferentially used the asocial option to a similar degree. We therefore found both a sex difference in risk aversion and a sex difference in the preference for social information when relying on asocial information was risky, consistent with the hypothesis that levels of risk-aversion influence the use of social information.

  11. Optimal control of distributed parameter system with incomplete information about the initial condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarski, W.; Kowalewski, A.

    1982-03-01

    In this paper we consider an optimal control problem for a system described by a linear partial differential equation of the parabolic type with Dirichlet's boundary condition. We impose some constraints on the control. The performance functional has the integral form. The control time T is fixed. The initial condition is not given by a known function but belongs to a certain set (incomplete information about the initial state). The problem formulated in this paper describes the process of optimal heating, of which we do not have exact information about the initial temperature on the heated object. We present an example in which the set of admissible controls and one of initial conditions are given by means of the norm constraints too. The application of the well-known projective gradient method in the Hilbert space allows us to obtain the numerical solution for our optimization problem. (author)

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVICES TRAFFIC OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Lodneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular topics in the field of infocommunication is the Internet of things (IоT. IoT is not a standardized concept. Several models of reference models are proposed for the construction and interaction of such systems. Also, to meet basic requirements for intelligent systems, new protocols are often modified or developed. To build IoT systems and predict their behavior in the conditions of changing the amount of transmitted information, realistic computer models are needed, for which you need to know the basic parameters of the traffic created by "smart" devices: its size, transmission time and so on. This study is aimed at solving this problem, namely to obtain and analyze the traffic of devices used in systems "smart" home - "smart" sockets. "Smart" socket in General is a familiar device that is integrated with a module (Wi-Fi, ZigBee, etc. for the convenience and security of secure housing. In this article, we will discuss sockets manufacturers Xiaomi and Broadlink. The study is carried out in different operating modes. To obtain more accurate data on traffic, both the data generated and the data received by the outlets are considered. In the future, the obtained information about the operation of the presented devices can be used for a more in-depth study in order to predict the jumps in traffic and the behavior of the system as a whole, as well as for directly computer models of networks of intelligent devices. Evaluation of the characteristics of the traffic "smart" sockets also gives an idea of the principle of operation of each device and the feasibility of its application in a particular system.

  13. The use of condition monitoring information for maintenance planning and decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K.; Rosqvist, T. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Paulsen, J.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    A survey is presented outlining the use of condition monitoring information in three Nordic nuclear power plants. The questions of the survey relate to the role of condition monitoring in strategic, as well as operative, maintenance planning and decision-making. The survey indicates that condition monitoring is increasingly implemented at nuclear power plants, but very selectively and in a rather slow pace for predictive maintenance. A combined strategy of condition based maintenance and predetermined preventive maintenance is applied for important equipment such as main circulation pumps and steam turbines. A realistic aim is to reduce the number of costly or error prone maintenance and disassembling inspection activities by condition monitoring given that the approach enables a good diagnosis and prediction. Systematic follow-up and analysis of such condition monitoring information followed by a case-specific planning and decision making of timely and rightly directed maintenance actions can justify an extension of the intervals of a number of predetermined inspection, maintenance or periodic testing tasks. (au)

  14. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  15. Managing Traffic Flows for Cleaner Cities: The Role of Green Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiamma Perez-Prada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities worldwide suffer from serious air pollution problems and are main contributors to climate change. Green Navigation systems have a great potential to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from traffic. This research evaluates the impacts of different percentages of green drivers on traffic, CO2, and NOx over the entire Madrid Region. A macroscopic traffic model was combined with an enhanced macroscopic emissions model and a GIS (Geographic Information Systems to simulate emissions on the basis of average vehicle speeds and traffic intensity at the link level. NOx emissions are evaluated, taking into account not only the exhaust emissions produced by transport activity, but also the amount of the population exposed to these air pollutants. Results show up to 10.4% CO2 and 13.8% NOx reductions in congested traffic conditions for a 90% penetration of green drivers; however, the population’s exposure to NOx increases up to 20.2%. Moreover, while traffic volumes decrease by 13.5% for the entire region, they increase by up to 16.4% downtown. Travel times also increase by 28.7%. Since green drivers tend to choose shorter routes through downtown areas, eco-routing systems are an effective tool for fighting climate change, but are ineffective to reduce air pollution in dense urban areas.

  16. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions. Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to obtain driver eye closure, blink frequency, and other visual physiological indicators in the traffic conditions of urban road. The regular patterns of driver visual characteristics in the corresponding scenes were analyzed in detail to provide data and theoretical support for the further research on traffic safety of urban environment from the viewpoint of driver psychology and behavior.

  17. Uppaal Stratego for Intelligent Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Andreas Berre; Huang, Chao; Kildebogaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    not profit from this additional information. Using this information could minimize waiting times and energy waste. Uppaal Stratego is a tool that combines machine learning and model checking techniques to synthesize near optimal control strategies. The tool has been applied successfully to several case......Modern traffic lights use information from induction loops and to some extend radar information. Recent developments in radar technology has made it possible to obtain more detailed information relevant to the control mechanism of the traffic light. Unfortunately much of the current controllers do...

  18. Record of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: validation of the hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehem, Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the Unified Health System's Hospital Information System for the appropriate recording of hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. The hospital information system records for conditions which are sensitive to ambulatory care, and for those which are not, were considered for analysis, taking the medical records as the gold standard. Through simple random sampling, a sample of 816 medical records was defined and selected by means of a list of random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The sensitivity was 81.89%, specificity was 95.19%, the positive predictive value was 77.61% and the negative predictive value was 96.27%. In the study setting, the Hospital Information System (SIH) was more specific than sensitive, with nearly 20% of care sensitive conditions not detected. There are no validation studies in Brazil of the Hospital Information System records for the hospitalizations which are sensitive to primary health care. These results are relevant when one considers that this system is one of the bases for assessment of the effectiveness of primary health care.

  19. Record of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: validation of the hospital information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara Rehem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the Unified Health System's Hospital Information System for the appropriate recording of hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. METHOD: the hospital information system records for conditions which are sensitive to ambulatory care, and for those which are not, were considered for analysis, taking the medical records as the gold standard. Through simple random sampling, a sample of 816 medical records was defined and selected by means of a list of random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULT: the sensitivity was 81.89%, specificity was 95.19%, the positive predictive value was 77.61% and the negative predictive value was 96.27%. In the study setting, the Hospital Information System (SIH was more specific than sensitive, with nearly 20% of care sensitive conditions not detected. CONCLUSION: there are no validation studies in Brazil of the Hospital Information System records for the hospitalizations which are sensitive to primary health care. These results are relevant when one considers that this system is one of the bases for assessment of the effectiveness of primary health care.

  20. Information Management in Portugal: education and employment conditions and some prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Vieira de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Professors Cristina Freitas and Maria da Graça Simões answer questions prepared by teachers from the Faculdade de Informação e Comunicação (Gestão da Informação Undergraduate Degree da Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG. The questions are related to the educational structure dedicated to the issues of information management in Portugal, the influence of the "Big Data" phenomenon on education and training in the area - including discussions on data governance, the fundation areas of Information Management and the main approaches to information research in the Country. Besides, they discuss the employment conditions (threats and opportunities for professionals in Information Management in Portugal and in Europe [Available Language: Portuguese/Portugal].

  1. Is it traffic type, volume, or distance? Wheezing in infants living near truck and bus traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick H; LeMasters, Grace; Biagini, Jocelyn; Bernstein, David; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Shukla, Rakesh; Wilson, Kimberly; Villareal, Manuel; Burkle, Jeff; Lockey, James

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies of air pollution have not examined the association between exposure to varying types, distance, and amounts of traffic and wheezing in very young infants. We sought to determine the relationship between types of traffic, traffic volume, and distance and wheezing among infants less than 1 year of age. A geographic information system and a classification scheme were developed to categorize infants enrolled in the study as living near moving truck and bus traffic (highway >50 miles per hour, >1000 trucks daily, bus traffic (bus and truck traffic had a significantly increased prevalence of wheezing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.15-5.42) when compared with unexposed infants. The prevalence of wheezing among nonwhite infants was at least twice that of white infants, regardless of exposure. Infants living less than 400 m from a high volume of moving traffic, however, did not have an increased prevalence of wheezing. These results suggest that the distance from and type of traffic exposures are more significant risk factors than traffic volume for wheezing in early infancy.

  2. Large-scale modeling of condition-specific gene regulatory networks by information integration and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Daniel Christian; Leonhardt, Jörn Florian; Mewes, Hans-Werner

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how regulatory networks globally coordinate the response of a cell to changing conditions, such as perturbations by shifting environments, is an elementary challenge in systems biology which has yet to be met. Genome-wide gene expression measurements are high dimensional as these are reflecting the condition-specific interplay of thousands of cellular components. The integration of prior biological knowledge into the modeling process of systems-wide gene regulation enables the large-scale interpretation of gene expression signals in the context of known regulatory relations. We developed COGERE (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/cogere), a method for the inference of condition-specific gene regulatory networks in human and mouse. We integrated existing knowledge of regulatory interactions from multiple sources to a comprehensive model of prior information. COGERE infers condition-specific regulation by evaluating the mutual dependency between regulator (transcription factor or miRNA) and target gene expression using prior information. This dependency is scored by the non-parametric, nonlinear correlation coefficient η(2) (eta squared) that is derived by a two-way analysis of variance. We show that COGERE significantly outperforms alternative methods in predicting condition-specific gene regulatory networks on simulated data sets. Furthermore, by inferring the cancer-specific gene regulatory network from the NCI-60 expression study, we demonstrate the utility of COGERE to promote hypothesis-driven clinical research. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, A

    2011-01-01

    Although web standards-based websites can scale effectively - and basic CSS will give you basic results - there are considerations and obstacles that high traffic websites must face to keep your development and hosting costs to a minimum. There are many tips and tricks, as well as down-to-earth best practice information, to make sure that everything runs quickly and efficiently with the minimum amount of fuss or developer intervention. Targeted at "high traffic" websites - those receiving over 10,000 unique visitors a day - Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites gives you inside informati

  4. Precarious Working Conditions and Exploitation of Workers in the Nigerian Informal Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayofe Akinwale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Situations in the informal economy expose workers to dangers without opportunity for hazard pay, thereby reflecting exploitation. Based on the Marxist theory of conflict, this paper examines the extent of precarious working conditions and exploitation of workers in the Nigerian informal economy. A total of 500 respondents randomly selected from various informal economy organizations participated in the survey conducted in Lagos State, Nigeria. The findings revealed that most of the respondents (76.4% had worked for up to five years consecutively, followed by a few (18%, who had worked for up to ten years consecutively. Their monthly income ranged from 10,000 naira ($60 to 80,000 naira ($485. Their mean monthly income was 30,000 naira ($182. Most of them (73.5% worked for 10 to 12 hours daily, while 26.5% worked for seven to nine hours daily. The experience of low pay with relatively long daily working hours shows the extent of exploitation in the Nigerian informal economy. Several background characteristics, such as gender, age, level of education, and marital status influenced the workers’ experience of precarious working conditions and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a progressive workplace policy that can ensure decent work and adequate protection for workers in the Nigerian informal economy.

  5. Congestion and communication in confined ant traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Gold, Gregory; Zangwill, Andrew; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-03-01

    Many social animals move and communicate within confined spaces. In subterranean fire ants Solenopsis invicta, mobility within crowded nest tunnels is important for resource and information transport. Within confined tunnels, communication and traffic flow are at odds: trafficking ants communicate through tactile interactions while stopped, yet ants that stop to communicate impose physical obstacles on the traffic. We monitor the bi-directional flow of fire ant workers in laboratory tunnels of varied diameter D. The persistence time of communicating ant aggregations, τ, increases approximately linearly with the number of participating ants, n. The sensitivity of traffic flow increases as D decreases and diverges at a minimum diameter, Dc. A cellular automata model incorporating minimal traffic features--excluded volume and communication duration--reproduces features of the experiment. From the model we identify a competition between information transfer and the need to maintain jam-free traffic flow. We show that by balancing information transfer and traffic flow demands, an optimum group strategy exists which maximizes information throughput. We acknowledge funding from NSF PoLS #0957659 and #PHY-1205878.

  6. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  7. Markov-switching model for nonstationary runoff conditioned on El Nino information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We define a Markov-modulated autoregressive model with exogenous input (MARX) to generate runoff scenarios using climatic information. Runoff parameterization is assumed to be conditioned on a hidden climate state following a Markov chain, where state transition probabilities are functions...... of the climatic input. MARX allows stochastic modeling of nonstationary runoff, as runoff anomalies are described by a mixture of autoregressive models with exogenous input, each one corresponding to a climate state. We apply MARX to inflow time series of the Daule Peripa reservoir (Ecuador). El Nino Southern...... Oscillation (ENSO) information is used to condition runoff parameterization. Among the investigated ENSO indexes, the NINO 1+2 sea surface temperature anomalies and the trans-Nino index perform best as predictors. In the perspective of reservoir optimization at various time scales, MARX produces realistic...

  8. Conditional entropy and mutual information in Pb+Pb interactions at 158 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T.H.

    2017-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to explain the phenomenon, usually called intermittency. Most of them contain essentially a kind of self-similar cascading process. In this context, self-similar random cascading is the most natural and hopeful mechanism that can reproduce the intermittency phenomena in multiparticle production. Wu Yuanfang and Liu Lianshou developed a method for observing and examining this mechanism of self- similar random cascading, making use of the concepts of conditional entropy and mutual information. In the study we examine the data on photon multiplicity produced in Lead - Lead central collisions at 158 A GeV for the existence of self-similar random cascading using conditional entropy and mutual information variables. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation studies using VENUS event generator and GEANT detector simulation software. The experiment is also compared with predictions from Alpha-Model

  9. FRIX-Traffic Analyzer And Transportation Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Manuj Darbari,; Prateek Kumar; Singh Rakesh; Savitur Prakash

    2010-01-01

    This website specializes in giving traffic reports for a specific area. Much of our collected data comes from automatic sensors placed at various points around the motorway to monitor vehicle speeds. We have provided an accurate, up-to-date report which is normally faster than other mediums, such as radio. Typically our speed readings are updated every 3 minutes. Using this website a user can give the starting place and destination to the system. Depending on the prevalent traffic conditions,...

  10. Informal and formal trail monitoring protocols and baseline conditions: Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Wimpey, Jeremy F.; Park, L.

    2011-01-01

    At Acadia National Park, changing visitor use levels and patterns have contributed to an increasing degree of visitor use impacts to natural and cultural resources. To better understand the extent and severity of these resource impacts and identify effective management techniques, the park sponsored this research to develop monitoring protocols, collect baseline data, and identify suggestions for management strategies. Formal and informal trails were surveyed and their resource conditions were assessed and characterized to support park planning and management decision-making.

  11. Using Information Systems as Directions of the State Support for the Conditionally Depressive Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Morhachov Ilya V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at substantiating the perspectivity of information systems and technologies as a direction of the State support for the conditionally depressive regions. The article clarifies the assumption that an increase in the number of freelancers in region (even evaders from taxation), causes the growth of both the regional enterprises’ revenues and the tax revenues to budgets. Such freelancers become customers of works, services and goods, and, accordingly, employers for other per...

  12. INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SYSTEM OF FORECAST VEGETATION FIRES IN NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for spatial prediction for fire danger as function of weather and pyrological vegetation characteristics was constructed. The method of calculating the time conducted vegetable combustible materials in fire condition of each month of the season was suggested. Calculate the probability of fires and danger periods of plant formations in a monsoon climate. The geographic information system was developed, it was tested in the Middle Amur region in the Russian Far East.

  13. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  14. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  15. Using Information Systems as Directions of the State Support for the Conditionally Depressive Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morhachov Ilya V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the perspectivity of information systems and technologies as a direction of the State support for the conditionally depressive regions. The article clarifies the assumption that an increase in the number of freelancers in region (even evaders from taxation, causes the growth of both the regional enterprises’ revenues and the tax revenues to budgets. Such freelancers become customers of works, services and goods, and, accordingly, employers for other persons who work officially. The State support for the concentration of such persons in the region contributes to reducing the «brain drain» abroad. The article substantiates prospective directions of the State support for the conditionally depressive regions by means of information systems, the basic elements of which are IT-specialists; as well as economic expediency of priority of the State support for the regions with presence of high level of unemployment of working population. The ways of solution of contradictions between the State and the freelancer in the part of payment of taxes and accrual of the insurance period for the future pension have been suggested. The ultimate goal of the State support for the conditionally depressive regions with use of information systems has been defined, which is to achieve the stage of the multiplied effect of growth of income of economic entities and tax revenues to the budget due to the implementation of innovation projects as result of the concentration of IT specialists in region.

  16. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  17. NPP physical protection and information security as necessary conditions for reducing nuclear and radiation accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosov, O.Yu.; Derevyanko, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the fact that nuclear failures and incidents can lead to radioactive contamination of NPP premises. Nuclear and radiation hazard may be caused by malefactors in technological processes when applying computers or inadequate control in case of insufficient level of information security.The researchers performed analysis of factors for reducing risks of nuclear and radiation accidents at NPPs considering specific conditions related to information security of NPP physical protection systems. The paper considers connection of heterogeneous factors that may increase the risk of NPP accidents, possibilities and ways to improve adequate modelling of security of information with limited access directly related to the functioning of automated set of engineering and technical means for NPP physical protection. Within the overall Hutchinson formalization, it is proposed to include additional functional dependencies on indicators specific for NPPs into analysis algorithms.

  18. The effect of pre-existing health conditions on the cost of recovery from road traffic injury: insights from data linkage of medicare and compensable injury claims in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hahn, Youjin; McClure, Roderick J

    2016-04-29

    Comorbidity is known to affect length of hospital stay and mortality after trauma but less is known about its impact on recovery beyond the immediate post-accident care period. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pre-existing health conditions in the cost of recovery from road traffic injury using health service use records for 1 year before and after the injury. Individuals who claimed Transport Accident Commission (TAC) compensation for a non-catastrophic injury that occurred between 2010 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia and who provided consent for Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) linkage were included (n = 738) in the analysis. PBS and MBS records dating from 12 months prior to injury were provided by the Department of Human Services (Canberra, Australia). Pre-injury use of health service items and pharmaceuticals were considered to indicate pre-existing health condition. Bayesian Model Averaging techniques were used to identify the items that were most strongly correlated with recovery cost. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the impact of these items on the cost of injury recovery in terms of compensated ambulance, hospital, medical, and overall claim cost. Out of the 738 study participants, 688 used at least one medical item (total of 15,625 items) and 427 used at least one pharmaceutical item (total of 9846). The total health service cost of recovery was $10,115,714. The results show that while pre-existing conditions did not have any significant impact on the total cost of recovery, categorical costs were affected: e.g. on average, for every anaesthetic in the year before the accident, hospital cost of recovery increased by 24 % [95 % CI: 13, 36 %] and for each pathological test related to established diabetes, hospital cost increased by $10,407 [5466.78, 15346.28]. For medical costs, each anaesthetic led to $258 higher cost [174.16, 341.16] and every prescription of drugs

  19. Pilot visual acquisition of traffic : operational communications from air traffic control operational communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Avionics devices designed to provide pilots with graphically displayed traffic information will enable pilots to acquire and verify the identity of any intruder aircraft within the general area, either before or in accordance with a controller-issued...

  20. SignalGuru: Leveraging mobile phones for collaborative traffic signal schedule advisory

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoumidis, Emmanouil; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Martonosi, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    While traffic signals are necessary to safely control competing flows of traffic, they inevitably enforce a stop-and-go movement pattern that increases fuel consumption, reduces traffic flow and causes traffic jams. These side effects can be alleviated by providing drivers and their onboard computational devices (e.g., vehicle computer, smartphone) with information about the schedule of the traffic signals ahead. Based on when the signal ahead will turn green, drivers can then adjust speed so...

  1. Text Line Detection from Rectangle Traffic Panels of Natural Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan; Huang, Linlin; Hu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Traffic sign detection and recognition is very important for Intelligent Transportation. Among traffic signs, traffic panel contains rich information. However, due to low resolution and blur in the rectangular traffic panel, it is difficult to extract the character and symbols. In this paper, we propose a coarse-to-fine method to detect the Chinese character on traffic panels from natural scenes. Given a traffic panel Color Quantization is applied to extract candidate regions of Chinese characters. Second, a multi-stage filter based on learning is applied to discard the non-character regions. Third, we aggregate the characters for text lines by Distance Metric Learning method. Experimental results on real traffic images from Baidu Street View demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Conditional net survival: Relevant prognostic information for colorectal cancer survivors. A French population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeibe, Christian; Ilo, Chukwudi; Oguonu, Chika; Ali, Alphonsus; Abada, Ifeanyi; Ezeibe, Ezinwanne; Oguonu, Chukwunonso; Abada, Felicia; Izueke, Edwin; Agbo, Humphrey

    2018-04-04

    This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria. The study argues that provision and maintenance of traffic signs present opportunity to promoting safety on the highways and achieving the sustainable development goals.

  4. Information system for selection of conditions and equipment for the cultivation of mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Batyrgazieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mammals cells and their products wide application, so the actual problem is a creation of an information system in the field of their cultivation for the organizing and structuring of information on process experimental data. This work is devoted the analysis of mammalian cell cultivation. The main technologies of cell cultivation, necessary equipment and matrices are considered. The main stages of database design and information system is described. The justification of software products are provided and the results of the database and information system implementation are done. The detailed description of all modules of the system, as well as a comparative analysis of the results of the search are in the system to verify correct operation of the system. The scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the effective tool for presenting knowledge and data for search by specific parameters is required. The convenience of the system is that it is not necessary to address in various data sources to get and conditions of cultivation of mammalian cells, it has already been collected and structured according to parameters. With help of the system, it is possible to select conditions for the cultivation of mammalian cells at the stage of scientific researches that will significantly reduce the time and cost of work, also to rank of recommended technological and hardware solutions. The system has a functional completeness, i.e. in a specific subject area, it ensures the fulfillment of user's requirements, and allows to accumulate and process information.

  5. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  6. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  7. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  8. [Informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palencia, Isabel P; Castillo-Ávila, Irma Y; Banquez-Salas, Annia P; Castro-Ortega, Audrey J; Lara-Escalante, Hilda R

    2012-06-01

    Determining informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena. The target population consisted of informal sellers working in the Bazurto market; sample size consisted of 584 sellers. A check-list was used to describe their working conditions. A "health disorders" test and neurotoxic symptoms scale (Q16) were used to determine health status and the body mass index (BMI) for determining nutritional status. 583 sellers participated in the study, having an average age of 39 years (38-40 95 %CI). 87.8 % (512) of the participants were exposed to constant noise, 84.9 % (495) worked in places having high temperatures, 74.1 % (432) were exposed to dust, and 69.8 % (407) did not use personal protective equipment. They were working 10 hours a day on average. 71 % (414) suffered from physical exhaustion, 72.4 % (422) had headaches, 63.7 % (371) had back pain and 62.7 % (365) suffered from pains in their legs. The target population's physical environment was inadequate, they worked for too many hours and some workplaces were dangerous. The informal sellers' symptoms included back pain, headaches, leg pain, eye strain and physical fatigue.

  9. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  10. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the

  11. Disclosure of personal medical information: differences among parents and affected adults for genetic and nongenetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Summer; Kass, Nancy E; Natowicz, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the confidentiality of medical information has been an issue of great interest in the fields of bioethics, public policy, and law. Few empirical studies have addressed patient experiences and attitudes toward disclosure of private medical information in multiple contexts such as health insurance, employment, and the family. Furthermore, it is unclear whether differences exist in experiences and attitudes about privacy between those living with a serious medical condition versus those who have a child with a medical condition. The study sought to determine whether attitudes and experiences related to medical privacy and confidentiality differ between affected adults and parents of affected children. Interviews were conducted with 296 adults and parents of children with sickle cell disease (SCD), cystic fibrosis (CF), or diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional study collected data regarding their experiences, attitudes, and beliefs concerning medical privacy and confidentiality. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted on quantitative data. Qualitative analysis was conducted on data from open-ended response items. Parents disclose their child's diagnosis to others more often than affected adults disclose their own disease status. Parents are less likely than affected adults to regret their disclosure, to hope others do not find out, to have been pressured to share information, and to be asked about their disease by employers. Affected adults express greater concern about disclosure, a greater prevalence and greater fear of discrimination, and experience greater pressure from family members to disclose. Clinicians and researchers working with these populations should consider these differences in privacy and disclosure. Further study is necessary to examine the implications of these differences in attitudes and experiences concerning insurance, employment, and social interactions among persons with these conditions.

  12. Road Traffic Congestion Management Based on a Search-Allocation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiyn Jamal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new scheme for road traffic management in smart cities, aimed at reducing road traffic congestion. The scheme is based on a combination of searching, updating, and allocation techniques (SUA. An SUA approach is proposed to reduce the processing time for forecasting the conditions of all road sections in real-time, which is typically considerable and complex. It searches for the shortest route based on historical observations, then computes travel time forecasts based on vehicular location in real-time. Using updated information, which includes travel time forecasts and accident forecasts, the vehicle is allocated the appropriate section. The novelty of the SUA scheme lies in its updating of vehicles in every time to reduce traffic congestion. Furthermore, the SUA approach supports autonomy and management by self-regulation, which recommends its use in smart cities that support internet of things (IoT technologies.

  13. FAST DRAWING OF TRAFFIC SIGN USING MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare

  14. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  15. Information support of monitoring of technical condition of buildings in construction risk area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkova, M. E.; Lepihina, O. Y.; Ignatova, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the research devoted to the development of a model of information support of monitoring buildings technical condition; these buildings are located in the construction risk area. As a result of the visual and instrumental survey, as well as the analysis of existing approaches and techniques, attributive and cartographic databases have been created. These databases allow monitoring defects and damages of buildings located in a 30-meter risk area from the object under construction. The classification of structures and defects of these buildings under survey is presented. The functional capabilities of the developed model and the field of it practical applications are determined.

  16. A combination of body condition measurements is more informative than conventional condition indices: temporal variation in body condition and corticosterone in brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T

    2008-02-01

    The body condition index is a common method for quantifying the energy reserves of individual animals. Because good body condition is necessary for reproduction in many species, body condition indices can indicate the potential reproductive output of a population. Body condition is related to glucocorticoid production, in that low body condition is correlated to high concentrations of corticosterone in reptiles. We compared the body condition index and plasma corticosterone levels of brown tree snakes on Guam in 2003 to those collected in 1992/1993 to determine whether that population still showed the chronic stress and poor condition apparent in the earlier study. We also examined the relationship between fat mass, body condition and plasma corticosterone concentrations as indicators of physiological condition of individuals in the population. Body condition was significantly higher in 2003 than in the earlier sample for mature male and female snakes, but not for juveniles. The significantly lower levels of corticosterone in all three groups in 2003 suggests that although juveniles did not have significantly improved energy stores they, along with the mature males and females, were no longer under chronic levels of stress. Although the wet season of 2002 was unusually rainy, low baseline levels of corticosterone measured in 2000 indicate that the improved body condition of snakes in 2003 is likely the result of long-term changes in prey populations rather than annual variation in response to environmental conditions.

  17. Quantifying conditional risks for water and energy systems using climate information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the multi-scale spatio-temporal organization of climate dynamics, and its implications for predictable, structured risk exposure to populations and infrastructure systems. At the most base level is an understanding that there are some identifiable climate modes, such as ENSO, that are associated with such outcomes. This has led to the emergence of a small cottage industry of analysts who relate different "climate indices" to specific regional outcomes. Such efforts and the associated media interest in these simplified "stories" have led to an increasing appreciation of the phenomenon, and some formal and informal efforts at decision making using such information. However, as was demonstrated through the 2014-16 El Nino forecasting season, many climate scientists over-emphasized the potential risks, while others cautioned the media as to the caveats and uncertainties associated with assuming that the forecasts of ENSO and the expected teleconnections may pan out. At least in certain sectors and regions, significant efforts or expectations as to outcomes were put in place, and some were beneficial, while others failed to manifest. Climate informed predictions for water and energy systems can be thought of as efforts to infer conditional distributions of specific outcomes given information on climate state. Invariably, the climate state may be presented as a very high dimensional spatial set of variables, with limited temporal sampling, while the water and energy attributes may be regional and constitute a much smaller dimension. One may, of course, be interested in the fact that the same climate state may lead to synchronous positive and negative effects across many locations, as may be expected under mid-latitude stationary and transient wave interaction. In this talk, I will provide examples of a few modern statistical and machine learning tools that allow a decomposition of the high dimensional climate state and its relation

  18. Spatial-temporal cluster analysis of mortality from road traffic injuries using geographic information systems in West of Iran during 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, Alireza; Najafi, Farid; Karimi, Saeed; Saeidi, Shahram; Izadi, Neda

    2018-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are considered as one of the most important health problems endangering people's life. The examination of the geographical distribution of RTIs could help policymakers in better planning to reduce RTIs. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the spatial-temporal clustering of mortality from RTIs in West of Iran. Deaths from RTIs, registered in Forensic Medicine Organization of Kermanshah province over a period of six years (2009-2014), were used. Using negative binomial regression, the mortality trend was investigated. In order to investigate the spatial distribution of RTIs, we used ArcGIS. (Version 10.3). The median age of the 3231 people died in RTIs was 37 (IQR = 31) year, 78.4% were male. The 6-year average mortality rate from RTIs was 27.8/100,000 deaths, and the average rate had a declining trend. The dispersion of RTIs showed that most deaths occurred in Kermanshah, Islamabad, Bisotun, and Harsin road axes, respectively. The mean center of all deaths from RTIs occurred in Kermanshah province, the central area of Kermanshah district. The spatial trend of such deaths has moved to the northeast-southwest, and such deaths were geographically centralized. Results of Moran's I with respect to cluster analysis also indicated positive spatial autocorrelations. The results showed that the mortality rate from RTIs, despite the decline in recent years, is still high when compared with other countries. The clustering of accidents raises the concern that road infrastructure in certain locations may also be a factor. Regarding the results related to the temporal analysis, it is suggested that the enforcement of traffic rules be stricter at rush hours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Ant colony optimization algorithm for signal coordination of oversaturated traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Traffic congestion is a daily and growing problem of the modern era in mostly all major cities in the world. : Increasing traffic demand strains the existing transportation system, leading to oversaturated network : conditions, especially at peak hou...

  20. Human Factors of Automated Driving : Predicting the Effects of Authority Transitions on Traffic Flow Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varotto, S.F.; Hoogendoorn, R.G.; Van Arem, B.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Automated driving potentially has a significant impact on traffic flow efficiency. Automated vehicles, which possess cooperative capabilities, are expected to reduce congestion levels for instance by increasing road capacity, by anticipating traffic conditions further downstream and also by

  1. Consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa under blind and informed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; Nalério, Elen Silveira; Giongo, Citieli; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-03-01

    The development of air-dried cured sheep meat products represents an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa, an innovative product. Four sheep meat coppa samples were formulated by varying smoking (smoked vs. non-smoked) and salt content (4.5% vs. 3.4%), and compared with two commercial samples of regular pork meat coppa. Samples were evaluated under blind or informed conditions by 202 consumers, who had to rate their liking and to answer a check-all-that-apply question. Sheep and pork meat coppa samples did not largely differ in their overall liking in both experimental conditions. Smoking and high salt content significantly increased consumers' hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa. The information included in the labels did not modify consumer hedonic perception but influenced their sensory description, particularly for the terms related to the type of meat used in their manufacture. Results indicate positive market opportunities for sheep meat coppa in the Brazilian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  3. Traffic modifications on Routes Rutherford, Democrite and Fermi

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The GS Department would like to inform you that until the end of December, the construction of Building 245 will result in the following traffic modifications: Traffic on Route Rutherford will be partially restricted in front of the construction site, Traffic on Route Democrite will be one-way towards Route Rutherford. Also, please note that due to construction work in front of Building 377, Route Fermi will be closed from Wednesday, 10 June until Friday, 7 August. Thank you for your understanding.

  4. Navier-Stokes-like equations for traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, R M; Marques, W

    2005-10-01

    The macroscopic traffic flow equations derived from the reduced Paveri-Fontana equation are closed starting with the maximization of the informational entropy. The homogeneous steady state taken as a reference is obtained for a specific model of the desired velocity and a kind of Chapman-Enskog method is developed to calculate the traffic pressure at the Navier-Stokes level. Numerical solution of the macroscopic traffic equations is obtained and its characteristics are analyzed.

  5. [Autopsy and blood testing for alcohol and drugs/medicine after traffic fatalities is not routinely conducted].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Schumacher, Bente; Freeman, Michael

    2010-09-27

    In some road traffic crashes with fatal outcome, the police investigations lead to charges against and prosecution of a person. The police can request a medico-legal autopsy as well as a toxicological examination, but the extent to which this is done, and the role here of in the legal setting is unknown. Information concerning traffic crashes with fatal outcome in the period 2000-2004 in Aarhus Police District was retrieved and compared. The information included comprised crash specific and legal information, as well as medical data concerning autopsy, examination for alcohol, drugs and/or medicine. In all, 81 traffic crashes had a fatal outcome for 92 persons, of whom 17 (18%) were autopsied, 55 (60%) were tested for alcohol, and five (5%) were examined for drugs/medicine. Twenty-six were charged with negligent homicide, of which 18 were convicted. Autopsy was performed in four of these cases, 19 were tested for alcohol and one was tested for drugs/medicine. This study shows that the police requests few medico-legal autopsies following road traffic fatalities, and that testing for alcohol as well as drugs/medicine is not conducted routinely. As a consequence, important information may not come to the knowledge of the police in cases of negligent homicide. We recommend that postmortem examination be conducted routinely in traffic-related homicide cases to secure the best possible conditions for a legal evaluation.

  6. Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170

    CERN Multimedia

    A Lopez - TS/CE

    2005-01-01

    The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE

  7. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array near a Highway for Traffic Monitoring and Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Ak, E. Ms; Lord, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring traffic is important for many technical reasons. It allows for better design of future roads and assessment of the state of current roads. The number, size, weight, and speed of vehicles control deterioration rate. Also, real-time information supplies data to intelligent information systems to help control traffic. Recently there have been studies looking at monitoring traffic seismically as vibrations from traffic are not sensitive to weather and poor visibility. Furthermore, traffic noise can be used to image S-wave velocity distribution in the near surface by capturing and interpreting Rayleigh and Love waves (Nakata, 2016; Zeng et al. 2016). The capability of DAS for high spatial sampling (1 m), temporal sampling (up to 10 kHz), and distributed nature (tens of kilometers) allows for a closer look at the traffic as it passes and how the speed of the vehicle may change over the length of the array. The potential and difficulties of using DAS for these objectives were studied using two DAS arrays. One at Garner Valley in Southern California (a 700-meter array adjacent to CA Highway 74) and another in Brady Hot Springs, Nevada (an 8700-meter array adjacent to Interstate 80). These studies experimentally evaluated the use of DAS data for monitoring traffic and assessing the use of traffic vibration as non-localized sources for seismic imaging. DAS arrays should also be resilient to issues with lighting conditions that are problematic for video monitoring and it may be sensitive to the weight of a vehicle. This study along a major interstate provides a basis for examining DAS' potential and limitations as a key component of intelligent highway systems.

  8. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  9. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  10. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  11. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers traffic violations and residency status. : Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety viol...

  12. Enhancing the Quality of Service for Real Time Traffic over Optical Burst Switching (OBS Networks with Ensuring the Fairness for Other Traffics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al-Shargabi

    Full Text Available Optical burst switching (OBS networks have been attracting much consideration as a promising approach to build the next generation optical Internet. A solution for enhancing the Quality of Service (QoS for high priority real time traffic over OBS with the fairness among the traffic types is absent in current OBS' QoS schemes. In this paper we present a novel Real Time Quality of Service with Fairness Ratio (RT-QoSFR scheme that can adapt the burst assembly parameters according to the traffic QoS needs in order to enhance the real time traffic QoS requirements and to ensure the fairness for other traffic. The results show that RT-QoSFR scheme is able to fulfill the real time traffic requirements (end to end delay, and loss rate ensuring the fairness for other traffics under various conditions such as the type of real time traffic and traffic load. RT-QoSFR can guarantee that the delay of the real time traffic packets does not exceed the maximum packets transfer delay value. Furthermore, it can reduce the real time traffic packets loss, at the same time guarantee the fairness for non real time traffic packets by determining the ratio of real time traffic inside the burst to be 50-60%, 30-40%, and 10-20% for high, normal, and low traffic loads respectively.

  13. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2016-04-01

    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  14. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  15. An Efficient Traffic Congestion Monitoring System on Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Binh Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing intelligent transport systems (ITS do not fully consider and resolve accuracy, instantaneity, and compatibility challenges while resolving traffic congestion in Internet of Vehicles (IoV environments. This paper proposes a traffic congestion monitoring system, which includes data collection, segmented structure establishment, traffic-flow modelling, local segment traffic congestion prediction, and origin-destination traffic congestion service for drivers. Macroscopic model-based traffic-flow factors were formalized on the basis of the analysis results. Fuzzy rules-based local segment traffic congestion prediction was performed to determine the traffic congestion state. To enhance prediction efficiency, this paper presents a verification process for minimizing false predictions which is based on the Rankine-Hugoniot condition and an origin-destination traffic congestion service is also provided. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, a prototype was implemented. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively monitor traffic congestion in terms of accuracy and system response time.

  16. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  17. Penalties in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect

  18. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  19. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  20. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  1. Re-evaluation of superheat conditions postulated in NRC Information Notice 84-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsammarae, A.; Kruger, D.; Beutel, D.; Spisak, M.

    1994-01-01

    Information Notice 84-90, ''Main Steam Line Break Effect on Environmental Qualification of Equipment,'' describes a potential problem regarding existing plant analyses and Equipment Qualification (EQ) related to a postulated Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with releases of superheated stream. This notice states that certain methodologies for computing mass and energy releases for a postulated MSLB did not account for heat transfer from the steam generator tube bundles if they were uncovered. Due to this potential change in the original environmental analysis, the EQ of various components may not consider the thermal environment which could result from superheated steam. Subsequent technical assessments may determine that the existing qualification basis for equipment/components does not envelop the postulated superheat condition. Corrective actions need to be taken to demonstrate that the affected equipment is qualified

  2. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  3. Road traffic flow and impact on environment in Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Zaheer-ud-Din; Ansari, A.K.; Memon, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In Hyderabad city due to dramatic increase in traffic intensity on the roads, traffic flow have been much beyond the comfortable limits. High values of traffic flow density have been recorded on Court Road (34.05%), Tilak Road (19.87%), Risala Road (22.91%) and Cafe George (23.14%) of Hyderabad city. Above 80% people are found to be annoyed due to traffic congestion, noise and smoke resulting in health ailments. Slow Moving Vehicles (SMVs) comprising of animal and hand drawn vehicles (rehras) cause serious disruption in the traffic stream on city roads, which are ultimately causing traffic-jam condition resulting a serious impact on environment. No definite parking places exist for public vehicles because of encroachment on roads. Proper foot paths are not available for pedestrian, which results in increase in accidents. (author)

  4. System And Method For Monitoring Traffic While Preserving Personal Privacy

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2015-08-06

    A traffic monitoring system and method for mapping traffic speed and density while preserving privacy. The system can include fixed stations that make up a network and mobile probes that are associated with vehicles. The system and method do not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a complementary flood monitoring system and method.

  5. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS; however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS. In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC, an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  6. Traffic speed data imputation method based on tensor completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bin; Tan, Huachun; Feng, Jianshuai; Liu, Ying; Wang, Wuhong

    2015-01-01

    Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC), an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS) database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  7. Internet Use by Parents of Children With Rare Conditions: Findings From a Study on Parents' Web Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Honor; Tracey, Catherine; Begley, Thelma; King, Carole; Lynch, Aileen M

    2017-02-28

    Parents of children with rare conditions increasingly use the Internet to source information on their child's condition. This study reports on part of a larger study whose overall aim was to identify the Internet use by parents when seeking information on their child's rare condition, with the specific purpose of using the findings to aid in the development of a website specifically designed to meet the parents' needs. It presents findings on why these parents use the Internet, the information and support content they source, and the impact these resources have on their capacity to care for and manage their child's condition. To (1) ascertain parents' general Internet usage patterns, (2) identify the nature of the information parents most frequently searched for, and (3) determine the effect the Internet-sourced information had on parents of children with rare conditions. Data collection was conducted in 2 parts: Part 1 was a focus group interview (n=8) to inform the development of the questionnaire, and Part 2 was a questionnaire (Web- and paper-based). All respondents (N=128) completed the questionnaire using the Internet. Parents frequently and habitually used the Internet and social media to gather information on their child's condition. These Web-based resources provide parents with a parent-to-parent support platform that allows them to share their experiences and information with other parents, which, the respondents considered, improved their knowledge and understanding of their child's condition. The respondents also reported that these resources positively impacted on their decision making, care, and management of their child's condition. However, they reported receiving mixed responses when wishing to engage and share with health care professionals their Internet and social media interactions and information outcomes. This study adds to the emerging body of research on the Internet use by parents of children with rare conditions to source information on

  8. Internet Use by Parents of Children With Rare Conditions: Findings From a Study on Parents’ Web Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Honor; Tracey, Catherine; Begley, Thelma; King, Carole

    2017-01-01

    Background Parents of children with rare conditions increasingly use the Internet to source information on their child’s condition. This study reports on part of a larger study whose overall aim was to identify the Internet use by parents when seeking information on their child’s rare condition, with the specific purpose of using the findings to aid in the development of a website specifically designed to meet the parents’ needs. It presents findings on why these parents use the Internet, the information and support content they source, and the impact these resources have on their capacity to care for and manage their child’s condition. Objective To (1) ascertain parents’ general Internet usage patterns, (2) identify the nature of the information parents most frequently searched for, and (3) determine the effect the Internet-sourced information had on parents of children with rare conditions. Methods Data collection was conducted in 2 parts: Part 1 was a focus group interview (n=8) to inform the development of the questionnaire, and Part 2 was a questionnaire (Web- and paper-based). All respondents (N=128) completed the questionnaire using the Internet. Results Parents frequently and habitually used the Internet and social media to gather information on their child’s condition. These Web-based resources provide parents with a parent-to-parent support platform that allows them to share their experiences and information with other parents, which, the respondents considered, improved their knowledge and understanding of their child’s condition. The respondents also reported that these resources positively impacted on their decision making, care, and management of their child’s condition. However, they reported receiving mixed responses when wishing to engage and share with health care professionals their Internet and social media interactions and information outcomes. Conclusions This study adds to the emerging body of research on the Internet use by

  9. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034

  10. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-06-01

    To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases.

  11. Risk-informed optimal routing of ships considering different damage scenarios and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decò, Alberto; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the development of a risk-informed decision tool for the optimal mission-oriented routing of ships. The strength of the hull is investigated by modeling the midship section with finite elements and by analyzing different damage levels depending on the propagation of plastification throughout the section. Vertical and horizontal flexural interaction is investigated. Uncertainties associated with geometry and material properties are accounted for by means of the implementation of the response surface method. Load effects are evaluated using strip theory. Reliability analysis is performed for several ship operational conditions and considering four different limit states. Then, risk is assessed by including the direct losses associated with five investigated damage states. The effects of corrosion on aged ships are included in the proposed approach. Polar representation of load effects, reliability, and direct risk are presented for a large spectrum of operational conditions. Finally, the optimal routing of ships is obtained by minimizing both the estimated time of arrival and the expected direct risk, which are clearly conflicting objectives. The optimization process provides feasible solutions belonging to the Pareto front. The proposed approach is applied to a Joint High Speed Sealift

  12. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  13. Design information verification for spent fuel conditioning plants and for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.; Ward, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent fuel is a major option for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will require the construction, operation and eventual closure of conditioning plants and geological repositories. Consequently, a safeguards approach including Design Information Verification (DIV) must be developed for these facilities. DIV Is the examination of a completed facility to verify that it has been built to the design declared by the operator. Although DIV takes place chiefly before a plant begins routine operation, there is a continuing interest in ensuring that the plant remains as declared. That is, that the continuity of knowledge of design information is maintained during the operational phase of the plant and also post closure if necessary. A major problem with DIV of a repository is that there will be continuous structural changes during its operational life requiring advanced or special techniques for reverification. Some of these are briefly reviewed. Furthermore, since a disposal facility is expected to be operational for several decades, new mining technology may also have an impact on the DIV methods employed. Another factor in the safeguards supervision of a repository is that when the fuel has been backfilled and/or scaled in place a reassay will be a very costly exercise. The role of DIV in such novel circumstances must, therefore, be fully considered

  14. The electron localization as the information content of the conditional pair density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina, Andres S.; Torres, F. Javier [Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Grupo de Química Computacional y Teórica (QCT-USFQ), Departamento de Química e Ingeniería Química, Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Instituto de Simulación Computacional (ISC-USFQ), Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Rincon, Luis, E-mail: lrincon@usfq.edu.ec, E-mail: lrincon@ula.ve [Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Grupo de Química Computacional y Teórica (QCT-USFQ), Departamento de Química e Ingeniería Química, Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Instituto de Simulación Computacional (ISC-USFQ), Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), La Hechicera, Mérida-5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-28

    In the present work, the information gained by an electron for “knowing” about the position of another electron with the same spin is calculated using the Kullback-Leibler divergence (D{sub KL}) between the same-spin conditional pair probability density and the marginal probability. D{sub KL} is proposed as an electron localization measurement, based on the observation that regions of the space with high information gain can be associated with strong correlated localized electrons. Taking into consideration the scaling of D{sub KL} with the number of σ-spin electrons of a system (N{sup σ}), the quantity χ = (N{sup σ} − 1) D{sub KL}f{sub cut} is introduced as a general descriptor that allows the quantification of the electron localization in the space. f{sub cut} is defined such that it goes smoothly to zero for negligible densities. χ is computed for a selection of atomic and molecular systems in order to test its capability to determine the region in space where electrons are localized. As a general conclusion, χ is able to explain the electron structure of molecules on the basis of chemical grounds with a high degree of success and to produce a clear differentiation of the localization of electrons that can be traced to the fluctuation in the average number of electrons in these regions.

  15. Validation of a multi-objective, predictive urban traffic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, I.R.; Haak, P. van den; Woldeab, Z.; Vreeswijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the verification and validation of the ecoStrategic Model, which was developed, implemented and tested in the eCoMove project. The model uses real-time and historical traffic information to determine the current, predicted and desired state of traffic in a

  16. System And Method For Monitoring Traffic While Preserving Personal Privacy

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward; Claudel, Christian G.; Shamim, Atif; Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Mousa, Mustafa; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a

  17. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... periods are not significantly long. Finally, better alignment between the RRC Connected and Idle mobility procedures is observed, guarantying significant decrease of handovers/reselections and potential battery life savings by minimizing the Inter-Frequency (IF) measurement rate in the RRC Idle....

  18. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  19. The design of traffic signal coordinated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueting; Sun, Hongsheng; Wang, Xifu

    2017-05-01

    Traffic as the tertiary industry is an important pillar industry to support the normal development of the economy. But now China's road traffic development and economic development has shown a great imbalance and fault phenomenon, which greatly inhibited the normal development of China's economy. Now in many large and medium-sized cities in China are implementing green belt construction. The so-called green band is when the road conditions to meet the conditions for the establishment of the green band, the sections of the intersection of several planning to a traffic coordination control system, so that when the driver at a specific speed can be achieved without stopping the continuous Through the intersection. Green belt can effectively reduce the delay and queuing length of vehicle driving, the normal function of urban roads and reduce the economic losses caused by traffic congestion is a great help. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the design of the coordinated control system is described. Secondly, the green time offset is calculated by the analytic method and the green band is established. And then the VISSIM software is used to simulate the traffic system before and after the improvement. Finally, the results of the two simulations are compared.

  20. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational

  1. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  2. 78 FR 68905 - Agency Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Number: 2900-NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...- NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...

  3. 78 FR 68906 - Agency Information Collection (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...

  4. 78 FR 68908 - Agency Information Collection (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...: 2900--NEW (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...-- NEW (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER...

  5. 78 FR 36304 - Proposed Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...

  6. Multi-service traffic profiles to realise and maintain QoS guarantees in wireless LANs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.M. Panken; G.J. Hoekstra (Gerard)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper shows that throughput parameter \\"bits/s\\" does not provide accurate insight in load conditions and/or traffic demands in Wireless LANs (WLANs). A multi-service traffic profile that does provide this insight is therefore defined. The multi-service traffic profile

  7. Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk

    2001-10-01

    Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ``phantom traffic jams'' even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ``freeze by heating''? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micro-macro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for self-driven many-particle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socio-economic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.

  8. How do Air Traffic Controllers Use Automation and Tools Differently During High Demand Situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Joshua M.; Mercer, Joey; Morey, Susan; Homola, Jeffrey; Gomez, Ashley; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a human-in-the-loop simulation, two air traffic controllers managed identical airspace while burdened with higher than average workload, and while using advanced tools and automation designed to assist with scheduling aircraft on multiple arrival flows to a single meter fix. This paper compares the strategies employed by each controller, and investigates how the controllers' strategies change while managing their airspace under more normal workload conditions and a higher workload condition. Each controller engaged in different methods of maneuvering aircraft to arrive on schedule, and adapted their strategies to cope with the increased workload in different ways. Based on the conclusions three suggestions are made: that quickly providing air traffic controllers with recommendations and information to assist with maneuvering and scheduling aircraft when burdened with increased workload will improve the air traffic controller's effectiveness, that the tools should adapt to the strategy currently employed by a controller, and that training should emphasize which traffic management strategies are most effective given specific airspace demands.

  9. Risk assessment during operating self-propelled lifting jib cranes in conditions of insufficient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of statistical analyses identified by the expert diagnostics of defects of the self-propelled lifting jib cranes, spent a normative term of exploitation. The greatest number of defects associated with the destruction and dete-rioration of structural elements, the occurrence of fatigue cracks and a violation of the conditions of operation of the equipment. The greatest number of defects occurs in the hydraulic system of cranes, the rope-block system, and rarely in steel structures. To conduct risk analysis of self-propelled jib cranes in case of insufficient information, proposed the method of expert estimations. It allows to assess the impact of potential defects on self-propelled jib cranes on the value of the economic damage of the crane and moving cargo and the value of the traumatic exposure on men. The proposed list of possible defects self-propelled lifting jib cranes and a checklist of questions about the degree of influence of these defects. Proposed calculated dependences to the approximate calculation of the magnitude of technical risk in the opera-tion of self-propelled jib cranes. The results of statistical analysis of expert estimations for each possible defect and per-formed their ranking in terms of impact on the magnitude of the economic damage of the crane and moving loads, the value of the traumatic exposure. Was calculated the value of technical risk for the surveyed taps.

  10. Causal holographic information does not satisfy the linearized quantum focusing condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald; Qi, Marvin

    2018-04-01

    The Hubeny-Rangamani causal holographic information (CHI) defined by a region R of a holographic quantum field theory (QFT) is a modern version of the idea that the area of event horizons might be related to an entropy. Here the event horizon lives in a dual gravitational bulk theory with Newton's constant G bulk, and the relation involves a factor of 4 G bulk. The fact that CHI is bounded below by the von Neumann entropy S suggests that CHI is coarse-grained. Its properties could thus differ markedly from those of S. In particular, recent results imply that when d ≤ 4 holographic QFTs are perturbatively coupled to d-dimensional gravity, the combined system satisfies the so-called quantum focusing condition (QFC) at leading order in the new gravitational coupling G d when the QFT entropy is taken to be that of von Neumann. However, by studying states dual to spherical bulk (anti-de Sitter) Schwarschild black holes in the conformal frame for which the boundary is a (2 + 1)-dimensional de Sitter space, we find the QFC defined by CHI is violated even when perturbing about a Killing horizon and using a single null congruence. Since it is known that a generalized second law (GSL) holds in this context, our work demonstrates that the QFC is not required in order for an entropy, or an entropy-like quantity, to satisfy such a GSL.

  11. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  12. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  13. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  14. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  15. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  16. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  17. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  18. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    re-enforce the traffic law with strict monitoring and speed cameras.3. Re-enforce Zebra Crossings with lights and give penalties to drivers who do not adhere.4. It is a well known fact that financial penalties are more effective than other forms of penalties on re-enforcing the law.5. Improve the conditions of the roads i.e. regular maintenance, road markings, road humps, traffic lights, road mirrors and road signs.6. Re-validate the driving licences with written and practical exams.7. Roadside assistance through a mobile workshop / emergency phones by the roadside.8. Only road-worthy vehicles should be allowed on the road through re-enforcement of a safety certification system for vehicles.9. Regulate the issue and distribution of driving licences and vehicle safety certification through the use of IT (Information Technology systems.10. It is about time that a national policy for injury prevention and control in Libya should be formed thorough the coordination between different ministries, departments and the various agencies concerned.These are the suggestions and visions of one person but I am sure that many of you will share my views.

  19. A new traffic control design method for large networks with signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G. G.; Colony, D. C.; Seldner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a traffic control design technique for application to large traffic networks with signalized intersections. It is shown that the design method adopts a macroscopic viewpoint to establish a new traffic modelling procedure in which vehicle platoons are subdivided into main stream queues and turning queues. Optimization of the signal splits minimizes queue lengths in the steady state condition and improves traffic flow conditions, from the viewpoint of the traveling public. Finally, an application of the design method to a traffic network with thirty-three signalized intersections is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  20. Analysis of traffic and meteorology on airborne particulate matter in Münster, northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Johanna K; Klemm, Otto

    2009-07-01

    The importance of street traffic and meteorological conditions on the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 microm (PM10) was studied in the city of Münster in northwest Germany. The database consisted of meteorological data, data of PM10 mass concentrations and fine particle number (6-225 nm diameter) concentrations, and traffic intensity data as counted with tally hand counters at a four- to six-lane road. On working days, a significant correlation could be found between the diurnal mean PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number. The lower number of heavy-duty vehicles compared with passenger cars contributed more to the particle number concentration on working days than on weekend days. On weekends, when the vehicle number was very low, the correlation between PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number changed completely. Other sources of PM and the meteorology dominated the PM concentration. Independent of the weekday, by decreasing the traffic by approximately 99% during late-night hours, the PM10 concentration was reduced by 12% of the daily mean value. A correlation between PM10 and the particle number concentration was found for each weekday. In this study, meteorological parameters, including the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer, were also accounted for. The authors deployed artificial neural networks to achieve more information on the influence of various meteorological parameters, traffic, and the day of the week. A multilayer perceptron network showed the best results for predicting the PM10 concentration, with the correlation coefficient being 0.72. The influence of relative humidity, temperature, and wind was strong, whereas the influence of atmospheric stability and the traffic parameters was weak. Although traffic contributes a constant amount of particles in a daily and weekly cycle, it is the meteorology that drives most of the variability.

  1. 78 FR 36307 - Proposed Information Collection (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...: Shoulder and Arm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-12. OMB Control Number...

  2. Evaluation of work zone split traffic symbol sign : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Effective signage that is easy to understand facilitates safe driving through a work zone. While the guidance for work zone signage in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is suitable for many conditions, there may be instances where...

  3. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  4. Ontology-Based Architecture for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using a Traffic Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susel Fernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems are a set of technological solutions used to improve the performance and safety of road transportation. A crucial element for the success of these systems is the exchange of information, not only between vehicles, but also among other components in the road infrastructure through different applications. One of the most important information sources in this kind of systems is sensors. Sensors can be within vehicles or as part of the infrastructure, such as bridges, roads or traffic signs. Sensors can provide information related to weather conditions and traffic situation, which is useful to improve the driving process. To facilitate the exchange of information between the different applications that use sensor data, a common framework of knowledge is needed to allow interoperability. In this paper an ontology-driven architecture to improve the driving environment through a traffic sensor network is proposed. The system performs different tasks automatically to increase driver safety and comfort using the information provided by the sensors.

  5. 78 FR 5194 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Remove the Conditions on Residence, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of This Information... 1.17 hours for the biometric processing. (6) An estimate of the total public burden (in hours...

  6. Using the Alaska Ocean Observing System to Inform Decision Making for Coastal Resiliency Relating to Inundation, Ocean Acidification, Harmful Algal Blooms, Navigation Safety and Impacts of Vessel Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M.

    2017-12-01

    State and federal agencies, coastal communities and Alaska Native residents, and non-governmental organizations are increasingly turning to the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) as a major source of ocean and coastal data and information products to inform decision making relating to a changing Arctic. AOOS implements its mission to provide ocean observing data and information to meet stakeholder needs by ensuring that all programs are "science based, stakeholder driven and policy neutral." Priority goals are to increase access to existing coastal and ocean data; package information and data in useful ways to meet stakeholder needs; and increase observing and forecasting capacity in all regions of the state. Recently certified by NOAA, the AOOS Data Assembly Center houses the largest collection of real-time ocean and coastal data, environmental models, and biological data in Alaska, and develops tools and applications to make it more publicly accessible and useful. Given the paucity of observations in the Alaska Arctic, the challenge is how to make decisions with little data compared to other areas of the U.S. coastline. AOOS addresses this issue by: integrating and visualizing existing data; developing data and information products and tools to make data more useful; serving as a convener role in areas such as coastal inundation and flooding, impacts of warming temperatures on food security, ocean acidification, observing technologies and capacity; and facilitating planning efforts to increase observations. In this presentation, I will give examples of each of these efforts, lessons learned, and suggestions for future actions.

  7. SOCIAL CONDITIONALITY OF INFORMATION SECURITY PROTECTION BY CRIMINAL LAW IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    EFREMOVA MARINA ALEKSANDROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Information security is one of the components of the national security in the Russian Federation. The role of the information component in the national security has become significantly more important. The criminal law needs to be updated in order to enhance its effectiveness with regard to criminal law protection of information security.

  8. Information Competence of a Library Specialist as a Condition for Their Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviev, Airat F.; Mamontova, Marina S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the intensive introduction of information technology to library activities. Active use of information technology has a significant impact on the professional development of a librarian. It requires a high level of information competence. The purpose of the paper is to present and describe an information…

  9. Traveler decision making under conditions of knowledge limitations and information provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Walker, J.L.; Ben-akiva, M.E.; Silva, da A.N.R.; Souza, de L.C.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a discrete-choice based model of traveler response to information. It contributes to existing approaches in three ways: firstly, instead of focusing on either the acquisition of information or the effect of received information on travel choices, this model describes the full

  10. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  11. Dynamic control of traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Wal, van der Jan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic lights are put in place to dynamically change priority between traffic participants. Commonly, the duration of green intervals and the grouping, and ordering in which traffic flows are served are pre-fixed. In this chapter, the problem of minimizing vehicle delay at isolated intersections is

  12. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  13. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  14. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  15. TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    growing in Eastern and Southern Africa in response to increased human populations and poverty. fuel-trees etc. Conversely, extreme poverty of others means they regard wildlife as a means to meet their short worldwide. You can also find us online in: mainland China, India, Japan, Taiwan TRAFFIC is a strategic

  16. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  17. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  18. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  19. A Methodology In Processing Descriptive Analytics Using MMDA Traffic Update Tweets Tokenization And Classification Tree In Discovering Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Jay P. Calaguas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic on National Capital Region of the Philippines is going as one of many problems facing by the local government and Filipino citizen who are residing in Metro Manila. In addition a Filipino citizen that is working in Metro Manila is experiencing a waste of Twenty Eight Thousand hours in traffic which results unproductivity. Due to traffic that causes long commutes it take away an individual from exercise activities that results fatigue in their health. In relation with this due to lack of exercise that causing by the traffic each year One Hundred Seventy Thousand Filipinos die from cardiovascular diseases up from Eighty Five Thousand more than Twenty years ago according to 2009 study by the Department of Health DOH. Population increase is one of many causes of traffic in Metro Manila. As population is growing the more car riders and commuters volume will be in the road including delivery trucks Pedi cabs jeeps and provincial buses that signify that there is a high employment rate in the country that causes traffic. However to sustain the public needs MMDA is the government agency that provides public services to Filipino citizens through providing updated public traffic information. For past years MMDA used Telephony lines and Television Broadcasting for traffic information dissemination which is very costly in maintenance that made them to adopt Twitter to post Traffic updates and advisories to the public .Since this government agency uses Twitter in disseminating information through posting tweet there is a need for a methodology on how these tweets will analyze so that citizens will have an insight in decision making to avoid specific time of traffic in metro manila. From this condition the researcher will adopt the use of MMDA tweets as the primary data source and apply the CRISP as the knowledge discovery standard processes that to be used in building methodology for descriptive analytics. In this experimental research several

  20. The economic cost of traffic congestion in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Traffic congestion in the U.S. is bad and getting worse, and it is expensive. Appropriate solutions to this problem require appropriate information. A comprehensive and accurate analysis of congestion costs is a critical tool for planning and impleme...

  1. GIS Tools to Estimate Average Annual Daily Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project presents five tools that were created for a geographical information system to estimate Annual Average Daily : Traffic using linear regression. Three of the tools can be used to prepare spatial data for linear regression. One tool can be...

  2. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... manage traffic cases is manual; information collected daily is written on paper and stored in ... The system is thus user friendly in the way it inserts, retrieves and updates user .... importance of discipline on the highway.

  3. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  4. ALGORITHMS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams interfere with the drivers and cost billions of dollars per year and lead to a substantial increase in fuel consumption. In order to avoid such problems the paper describes the algorithms for traffic management in intelligent transportation system, which collects traffic information in real time and is able to detect and manage congestion on the basis of this information. The results show that the proposed algorithms reduce the average travel time, emissions and fuel consumption. In particular, travel time has decreased by about 23%, the average fuel consumption of 9%, and the average emission of 10%.

  5. Conditional use of social and private information guides house-hunting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Adam L

    2013-01-01

    Social animals can use both social and private information to guide decision making. While social information can be relatively economical to acquire, it can lead to maladaptive information cascades if attention to environmental cues is supplanted by unconditional copying. Ants frequently employ pheromone trails, a form of social information, to guide collective processes, and this can include consensus decisions made when choosing a place to live. In this study, I examine how house-hunting ants balance social and private information when these information sources conflict to different degrees. Social information, in the form of pre-established pheromone trails, strongly influenced the decision process in choices between equivalent nests, and lead to a reduced relocation time. When trails lead to non-preferred types of nest, however, social information had less influence when this preference was weak and no influence when the preference was strong. These results suggest that social information is vetted against private information during the house-hunting process in this species. Private information is favoured in cases of conflict and this may help insure colonies against costly wrong decisions.

  6. Conditional use of social and private information guides house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Cronin

    Full Text Available Social animals can use both social and private information to guide decision making. While social information can be relatively economical to acquire, it can lead to maladaptive information cascades if attention to environmental cues is supplanted by unconditional copying. Ants frequently employ pheromone trails, a form of social information, to guide collective processes, and this can include consensus decisions made when choosing a place to live. In this study, I examine how house-hunting ants balance social and private information when these information sources conflict to different degrees. Social information, in the form of pre-established pheromone trails, strongly influenced the decision process in choices between equivalent nests, and lead to a reduced relocation time. When trails lead to non-preferred types of nest, however, social information had less influence when this preference was weak and no influence when the preference was strong. These results suggest that social information is vetted against private information during the house-hunting process in this species. Private information is favoured in cases of conflict and this may help insure colonies against costly wrong decisions.

  7. Application of GIS in Urban Traffic Noise Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Omidvari; Ali Asghar Alesheikh

    2010-01-01

    Large urban areas are facing growing problems of noise pollutions. Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can conveniently be adapted to gather, analyze and present noise information. GIS can also be extended to answer to user specific problems through deterministic and statistics models. The objectives of this research were to measure urban traffic noise levels, analyze temporal and spatial dynamics of urban traffic-induced noise pollution in the first districted of Tehran estimate the noise f...

  8. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calculation of vehicle delay at signal-controlled intersections with adaptive traffic control algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By widely introducing information technology tools in the field of traffic control, it is possible to increase the capacity of hubs and reduce vehicle delays. Adaptive traffic light control is one of such tools. Its effectiveness can be assessed through traffic flow simulation. The aim of this study is to create a simulation model of a signal-controlled intersection that can be used to assess the effectiveness of adaptive control in various traffic situations, including the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic through an intersection. The model is based on a numerical experiment conducted using the Monte Carlo method. As a result of the study, vehicle delays, queue length and duration of traffic light cycles are calculated subject to different intensities of incoming traffic flows, and the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic.

  10. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  11. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Setälä, Heikki; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Kotze, D Johan

    2014-12-01

    Traffic is a major source of pollutants in cities. In this well-replicated study we analysed a broad array of contaminants in snowpacks along roads of different traffic intensities. The majority of pollutants showed a similar pattern with respect to traffic intensity: pH and conductivity as well as concentrations of PAHs, total suspended solids, phosphorus and most heavy metals were higher next to high intensity roads compared to low intensity roads. These pollutant levels also decreased considerably up to 5 m distance from the roads. Furthermore, apart from nitrogen, these variables increased in concentration from control sites in urban forest patches to road bank sites next to roads of low, intermediate and high traffic intensities. The deposition pattern of various traffic-derived pollutants--whether gaseous or particle-bound--was the same. Such information can be useful for the purposes of managing pollutants in urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  14. Traffic calming for the prevention of road traffic injuries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-09-01

    To assess whether area-wide traffic calming schemes can reduce road crash related deaths and injuries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts Science (and social science) citation index, National Technical Information service, Psychlit, Transport Research Information Service, International Road Research Documentation, and Transdoc, and web sites of road safety organisation were searched; experts were contacted, conference proceedings were handsearched, and relevant reference lists were checked. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before/after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes designed to discourage and slow down through traffic on residential roads. Data were collected on road user deaths, injuries, and traffic crashes. For each study rate ratios were calculated, the ratio of event rates before and after intervention in the traffic calmed area divided by the corresponding ratio of event rates in the control area, which were pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. Sixteen controlled before/after studies met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the number of road user deaths: pooled rate ratio 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 2.59). Sixteen studies reported the number of injuries (fatal and non-fatal): pooled rate ratio 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00). All studies were in high income countries. Area-wide traffic calming in towns and cities has the potential to reduce road traffic injuries. However, further rigorous evaluations of this intervention are needed, especially in low and middle income countries.

  15. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  17. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  18. LCD denoise and the vector mutual information method in the application of the gear fault diagnosis under different working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangfeng, Zhang; Hong, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the full vector LCD method is proposed to solve the misjudgment problem caused by the change of the working condition. First, the signal from different working condition is decomposed by LCD, to obtain the Intrinsic Scale Component (ISC)whose instantaneous frequency with physical significance. Then, calculate of the cross correlation coefficient between ISC and the original signal, signal denoising based on the principle of mutual information minimum. At last, calculate the sum of absolute Vector mutual information of the sample under different working condition and the denoised ISC as the characteristics to classify by use of Support vector machine (SVM). The wind turbines vibration platform gear box experiment proves that this method can identify fault characteristics under different working conditions. The advantage of this method is that it reduce dependence of man’s subjective experience, identify fault directly from the original data of vibration signal. It will has high engineering value.

  19. Automated Traffic and the Finite Size Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J. J. P.; Stošić, B. D.; Tangerman, F. M.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate in detail what one might call the canonical (automated) traffic problem: A long string of N+1 cars (numbered from 0 to N) moves along a one-lane road "in formation" at a constant velocity and with a unit distance between successive cars. Each car monitors the relative velocity and position of only its neighboring cars. This information is then fed back to its own engine which decelerates (brakes) or accelerates according to the information it receives. The question is: What happens when due to an external influence—a traffic light turning green—the `zero'th' car (the "leader") accelerates? As a first approximation, we analyze linear(ized) equations and show that in this scenario the traffic flow has a tendency to be stop-and-go. We give approximate solutions for the global traffic as function of all the relevant parameters (the feed back parameters as well as cruise velocity and so on). We discuss general design principles for these algorithms, that is: how does the choice of parameters influence the performance.

  20. Informing Environmental Water Management Decisions: Using Conditional Probability Networks to Address the Information Needs of Planning and Implementation Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Avril C.; Szemis, Joanna M.; Webb, J. Angus; Kaur, Simranjit; Stewardson, Michael J.; Bond, Nick; Nathan, Rory

    2018-03-01

    One important aspect of adaptive management is the clear and transparent documentation of hypotheses, together with the use of predictive models (complete with any assumptions) to test those hypotheses. Documentation of such models can improve the ability to learn from management decisions and supports dialog between stakeholders. A key challenge is how best to represent the existing scientific knowledge to support decision-making. Such challenges are currently emerging in the field of environmental water management in Australia, where managers are required to prioritize the delivery of environmental water on an annual basis, using a transparent and evidence-based decision framework. We argue that the development of models of ecological responses to environmental water use needs to support both the planning and implementation cycles of adaptive management. Here we demonstrate an approach based on the use of Conditional Probability Networks to translate existing ecological knowledge into quantitative models that include temporal dynamics to support adaptive environmental flow management. It equally extends to other applications where knowledge is incomplete, but decisions must still be made.

  1. Informing Environmental Water Management Decisions: Using Conditional Probability Networks to Address the Information Needs of Planning and Implementation Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Avril C; Szemis, Joanna M; Webb, J Angus; Kaur, Simranjit; Stewardson, Michael J; Bond, Nick; Nathan, Rory

    2018-03-01

    One important aspect of adaptive management is the clear and transparent documentation of hypotheses, together with the use of predictive models (complete with any assumptions) to test those hypotheses. Documentation of such models can improve the ability to learn from management decisions and supports dialog between stakeholders. A key challenge is how best to represent the existing scientific knowledge to support decision-making. Such challenges are currently emerging in the field of environmental water management in Australia, where managers are required to prioritize the delivery of environmental water on an annual basis, using a transparent and evidence-based decision framework. We argue that the development of models of ecological responses to environmental water use needs to support both the planning and implementation cycles of adaptive management. Here we demonstrate an approach based on the use of Conditional Probability Networks to translate existing ecological knowledge into quantitative models that include temporal dynamics to support adaptive environmental flow management. It equally extends to other applications where knowledge is incomplete, but decisions must still be made.

  2. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  3. Accurate Multisteps Traffic Flow Prediction Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is prerequisite and important for realizing intelligent traffic control and guidance, and it is also the objective requirement for intelligent traffic management. Due to the strong nonlinear, stochastic, time-varying characteristics of urban transport system, artificial intelligence methods such as support vector machine (SVM are now receiving more and more attentions in this research field. Compared with the traditional single-step prediction method, the multisteps prediction has the ability that can predict the traffic state trends over a certain period in the future. From the perspective of dynamic decision, it is far important than the current traffic condition obtained. Thus, in this paper, an accurate multi-steps traffic flow prediction model based on SVM was proposed. In which, the input vectors were comprised of actual traffic volume and four different types of input vectors were compared to verify their prediction performance with each other. Finally, the model was verified with actual data in the empirical analysis phase and the test results showed that the proposed SVM model had a good ability for traffic flow prediction and the SVM-HPT model outperformed the other three models for prediction.

  4. Task Experience as a Boundary Condition for the Negative Effects of Irrelevant Information on Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rop (Gertjan); M. van Wermeskerken (Margot); J.A. de Nooijer (Jacqueline); P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractResearch on multimedia learning has shown that learning is hampered when a multimedia message includes extraneous information that is not relevant for the task, because processing the extraneous information uses up scarce attention and working memory resources. However, eye-tracking

  5. Task Experience as a Boundary Condition for the Negative Effects of Irrelevant Information on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Gertjan; van Wermeskerken, Margot; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Research on multimedia learning has shown that learning is hampered when a multimedia message includes extraneous information that is not relevant for the task, because processing the extraneous information uses up scarce attention and working memory resources. However, eye-tracking research suggests that task experience might be a boundary…

  6. 77 FR 40383 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Labor Condition Application and Instructions for H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... information collection, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number 1205- 0310, containing Form ETA... for Nonimmigrants (electronic version); Form ETA 9035CP--General Instructions for the 9035 & 9035E... Information Form. OMB Control Number: 1205-0310. Affected Public: Businesses or other for-profits, not-for...

  7. Comparison of Microscopic Drivers' Probabilistic Lane-changing Models With Real Traffic Microscopic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Sadat Hoseini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties of microscopic-level simulation models to accurately reproduce real traffic phenomena stem not only from the complexity of calibration and validation operations, but also from the structural inadequacies of the sub-models themselves. Both of these drawbacks originate from the scant information available on real phenomena because of the difficulty in gathering accurate field data. This paper studies the traffic behaviour of individual drivers utilizing vehicle trajectory data extracted from digital images collected from freeways in Iran. These data are used to evaluate the four proposed microscopic traffic models. One of the models is based on the traffic regulations in Iran and the three others are probabilistic models that use a decision factor for calculating the probability of choosing a position on the freeway by a driver. The decision factors for three probabilistic models are increasing speed, decreasing risk of collision, and increasing speed combined with decreasing risk of collision. The models are simulated by a cellular automata simulator and compared with the real data. It is shown that the model based on driving regulations is not valid, but that other models appear useful for predicting the driver’s behaviour on freeway segments in Iran during noncongested conditions.

  8. Proportional fair scheduling algorithm based on traffic in satellite communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Sheng; Sui, Shi-Long; Liu, Chun-ling; Shi, Yu-Xin

    2018-02-01

    In the satellite communication network system, in order to solve the problem of low system capacity and user fairness in multi-user access to satellite communication network in the downlink, combined with the characteristics of user data service, an algorithm study on throughput capacity and user fairness scheduling is proposed - Proportional Fairness Algorithm Based on Traffic(B-PF). The algorithm is improved on the basis of the proportional fairness algorithm in the wireless communication system, taking into account the user channel condition and caching traffic information. The user outgoing traffic is considered as the adjustment factor of the scheduling priority and presents the concept of traffic satisfaction. Firstly,the algorithm calculates the priority of the user according to the scheduling algorithm and dispatches the users with the highest priority. Secondly, when a scheduled user is the business satisfied user, the system dispatches the next priority user. The simulation results show that compared with the PF algorithm, B-PF can improve the system throughput, the business satisfaction and fairness.

  9. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Ole A; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability...... associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR). Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders....

  10. The role of information in supporting self-care in vascular conditions: a conceptual and empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickem, Christian; Bower, Peter; Protheroe, Joanne; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Self-care has the potential to make a significant contribution to vascular conditions, but engagement with self-care support has been limited. Lack of relevant information is highlighted by patients and policy-makers as an important barrier to effective self-care, and information provides a potentially efficient platform for changing behaviour. However, work within the social sciences has generally seen information as a necessary but insufficient driver of health behaviours. Furthermore, some groups (such as the socially disadvantaged) are expected to be less amenable to information interventions. We conducted an integrated conceptual and empirical review on information-based interventions for people with vascular disease (diabetes, heart disease and kidney disease). We reviewed conceptual and empirical work concerning the role and impact of information in self-care support to generate an explanatory framework to determine why information was effective or ineffective in encouraging self-care in patients with vascular conditions. This involved mapping relevant theories and models linking information and self-care. We also explored published systematic reviews of educational interventions in diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease to examine the role of information and evidence concerning its effectiveness and impact in different patient populations. The conceptual review identified variation among information interventions in terms of type, function, and their relationship to behaviour change techniques and psychological mediators of behaviour change. Key moderators of the effect of information included types of disorder, and patient capacity and resources. A wealth of educational interventions exists for diabetes and heart conditions, but the precise components of these interventions that are effective are difficult to identify. There is little evidence concerning optimal ways of tailoring interventions for socially disadvantaged groups other

  11. Two-vehicle injury severity models based on integration of pavement management and traffic engineering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Yan, Xuedong; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The severity of traffic-related injuries has been studied by many researchers in recent decades. However, the evaluation of many factors is still in dispute and, until this point, few studies have taken into account pavement management factors as points of interest. The objective of this article is to evaluate the combined influences of pavement management factors and traditional traffic engineering factors on the injury severity of 2-vehicle crashes. This study examines 2-vehicle rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions that occurred on Tennessee state routes from 2004 to 2008. Both the traditional ordered probit (OP) model and Bayesian ordered probit (BOP) model with weak informative prior were fitted for each collision type. The performances of these models were evaluated based on the parameter estimates and deviances. The results indicated that pavement management factors played identical roles in all 3 collision types. Pavement serviceability produces significant positive effects on the severity of injuries. The pavement distress index (PDI), rutting depth (RD), and rutting depth difference between right and left wheels (RD_df) were not significant in any of these 3 collision types. The effects of traffic engineering factors varied across collision types, except that a few were consistently significant in all 3 collision types, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), rural-urban location, speed limit, peaking hour, and light condition. The findings of this study indicated that improved pavement quality does not necessarily lessen the severity of injuries when a 2-vehicle crash occurs. The effects of traffic engineering factors are not universal but vary by the type of crash. The study also found that the BOP model with a weak informative prior can be used as an alternative but was not superior to the traditional OP model in terms of overall performance.

  12. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  13. 77 FR 28543 - Nationwide Health Information Network: Conditions for Trusted Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... This request for information (RFI) reflects ONC's current thinking regarding the approach ONC should... the States or covered entities (as a matter of organizational policy) are free to expand.\\6\\ \\6\\ (2000...

  14. 77 FR 65708 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Remove the Conditions on Residence, Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic... form I-751 and an estimated time burden per response of 1.17 hours for the biometric processing. (6) An...

  15. Study regarding the Quality of Accounting Information under the Conditions of using Creative Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nicolaescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present actual problems concerning financial accounting information under increased use of creative accounting practices. For this purpose we present the current conceptual framework for financial reporting used in Romania and its limitations when using creative accounting and the role of accounting policies and principles in obtaining relevant accounting information. Finally, we will synthesize the main creative accounting techniques and their application to the consequences of economic entities

  16. Development of a Gridded Maritime Traffic DB for e-Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Il Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the era of e-Navigation, it is important to deliver maritime traffic information from a shore based station to all navigating vessels. However, in a vessel boarding system, there is a limit to the amount of raw traffic data that can be processed. In this paper, we used the Automatic Identification System (AIS data as metadata to build up the maritime traffic gridded database by projecting traffic data on a geographic coordinate system. In order to apply this database to the image layer for transferring to the ship efficiently, we have developed a maritime traffic display layer and route traffic information layer. All simulated data was collected and analyzed with the AIS in a Vessel Traffic Service(VTS center.

  17. PARADIGM CHANGE THE EDUCATION THE TEACHERS OF PRIMARY CLASSES IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kushnir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and wide dissemination of new digital technologies in all spheres of life significantly changes the structure of the labor market (there are new profession is changing dramatically professional activities existing and the requirements of employers (the ability to learn independently throughout their lives, to critically evaluate information, team work becomes more important, Maturity than a specific set of knowledge and skills. At the same time, today's children live in crowded information space, which highlights the issue of formation of information culture of their bases from an early age and quality of development needed for successful self-realization in the information society. This leads to changes in the entire education system, in particular the training of future elementary school teachers. A retrospective analysis of the use of information and communication technologies in education confirms the occurrence of such technologies for the development of children, which at different times dreamed of teachers and psychologists. Analysis of practice of training future elementary school teachers shows insufficient level of awareness of modern ICT capabilities, which are mainly used to support the traditional educational process, not the implementation of new learning approaches. The article analyzes the impact of the development of modern information and communication technologies for education in the context of professional training of future elementary school teachers.

  18. Traffic Dynamics of Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Attila

    2008-10-01

    Two important aspects of the Internet, namely the properties of its topology and the characteristics of its data traffic, have attracted growing attention of the physics community. My thesis has considered problems of both aspects. First I studied the stochastic behavior of TCP, the primary algorithm governing traffic in the current Internet, in an elementary network scenario consisting of a standalone infinite-sized buffer and an access link. The effect of the fast recovery and fast retransmission (FR/FR) algorithms is also considered. I showed that my model can be extended further to involve the effect of link propagation delay, characteristic of WAN. I continued my thesis with the investigation of finite-sized semi-bottleneck buffers, where packets can be dropped not only at the link, but also at the buffer. I demonstrated that the behavior of the system depends only on a certain combination of the parameters. Moreover, an analytic formula was derived that gives the ratio of packet loss rate at the buffer to the total packet loss rate. This formula makes it possible to treat buffer-losses as if they were link-losses. Finally, I studied computer networks from a structural perspective. I demonstrated through fluid simulations that the distribution of resources, specifically the link bandwidth, has a serious impact on the global performance of the network. Then I analyzed the distribution of edge betweenness in a growing scale-free tree under the condition that a local property, the in-degree of the "younger" node of an arbitrary edge, is known in order to find an optimum distribution of link capacity. The derived formula is exact even for finite-sized networks. I also calculated the conditional expectation of edge betweenness, rescaled for infinite networks.

  19. The influence of business conditions on supply chain information-sharing mechanisms : A study among supply chain links of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Gera A.; van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    The literature acknowledges that the type and the level of supply chain integration differ in various situations. This paper investigates the influence of business conditions on internal and external information sharing and the role of ICT in order processing, using a multi-case study among SMEs.

  20. [Hypoglycemia as a cause of traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metter, D

    1989-05-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most important subsidiary effect of insulin therapy, where traffic medicine is concerned. A study has been made of 8 motor car drivers each dependent on insulin and involved in road accidents. The evidence was issued during the trial. The questions set out to prove if there was a state of hypoglycemia and if the afflicted could have foreseen this condition. In 5 cases the driving conduct before the accidents was evident in cordinatory disturbances, which resulted in sinuous driving. The accidents all happened in every-day traffic conditions, namely counter traffic (3), front-end collision (3) and through disregard of right-of-way at cross-roads (1). A further accident was conditioned by an alcoholic state while parking in a car-park. The disturbances in consciousness conditioned by hypoglycemia occurred without warning. In 3 cases the predictability (in legal terms Actio libera in causa) had to be conceded, because the drivers had set out on their routes despite warning signals or insufficient intake of nourishment beforehand.