WorldWideScience

Sample records for traditional soybean paste

  1. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the...

  2. Zygomycota associated with traditional meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, M.; Baek, S.Y.; Kwon, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various zygomycota species were detected during a study of the mycobiota of meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans, used in Korean cuisine. Two hundred and sixty-eight strains were isolated from 98 finished meju products collected in various regions of Korea from 2009 to 2011, and 96 strains were

  3. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus methylotrophicus JJ-D34 isolated from deonjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung Hee; Moon, Ji Young; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus methylotrophicus JJ-D34 showing good proteolytic and antipathogenic activities was isolated from doenjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain JJ-D34 harboring a 4,105,955 bp circular chromosome encoding 4044 genes with a 46.24% G+C content, which will provide insights into the genomic basis of its effects and facilitating its application to doenjang fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis YJ11-1-4, a Strain with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Chun, Byung-Hee; Jeon, Hye Hee; Kim, Yeon Bee; Lee, Se Hee

    2017-11-30

    Bacillus velezensis YJ11-1-4 is a strain that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. It was isolated from doenjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste. The genome comprises a single circular chromosome of 4,006,637 bp with 46.42% G+C content without plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Lee et al.

  6. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  7. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H G; Hong, J H; Song, C K; Shin, H W; Kim, K O

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the sensory profiles of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang), to understand consumers' acceptability of different types of Doenjang samples and to identify the sensory characteristics that drive consumer acceptability of Doenjang products. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability test were conducted for 7 different types of Doenjang samples. The samples included 2 types of Doenjang made by either traditional or commercially modified methods. For the descriptive analysis, 8 trained panelists developed and evaluated 31 descriptors. There were significant differences in all 31 attributes among the samples. Principal component analysis was also performed to summarize the sensory characteristics of the samples. In consumer testing, 200 consumers evaluated the acceptability of Doenjang samples. Significant differences in consumer acceptability were observed among the samples. The consumers preferred the Doenjang samples manufactured using a commercially modified method. In overall point of view, most consumers liked the Doenjang samples that had strong "sweet" and "MSG (monosodium glutamate)" tastes. It appears that "sweet" and "MSG" tastes are the drivers of liking for Doenjang. "Salty" taste, "meju,"traditional Korean soy sauce," and "fermented fish" odor/flavors seem to be the drivers of disliking for Doenjang. Cluster analysis identified 3 subconsumer segments sharing a common preference pattern for the 7 samples within a cluster. The results showed that each consumer cluster preferred different Doenjang samples. External preference mapping was performed to establish the relationships between the sensory attributes and consumer acceptability in each cluster. Consumption of the fermented soybean products is gradually expanding around the world, due to their various health benefits. Therefore, understanding sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of Doenjang are becoming increasingly important. The intense and complex

  8. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek

    2016-01-01

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste

  9. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  10. Physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of spicy soybean paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Faria Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a spicy soybean paste. Three formulations of spicy soybean paste were prepared, and then submitted to prior microbiological and sensory acceptance test with 50 untrained tasters. The most accepted formulation was evaluated on the microbiological quality during its shelf life. Significant differences were found (p <0.05 for the attributes flavor, aroma, texture and overall impression for the formulation B of spicy soybean paste, the most accepted of the two. It was found that the microbiological analyzes are within the established by the Technical Regulation on microbiological standards for food nº 12 of January 2nd, 2001. The mean values found for the physicochemical analyzes were 38.93% for moisture, 11.00% for lipids, proteins and 11.12% to 6.85% for ash content. The spicy soybean paste is a good food option, presenting good sensory acceptance.

  11. Metaproteomics of Microbiota in Naturally Fermented Soybean Paste, Da-jiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Pengfei; Xie, Mengxi; An, Feiyu; Qiu, Boshu; Wu, Rina

    2018-05-01

    Da-jiang is a typical traditional fermented soybean product in China. At present, the proteins in da-jiang are needed to be explored. The composition and species of microbial proteins in traditional fermented da-jiang were analyzed by metaproteomics based on sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that the number and variety of microbial proteins in the traditional fermented da-jiang from different regions were different. The production site influences the fermentation in da-jiang. Then we analyzed the functions of the microbial proteins identified in da-jiang, and found that they were mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis, glycometabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. In addtion, we compared the proteins composition in different da-jiang. There are 51 common proteins of naturally fermented da-jiang, and 25 common microbial sources. The main commonly microbial sources of fungal proteins are Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces; the main commonly microbial sources of bacterial proteins are Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Bacillus subtilis. These common microbes play the predominant role in da-jiang fermentation. The present results help us to understand the fermentation of da-jiang and improve the quality and safety of final products in the future. The study illustrated metaproteome of microbiota in traditional fermented soybean paste, da-jiang, by sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A method of extracting metaproteome from microbiota in da-jiang was attempted. The findings help to understand the fermentation of da-jiang and improve the quality and safety of da-jiang in fermented industry. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Østlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h). PMID:25493196

  13. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  14. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee Yee Nwe; Myint Khine; Nyunt Wynn

    2001-01-01

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  15. Detection of free radicals in gamma-irradiated soybean paste and model system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.-J.; Volkov, Vitaly I.; Byun, M.-W.; Lee, C.-H.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated ESR spectra of fermented soybean paste irradiated at 77 K and compared with those of soybean protein isolate and soybean oil. The influences of irradiation dose, moisture content and heating after irradiation on the free radical concentration and species were examined. Four different carbon type free radicals, FR1-FR4, were identified as the product of amino acid decomposition. In the case of FR1, the doublet line arises from the hydrogen atom on the β-carbon adjacent to the carbonyl free radical. It disappeared at 150 K. FR2 was most abundant and disappeared at 190 K in wet soybean paste (WSP) and at 210 K in dry soybean paste (DSP), respectively. The radical FR4 originated from decarboxylation and deamination of amino acids, which disappeared at 210 K in both WSP and DSP. FR3 was assumed to be formed by the damage of amino acid side chains. The radical · OH was originated from water molecules, and was not observed in dry system. Sulfur radical was stable even at room temperature observed in both wet and dry systems. Aldehyde radical must be originated from the chemical reactions of enzymatic hydrolysates of soybean

  16. Study on Formulation Optimization of Black Soybean Paste%黑豆沙配方优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益叶; 周宏胜; 胡花丽; 罗淑芬; 李鹏霞

    2018-01-01

    Black soybean variety "Xindali No. 1" was taken as the raw material of black soybean paste processing, and the optimum formulation of black soybean paste preparation was studied. The sensory quality score of product was used as the evalua-tion criterion. Firstly, sunflower seed oil and white granulated sugar were selected as the best species of oil and sugar for the pro-cessing of black soybean paste. Secondly, the ranges of optimum addition amount of flour, sunflower seed oil and white granulated sugar in black soybean paste were determined based on the results of single-factor tests. Finally, the best proportion of flour, sun-flower seed oil and white granulated sugar in black soybean paste was ascertained through the orthogonal test. The optimum formu-lation of black soybean paste preparation was obtained as follows:50 g black soybean, 20 g white granulated sugar, 15 g sunflow-er seed oil, and 20 g flour. The prepared black soybean paste through the above best formulation had fine and smooth taste, uni-form color and lustre, and unique fragrance without obvious oil leaking out.%针对黑豆沙加工工艺缺乏的现状,以新大粒1号黑豆为原料,进行黑豆沙加工过程主要添加物的配方优化研究.以感官品质评分为标准,首先确定了加工过程中所需的油与糖的最优种类为葵花籽油和白砂糖;基于单因素试验确定面粉、葵花籽油、白砂糖的最佳用量范围,再通过正交试验的方法确定面粉、葵花籽油、白砂糖的最优配比.最终确定新大粒1号黑豆沙最佳配方为:以黑豆质量为基准(100%),添加40%白砂糖,30%葵花籽油,40%面粉.通过该配方制得的黑豆沙口感细腻,色泽均匀,无明显走油现象,具有黑豆沙独特的香味和色泽.

  17. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  19. Effects of dietary traditional fermented soybean on reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Visavarungroj, Nuwat; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavone in soybean and its products have numerous beneficial health effects. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary soy isoflavone can relieve menopausal symptoms, lower risks of breast cancer, and lower cholesterol and glucose. Among the various effects of isoflavone, the role of cholesterol and glucose reduction seems to be well documented; however, other effects such as reproductive hormones were inconclusive and inconsistent. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of six-month dietary traditional fermented soybean intake on BMI, reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women. Subjects were women with their last menstrual period occurring at least 12 months prior to selection by interview and health screening from Baan Tham Village, Phayao Province, Thailand. A total of 60 women were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=31) and reference group (n=29). The experimental group was permitted to continue their usual diet, and supplemented with fermented soybean for 6 months. The fermented soybean provided approximately 60 mg of isoflavone per day. The remarkable findings were that dietary fermented soybean had favorable effects on progesterone and cholesterol, but had no effects on estradiol, glucose, and triglycerides. Although estradiol and glucose in the experimental group did not change, a decrease of estradiol and an increase of glucose were found in the reference group. Our results, therefore, suggest that fermented soybean may have beneficial effects on reproductive hormones and cholesterol, and they would be warrant further detail investigations.

  20. Following international trends while subject to past traditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, Jens; Løvstad, Marianne; Norup, Anne

    2016-01-01

    by nationality, competence level, practice profile, and by attitude toward test selection. Participants who chose their tests flexibly used fewer tests than those adhering to the flexible battery approach, but had fewer tests from which to choose. Testing patients with psychiatric disorders was associated......OBJECTIVE: Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses...... with using more tests. IQ, memory, attention, and executive function were the domains with the largest utilization rate, while tests of motor, visual/spatial, and language were used by few. There is a lack of academic achievement tests. Screening tests played a minor role in specialized assessments...

  1. Legacies and Traditions of Counseling Psychology: When the Past Is Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen W.; Vacha-Haase, Tammi

    2010-01-01

    The Legacies & Traditions Forum has a rich past of documenting individual contributions to the profession of counseling psychology. The history of this forum, as well as early contributors and journal articles, are identified. Themes that emerged from a review of past oral biographies include changes in the work setting for counseling…

  2. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens.

  4. Aflatoxin B1 Detoxification by Aspergillus oryzae from Meju, a Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Ri; Yang, Sun Min; Cho, Sung Min; Kim, Myunghee; Hong, Sung-Yong; Chung, Soo Hyun

    2016-11-04

    Aflatoxins are classified as Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In this study, a total of 134 fungal strains were isolated from 65 meju samples, and two fungal isolates were selected as potential aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁)-biodetoxification fungi. These fungi were identified as Aspergillus oryzae MAO103 and A. oryzae MAO104 by sequencing the beta-tubulin gene. The two A. oryzae strains were able to degrade more than 90% of AFB1 (initial concentration: 40 µg/L) in a culture broth in 14 days. The mutagenic effects of AFB₁ treated with A. oryzae MAO103 and MAO104 significantly decreased to 5.7% and 6.4%, respectively, in the frame-shift mutation of Ames tests using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The base-substituting mutagenicity of AFB₁ was also decreased by the two fungi. Moreover, AFB1 production by A. flavus was significantly decreased by the two A. oryzae strains on soybean-based agar plates. Our data suggest that the two AFB1-detoxification A. oryzae strains have potential application to control AFB₁ in foods and feeds.

  5. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Miso (Japanese soybean paste) soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation and left ventricular dysfunction in mice with chronic pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koji; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamic mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway is activated in mice with chronic pressure overload (CPO). When this activation is combined with high salt intake, it leads to sympathoexcitation, hypertension, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Salt intake is thus an important factor that contributes to heart failure. Miso, a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, rice, wheat, or oats, can attenuate salt-induced hypertension in rats. However, its effects on CPO mice with salt-induced sympathoexcitation and LV dysfunction are unclear. Here, we investigated whether miso has protective effects in these mice. We also evaluated mechanisms associated with the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway. Aortic banding was used to produce CPO, and a sham operation was performed for controls. At 2 weeks after surgery, the mice were given water containing high NaCl levels (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) for 4 weeks. The high salt loading in CPO mice increased excretion of urinary norepinephrine (uNE), a marker of sympathetic activity, in an NaCl concentration-dependent manner; however, this was not observed in Sham mice. Subsequently, CPO mice were administered 1.0% NaCl water (CPO-H) or miso soup (1.0% NaCl equivalent, CPO-miso). The expression of hypothalamic MR, serum glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (SGK-1), and AT1R was higher in the CPO-H mice than in the Sham mice; however, the expression of these proteins was attenuated in the CPO-miso group. Although the CPO-miso mice had higher sodium intake, salt-induced sympathoexcitation was lower in these mice than in the CPO-H group. Our findings indicate that regular intake of miso soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation in CPO mice via inhibition of the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway.

  7. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial Transformation of Bioactive Compounds and Production of ortho-Dihydroxyisoflavones and Glycitein from Natural Fermented Soybean Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of remarkable interest in finding bioactive compounds from nutritional foods to replace synthetic compounds. In particular, ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein are of growing scientific interest owing to their attractive biological properties. In this study, 7,8-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 6,7-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone were characterized using microorganism screened from soybean Doenjang. Three ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein were structurally elucidated by 1H-NMR and GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, bacterial strains from soybean Doenjang with the capacity of biotransformation were screened. The bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus subtilis Roh-1, was shown to convert daidzein into ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein. Thus, this study has, for the first time, demonstrated that a bacterial strain had a substrate specificity for multiple modifications of the bioactive compounds.

  9. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  10. assessment of injection of liquid rhizobial inoculum and traditional inoculation of soybean under furrow and drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Kurdali, F.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean in naturally N 2 -fixing legume, but it needs artificial inoculation with appropriate strains of rhizobia when introduced to land not previously cultivated to the crop. As soybean is being introduced to Syria, inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is essential to ensure effective biological nitrogen fixation by the crop. The question is: what is the most effective mean of inoculation?. As Syria is a water-short country, we examined the possibility of applying the rhizobial inoculant in irrigation system (Biofertigation) in contrast with the conventional seed pelleting application. In a 2 year experiment at a research station near Damascus, we compared seed pelleting of the inoculant under furrow and drip irrigation, with repeated inoculation by injection of a liquid culture rhizobial inoculum through the drip system. Drip irrigation enhanced N 2 fixation by soybean regardless of inoculation technique ad repeated inoculation. Injection of the liquid rhizobial inoculum through drip irrigation system was shown to enhances the acquisition of atmospheric N 2 and improve N 2 fixation by soybean.(author)

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus succinus 14BME20 Isolated from a Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Food

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Do-Won; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus succinus 14BME20, isolated from a Korean fermented soybean food and selected as a possible starter culture candidate, was determined. Comparative genome analysis with S.?succinus CSM-77 from a Triassic salt mine revealed the presence of strain-specific genes for lipid degradation in strain 14BME20.

  12. Irradiation Detection in Korean Traditional Soybean-Based Fermented Powdered Sauces: Data for Establishing a Database for Regulation of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I.D.; Kim, B.K.; Song, H.P.; Byun, M.W.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, M.C.; Lee, J.O.; Lee, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate establishing regulations for irradiated foods, Korean traditional soybean-based fermented powdered doenjang (PD), kanjang (PK), kochujang (PKC) and chungkukjang (PC) were irradiated at 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy, and subjected to irradiation detection analyses as part of establishing a database for detecting irradiated foods. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied as the detection methods. Using PSL analysis, the irradiated PD, PK and PKC could be easily distinguished from the non-irradiated ones, while irradiation of the PC at 5 kGy or higher was detectable

  13. Following international trends while subject to past traditions: neuropsychological test use in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Løvstad, Marianne; Norup, Anne; Nybo, Taina; Persson, Bengt A; Rivera, Diego Fernando; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses whether these traditions still influence attitudes toward test use and choice of tests. The study is based on survey data from 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The average participant used 9 tests in a standard assessment, and 25 tests overall in their practice. Test use was moderated by nationality, competence level, practice profile, and by attitude toward test selection. Participants who chose their tests flexibly used fewer tests than those adhering to the flexible battery approach, but had fewer tests from which to choose. Testing patients with psychiatric disorders was associated with using more tests. IQ, memory, attention, and executive function were the domains with the largest utilization rate, while tests of motor, visual/spatial, and language were used by few. There is a lack of academic achievement tests. Screening tests played a minor role in specialized assessments, and symptom validity tests were seldom applied on a standard basis. Most tests were of Anglo-American origin. New test methods are implemented rapidly in the Nordic countries, but test selection is also characterized by the dominating position of established and much researched tests. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria traditions are currently weak, but national differences in size of test batteries seem to be influenced by these longstanding traditions.

  14. Carbon Neutral by 2021: The Past and Present of Costa Rica’s Unusual Political Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Flagg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has pledged to become the first nation to become carbon neutral. This event raises the important question of how to understand this contemporary form of climate politics, given that Costa Rica has made an almost negligible contribution to the problem of global climate change. To understand this pledge, a case study spanning about 200 years situates the pledge within the country’s unique historical profile. An analysis of interview data, archival research, and secondary data reveals that the pledge is the latest instance in Costa Rica’s unusual political tradition. This political tradition dates back to the area’s experience as a Spanish colony and as a newly independent nation. Several events, including the abolition of the army, the work on green development, and being awarded a Nobel Peace Prize were all foundational in forming Costa Rica’s tradition as a place that leads by example and stands for peace and protection of nature. The carbon neutral pledge extends the political tradition that has been established through these earlier events. This case highlights the importance of understanding contemporary environmental politics through an analysis of long-term, historical data.

  15. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Strain DKU_NT_03, Isolated from a Traditional Korean Food Using Soybean (Chung-gook-jang) for High-Quality Nattokinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Won; Bang, Man-Seok; Lee, Yea-Jin; Lee, Su Ji; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Shin, Jang-In; Oh, Chung-Hun

    2018-06-21

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain DKU_NT_03 isolated from the traditional Korean food chung-gook-jang, which is made from soybeans. This strain was chosen to identify genetic factors with high-quality nattokinase activity. Copyright © 2018 Jeong et al.

  17. Analyzing the flavor compounds in Chinese traditional fermented shrimp pastes by HS-SPME-GC/MS and electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Hou, Hu; Xue, Changhu

    2017-04-01

    Shrimp paste is a type of condiments with high nutritional value. However, the flavors of shrimp paste, particularly the non-uniformity flavors, have limited its application in food processing. In order to identify the characteristic flavor compounds in Chinese traditional shrimp pastes, five kinds of typical commercial products were evaluated in this study. The differences in the volatile composition of the five products were investigated. Solid phase micro-extraction method was employed to extract the volatile compounds. GC-MS and electronic nose were applied to identify the compounds, and the data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified, including 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 7 ethers, 7 acids, 3 esters, 6 hydrocarbons, 12 pyrazines, 2 phenols, and 7 other compounds. The typical volatile compounds contributing to the flavor of shrimp paste were found as follows: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl tetrasulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethyl pyrazine, ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl-pyrazine, phenol and indole. Propanoic acid, butanoic acid, furans, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone caused unpleasant odors, such as pungent and rancid odors. Principal component analysis showed that the content of volatile compounds varied depending on the processing conditions and shrimp species. These results indicated that the combinations of multiple analysis and identification methods could make up the limitations of a single method, enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide useful information for sensory research and product development.

  18. Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    : beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....

  19. Strain Screening from Traditional Fermented Soybean Foods and Induction of Nattokinase Production in Bacillus subtilis MX-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Li-Li; Xiang, Dian-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Lan

    2018-02-06

    The plasminogen-free fibrin plate assay method was used to isolate Bacillus subtilis MX-6, a strain with high production of nattokinase from Chinese douchi. The presence of aprN, a gene-encoding nattokinase, was verified with PCR method. The predicted amino acid sequence was aligned with homologous sequences, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Nattokinase was sublimated with ammonium sulfate, using a DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column, a CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column and a Sephadex G-75 gel filtration column. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the purified nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis MX-6 was about 28 kDa. Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis MX-6 nattokinase showed that nattokinase production was maximized after 72 h; the diameter of clear zone reached 21.60 mm on the plasminogen-free fibrin plate. Nattokinase production by Bacillus subtilis MX-6 increased significantly after supplementation with supernatant I, supernatant II and soy peptone but decreased substantially after the addition of amino acids. This result indicated that the nattokinase production by B. subtilis MX-6 might be induced by soybean polypeptides. The addition of MgSO 4 and CaCl 2 increased B. subtilis MX-6 nattokinase production.

  20. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  1. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Rapid methodology via mass spectrometry to quantify addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil: A comparison with traditional methods adopted by food industry to identify fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Roberta; Vágula, Julianna Matias; de Lima Figueiredo, Ingrid; Claus, Thiago; Galuch, Marilia Bellanda; Santos Junior, Oscar Oliveira; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio

    2017-12-01

    Fast and innovative methodology to monitors the addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil was developed employing ESI-MS with ionization operating in positive mode. A certified extra virgin olive oil and refined soybean oil samples were analyzed by direct infusion, the identification of a natural lipid marker present only in soybean oil (m/z 886.68 [TAG+NH 4 ] + ) was possible. The certified extra virgin olive oil was purposely adulterated with soybean oil in different levels (1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 70, 90%) being possible to observe that the new methodology is able to detect even small fraud concentration, such as 1% (v/v). Additionally, commercial samples were analyzed and were observed the addition of soybean oil as a common fraud in this segment. This powerful analytical method proposed could be applied as routine analysis by control organization, as well as food industries, considering its pronounced advantages; simplicity, rapidity, elevated detectability and minor amounts of sample and solvent consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of sugar replacement with date paste and date syrup on texture and sensory quality of kesari (traditional Indian dessert)

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai Manickvasagan; Chandini S Kumar; Zaher H Al-Attabi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a popular Indian dessert, kesari, was reformulated by substituting refined sugar at various levels (0%=control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) with date past and syrup, and changes in instrumental texture profile, L*a*b* colour values and sensory properties were determined.  The hardness of date syrup kesari was higher than that of date paste kesari. However, there were no differences in hardness among various levels of replacement.  There were no differences between syrup vs paste pr...

  4. PENGARUH PENGOLAHAN KEDELAI MENJADI TEMPE DAN PEMASAKAN TEMPE TERHADAP KADAR ISOFLAVON (EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN PROCESSING BECOMING TEMPEH AND THE COOKING OF TEMPEH ON ISOFLAVONES LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah M Utari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Research over the past two decades has provided significant clinical trial and epidemiological evidence for health benefits of the consumption of soybean-based foods. A health claim indicating that high soybean consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Compositions of nutrient and non-nutrient in soybean have been examination and give the contribution on lower risk of CHD especially on improve of lipid profile. Isoflavones is a non-nutrient that abundant in soybean. Tempeh is fermented soybean that popular as Indonesian traditional food and content of isoflavones is greater than soybean. Objective: to study effect of soybean processing becoming tempeh and the cooking of tempeh on isoflavones level. Methods: The samples of this study is raw tempeh and steamed tempeh. The analysis of isoflavones has used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: During soybean processing becoming tempeh, twice boiling of soybean produce result isoflavones 47.4 percent greater than once boiling. Steaming tempeh result minimized isoflavones reduction (13.3%. Although there is no dietary recommendation for individual isoflavones, may be great benefit in increased consumption of tempeh. [Penel Gizi Makan 2010, 33(2: 148-153]   Keywords: tempeh, processing, isoflavones

  5. The traditional knowledge and the sustainable development - A distant world as much in the past as in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona Maya, Sergio Ivan

    2000-01-01

    In this text, is discussed about of the traditional knowledge and the sustainable development. The central invitation is to meditate about the consistency of a speech that manipulates the call traditional knowledge as an instrument of legitimating of a development system that seeks to fill the current necessities as the sustainable, by means of the use of the natural resources in a careful way, technique, rational and balanced, for not to deteriorate them or to drain them, without committing the capacity that the future generations can satisfy their own necessities

  6. Effect of sugar replacement with date paste and date syrup on texture and sensory quality of kesari (traditional Indian dessert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Manickvasagan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a popular Indian dessert, kesari, was reformulated by substituting refined sugar at various levels (0%=control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% with date past and syrup, and changes in instrumental texture profile, L*a*b* colour values and sensory properties were determined.  The hardness of date syrup kesari was higher than that of date paste kesari. However, there were no differences in hardness among various levels of replacement.  There were no differences between syrup vs paste products or among various levels of replacements in cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, adhesiveness and chewiness of kesari.  The developed kesari scored 5.5 to 7.5 on a 9 level hedonic scale (like slightly-like moderately in all sensory attributes.  Replacement of sugar at 75% and 100% levels, significantly lowered the scores for most of the sensory attributes.  Around 50% of the panellist in informed sensory, selected 50% replaced products (paste or syrup as their first choice.

  7. Micro-Raman spectroscopy investigation of the carbonation reaction in a lime paste produced with a traditional technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčík, Radek; Mácová, Petra; Sotiriadis, Konstantinos; Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Viani, Alberto; Šašek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2016), s. 1452-1457 ISSN 0377-0486 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20374P; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : calcite * carbonation * lime paste * micro-Raman spectroscopy * portlandite Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jrs.4929/full

  8. Effects of traditional grammar teaching on standard six learners’ performance in understanding and using simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns, and articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasimani Munohsamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate whether there is any effect of the traditional grammar teaching on Standard Six learners’ performance in understanding and using simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns and articles in writing. The sample for the study consisted of 40 Standard Six students of SK Tansau, Putatan, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah who was divided equally into two groups which were the treatment group and the control groups. Tests of understanding and of using the simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns and articles were used as the instruments of the study. The data was collected through the administration of the pre-test and post-test. To analyze the collected data, the SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 11.5 was used. T-test was used to see if there was a significant difference in the mean of gain score. The Pearson Correlation was used on both tests between treatment group and control group to establish the relationship between scores on understanding and scores on using the grammatical features investigated. The study found that there was no significant difference in the mean of gain score in simple present tense, simple past tense and pronouns of the understanding test as well as writing test between the treatment and control groups. The results also indicated that there was no correlation between scores on test of understanding and test of using simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns and articles on writing in the treatment group. There have been research studies in the past that lend clear cut support to the teaching of grammar as a mean of improving writing, however the results of this research clearly show that the implementation of Traditional Grammar Teaching has no effects on the students’ writing.

  9. Dreaming the other's past: why remembering may still be relevant to psychoanalytic therapy, at least in some traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann

    2014-10-01

    Against the background of a reconstruction of the reasons for the vanishing role of remembering in the history of psychoanalysis, Botella's (2014, Int J Psychoanal, 95) arguments regarding the therapeutic significance of reconstruction and remembering and of the therapist's role are discussed. The difference between intellectual reconstruction and actual emotional remembering are underlined, the term regredience is compared to competing concepts such as equally suspended attention, countertransference and reverie. It is argued that to conceptualize the use of countertransferential associations for reconstructing past traumatic events is difficult with a monadic conception of the unconscious and problematic both in terms of truth claims and in terms of achieving a shared creative atmosphere in which therapist and patient participate alike. It is concluded that historical truth may be important for traumatic experiences, and that biographical reconstruction and change in the subjective life story help to make sense of neurotic patterns and integrate diachronic identity. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and...

  11. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Novel Starter Culture on Reduction of Biogenic Amines, Quality Improvement, and Sensory Properties of Doenjang, a Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Sauce Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Hae-Kyong; Yoo, Jung-Ah; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-08-01

    To select appropriate microorganisms as starter cultures for the reliable and reproducible fermentation of soybean fermented products of Korean Doenjang, various ratios of fungi (Aspergillus oryzae J, Mucor racemosus 15, M. racemosus 42) combined with Bacillus subtilis TKSP 24 were selected as either single, double, or multiple Meju strains for commercial mass production of Doenjang, followed by analysis of sensory characteristics. In the sensory evaluation, Doenjang BAM15-1 and BAM42-1, which were fermented with multiple strains (1:1:1), showed the highest sensory scores as compared to control. Based on sensory characteristics, 6 Doenjang samples were subjected to quantitative determination of amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids (volatile and nonvolatile) contents, followed by determination of biogenic amines. Total sweet taste amino acid contents were highest in BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 samples (333.7 and 295.8 mg/100 g, respectively) and similar that of control (391.1 mg/100 g). Samples BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed the relatively high volatile and nonvolatile organic acid contents (154.24, 192.26, and 71.31, 82.42 mg/100 g, respectively). In addition, BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed negligible biogenic amine formation, ranging from 0.00 to 1.02 and 0.00 to 3.92 mg/100 g, respectively. These findings indicate that determination of food components along with sensory and quality attributes using multiple microbial Meju strains as a starter culture may provide substantial results on improved quality fermented Doenjang products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. The Cultural Landscape Past of the Eastern Mediterranean: The Border Lord’s Gardens and the Common Landscape Tradition of the Arabic and Byzantine Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Moraitis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of landscape tradition, in Near and Middle East area, could emphasize a profound past of agricultural experience, as well as of landscape and garden art. In reference to this common past, Byzantine and Arabic landscape and garden art paradigms appear to be geographically and culturally correlated, as proved by a Byzantine 12th century folksong, presenting the construction of a villa, with its surrounding gardens and landscape formations, in the territory of Euphrates River. This song refers to Vasilios Digenes Akritas or ‘Border Lord’, a legendary hero of mixed Byzantine-Greek and Arab blood; ‘Digenes’ meaning a person of dual genes, both of Byzantine and Arabic origin, and ‘Akritas’ an inhabitant of the borderline. At the end of the narration of the song, contemporary reader feels skeptical. Was modern landscape and garden art born in the European continent or was it transferred to Western world through an eastern originated lineage of Byzantine and Arabic provenance?

  14. Mycoflora of soybeans used for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-06-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

  15. Culture-based and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community from Chungkookjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Choi, Jae Young; Chung, Kun Sub

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial community of Chungkookjang and raw rice-straw collected from various areas in South Korea was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Pure cultures were isolated from Chungkookjang and raw rice-straw on tryptic soy agar plates with 72 to 121 colonies and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, respectively. The traditional culture-based method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA confirmed that Pantoea agglomerans and B. subtilis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang, respectively, from Iljuk district of Gyeonggi province, P. ananatis and B. licheniformis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang from Wonju district of Gangwon province, and Microbacterium sp. and B. licheniformis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang from Sunchang district of Jeolla province. Other strains, such as Bacillus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and uncultured bacteria were also present in raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang. A comprehensive analysis of these microorganisms would provide a more detailed understanding of the biologically active components of Chungkookjang and help improve its quality. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis can be successfully applied to a fermented food to detect unculturable or more species than the culture-dependent method. This technique is an effective and convenient culture-independent method for studying the bacterial community in Chungkookjang. In this study, the bacterial community of Chungkookjang collected from various areas in South Korea was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Characterization and product innovation of sufu - a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.

    2003-01-01

     Over the centuries, Chinese people have consumed soybeans in various forms of traditional fermented soybean foods. Sufu ( Furu ), a cheese-like product originating in China, is one of the most popular fermented soybean foods in China, and is becoming popular

  17. Improvement of Soybean Products Through the Response Mechanism Analysis Using Proteomic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    Soybean is rich in protein/vegetable oil and contains several phytochemicals such as isoflavones and phenolic compounds. Because of the predominated nutritional values, soybean is considered as traditional health benefit food. Soybean is a widely cultivated crop; however, its growth and yield are markedly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Proteomic techniques make it feasible to map protein profiles both during soybean growth and under unfavorable conditions. The stress-responsive mechanisms during soybean growth have been uncovered with the help of proteomic studies. In this review, the history of soybean as food and the morphology/physiology of soybean are described. The utilization of proteomics during soybean germination and development is summarized. In addition, the stress-responsive mechanisms explored using proteomic techniques are reviewed in soybean. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  19. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  20. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Gupta; Nivedita Sharma; Neha Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perf...

  1. Past, present and perspectives of Manipur traditional medicine: A major health care system available for rural population in the North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Lokesh; Laishram, Surbala; Khumukcham, Nongalleima; Ningthoukhongjam, Dhaneshwor; Nameirakpam, Surjit Singh; Dey, Amitabha; Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Ningthoukhongjam, Tombi Raj

    2015-07-01

    Traditional health care practices are still being followed extensively in Manipur, North-East India. This is the major or the only medical facility available in some rural areas of Manipur. Cross cultural ethno-pharmacological survey was conducted to document traditional health care practices by Maiba-Maibi (male-female traditional health care practitioners of Manipur). All together 59 traditional practitioners belonging to 12 ethnic communities in nine districts of the Manipur state were interviewed. A predesigned questionnaire was used for interviews, which included queries for type of ailments treating, symptoms, bioresources used, method of preparation, dosage forms, formulation, unit doses. The entire interviews were done in the residence of respective Maiba-Maibi, their patient handing and preparation of medicinal formulations were documented in written and audio-visual format. The survey recorded traditional knowledge on 949 formulations used for 66 human ailments. Five hundred forty six plant products, 42 animal products and 22 organic/inorganic materials were found to be used in these 949 formulations. Five plant species - Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignonaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) and Allium sativum (Liliaceae) used by maximum number of Maiba and Maibi in maximum number of formulations. This particular method of documentation keeps traditional knowledge alive. The WHO estimated perspective of traditional medicine across the world. These observations support therapeutic worth of Manipur Traditional medicines (MTM). Having generated a large database in course of this survey, next focus targeted for the scientific justification of MTM with an aim to develop commercially viable products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  3. Development of rigorous fatty acid near-infrared spectroscopy quantitation methods in support of soybean oil improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) is a valuable source of high quality edible oil and protein. Despite dramatic breeding gains over the past 80 years, soybean seed oil continues to be oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation. ...

  4. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  5. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perfringens MTCC1739 were used at the amount 8.16, 8.13 and 8.18 log CFU/ml. Viable cells were counted periodically and a consistent reduction in number of viable cells of each tested pathogen was observed. It was found antagonistic against L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739 which are the most challengeable and food borne pathogens found in processed vegetables products. Purified bacteriocin was found active over a wide pH range i.e. 3.0 to 11.0 and was able to withstand temperature up to 100oC. It showed a better preservative potential by reducing pathogenic load of the tested strains (by 2.02, 2.05 and 2.02 log cycles (CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739, respectively in tomato paste as compared to control (without bacteriocin. This proves efficiency of bacteriocin produced by B. borstelensis AG1 as biopreservative to enhance the safety and shelf life of acidic foods.

  6. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  7. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean plants were taller when intercropped with NR 8212 or with TMS 30572 than in sole soybean, which had similar height with soybean in soybean/TMS 91934 mixture. The soybean canopy diameter, number of leaves per plant and LAI were higher with sole soybean. Within the soybean intercrops, canopy diameter, ...

  8. Assessment of biofertigation of soybean using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Kurdali, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biofertigation, traditional inoculation under drip Fertigation and surface irrigation of soybean. The distribution of nitrogen fixed varied according to irrigation and inoculation method, where soybean grains were the major pool for atmospheric nitrogen and about 67% of this nitrogen was accumulated in the seeds of the drip-fertigated and biofertigated soybean, still under surface irrigation soybean seeds accumulated about 50% of the biologically fixed nitrogen. The results also showed that water-use efficiencies of bioferigated and drip-fertigated soybean and sorghum were much higher than those of surface-irrigated soybean and sorghum. The increase in WUE ranged between 70-40% for soybean and 90-77% for sorghum. (author)

  9. Assessment of biofertigation of soybean using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Kurdali, F.

    2004-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the bio, traditional inoculation under drip fertigation and surface irrigation of soybean. The distribution of nitrogen fixed varied according to irrigation and inoculation method, where soybean grain were the major pool for atmospheric nitrogen and about 67% of this nitrogen was accumulated in the needs of the drip-fertigated and biofertigated soybean, still under surface irrigation soybean seeds accumulated about 50% of the biologically fixed nitrogen. The results also showed that water-use efficiencies of biofertigated and drip-fertigated soybean and sorghum were much higher than those of surface-irrigated soybean and sorghum. The increase in WUE ranged between 70-40% for soybean and 90-77% for sorghum. (author)

  10. Assessment of biofertigation of soybean using {sup 15}N isotopic dilution technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janat, M; Kurdali, F [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Agriculture

    2004-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the bio, traditional inoculation under drip fertigation and surface irrigation of soybean. The distribution of nitrogen fixed varied according to irrigation and inoculation method, where soybean grain were the major pool for atmospheric nitrogen and about 67% of this nitrogen was accumulated in the needs of the drip-fertigated and biofertigated soybean, still under surface irrigation soybean seeds accumulated about 50% of the biologically fixed nitrogen. The results also showed that water-use efficiencies of biofertigated and drip-fertigated soybean and sorghum were much higher than those of surface-irrigated soybean and sorghum. The increase in WUE ranged between 70-40% for soybean and 90-77% for sorghum. (author)

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Son, J.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, D.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation

  12. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF OXIDANT AIR POLLUTANTS ON SOYBEANS, SNAP BEANS AND POTATOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past 5 years the impact of photochemical oxidants on soybeans and snap beans in Maryland and on potatoes in Virginia and Delaware was assessed with open-top chambers. The mean yields of four selected soybean varieties grown in open-top chambers with carbon-filtered air...

  14. Germination as a processing technique for soybeans in small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    charlesk

    2013-06-15

    Jun 15, 2013 ... Germination and other traditional methods, namely soaking and dehulling, were evaluated as alternative processing methods for soybeans. The effect of the processing treatment on the level of different. ANFs, nutritional composition and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of soybean seeds was determined.

  15. [The NIR spectra based variety discrimination for single soybean seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Da-Zhou; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Guang-Hua; Hou, Rui-Feng; Wang, Cheng

    2010-12-01

    With the development of soybean producing and processing, the quality breeding becomes more and more important for soybean breeders. Traditional sampling detection methods for soybean quality need to destroy the seed, and does not satisfy the requirement of earlier generation materials sieving for breeding. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used for soybean quality detection. However, all these applications were referred to mass samples, and they were not suitable for little or single seed detection in breeding procedure. In the present study, the acousto--optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectroscopy was used to measure the single soybean seed. Two varieties of soybean were measured, which contained 60 KENJIANDOU43 seeds and 60 ZHONGHUANG13 seeds. The results showed that NIR spectra combined with soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) could accurately discriminate the soybean varieties. The classification accuracy for KENJIANDOU43 seeds and ZHONGHUANG13 was 100%. The spectra of single soybean seed were measured at different positions, and it showed that the seed shape has significant influence on the measurement of spectra, therefore, the key point for single seed measurement was how to accurately acquire the spectra and keep their representativeness. The spectra for soybeans with glossy surface had high repeatability, while the spectra of seeds with external defects had significant difference for several measurements. For the fast sieving of earlier generation materials in breeding, one could firstly eliminate the seeds with external defects, then apply NIR spectra for internal quality detection, and in this way the influence of seed shape and external defects could be reduced.

  16. Meju, unsalted soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergilus oryzae, potentiates insulinotropic actions and improves hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although soybeans have the ability to attenuate insulin resistance, it is insufficient to alleviate type 2 diabetic symptoms and different types of fermented soybeans may have even better anti-diabetic effects. Meju, unsalted fermented soybeans exhibited better insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic actions than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). We investigated whether meju fermented in the traditional (TMS) manner for 60 days and meju fermented in the standardized (MMS) ...

  17. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renake N; Ligterink, Wilco; França-Neto, José de B; Hilhorst, Henk W M; da Silva, Edvaldo A A

    2016-02-01

    Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in mature seeds and is associated with lower oil and seed quality, thus negatively impacting the production of soybean seeds. Here we show that heat and drought stress result in a "mild" stay-green phenotype and impaired expression of the STAY-GREEN 1 and STAY-GREEN 2 (D1, D2), PHEOPHORBIDASE 2 (PPH2) and NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1_1) genes in soybean seeds of a susceptible soybean cultivar. We suggest that the higher expression of these genes in fully mature seeds of a tolerant cultivar allows these seeds to cope with stressful conditions and complete chlorophyll degradation. The gene expression results obtained in this study represent a significant advance in understanding chlorophyll retention in mature soybean seeds produced under stressful conditions. This will open new research possibilities towards finding molecular markers for breeding programs to produce cultivars which are less susceptible to chlorophyll retention under the hot and dry climate conditions which are increasingly common in the largest soybean production areas of the world.

  18. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Teixeira, Renake; Ligterink, Wilco; B. França-Neto, de José; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Silva, da E.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in

  19. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  20. Nutrient content and acceptability of soybean based complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient content and acceptability of soybean based complementary food. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... A study was carried out in Morogoro region, Tanzania, to determine composition and acceptability of soy-based formulations with banana and cowpeas as traditional staples.

  1. INTERCROPPING OF BRAQUIARIA WITH SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnara, Deise Dalazen; Bulegon, Lucas Guilherme; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Rossol, Charles Douglas; Berte, Luiz Neri; Rabello de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio; Neres, Marcela Abbado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the intercropping of Brachiaria brizantha. Marandu with soybeans. The experiment has been planted in a 3 year prevailing area with no-tillage, in eutrophic Oxisol at Maripa - PR. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications. For the forage study, four treatments were performed which consisted of seeding times brachiaria [early ( seven days before planting soybeans) joint (same day of soybean planting) and after (at stages V-3 an...

  2. Mutation breeding in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    In Indonesia, soybean is one of the important crop after rice. It is generally cultivated in the lowlands and rarely in the highlands. Seeds of soybean variety ORBA were treated with various doses of fast neutrons, gamma rays, EMS and NaN 3 with the aims of studying the mutagen effects in M-1 and M-2 generations and also to select mutants adapted to highland conditions. D-50 doses for gamma rays, fast neutrons and EMS were around 23 krad, 2,300 rad, 0.3%, respectively. Much higher chlorophyll mutation frequency was observed in EMS treatment of 0.3%. Seven mutants were shorter and four early mutants matured from 4 to 20 days earlier than the control plants. Two early mutants were quite adaptable in both the low and highlands and produced better yields than the parental material. (author)

  3. Doing pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brædder, Anne; Esmark, Kim; Kruse, Tove Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    a pragmatic recognition that the past can never be recreated completely is constantly present. For other reenactors, the doing of pasts is a way of accessing experiences and values that are felt to have been lost in modernity. At the same time, however, it is all-important to them that the world they imitate...

  4. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  5. SOYBEAN PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian soybean production almost never moved, even tended to decrease. Indonesia does not have a specific area of land for planting soybeans. Soybean are generally just a byproduct of plant or land filling vacant after farmers grow rice. In addition soybean price fluctuations that affect tofu and tempe entrepreneurs, it turns soybean farmers are often losers. Policy biased to the consumer sector than soybean production, cause national soybean production declining. The decrease occurred primarily because of the narrowing of soybean plantation land owned by farmers, this happens because soy is less interesting than the business side so that the farmers based on rationality, farmers prefer the other commodities, especially rice. Increasing decline in domestic soybean production resulted in the growing dependence on imports which would deplete foreign exchange. Procurement policies of national soybean stocks through imports is easy to do but its adverse implications for the development of domestic agricultural production, especially soybeans, very bad.

  6. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  7. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  8. The assessment of ultrasonic tests as a tool for qualification and diagnostic study of traditional highly porous and soft stone materials used in the built heritage of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, A.; Sileo, M.; Leucci, G.

    2012-04-01

    qualification of ancient masonries, realised with traditional soft stones, used as building materials in the Southern Italy. This activity is carried out within the AITECH network (Applied Innovation Technologies for Diagnosis and Conservation of Built Heritage), a regional research laboratory infrastructure (Apulian region, Southern Italy) funded within the FSE and FESR programs and realised by the contribution of the Italian CNR and Salento University. In particular, ultrasonic velocity propagation have been measured on different petrographic kinds of calcarenitic materials. The influence of the sample size -the scale effect- has also been investigated. Velocity data have been recorded on the samples in the following conditions: a) dry, wet and different rates of the humidity content b) salt saturation c) after ageing by salt crystallisation cycles. Finally, ultrasonic tests have been performed on some samples treated by inorganic silica consolidant. This experimental laboratory investigation is the preliminary activity to assess the performance potential of the ultrasonic tests as effective tool for the qualification and diagnosis before and after treatments, with reference to the specific critical aspects related to highly porous and soft stone materials, traditionally used in the built heritage of the past.

  9. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  10. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Soybean WRKY Gene Family and Identification of Soybean WRKY Genes that Promote Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-12-19

    WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants. WRKY variants including a WRKY-related protein unique to legumes have also been identified. Expression analysis reveals both diverse expression patterns in different soybean tissues and preferential expression of specific WRKY groups in certain tissues. Furthermore, a large number of soybean WRKY genes were responsive to salicylic acid. To identify soybean WRKY genes that promote soybean resistance to SCN, we first screened soybean WRKY genes for enhancing SCN resistance when over-expressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots. To confirm the results, we transformed five WRKY genes into a SCN-susceptible soybean cultivar and generated transgenic soybean lines. Transgenic soybean lines overexpressing three WRKY transgenes displayed increased resistance to SCN. Thus, WRKY genes could be explored to develop new soybean cultivars with enhanced resistance to SCN.

  12. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  13. Past exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dropkin, G.; Clark, D.

    1992-01-01

    Past Exposure uses confidential company documents, obtained by the Namibia Support Committee over several years, to draw attention to risks to workers' health and the environment at Roessing Uranium mine. Particular reference is made to discussion of dust levels, radiation hazards, uranium poisoning, environmental leaks, especially from the tailings dam, and the lack of monitoring of thorium. In relation to agreements between trades unions and mines, agreements reached by RTZ-owned Canadian in Canada, and British Nuclear Fuels in the UK, are discussed. (UK)

  14. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  15. Anti-obesity effect of a traditional Chinese dietary habit-blending lard with vegetable oil while cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yan, Sisi; Xiao, Haisi; Zhou, Huijuan; Liu, Shuiping; Zeng, Yu; Liu, Biying; Li, Rongfang; Yuan, Zhihang; Wu, Jing; Yi, Jine; Razack, Yarou Bao Sero; Wen, Lixin

    2017-10-31

    Obesity, which is associated with dietary habits, has become a global social problem and causes many metabolic diseases. In China, both percentages of adult obesity and overweight are far lower compared to western countries. It was designed to increase the two levels of daily intake in human, namely 3.8% and 6.5%, which are recommendatory intake (25 g/d) and Chinese citizens' practical intake (41.4 g/d), respectively. The mice were respectively fed with feeds added with soybean oil, lard or the oil blended by both for 12 weeks. In the mice fed with diet containing 3.8% of the three oils or 6.5% blended oil, their body weight, body fat rate, cross-sectional area of adipocytes, adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adipose were decreased, whereas hydrolysis of triglyserides in adipose was increased. This study demonstrated that the oil mixture containing lard and soybean oil had a remarkable anti-obesity effect. It suggests that the traditional Chinese dietary habits using oils blended with lard and soybean oil, might be one of the factors of lower percentages of overweight and obesity in China, and that the increasing of dietary oil intake and the changing of its component resulted in the increasing of obesity rate in China over the past decades.

  16. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  17. Microbial diversity and dynamics of microbial communities during black-slop soaking of soybeans as determined by PCR-DGGE and molecular cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.Z.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Tempe is a traditional fermented food in Indonesia. The manufacture process is quite complex, which comprises two stages, preparatory soaking of soybeans and fungal solid state fermentation. Daily addition of previous soak water (back-slopping) during the soybean soaking step is considered to be

  18. Isoflavone profile in soymilk as affected by soybean variety, grinding, and heat-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    Isoflavones impart health benefits and their overall content and profile in foods are greatly influenced at each step during processing. In this study, 2 soybean varieties (Prosoy and black soybean) were processed with 3 different grinding (ambient, cold, and hot grinding) and heating methods (traditional stove cooking, 1-phase UHT, and 2-phase UHT) for soymilk making. The results showed after cold, ambient, and hot grinding, the total isoflavones were 3917, 5013, and 5949 nmol/g for Prosoy; the total isoflavones were 4073, 3966, and 4284 nmol/g for black soybean. Grinding could significantly increase isoflavone extraction. The grinding process had a destructive effect on isoflavones and this effect varied with grinding temperature. Different heating methods had different effects on different isoflavone forms. Two soybean varieties showed distinct patterns with respect to the change of isoflavone profile during processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  20. Induced mutation for soybean quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiying; Xu Dechun; Guo Yuhong; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan

    2000-01-01

    Gamma rays of acute and chronic radiation, thermal neutrons as well as ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), sodium azide (NaN 3 ) of chemical mutagens were used to improve the quality of soybean seed. Some mutants of better quality were selected. 'Heinong No.41' With protein and oil content of 45.23% and 18.80% respectively was tolerant to akali-saline and had a higher yield potential; 90-3527 with earlier mature (110 days of growth period) and high protein content (47.53%) had a resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and frog-eye lief spot of soybean. The mutants with higher linoleic acid content (more than 60%) and lower linolenic acid content (less than 3.5%) were developed

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  2. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln, glutamic acid (Glu, aspartic acid (Asp and asparagines (Asn were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  3. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  4. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  5. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  6. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  7. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  8. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  9. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P 60 kDa) (P 60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  10. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... practice and procedure; Advertising; Agricultural research; Marketing agreements; Soybeans and soybean...] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board... occurred since the Board was reapportioned in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and...

  11. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU

  12. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  13. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars under salt stress. Murat Tunçturk1* ... Salinity stress negatively affected soybean cultivars and the extent of ... INTRODUCTION. Soybean is a ..... A general approach. Science 210: ...

  14. Gamma Radiation-Induced Mutations in Soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of soybean radiation experiments was to create genetic variability in soybeans of various cultivars, mutants and mutation-derived lines with the aim of producing superior breeding lines with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyhrizi Syd.) It took altogether 12 generations over six years after gamma irradiation if soybean seeds to produce the best resistant line (81-1-038) which a variety could be developed from it. This Line 81-1-038 showed a very good specific resistance to soybean rust, Thai race 2 and moderately resistance to Thai race 1. In the rainy season of 1985, Line 81-1-038 out yielded S.J.4 (a mother line) by 868 kg/ha in a yield trail at Suwan Farm, Pak Chong, Nakorn Rajchasima. This soybean rust mutant was later named D oi Kham

  15. Genetic improvement of soybean through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Thengane, R.J.; Muthiah, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the important oilseed crops of India. The country produces more than 9.00 million tonnes of soybean per annum and has acquired first place amongst oilseed crops grown in India. Narrow genetic base of cultivated varieties in soybean is of global concern. Efficient mutant production systems, through physical or chemical mutagenesis, have been well established in soybean. A vast amount of genetic variability, of both quantitative and qualitative traits, has been generated through experimental mutagenesis. Two soybean varieties TAMS-38 and TAMS 98-21 have been developed and released for commercial cultivation by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). In this paper the role of mutation breeding in soybean improvement has been discussed. (author)

  16. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  17. Discovery of a seventh Rpp soybean rust resistance locus in soybean accession PI 605823

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & Syd, is a disease threat to soybean production in regions of the world with mild winters. Host plant resistance to P. pachyrhizi conditioned by Rpp genes has been found in numerous soybean accessions, and at...

  18. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  19. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  20. [Traditional nostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.

  1. Soybean and Processed Soy Foods Ingredients, and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Soybeans contain various components with potential health benefits effects, but the impact of soy foods and processed soy foods on human health has gone progressively characterized. Soy foods are the traditional Asian diets; however because of their intended health benefits they have gone popular in Westerners, especially postmenopausal women. There are lots of biologically active soybean constituents that might lead to the possible health benefits of soy, and almost consideration has concentrated on the isoflavones, which have both hormonal and nonhormonal activities. The various other constituents of soybeans (saponins, soy protein or peptides, lecithin, and flavonoids) have differing biological activities. These include hormonal, immunological, bacteriological and digestive effects. This review is the broad assessment of the literature comprehensive the health effects of soy constituents that are of superlative interest. The health benefits of soy foods on four diseases-cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and diabetes-are the focus of the review.

  2. Spectroscopic measurements of soybeans used to parameterize physiological traits in the AgroIBIS ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Serbin, S.; Kucharik, C. J.; Townsend, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem models such AgroIBIS require detailed parameterizations of numerous vegetation traits related to leaf structure, biochemistry and photosynthetic capacity to properly assess plant carbon assimilation and yield response to environmental variability. In general, these traits are estimated from a limited number of field measurements or sourced from the literature, but rarely is the full observed range of variability in these traits utilized in modeling activities. In addition, pathogens and pests, such as the exotic soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), which affects photosynthetic pathways in soybean plants by feeding on phloem and sap, can potentially impact plant productivity and yields. Capturing plant responses to pest pressure in conjunction with environmental variability is of considerable interest to managers and the scientific community alike. In this research, we employed full-range (400-2500 nm) field and laboratory spectroscopy to rapidly characterize the leaf biochemical and physiological traits, namely foliar nitrogen, specific leaf area (SLA) and the maximum rate of RuBP carboxylation by the enzyme RuBisCo (Vcmax) in soybean plants, which experienced a broad range of environmental conditions and soybean aphid pressures. We utilized near-surface spectroscopic remote sensing measurements as a means to capture the spatial and temporal patterns of aphid impacts across broad aphid pressure levels. In addition, we used the spectroscopic data to generate a much larger dataset of key model parameters required by AgroIBIS than would be possible through traditional measurements of biochemistry and leaf-level gas exchange. The use of spectroscopic retrievals of soybean traits allowed us to better characterize the variability of plant responses associated with aphid pressure to more accurately model the likely impacts of soybean aphid on soybeans. Our next steps include the coupling of the information derived from our spectral measurements with the Agro

  3. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  4. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  5. Chemical composition of tempeh from soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Furlan Bavia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a food obtained by fermentation of soybean grains by the fungus Rizophus oligosporus. It is a traditional Indonesian food that presents benefits for human health protecting against diarrhea and chronic diseases. Tempeh processing includes dehulling, cooking, inoculation, and fermentation. In this study, chemical characteristics of tempeh prepared with soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption (BRS 216, BRS 232, BRS 257, and BRS 267 were investigated. Soybean grains and tempeh obtained from these cultivars were analyzed for oil, protein, antinutrional factors, and isoflavone content. Cultivar BRS 216 presented the highest protein content in the grains (36.81% and in tempeh (51.99%. On average, the protein content in tempeh increased 16% in relation to that of soybean grains. Isoflavone content was higher in the grains than in tempeh with significant differences among the cultivars. However, the aglycones content increased about 50% in tempeh (49.00 mg.100 g-1 on average compared to that of raw material (soybean grains - 21.49 mg.100 g-1, on average. The content of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KSTI reduced 83% in tempeh, on average, as compared to the value found in the grains. Phytic acid content was similar in both tempeh and the grains.

  6. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  7. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  8. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muchlish Adie, M; Krisnawati, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addi...

  9. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  10. Effects of a soybean-free diet supplied to Italian heavy pigs on fattening performance, and meat and dry-cured ham quality

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Sardi; Giuliano Zaghini; Giorgio Vignola; Eleonora Nannoni; Nico Brogna; Giovanna Martelli; Attilio L. Mordenti

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet containing non-conventional (i.e. alternative to soybean meal) vegetable protein sources on fattening performance, and meat and dry-cured ham quality of heavy pigs. Fifty-six (Landrace x Large White) castrated males with an initial average body weight of 50 kg were allocated to two experimental groups: a control group in which pigs received a traditional soybean meal-based diet, and a treatment group in which soybean meal was repl...

  11. Current development and application of soybean genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli HE; Jing ZHAO; Man ZHAO; Chaoying HE

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max),an important domesticated species originated in China,constitutes a major source of edible oils and high-quality plant proteins worldwide.In spite of its complex genome as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidilization,platforms for map-based genomics,sequence-based genomics,comparative genomics and functional genomics have been well developed in the last decade,thus rich repertoires of genomic tools and resources are available,which have been influencing the soybean genetic improvement.Here we mainly review the progresses of soybean (including its wild relative Glycine soja) genomics and its impetus for soybean breeding,and raise the major biological questions needing to be addressed.Genetic maps,physical maps,QTL and EST mapping have been so well achieved that the marker assisted selection and positional cloning in soybean is feasible and even routine.Whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses provide a large collection of molecular markers and predicted genes,which are instrumental to comparative genomics and functional genomics.Comparative genomics has started to reveal the evolution of soybean genome and the molecular basis of soybean domestication process.Microarrays resources,mutagenesis and efficient transformation systems become essential components of soybean functional genomics.Furthermore,phenotypic functional genomics via both forward and reverse genetic approaches has inferred functions of many genes involved in plant and seed development,in response to abiotic stresses,functioning in plant-pathogenic microbe interactions,and controlling the oil and protein content of seed.These achievements have paved the way for generation of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) soybean crops.

  12. Genetically modified soybeans and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M

    2003-05-01

    Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in GM crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, including soybean, have not been shown to add any additional allergenic risk beyond the intrinsic risks already present. Biotechnology can be used to characterize and eliminate allergens naturally present in crops. Biotechnology has been used to remove a major allergen in soybean demonstrating that genetic modification can be used to reduce allergenicity of food and feed. This provides a model for further use of GM approaches to eliminate allergens.

  13. Mediators of the effects of rice intake on health in individuals consuming a traditional Japanese diet centered on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Minori; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Miyazaki, Akane; Nakai, Yukiei; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Kubo, Chizuru; Suzuki, Junko; Ohkubo, Iwao; Shimizu, Mari; Musashi, Manabu; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality) and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste) soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean) intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.

  14. Mediators of the effects of rice intake on health in individuals consuming a traditional Japanese diet centered on rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minori Koga

    Full Text Available Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.

  15. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  16. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aiqiu; Geng Yuxuan; Zhu Baogo

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M 2 population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  17. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiqiu, Gu; Yuxuan, Geng; Baogo, Zhu [Institute of Genetics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M{sub 2} population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  18. ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AMONG SOYBEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Analysis, Resource use efficiency, Farmers, production function analysis, Benue, Nigeria. ... Soybean seeds also contain about 20% oil on a dry matter basis, and this ..... Manual for training in Seed Technology.

  19. Physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Kim, J.O.; Yook, H.S.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    Some physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans (0-20 kCy) were investigated. Proximate components, fatty acid compositions and minerals of the soybeans irradiated at 2.5 - 20 kGy shrived no difference from the nonirradiated control. Irradiation doses above 10 kGy and long term storage caused decrease in extractable phenols and phytate content, whereas increases in acid value and organic acid content. The total amino acids content of the soybeans irradiated up to 10 kGy was not changed as compared with the nonirradiated control. Sulfur-containing amino acids, however, were changed by 10 and 20 kGy irradiaton. Gamma irradiation and long term storage caused minor changes in the color attributes of soybeans. Hunter's 'L' (lightness) and 'b' (yellowness) values were decreased whereas 'a' (redness) value was increased with increasing dose levels and the elapse of the storage period

  20. Deploying Fourier Coefficients to Unravel Soybean Canopy Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubery, Talukder Z; Shook, Johnathon; Parmley, Kyle; Zhang, Jiaoping; Naik, Hsiang S; Higgins, Race; Sarkar, Soumik; Singh, Arti; Singh, Asheesh K; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2016-01-01

    Soybean canopy outline is an important trait used to understand light interception ability, canopy closure rates, row spacing response, which in turn affects crop growth and yield, and directly impacts weed species germination and emergence. In this manuscript, we utilize a methodology that constructs geometric measures of the soybean canopy outline from digital images of canopies, allowing visualization of the genetic diversity as well as a rigorous quantification of shape parameters. Our choice of data analysis approach is partially dictated by the need to efficiently store and analyze large datasets, especially in the context of planned high-throughput phenotyping experiments to capture time evolution of canopy outline which will produce very large datasets. Using the Elliptical Fourier Transformation (EFT) and Fourier Descriptors (EFD), canopy outlines of 446 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines from 25 different countries exhibiting a wide variety of maturity, seed weight, and stem termination were investigated in a field experiment planted as a randomized complete block design with up to four replications. Canopy outlines were extracted from digital images, and subsequently chain coded, and expanded into a shape spectrum by obtaining the Fourier coefficients/descriptors. These coefficients successfully reconstruct the canopy outline, and were used to measure traditional morphometric traits. Highest phenotypic diversity was observed for roundness, while solidity showed the lowest diversity across all countries. Some PI lines had extraordinary shape diversity in solidity. For interpretation and visualization of the complexity in shape, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the EFD. PI lines were grouped in terms of origins, maturity index, seed weight, and stem termination index. No significant pattern or similarity was observed among the groups; although interestingly when genetic marker data was used for the PCA, patterns similar to canopy

  1. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-e...

  2. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  3. Towards sustainable restoration: learning from the past, a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van; Naldini, S.

    2016-01-01

    In many cultures in the past, sustainability used to be an integral concept, related to building traditions, crafts and daily life.With the increasing complexity of our society and the progressive shift from the local to the global scale the past sustainable building tradition has often faded out,

  4. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  5. Soybean in China: adaptating to the liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamet Jean-Paul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 and its opening, China has undergone a process of nutrition transition, animal products taking an increasing share. Anxious to ensure a certain level of food independence, Chinese authorities have developed national livestock production. The increase in volumes and the development of large scale breeding have increased the demand for commercial feed and thus soymeal. Meanwhile, edible oil consumption rose sharply, accentuating the demand for soybeans. To meet this demand, soybean imports were liberalized early, leading the country to become heavily dependent. China has indeed made the choice to maintain its independence in cereals at the expense of other grains, such as soybeans. Competition between corn and soybeans has turned in favor of the cereal, soybean production levelling off then regressing. China’s dependence extends to the crushing sector, controlled by foreign companies. Public supports in place, such as minimum prices, have resulted in increasing the price gap with imported products, leading to a reform of soybean policy in 2014.

  6. Forest amount affects soybean productivity in Brazilian agricultural frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattis, L.; Brando, P. M.; Marques, E. Q.; Queiroz, N.; Silverio, D. V.; Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past three decades, large tracts of tropical forests have been converted to crop and pasturelands across southern Amazonia, largely to meet the increasing worldwide demand for protein. As the world's population continue to grow and consume more protein per capita, forest conversion to grow more crops could be a potential solution to meet such demand. However, widespread deforestation is expected to negatively affect crop productivity via multiple pathways (e.g., thermal regulation, rainfall, local moisture, pest control, among others). To quantify how deforestation affects crop productivity, we modeled the relationship between forest amount and enhanced vegetation index (EVI—a proxy for crop productivity) during the soybean planting season across southern Amazonia. Our hypothesis that forest amount causes increased crop productivity received strong support. We found that the maximum MODIS-based EVI in soybean fields increased as a function of forest amount across three spatial-scales, 0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km, 5 km, 10 km, 15 km and 20 km. However, the strength of this relationship varied across years and with precipitation, but only at the local scale (e.g., 500 meters and 1 km radius). Our results highlight the importance of considering forests to design sustainable landscapes.

  7. Assessment of the effects of Hirsutella minnesotensis on Soybean Cyst Nematode and growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsutella minnesotensis is a fungal endoparasite of nematodes juvenile and parasitizes soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) with high frequency. In this study, the effects of two H. minnesotensis isolates on population and distribution of SCN and growth of soybean were evaluated. Experiments were conducted...

  8. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  9. The strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L.; Rauf, A.; Rahmawaty; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research was to analyze both internal and external factors influencing the strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera. SWOT analysis was used as the method of the research through identifying internal factors in the development of sustainable soybean the strategy to increase soybean production in research area is aggressive strategy or strategy of SO (Strengths - Oppurtunities) that is using force to exploit existing opportunity with activities as follows: (1). Use certified seeds in accordance with government regulations and policies. (2). Utilizing the level of soil fertility and cropping patterns to be able to meet the demand for soybeans. (3). Utilizing human resources by becoming a member of farmer groups.

  10. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  11. A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Young; Park, Hyang Mi; Hwang, Tae Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Seuk Ki; Seo, Min Jung; Kim, Kee Jong; Kwon, Young-Up; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Yul Ho

    2015-03-15

    Tocopherols are crucial lipid-soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients. There is increasing interest in the biofortification of crops with vitamin E for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. However, relatively little is known about the development of soybean cultivars with high levels of tocopherol through combined breeding. Tocopherol contents of seeds and germinating seeds of 28 Korean soybean cultivars were analyzed and evaluated for health-promoting activities. Total tocopherol concentrations ranged from 203.9 to 503.1 µg g⁻¹ in seeds and from 20.1 to 230.1 µg g⁻¹ in germinating seeds. The traditional landraces of HaNagari (HN, 503.1 µg g⁻¹), Orialtae (OL, 486.6 µg g⁻¹), SuMoktae (SM, 476.5 µg g⁻¹) and SoRitae (SR, 475.5 µg g⁻¹) showed high levels of tocopherol content. The contents of the four isomers of tocopherol in seeds and germinating seeds were correlated with lipid peroxidation. The γ- and δ-tocopherol contents in seeds were related to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (0.434; P tocopherol content was higher in soybean landraces as compared with modern cultivars developed by cross-breeding. These results suggest that soybean breeding is necessary to increase tocopherol levels. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Assessing antioxidant activity of some varieties of gamma-irradiated Brazilian soybean by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.R.R.; Mastro, N.L. Del

    2004-01-01

    Soybean production and utilization as food has increased during the last decades. The protein and oil contents are high in quantity and quality. Soy is natural source of flavonoids - biologically active components that are thought to possess antioxidant effects in vivo and in vitro systems. Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. This study was undertaken to investigate by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) the stability of free radicals generated by radiation processing on three different soybean cultivars. The soybean cultivars investigated were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 kGy. Both irradiation and EPR measurements were performed at room temperature. The EPR signal intensity correlated well with the ionizing radiation dose. EPR spectra were recorded 16 h, 11 days and 40 days after irradiation. The results showed that the EPR signal intensities remained almost constant up to 40 days after irradiation for all the varieties assayed. Further experiments are required in order to identify the species responsible for the EPR peaks and the proper antioxidant capability of these soybean cultivars against the radiation-induced oxidative shock. (Author)

  13. Assessing antioxidant activity of some varieties of gamma-irradiated Brazilian soybean by ESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.R.R.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, P.O. Box 11049 cep. 0422-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Soybean production and utilization as food has increased during the last decades. The protein and oil contents are high in quantity and quality. Soy is natural source of flavonoids - biologically active components that are thought to possess antioxidant effects in vivo and in vitro systems. Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. This study was undertaken to investigate by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) the stability of free radicals generated by radiation processing on three different soybean cultivars. The soybean cultivars investigated were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 kGy. Both irradiation and EPR measurements were performed at room temperature. The EPR signal intensity correlated well with the ionizing radiation dose. EPR spectra were recorded 16 h, 11 days and 40 days after irradiation. The results showed that the EPR signal intensities remained almost constant up to 40 days after irradiation for all the varieties assayed. Further experiments are required in order to identify the species responsible for the EPR peaks and the proper antioxidant capability of these soybean cultivars against the radiation-induced oxidative shock. (Author)

  14. De novo Genome Assembly and Single Nucleotide Variations for Soybean Mosaic Virus Using Soybean Seed Transcriptome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important legume crop in the world. Several diseases in soybean lead to serious yield losses in major soybean-producing countries. Moreover, soybean can be infected by diverse viruses. Recently, we carried out a large-scale screening to identify viruses infecting soybean using available soybean transcriptome data. Of the screened transcriptomes, a soybean transcriptome for soybean seed development analysis contains several virus-associated sequences. In this study, we identified five viruses, including soybean mosaic virus (SMV, infecting soybean by de novo transcriptome assembly followed by blast search. We assembled a nearly complete consensus genome sequence of SMV China using transcriptome data. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the consensus genome sequence of SMV China was closely related to SMV isolates from South Korea. We examined single nucleotide variations (SNVs for SMVs in the soybean seed transcriptome revealing 780 SNVs, which were evenly distributed on the SMV genome. Four SNVs, C-U, U-C, A-G, and G-A, were frequently identified. This result demonstrated the quasispecies variation of the SMV genome. Taken together, this study carried out bioinformatics analyses to identify viruses using soybean transcriptome data. In addition, we demonstrated the application of soybean transcriptome data for virus genome assembly and SNV analysis.

  15. Water binding by soybean seeds as measured by pulsed NMR.

    OpenAIRE

    掛澤, 雅章; 望月, 務; 海老根, 英雄; MASAAKI, KAKEZAWA; TSUTOMU, MOCHIZUKI; HIDEO, EBINE; 中央味噌研究所; 東海物産株式会社; 中央味噌研究所; Central Miso Research Institute; Tokai Bussan, Co.; Central Miso Research Institute

    1983-01-01

    The water in soybean powder, soaked soybeans and cooked soybeans was fractionated into unfrozen water and freezable water from the data on the free induction decay freezing curve, and into bound and mobile fractions from the data on the spin-spin relaxation curve by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of soaking and cooking conditions on the state of water were examined. In soybean powder of several hydration levels, the freezing curves showed that the levels of unfrozen water were...

  16. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  17. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  18. Virtual water embodied in international trade of soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario; Thomsen, Marianne

    This study focuses on hidden water flows embodied in the international trade of soybean. The virtual water content embedded in soybean imported and exported by 174 countries during the period 2000-2013 is estimated.......This study focuses on hidden water flows embodied in the international trade of soybean. The virtual water content embedded in soybean imported and exported by 174 countries during the period 2000-2013 is estimated....

  19. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  20. Zinc in soybeans. Chemical nature and bioavilability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.

    1987-01-01

    Soybeans were grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn through root absorption, stem injection and foliar application. Stem injection resulted in the greatest accumulation of 65 Zn. Regardless of the labeling technique, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybeans did not change appreciably as a result of the labelling technique. The major portion of the soluble 65 Zn was either free or associated with very low molecular weight proteins, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid rather than the major proteins of soybeans. Zinc in soybeans is ionically bound to proteins, peptides and phytic acid. Autoclaving did not affect the chemical association of zinc with soy proteins. Solubility of protein, zinc and phytic acid was studied over the pH range of 3.5-12.0. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from soybeans was lower than from casein and rats adapted to a casein basal diet absorbed more 65 Zn from both casein and soy than rats adapted to a soy basal diet

  1. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  2. Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipkemoi, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Weed Compete for limited growth factors with crop plants. This result in loss of crop vigour and hence reduces crop yields. A study was conducted in 1997 and 2001 to evaluate the use of herbicides and hand hoeing for weed control in soybeans. Crop establishment was by hand planting. The herbicides were applied using CP3 Knap sack sprayer calibrated to deliver a spray volume of 150l/ha. Hand weeding treatment were done as appropriate. The trial layout was randomised complete block design with four replications in both years. The tested herbicides did not satisfactorily control the weeds present at the experimental site in both years. Hand weeding on the other hand gave good control of the weeds which were reflected in high soybean yields. In these trials yields were negatively correlated with the number of weeds present. The tested herbicides alone appeared to be inadequate in controlling weeds in soybean. Compared with the weed-free treatment a single application of soil-applied or post-emergence herbicides did not control a broad spectrum of weeds and reduced soybean yields. It can also be inferred that soybean yield losses are minimised if they are kept weed free for at most 6 weeks after emergence

  3. Accumulation of genistein and daidzein, soybean isoflavones implicated in promoting human health, is significantly elevated by irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John O; Yu, Oliver; Heatherly, Larry G; Krishnan, Hari B

    2004-12-15

    To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and

  4. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans remain compositionally equivalent to conventional soybeans (Glycine max L.) during three years of field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Liu, Keshun; Trujillo, William A; Dobert, Raymond C

    2005-06-29

    Previous studies have shown that the composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) and selected processed fractions was substantially equivalent to that of conventional soybeans over a wide range of analytes. This study was designed to determine if the composition of GTS remains substantially equivalent to conventional soybeans over the course of several years and when introduced into multiple genetic backgrounds. Soybean seed samples of both GTS and conventional varieties were harvested during 2000, 2001, and 2002 and analyzed for the levels of proximates, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones. The measured analytes are representative of the basic nutritional and biologically active components in soybeans. Results show a similar range of natural variability for the GTS soybeans as well as conventional soybeans. It was concluded that the composition of commercial GTS over the three years of breeding into multiple varieties remains equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

  5. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  6. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlish Adie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addition, the use of soybean for biofuel feedstock is expected to motivate farmers to cultivate soybeans, so their use is not limited to non-energy raw materials. Soybean varieties that have a high oil content as well as high yield is a source of major biodiesel feedstock. From 73 soybean varieties that have been released in Indonesia, has an average oil content of 18%. Varieties with high oil content can be used as raw material for biodiesel. Research on the use of soy as an ingredient of energy crops (biodiesel have been carried out. In fact, soybean oil is the vegetable oil feedstock for most of the biodiesel being produced in the United States today. With the potential for soybean crops in Indonesia, both in terms of availability of land and varieties, the use of soybean oil for biofuel development in Indonesia is the flagship prospective materials for bio fuel substitute than other plants in the future.

  7. optimizing soybean flour., whey powder. and colostrum ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...

  8. Agressiveness of Phomopsis longicolla and other Phomopsis species on soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality of soybean seeds. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla. In this study, aggressiveness of isolates of P. longicolla from soybean and other Phomopsis spp. from other hosts were compared by inoculat...

  9. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YONGCHUN LI

    95, xx–xx]. Introduction. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide accounting for about 30% of the vegetable oil and 60% of the vegetable protein in world production. However, the sustain- ability of soybean production has been challenged by inten- sified pest problems (Skorupska et al. 1994). Soybean cyst.

  10. Effects of diets containing alkali-treated Soybeans on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diets containing alkali-treated Soybeans on performance traits, nutrient digestibility and cost benefits of broiler chickens. ... These factors accounted for the overall best performance recorded in 1% K2CO3 - treated soybeans which was closely followed by 1% Na2CO3 treated soybean base diets. Keywords: ...

  11. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  12. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Woo Byun; Il-Jun Kang; Joong-Ho Kwon; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

    1996-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (author)

  13. Physiochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Kwon, J.H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

    1995-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexagonal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (Author)

  14. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1220 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-12-0022] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To... in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act (Act... members from 69 to 70. These changes would be reflected in the Soybean Promotion and Research Order (Order...

  15. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  16. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition

  17. Globalizing land use transitions: the soybean acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Fenger, Nina Astrid

    2011-01-01

    into a leading player on the global scale. It takes point of departure in a land change science approach and employs the notions of underlying and proximate drivers and teleconnections to characterize the process of land use change in relation to the accelerating use of land for soybean cultivation.......This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America...

  18. Processing quality of NS soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current NS soybean varieties are of satisfactory technological quality, and also significant technological diversity. Varieties Triumf and Venera possess higher oil content. Variety Sava has a balanced oil and protein content, and can be used for obtaining different soy products. Variety Rubin has the highest protein content and is suitable for new high protein products. Estimated processing value is a good parameter to describe the processing quality of soybeans. Based on several years and spatial analysis, it is possible to separate the geographic regions with prevailing favourable conditions for obtaining higher protein or oil content.

  19. Induced marker gene mutations in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Non-fluorescent root mutants in soybean are useful as markers in genetic studies. 13 such mutants were detected among more than 150 000 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with 6 mutagens. One of them, derived from variety 'Williams' treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to the already known spontaneous non-fluorescent mutants. It was assigned the identification no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5. The other mutants corresponded with known loci fr1, fr2 or fr4. (author)

  20. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marengo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content.

  1. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  2. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzelberger, A. M.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Ainsworth, E. A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    as temperature and humidity affect the production/destruction rate of O3. In order to broaden these experimental results, time series modeling is being used to evaluate the historical statistical relationship between soybean production and tropospheric O3 variations at the regional level. A multiple linear regression approach is being taken to understand the effects that O3 has had on soybean yields in Illinois, Iowa, and Indiana over the past 30 years. By combining county yield data with EPA and NASA O3 data, and controlling for variation in temperature and moisture, the O3-exposure relationship for the Midwestern U.S. will be determined. Together, these results indicate the critical need to understand the response of other crops to O3 and to put in place policies that mitigate the emissions of O3 precursors.

  3. Induced mutations and marker assisted breeding in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chotechuen, Somsong [Prachinburi Rice Research Center, Prachinburi (Thailand); Srisombun, Somsak [Department of Agriculture, Field Crops Research Institute, Bangkok (Thailand); Lamseejan, Siranut [Kasetsart Univ., Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    Soybean is one of the important crops in Thailand. Constraints to soybean production include low yield potential, susceptibility to diseases and insects, and non-adoption of appropriate management practices. Mutation induction has been used to improve soybean yield and resistance to major diseases such as rust, purple seed, crinkle leaf, anthracnose and green seed. This paper reviews previous work and achievements of induced mutations in soybean. Successful examples are the release of a soybean variety, Doi Kham, and the development of a mutant CM 60-10kr-71; both are resistant to rust disease. The paper also gives example of the use of soybean SSR markers to identify QTL associated with pod shattering, and emphasizes the integration of mutation techniques and marker assisted selection for soybean improvement. (author)

  4. Effect of fertilization and soil treatment on the soybean nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel aziz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. ) is one of the most important leguminosae crops all over the world. It is considered one of the most important protein sources for human and animals. During the last 20 years, soybean was introduced to Egypt, however the nodulation of soybean under field conditions remains a problem because the egyptian soils were void of soybean rhizobia. Since soybean is a leguminosae crop, symbiosis with root - nodule R hizobium might play a significant role in the management of its production . Nevertheless, soybean suffers from poor nodulation in egypt, hence nitrogenase fertilization for legume is a logical practice. Soybean can utilize both soil -N or applied N and symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen under normal field condition. The fixation of atmospheric N by the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis is an integrated process in which the host plant ( macrosymbiont) supplies the bacterium (microsymbiont) with energy and the bacterium supplies the plant with reduced N. figs.,172 refs

  5. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  6. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  7. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  8. Structural studies on the development of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.) in susceptible soybean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.; Ebrahim-Nesbat, F.; Hoppe, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Where soybeans are cultivated in the tropics, soybean rust may cause heavy crop losses. Resistance found so far was only of local and temporary value. More substantial breeding efforts are needed, but these may require a better understanding of the pathogen's biology and evolutionary capacity, the infection process and the host-pathogen relationships. The report deals with the infection process and the development of the fungus in a susceptible host variety. (author)

  9. Management of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines with combinations of different rhizobacterial strains on soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most damaging soybean pest worldwide. To improve soybean resistance to SCN, we employed a soybean seed-coating strategy through combination of three rhizobacterial strains, including Bacillus simple, B. megaterium and Sinarhizobium fredii at various ratios. We found seed coating by such rhizobacterial strains at a ratio of 3:1:1 (thereafter called SN101 produced the highest germination rate and the mortality of J2 of nematodes. Then, the role of soybean seed coating by SN101 in nematode control was evaluated under both greenhouse and two field conditions in Northeast China in 2013 and 2014. Our results showed that SN101 treatment greatly reduced SCN reproduction and significantly promoted plant growth and yield production in both greenhouse and field trials, suggesting that SN101 is a promising seed-coating agent that may be used as an alternative bio-nematicide for controlling SCN in soybean fields. Our findings also demonstrate that combination of multiple rhizobacterial strains needs to be considered in the seed coating for better management of plant nematodes.

  10. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  11. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. soybeans yoghurt production using starter culture from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    On kilogram (lkg) of soybeans used produced soy-milk ... production and the vegetable oil industry can not be overemphasised .... cost. Four genera ut microorgamsms were isolated from the fennented cow milk ... The bacteria involved might have enzyme systems capable of metabolizing .... A Textbook of Economic Botany.

  13. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  14. RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SOYBEAN/MAIZE INTERCROPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean and maize may be planted as intercrops in alternating single rows in forage production systems to take advantage of available solar radiation and greater dry matter yields. Key Words: Nitrogen, row arrangement, photosynthetic active radiation, productivity. Résumé Des études des champs étaient conduites en ...

  15. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  16. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). ... discriminatory analysis, principal components, coordinate and cluster analysis .... were employed with 10.000 simulations to attribute significance values to ...... association analysis of protein and oil content in food-grade soybeans ...

  17. Teaching Green Chemistry with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Tuachi, Abraham; Zhang, Yuanzhuo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) provides students a vantage point on the application of green chemistry principles in a series of experiments. Qualitative tests review the reactions of alkenes, whereas spectroscopic analyses provide insight in monitoring functional group transformations.

  18. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  19. The past and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of legitimate forms of land control, complex combinations of claims emerge. The ubiquity of ‘the past’ in African politics and the increasing competition over space suggest that the naturalness with which some refer to the past and others conceive of space should be under constant scrutiny. Based on work...... that competing social elite groups instrumentalize. Each group sees its interests best served by a particular reading of the past and a particular conception of space....

  20. Numancia: The lived past. The felt past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimeno Martínez, Alfredo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the principal components of the Management Plan of Numancia (Soria are exposed. Its aim is to integrate the different activities (research, conservation, diffusion and management that have been undertaken at this historic site. For their better understanding, some previous considerations are presented about the ''leisure culture ", tourism and Archaeology, as well as about the ideological use and the mental reconstruction of the past, having always the site of Numancia as a reference. Afterwards we expose the need of reconstructions made in situ as a means to offer a comprehensible and living past. Finally, these programs of work are evaluated in relation with the evolution of the number of visitors and the socioeconomic implications.

    En este artículo se exponen los componentes del Plan Director de Numancia (Soria, que tiene como objetivo integrar el conjunto de actuaciones (investigación, conservación, difusión y gestión a realizar en este histórico yacimiento. Para entender mejor las actuaciones que se están realizando en la presentación didáctica y puesta en valor de Numancia, se hace previamente una serie de consideraciones sobre ocio cultural, turismo y Arqueología, uso ideológico y reconstrucción mental del pasado, teniendo a Numancia como referente. A continuación se expone la necesidad de presentar este yacimiento a través de reconstrucciones realizadas in situ, como fórmula para hacer el pasado comprensible y vivido. Finalmente se valoran estas intervenciones, atendiendo a la evolución del número de visitantes y a las implicaciones socioeconómicas.

  1. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  2. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  3. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  4. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  5. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation of calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean and sunflower are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems for forage in addition to their traditional use as protein and/or oil yielding crops. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpf...

  6. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  7. Representations from the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammut, Gordon; Tsirogianni, Stavroula; Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    of social behaviour are limited insofar as they exclude a historical concern with human purpose. In this paper, we draw on Bartlett’s notion of collective remembering to argue that manifest social relations are rooted in past events that give present behaviours meaning and justification. We further propose......Psychological life is subject to the influence of a constructed and potentially reconstituted past, as well as to future anticipated outcomes and expectations. Human behaviour occurs along a temporal trajectory that marks the projects individuals adopt in their quests of human action. Explanations...

  8. Searchlights from the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kletz, Trevor A.

    2008-01-01

    'Modern man', wrote the historian, E.H. Carr, 'peers eagerly back into the twilight from which he has come, in the hope that its faint beams will illuminate the obscurity into which he is going ...'. Carr is wrong. For those who are willing to look, searchlights, not faint beams, shine out from the past and show us the pits into which we will fall if we do not look where we are going. Some of these searchlights illuminate specific technical risks while others remind us of general principles. In an age of rapid change people are particularly prone to ignore the past, but while technology changes, people do not

  9. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  10. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  11. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-10-01

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  12. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  13. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  14. Strategic Management Planning of Soybean Store Hadijanto Trisno with the Purpose of Developing Business and Facing Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tedjalaksana, Retta Margaretta; Aldianto, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Every development demand a change, include in business world. Small businesses that are still using traditional management system face a challenge to maintaining the business continuity and facing competition in this modern era. Soybean Store Hadijanto Trisno, a hereditary business is facing some issues in running the business, which are company doesn't have functional division, lack of workers and transport during peak hours, and no database system. Those business issues are explored throu...

  15. Recombinant expression of homodimeric 660 kDa human thyroglobulin in soybean seeds: an alternative source of human thyroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rebecca; Hudson, Laura C; Lambirth, Kevin C; Luth, Diane; Wang, Kan; Bost, Kenneth L; Piller, Kenneth J

    2011-07-01

    Soybean seeds possess many qualities that make them ideal targets for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one quality often overlooked is their ability to stockpile large amounts of complex storage proteins. Because of this characteristic, we hypothesized that soybean seeds would support recombinant expression of large and complex proteins that are currently difficult or impossible to express using traditional plant and non-plant-based host systems. To test this hypothesis, we transformed soybeans with a synthetic gene encoding human thyroglobulin (hTG)-a 660 kDa homodimeric protein that is widely used in the diagnostic industry for screening and detection of thyroid disease. In the absence of a recombinant system that can produce recombinant hTG, research and diagnostic grade hTG continues to be purified from cadaver and surgically removed thyroid tissue. These less-than-ideal tissue sources lack uniform glycosylation and iodination and therefore introduce variability when purified hTG is used in sensitive ELISA screens. In this study, we report the successful expression of recombinant hTG in soybean seeds. Authenticity of the soy-derived protein was demonstrated using commercial ELISA kits developed specifically for the detection of hTG in patient sera. Western analyses and gel filtration chromatography demonstrated that recombinant hTG and thyroid-purified hTG are biologically similar with respect to size, mass, charge and subunit interaction. The recombinant protein was stable over three generations and accumulated to ~1.5% of total soluble seed protein. These results support our hypothesis that soybeans represent a practical alternative to traditional host systems for the expression of large and complex proteins.

  16. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  17. Influence of continuous cropping on corn and soybean pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzi, Camila; Camera, Juliane Nicolodi; Deuner, Carolina Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two tillage programs (conventional and no-tillage) and different rotations with soybeans and corn on the occurrence of Fusarium species. The work was conducted in the experimental field and Seed Laboratory at Iowa State University. The treatments were: tillage (no-tillage and conventional tillage), crop (corn and soybeans) and three different cropping sequences for corn and soybeans, respectively. Treatment with corn: (1) t...

  18. Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to sole soybean, intercropping soybean and maize on flat and ridge reduced yields by 1.0 –29.1% and 29.4 - 40.2% respectively. In maize, intercropping on flat and ridge reduced yields by 13.2 - 25.2% and 24.8 - 43.5% respectively. Planting sole soybean on ridge enhanced mean yield by 18.6% as compared to ...

  19. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...

  20. New Futures, New Pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Jakob Egholm

    2016-01-01

    for all. Nevertheless, Kallen avoided the concept of cosmopolitanism because of the deep controversy over Jews and Jewishness entangled in the history of cosmopolitan thought since the Enlightenment. As an alternative, Kallen re-invented a new Jewish past to suit a future when Jewishness could be a model...

  1. Reasoning about the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    In this extended abstract, we briefly recall the abstract (categorical) notion of bisimulation from open morphisms, as introduced by Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. The approach is applicable across a wide range of models of computation, and any such bisimulation comes automatically with characterist...... of reasoning about the past....

  2. Fragments of the Past

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Szende; Annie Holcombe

    2016-01-01

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  3. Fragments of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  4. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  5. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  6. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  7. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  8. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  9. RELATIVE COMPETITIVENESS OF GOOSEGRASS BIOTYPES AND SOYBEAN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADER JOB FRANCO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he goosegrass ( Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn is an annual plant that has a low - level resistance to glyphosate (LLRG, resulting in control failure in genetically modified soybean crops for resistance to this herbicide. Alleles related to resistance may cause changes in the plant biotype, such as inferior competitive ability. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluated the competitive ability of soybean crops and susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. Replacement series experiments were conducted with soybean crops and goosegrass biotypes. The ratios of soybean to susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass plants were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 481 plants m - 2 . The leaf area, plant height and shoot dry weight were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the soybean crops and weeds. The soybean crop had superior competitive ability to the susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The soybean crop showed similar competitive ability in both competitions, either with the susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The intraspecific competition was more harmful to the soybean crop, while the interspecific competition caused greater damage to the goosegrass biotypes competing with the soybean crop

  10. Interaction of Heterodera glycines and Glomus mosseae on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C; Winkler, H E; Wilson, G W

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on Heterodera glycines-soybean interactions were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soybean cultivars that were either resistant or susceptible to H. glycines were exposed to initial nematode population densities (Pi) of 0, 100, 1,000, or 10,000 eggs and infective juveniles. Soybean growth, nematode reproduction, and AM fungal colonization were determined after 35 (experiment I) and 83 (experiment II) days. Soybean shoot and root weights were reduced an average 29% across H. glycines Pi but were 36% greater overall in the presence of G. mosseae. Analyses of variance indicated that root colonization and stimulation of soybean growth by G. mosseae were inhibited at high H. glycines Pi, while the combined effects of the nematode and fungus on soybean growth were best described as additive in linear regression models. No evidence for increased nematode tolerance of mycorrhizal soybean plants was observed. Nematode population densities and reproduction were lower on a nematode-resistant soybean cultivar than on a susceptible cultivar, but reproduction was comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Root colonization by G. mosseae was reduced at high nematode Pi. The results suggest that nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a more likely consequence of interactions between H. glycines and AM fungi on soybean than is nematode suppression by the fungus.

  11. Effect of raceme-localized supplemental light on soybean reproductive abscission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, R.L.; Brun, W.A.; Brenner, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The percentage of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] reproductive structures that abscise is a potentially important yield factor. To better understand the involvement of light in the abscission of reproductive structures, a series of in vitro raceme-culture and growth-chamber experiments were conducted. In the in vitro raceme-culture experiments, racemes with four to six flowers at or past anthesis were excised from the soybean plant (genotype IX93-100), embedded in a complete nutrient, solid agar medium, and subjected to various light treatments. A series of three experiments indicated that the racemes contain a photoreceptor, possibly phytochrome, capable of regulating sucrose accumulation. In each of the growth chamber studies, supplemental light was supplied directly to individual soybean flowers via fiber optic light guides. The light source increased the photon flux to the flowers by 10-fold. The first growth chamber experiment showed that flowers receiving supplemental light were more intense sinks for 14 C-sucrose than were controls (intensity value of 1.0 vs 0.4 x 10 -7 , intensity = [dps of flower/dps of raceme]/[kg dry wt of flower]). In a second study, 42% of flowers treated with supplemental light set pods, while only 26% of control flowers set pods. A third experiment showed that red supplemental light produced 55% fruit set, compared to 41% set for far-red light, and 35% for controls. These experiments indicate that both photoassimilate accumulation and abscission in young soybean reproductive structures may be regulated by light quality

  12. Seeing the Past/Reading the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bassi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Speaking of what he calls the "uneasy dialogue" between ancient historians and Classical archaeologists, Ray Laurence notes the absence of "a theory of representation of the material world in language." And he suggests that the cause of this uneasiness is a poor understanding of "the role of material objects in texts.” It may be going too far to suggest that this unease is due to the fact that inanimate objects and physical structures in texts necessarily refer to the temporal limits of human life. Nonetheless, such a theory must be based first of all on an understanding of their temporal effects; in disciplinary terms, it must establish the criteria by which physical objects and features become sources of historical ‘evidence’ or archaeological ‘artefacts’. How do we respond to the claim in a recent (2007 article in Brill's New Pauly Online, for example, that archaeological artefacts are "tangible evidence for the past" (Hauser 1, “haptisches Zeugnis der Vergangenheit”? While this claim may seem hopelessly naive, it has a history that can be traced to the anecdotal effects of physical objects described in ancient Greek narrative (cf. Fineman. Utilisding work in museum studies, thing theory, phenomenology, and the history of disciplines, this article brings this history into contact with contemporary archaeological theory and, more specifically, with the metaphor of ‘reading’ the past in its material remains. The question posed here is how objects within narrative prefigure “the potential for narrative within the artefact.”

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  14. INFLUENCE OF SOWING SPEED ON SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Tiesen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso state is the largest producer of soybeans in the country, therefore is the focus of several studies and research in order to improve and increase the production. For an activity that reduces the movements on the field, the no-tillage is a great activity when it done properly. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of speed of sowing on soybean crop, with pneumatic system type for seed metering. The experiment was conducted at São Luiz Farm, in Sinop city, in the northern of Mato Grosso state. The experimental adopted was the randomized blocks design with four treatments and four replications. The seeding speeds studied were 3; 5; 7 and 9 km h-1. The variables evaluated were: initial plant population, longitudinal distribution and yield components. The data were submitted to variance and regression analysis. The speed of 3 km h-1 show the best performance for acceptable spacing, flawed, plant stand on the pre-established area, number of pods per plant, thousand grain mass and yield. The speeds rate used for sowing did not influence the establishment of soybean crop, but affected the beans productivity.

  15. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabloff, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics

  16. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  17. Major soybean maturity gene haplotypes revealed by SNPViz analysis of 72 sequenced soybean genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Langewisch

    Full Text Available In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species.

  18. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane sector is responsible for around 4% of the diesel consumption in Brazil. • Soybean biodiesel can reduce the fossil diesel demand in the sugarcane sector. • The local use of biodiesel could reduce logistic problems and environmental burdens. • The sugarcane–soybean integration is likely to improve ethanol life cycle performance. • Fiscal incentives could reduce the economic uncertainties of the integration. - Abstract: The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil

  19. Chemical interesterification of soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: Influence of the reaction time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Grimaldi, Renato; Goncalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical interesterification is an important alternative to produce zero trans fats. In practice, however, excessive reaction times are used to ensure complete randomization. This work evaluated the influence of the reaction time on the interesterification of soybean oil/fully hydrogenated soybean oil blend, carried out in the following conditions: 100 deg C, 500 rpm stirring speed, 0.4% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst. The triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content and melting point analysis showed that the reaction was very fast, reaching the equilibrium within 5 min. This result suggests the interesterification can be performed in substantially lower times, with reduction in process costs. (author)

  20. Who controls the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny English

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This collection of articles presents a series of snapshots of different aspects of the regulatory framework and practice of metal detecting (and related issues. Each shines a spotlight on a different context but underlying all of them is the same fundamental question. Although the focus of heritage law and management is on tangible property, i.e. objects and places, the debate always leads us back to the intangible and seemingly insoluble question of who should have the right to control access to the past. These articles speak with a variety of voices, some more forcibly than others. The resulting kaleidoscope of viewpoints illuminates the challenge of reaching a workable management regime for the archaeological heritage, at times highlighting points of convergence, at others the unbridgeable gulf between different communities of interest, all claiming a stake in the past.

  1. Fluorescence imaging of soybean flavonol isolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Edward H.; Mulchi, Charles L.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Rowland, Randy A.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the fluorescence emission of leaves from four soybean ('Harosoy') plants containing different concentrations of flavonols (kaempferol glycosides). The investigation utilized genetically mutated soybean flavonol isolines grown in a constant environment, thus limiting factors known to affect fluorescence emission characteristics other than different kaempferol glycosides concentrations. Flavonol isolines included OX922, OX941, OX942, OX944. The first two isolines contain kaempferol (K) glycosides; K3, K6, and K9, and the latter two did not have K3, K6, and K9. A fluorescence imaging system (FIS) was used to characterize steady state florescence images of the sample leaves measured at wavelengths centered at 450, 550, 680, and 740 nm with an excitation at 360 nm. Images taken with FIS greatly complement non-imaging fluorescence measurements by characterizing the spatial variation of fluorescence within leaves. We also acquired fluorescence emission spectra to characterize spectral features of the soybean flavonol isolines. The emission spectral shape of the fluorescence emission characteristics were not significantly different between the soybeans that contain kaempferol glycosides and the ones that do not contain kaempferol glycosides. Typical emission maxima of green vegetation in the blue, green, red, and far-red bands were noticed in all four soybean isolines. However, plants containing kaempferol glycosides, OX922 and OX941 had significantly lower intensities throughout the wavelength regions. These results imply that fluorescence emission intensities in the fluorescence emission bands studied are significantly affected by the presence and absence of kaempferol glycosides concentrations (UV radiation screening compounds). Pure kaempferol glycoside dissolved in solution show minimal fluorescence emission when excited with the absorption maximum radiation at 365 nm. However, a broad band emission can be seen in the green

  2. Relics of the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2016-01-01

    , they insisted, were not only more reliable than eyewitness accounts, but also better historical evidence than all other material remains of the past. The use of these sources in historical research also helped shape the modern ideal of the historian as an archival researcher. To illustrate these changes......, the paper focuses upon the example of the Göttingen historian Johann Christoph Gatterer, who is often considered one of the founders of modern critical historical research....

  3. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  4. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  5. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  6. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  7. Elisa development for detection of glyphosat resistant gm soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Геннадійович Спиридонов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During research we have utilized recombinant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS, conferring resistance to glyphosate for GM soybean, for the hen immunization and obtaining specific yolk antibodies IgY. Stages of ELISA development that can detect at least 0,1 % of GM-soybean resistant to glyphosate were present

  8. Effect of feeding soybean, linseed oil and different forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... redox and immune status of turkey hens. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens, type BIG 6, which were divided into four groups. Birds in Group I (control) received soybean oil and synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate in their feed mixture. Group II received soybean oil and natural RRR-d-alpha-tocopherol.

  9. Agro-ecological Differentials in Soybean Crop Evapotranspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated soybean crop evapotranspiration from weather data using the cropwat model. The effects of reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients, and yield response factor were quantified for three different agroecological zones in Cameroon. The evapotranspiration of soybean was observed to be 281.03 ...

  10. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenach, A.-M.; Chalamet, Alain; Pachiaudi, Christiane

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of 15 N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference [fr

  11. Evaluation of microbial content of some soybean milk products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the microbiological content of soybean milk, highly consumed by the public is the aim of this research work. Ten samples of soybean milk, locally prepared by different manufacturers were used for the study. The microbial load and identity of the microorganisms present were determined using standard ...

  12. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The average genetic diversity index of wild soybeans and landraces was 1.5421 and ... genetic identity (0.5265) and gene flow (1.8338) between wild soybeans and cultivars ..... The project was financed by the National Natural Science .... Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Alberta.

  13. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  14. Framing the issues of resistance management in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean insect-pest complex consists of both long-established and new invasive pests. Management of these pests has been achieved by various means, but often relies heavily on the application of insecticides and the development of insect-resistant soybean varieties. Pest management practitione...

  15. Soybean Peptide as Additive on Yellow Feather Broiler Chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GM soybean and sold on the Chinese market by China CF Duqing (Heze) Biotech Co. Ltd, Shandong Prov-ince, China. For the purpose of this study, the peptide was designated marketed soybean peptide (MSBP). In order to show its efficacy ...

  16. The research on super absorption resin made from irradiation soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiao'nan; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong

    2012-01-01

    The research is based on the products made from the fermentation of soybean. Using γ-ray to irradiate the products made from the fermentation of soybean to make super absorption resin, and the result is that the products irradiated by 20 kGy can absorb nearly 2000 times of its volume. (authors)

  17. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of neutral black liquor and moisture heating treatments ... The most commonly used methods of protecting protein include ..... Induced non-enzymatic browning of soybean meal for enhancing efficiency of ... ammonia relase of soluble soybean meal proterin.

  18. The nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O

    1982-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes isolated from soybean DNA. Both genes contain three intervening sequences in identical positions. Comparison of the coding sequences with known amino-acid sequences of soybean leghemoglobins suggest that the two genes...

  19. Effect of Soybean Population and Spatial Arrangement on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, to determine the effect of soybean population and spatial arrangement on the productivity of ginger/soybean intercrop in South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised ...

  20. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenach, A M; Chalamet, A; Pachiaudi, C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1979-07-16

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of /sup 15/N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference.

  1. The research on super absorption resin made from irradiated soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong

    2011-01-01

    The research is based on the products made from the fermentation of soybean. Using γ-ray to irradiate the products made from the fermentation of soybean to make super absorption resin, and the result is that the products irradiated by 20 KGy can absorb nearly 2000 times of its volume. (authors)

  2. Rheological properties of soybean protein isolate gels containing emulsion droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.H.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Rheological properties of soybean protein gels containing various volume fractions oil droplets have been studied at small and large deformations. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of soybean protein isolate gels were determined as a function of the volume fraction of oil droplets stabilised by the

  3. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  4. Chemical, physical and tribological investigation of polymercaptanized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized soybean oil (PMSO) was investigated for its chemical, physical and tribological properties relative to soybean oil (SO) and also as a potential multi-functional lubricant additive in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO). Analytical investigations showed that PMSO is obtained by convers...

  5. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and ...

  6. Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Šertović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of five Croatian soybean seed cultivars from two locations were analysed. The content of total and individual isofavones was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For determination of antioxidant properties scavenging capacity on DPPHֹ radicals has been applied. The total phenolic content, oil and protein content in soybean cultivars were also determined. Significant differences in the content of individual isoflavones were observed within the soybean cultivars. The total phenol content in soybean cultivars ranged from 87.2 to 216.3 mg GAE/100g of soybean. The total isoflavone content in soybean seeds ranged from 80.7 to 213.6 mg/100g of soybean. The most abundant isoflavone in soybean seeds was genistein. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 among two locations in total and individual isoflavone contents. The highest contents of total isoflavones were found in cultivar “os55-95”. Conversely, cultivars poor in isoflavones also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity.

  7. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  8. Soybean Proteome Database 2012: Update on the comprehensive data repository for soybean proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eOhyanagi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soybean Proteome Database (SPD was created to provide a data repository for functional analyses of soybean responses to flooding stress, thought to be a major constraint for establishment and production of this plant. Since the last publication of the SPD, we thoroughly enhanced the contents of database, particularly protein samples and their annotations from several organelles. The current release contains 23 reference maps of soybean (Glycine max cv. Enrei proteins collected from several organs, tissues and organelles including the maps for plasma membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and mitochondrion, which were electrophoresed on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Furthermore, the proteins analyzed with gel-free proteomics technique have been added and available online. In addition to protein fluctuations under flooding, those of salt and drought stress have been included in the current release. An omics table also has been provided to reveal relationships among mRNAs, proteins and metabolites with a unified temporal-profile tag in order to facilitate retrieval of the data based on the temporal profiles. An intuitive user interface based on dynamic HTML enables users to browse the network as well as the profiles of multiple omes in an integrated fashion. The SPD is available at: http://proteome.dc.affrc.go.jp/Soybean/.

  9. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  10. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  11. Nitrogen rhizodeposition from soybean (Glycine max) and its impact on nutrient budgets in two contrasting environments of the Guinean savannah zone of Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, G.; Franke, A. C.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by grain legumes such as soybean is potentially a large but neglected source of N in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Field studies were conducted to measure soybean N rhizodeposition in two environments of the Guinean savannah of Nigeria using 15N leaf labelling...... removed. If residues were left in the field or recycled as manure after being fed to steers, soybean cultivation led to positive N budgets of up to +95 kg N ha−1. The role and potential of grain legumes as N purveyors have been underestimated in the past by neglecting the N contained...... techniques. The first site was located in Ibadan in the humid derived savannah. The second site was in Zaria in the drier Northern Guinean savannah. Soybean N rhizodeposition in the top 0.30 m of soil varied from 7.5 kg ha−1 on a diseased crop in Ibadan to 33 kg ha−1 in Zaria. More than two-thirds of soybean...

  12. Dealing with difficult pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2013-01-01

    develop. I argue that such politically loaded manifestations of difficult pasts are highly significant during post-conflict renegotiations of society. They act as reminders of what happened, a commentary on how far society has – or has not moved on – and the potential for future relations and directions....... Using Robben Island and Long Kesh / Maze as case-studies this paper will explore the physical manifestations of political imprisonment, their experiences in the post-conflict context and reveal contestations of meaning at these dark heritage sites....

  13. Past Their Prime

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Rebecca E

    2012-01-01

    Past Their Prime is a half-hour documentary about Colo— the oldest living gorilla in captivity — on her 55th birthday, and her place in the world of geriatric zoo animal care.                It’s winter at the Columbus Zoo in Columbus, Ohio. In the ape house elderly visitors browse slowly, wrapped in down jackets. Children run from exhibit to exhibit, pointing at the animals they see and announcing each one to their grandparents. Behind the glass, Colo, the...

  14. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of nuclear power over the past 40 years is outlined, with reactor and fuel cycle choice, opposition, non-proliferation, cost escalation and industrial development all being considered briefly. The current (1986) situation is summarized and future prospects for nuclear power considered in the light of energy demand, public acceptability (especially following accidents), and the nuclear technology now available, including radioactive waste management. The alternatives for producing electricity are discussed. These include buying from other producers, or generating oneself, using nuclear power plants or non-nuclear plants. If nuclear power is chosen then the type of plant to be used is considered. Waste disposal is mentioned briefly. (U.K.)

  15. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  16. An intermodal transportation geospatial network modeling for containerized soybean shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Containerized shipping is a growing market for agricultural exports, particularly soybeans. In order to understand the optimal strategies for improving the United States’ economic competitiveness in this emerging market, this research develops an intermodal transportation network modeling framework, focusing on U.S. soybean container shipments. Built upon detailed modal cost analyses, a Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT model has been developed to understand the optimal network design for U.S. soybean exports. Based on market demand and domestic supply figures, the model is able to determine which domestically produced soybeans should go to which foreign markets, and by which transport modes. This research and its continual studies, will provide insights into future policies and practices that can improve the transportation efficiency of soybean logistics.

  17. Improving protein quality of soybean through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most economical and nutritious food packed with basic nutrients that combat diseases stemming from mal- and under-nutrition. Despite its rich nutritional profile, use of soybean in food has been limited because soybean proteins are often associated with compounds, which could exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) is one of the important anti-nutritional factors that exert negative effect by causing growth inhibition. Soybean cultivar VLS-2 was irradiated with 250 Gy gamma rays in a gamma cell (200) with 60 Co source installed at BARC to induce mutations for low trypsin inhibitor content. Three mutants with lower levels of TI content were identified and can be utilized for developing elite varieties of soybean. (author)

  18. Effect of space mutation on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiaonan; Liu Qi

    2011-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soybean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 > SP 3 > SP 4 > CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  19. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme of Bacillus subtilis DC33, isolated from Chinese traditional Douchi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.T.; Ji, B.P.; Li, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Li, P.L.; Ji, H.; Chen, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis DC33 producing a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from Ba-bao Douchi, a traditional soybean-fermented food in China. The strong fibrin-specific enzyme subtilisin FS33 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using the combination of various chromatographic steps. The

  20. Blast from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Forget dynamite or hydraulic and mechanical drills. Industrial and federal researchers have started boring holes with rocket fuel. In a cooperative arrangement between Sandia National Laboratory, Global Environmental Solutions, and Universal Tech Corp., scientists and engineers extracted fuel from 200 rocket motors and used it as a mining explosive. In a demonstration completed last fall, researchers used 4950 kg of solid rocket propellant to move more than 22,500 metric tons of rock from the Lone Star Quarry in Prairie, Oklahoma. They found that the fuel improved blast energy and detonation velocity over traditional explosives, and it required fewer drill holes.

  1. Enhanced resistance to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in transgenic soybean by silencing putative CLE receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Chronis, Demosthenis; De La Torre, Carola M; Smeda, John; Wang, Xiaohong; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2015-08-01

    CLE peptides are small extracellular proteins important in regulating plant meristematic activity through the CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signalling module. Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular cambium are controlled by CLE signalling pathways. Interestingly, plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLE-like effector proteins, which act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful parasitism. Recently, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis CLE receptors CLAVATA1 (CLV1), the CLAVATA2 (CLV2)/CORYNE (CRN) heterodimer receptor complex and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), which transmit the CLV3 signal in the SAM, are required for perception of beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii CLEs. Reduction in nematode infection was observed in clv1, clv2, crn, rpk2 and combined double and triple mutants. In an effort to develop nematode resistance in an agriculturally important crop, orthologues of Arabidopsis receptors including CLV1, CLV2, CRN and RPK2 were identified from soybean, a host for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. For each of the receptors, there are at least two paralogues in the soybean genome. Localization studies showed that most receptors are expressed in the root, but vary in their level of expression and spatial expression patterns. Expression in nematode-induced feeding cells was also confirmed. In vitro direct binding of the soybean receptors with the HgCLE peptide was analysed. Knock-down of the receptors in soybean hairy roots showed enhanced resistance to SCN. Our findings suggest that targeted disruption of nematode CLE signalling may be a potential means to engineer nematode resistance in crop plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.S.; Prabhakar; Tiwari, S.P.; Sandhu, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M 2 , a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M 2 and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T 2 14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  3. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P S; Prabhakar,; Tiwari, S P; Sandhu, J S [National Research Centre for Soybean, Indore (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M{sub 2}, a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M{sub 2} and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T{sub 2}14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  4. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  5. The effect of soybean meal replacement with raw full-fat soybean in diets for broiler chickens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rada, V.; Lichovníková, M.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2016), s. 112-117 ISSN 0971-2119 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raw full-fat soybean * soybean meal * broiler * growth * digestibility Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2016

  6. Production of top quality soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa, Dr. Ahmad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the most adequate conditions required to produce to quality soybean oil. It is essential to avoid contaminations (water, metallic, oxidation products, overheating, undue exposition to air, as well as an appropriate control of the different steps of the refining process.

    El trabajo presenta las condiciones recomendadas para obtener aceite de soja de la mejor calidad. Es importante evitar las contaminaciones (agua, metales y compuestos oxidados, los sobrecalentamientos, la exposición al aire, así como el adecuado control de los diferentes pasos del proceso de refinación.

  7. Photosynthate partitioning and distribution in soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latche, J.; Cavalie, G.

    1983-01-01

    Plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber and fed with a modified Hoagland solution containing nitrate as nitrogen source (N+ medium). Soybeans, 33 days old (flowering stage), 45 and 56 days old (pods formation and filling stages) were used for experimentation. In each experiment, the eight trifoliated leaf (F 8 ) was exposed to 14 CO 2 (10 μCi; 400 vpm), in the light (80 W x m -2 ) for 30 min. After a 6 h chase period (22 - 25 0 C; 80 W x m -2 ), the radiocarbon distribution among plant parts was determined and labelled compounds were identified. (orig.)

  8. Development and phenotypic screening of an ethyl methane sulfonate mutant population in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important oil-producing crop in the Fabaceae family and is utilized in various industries. With increasing demands for soybean oil and other soybean products, its production must be increased. Genetic improvement of the crop is important to meet the increasing demands for soybean. A ne...

  9. Microbial communities related to sensory attributes in Korean fermented soy bean paste (doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kwak, Han Sub; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kim, Sang Sook

    2016-11-01

    Various microbial communities play a role in generating the distinctive sensory characteristics of the traditional Korean soybean paste, doenjang. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sensory characteristics and microbial communities in traditional doenjang. The results of the descriptive analysis revealed that some traditional doenjang (T1-T11) exhibited distinctive characteristics, such as fish sauce flavor, meju, bitterness, sourness, and saltiness, whereas the modified samples (M1-M3) demonstrated sweetness, umami, and an alcohol odor. According to the metagenomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the phylum Firmicutes was the dominant bacterium in most doenjang. At the genus level, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were frequently found in most doenjang. Among these LAB, the major genera of bacteria were Tetragenococcus in M2 (60.30%), T3 (91.20%), T8 (48.60%), and T9 (60.90%); Enterococcus in T1 (29.40%), T4 (34.10%), and T10 (50.50%); Leuconostoc in T7 (89.10%); and Lactobacillus in T9 (38.3%). The most frequently occurring non-LAB was Bacillus in M3 (50.10%), T5 (46.50%), and T6 (20.50%), and M1 and T2 contained Staphylococcus and Ochrobactrum as their major non-LAB, respectively. The results of a correlation analysis between the sensory attributes from the descriptive analysis and the microbial communities from 454 pyrosequencing provided an overview for the relationship between sensory characteristics and microbial communities. Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, Rhodobacteraceae, Proteus, and Luteimonas were found in samples that had a strong fish sauce characteristic. The presence of LAB-Tetragenococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Carnobacterium, and Weissella-was related to sourness. Enterococcus and Enterobacter were found in samples with a matured flavor and a soft mouthfeel, respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrate that microbial communities found in doenjang were closely related to distinct

  10. Determination of volatile components in fermented soybean prepared by a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukeatirote, E.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented soybeans are traditional foods widely consumed in many countries (i.e., Natto in Japan, Jang in Korea, Kinema in India, Douichi in China, and Thua Nao in Thailand. In this study, an attempt was made with an expectation to improve the fermentation process using a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus. Initially, the raw soybeans were washed, sterilized by autoclaving, and inoculated with two inocula; for this, three different ratios between B. subtilis and R. oligosporus used were 100:0, 50:50, and 0:100. The fermentation was then carried out at 30°C for 3 days. The volatile compounds in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products were determined by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS and extracted using a solid phase microextraction (SPME technique. In total, 165 compounds were identified in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products. For the non-fermented products, the predominant volatile compounds were alcohols (25.81%, aldehydes (13.64%, acids and esters (7.57%, furans (6.13% and ketones (0.88%. In contrast, the major volatiles compounds presented in the fermented soybeans were as follows: i The treatment of 100:0 consisted of acids and esters (35.89%, alcohols (14.55%, aldehydes (8.72%, ketones (4.97%, pyrazines (4.87%, and furans (4.22%; ii 50:50 comprised of acids and esters (55.62%, alcohols (16.22%, aldehydes (7.80%, pyrazine (3.65%, ketones (2.55%, furans (1.67%, and aromatic compounds (1.46%; and iii 0:100 included acids and esters (66.50%, alcohols (15.44%, aldehydes (2.59%, ketones (2.72%, furans (1.89%, aromatic compounds (1.80%, pyrazines (1.35%, and sulphur containing compounds (0.24% respectively.

  11. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  12. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  13. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm 3 /g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insights from the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard

    and human-induced changes over the past century. Capitalizing on unique collections of archived samples and recently developed genomic resources, we study temporal and spatial variation at both microsatellite loci and up to 1047 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over a period of 80...... and evolutionary potential in high gene flow organisms and underscore the need to carefully consider all dimensions of biocomplexity for evolutionarily sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources...... conditions. Focusing on two different cod population complexes, our overarching objectives have been to assess 1) whether levels of genetic diversity, population structure and distribution patterns have remained stable over time despite large demographic changes, 2) if we could detect molecular signatures...

  15. A Bittersweet Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders; Korsager, Ellen Mølgaard; Heller, Michael

    2018-01-01

    ” to capture the historically contingent downside potentially associated with corporate heritage brands. We use the Danish consumer-cooperative COOP as an exemplary corporate heritage brand whose heritage has become historically balanced at the threshold between asset and liability. Based on a longitudinal......In this article, we call for increased focus on the historicity of corporate heritage brands, emphasizing that perceptions of the past in the present do change as time goes by. Building on the idea of corporate brand historicity, we introduce the notion of “Negative Heritage Brand Equity...... analysis of COOP’s heritage, we demonstrate how the entwinement of the company’s corporate heritage brand and Danish culture and identity worked to the benefit of COOP in some historical epochs but have become increasingly misaligned with its political and cultural-economic environment since the 1980s...

  16. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao, a traditional fermented soybean food in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatsu, Y; Nakamura, N; Yuriko, Y; Fushimi, T; Watanasiritum, L; Kawamoto, S

    2006-09-01

    To clarify the diversity of Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao that produce high concentrations of products useful in food manufacturing and in health-promoting compounds. Production of amylase, protease, subtilisin NAT (nattokinase), and gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) by the Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao was measured. Productivity of protease NAT by these strains tended to be higher than by Japanese commercial natto-producing strains. Molecular diversity of isolated strains was analysed via randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprinting. The strains were divided into 19 types, including a type with the same pattern as a Japanese natto-producing strain. B. subtilis strains that could be a resource for effective production of protease, amylase, subtilisin NAT, or PGA were evident in Thua nao produced in various regions in northern Thailand. This study clearly demonstrated the value of Thua nao as a potential resource of food-processing enzymes and health-promoting compounds.

  17. Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal

    2018-05-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.

  18. Management of Anthracnose in Soybean using Fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on soybean (Glycine max L. Meril were carried out aiming to control anthracnose (pod blight caused by fungus, Colletotrichum truncatum with five treatments represented by different fungicidal sprays against control receiving no spray with three replicates of each under field conditions during two consecutive years from 2012 to 2013. In 2012, the higher Percent Disease Control (PDC and Percent Yield Increase (PYI were estimated in plot treated with SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% followed by Mancozeb fungicides. The mean Pod Infection (PI was low in plots treated with SAAF followed by Mancozeb. Almost similar trends of disease control were observed in 2013. The lower Percent Disease Index (PDI was 46.25% and mean PI was 29.67% with higher yield value of 2431.25 kg/ha obtained from the plots sprayed with SAAF then by Mancozeb. The results showed that, the combined treatment with fungicides, SAAF followed by Mancozeb were effective to control anthracnose or pod blight disease of soybean to increase the yield.

  19. Induced mutations for soybean rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    Soybean mutation experiments for inducing rust resistance in the cultivars G 8375, Wakashima mutant number 10, Taichung N, S.J.2, S.J.4, BM 50, BM 98, G 8377, G 8586 and G 8587 have been carried out since 1979. Six pods from each of 4438 control and 43,907 M 1 plants were randomly harvested. M 2 seeds of each cultivar of different doses were bulked (M 2 bulk). In addition, 270 good M 1 plants were selected and threshed singly (M 2 single). M 2 -bulk and M 2 -single seeds were advanced to M 3 . Both, M 3 -bulk and M 3 -single plants, together with the remaining M 2 -bulk seeds were screened for rust resistance in the rainy season of 1980 in Nong Hoi Valley (altitude about 1000 m above sea level) and at Mae Joe Station, both in Chiang Mai Province (latitude 18 deg. 31'-19 deg. N). Based on the IWGSR rating system, soybean plants with slow growth of rust were selected from both locations. The results were as follows: Six plants were selected from a total of 2802 control plants, and 115 from a total of 28,834 M 2 and M 3 plants. Further evaluation of these selections for rust resistance will be carried out in the rainy season of 1981 in Nong Hoi Valley, Chiang Mai. (author)

  20. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  1. Improving Breeding Selection of Seed Quality Traits for Food-Grade Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Sanchez, Diana Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Natto and sprout soybeans are produced using small-seeded soybeans and their production is a high value alternative to grow grain soybeans for food in U.S. The development of soybean cultivars with improved natto and sprout quality is crucial for maintaining and increasing the soyfood market. However, there is insufficient information on sprout soybean characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate seed and sprout traits as potential selection criteria and study...

  2. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  3. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying

    1989-01-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3 H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

  4. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  5. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  6. Dental modification in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Pia; Alexandersen, Verner

    2003-01-01

    Skeleton remains from Denmark, Greenland, Faeroe Islands, dental care, drillling in the past, tooth extraction......Skeleton remains from Denmark, Greenland, Faeroe Islands, dental care, drillling in the past, tooth extraction...

  7. Historical tradition in Serbian genre literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two Serbian science-fiction stories with a special emphasis on the motives in their narrative structure; the motive analysis is focused on those motives that represent a transposition of 'historical tradition' elements. The key words connecting images appearing in this context are: fear of losing (national identity and a strategy of resistance towards those, who presumably, want to 'take over' the identity. In this sense, a return to 'the historical tradition', in the analyzed texts, aims to reassess certain past models indicating at the same time those that have successfully served and endured as historical models in this discourse.

  8. Forward to the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eCarlini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our daily experience shows that the CNS is a highly efficient machine to predict the effect of actions into the future; are we so efficient also in reconstructing the past of an action? Previous studies demonstrated we are more effective in extrapolating the final position of a stimulus moving according to biological kinematic laws. Here we address the complementary question: are we more effective in extrapolating the starting position (SP of a motion following a biological velocity profile?We presented a dot moving upward and corresponding to vertical arm movements that were masked in the first part of the trajectory. The stimulus could either move according to biological or non-biological kinematic laws of motion. Results show a better efficacy in reconstructing the SP of a natural motion: participants demonstrate to reconstruct coherently only the SP of the biological condition. When the motion violates the biological kinematic law, responses are scattered and show a tendency towards larger errors. Instead, in a control experiment where the full motions were displayed, no-difference between biological and non-biological motions is found.Results are discussed in light of potential mechanisms involved in visual inference. We propose that as soon as the target appears the cortical motor area would generate an internal representation of reaching movement. When the visual input and the stored kinematic template match, the SP is traced back on the basis of this memory template, making more effective the SP reconstruction.

  9. Return to the... past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article goes back over the incidents occurring during the summer 2008, that is to say the uranium release from the Socatri facility in the South of France. From this point, the purpose studies the radiological situation of the Camargue seashore; the levels of radioactivity are from 3 to thirty times higher than these ones expected in this area, but the natural radioactivity with thorium and uranium coming from the granitic massifs erosion brings an important part. It is difficult to make the part between human and natural contribution to ambient radioactivity. However, it appears that to limit the water consumption until the time of dilution played its part was absolutely necessary. Then, because it is question of water, the drinking water is tackled. Some mineral waters go over the recommended limits of doses. A last return to the past with the radioactive watches, but this time with actual watches that activate detection. Two watches contained promethium 147, 147 Pm is a beta emitter but also gamma emitter. To end, in Ireland and Great Britain, some fire detectors contain americium 241. In fact, this article constitutes a summary of different abnormalities around radioactivity. (N.C.)

  10. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat; Enkerlin, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  11. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  12. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action [pt

  13. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina: Myths and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semino, S; Jelsoee, E; Paul, H; Tomei, J; Joensen, L; Monti, M

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel alternatives. To ensure that the production of biofuels is 'sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. In this paper, we question the validity of these proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. We highlight the negative environmental and social impacts of intensive soybean production, and conclude that certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address the detrimental impacts of increased biofuel production and trade.

  14. Transcription of the soybean leghemoglobin genes during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcker, Anne; Ø Jensen, Erik; Marcker, Kjeld A

    1984-01-01

    During the early stages of soybean nodule development the leghemoglobin (Lb) genes are activated sequentially in the opposite order to which they are arranged in the soybean genome. At a specific stage after the initial activation of all the Lb genes, a large increment occurs in the transcription...... of the Lb(c1), Lb(c3) and Lb(a) genes while the transcription of the Lb(c2) gene is not amplified to a similar extent. All the Lb genes retain significant activity for a long period during the lifetime of a nodule. Consequently the soybean Lb genes are not regulated by a developmental gene switching...

  15. Comparison of soybean cultivars for enhancement of the polyamine contents in the fermented soybean natto using Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Horii, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kubo, Yuji; Koguchi, Kumiko; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Soda, Kuniyasu

    2017-03-01

    Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r = 0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that 'Nakasen-nari' has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.

  16. Epilepsy Genetics—Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Annapurna; Lowenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous condition in which genetics play an important etiological role. We begin by reviewing the past history of epilepsy genetics, a field that has traditionally included studies of pedigrees with epilepsy caused by defects in ion channels and neurotransmitters. We highlight important recent discoveries that have expanded the field beyond the realm of channels and neurotransmitters and that have challenged the notion that single genes produce single disorders. Finally, we project toward an exciting future for epilepsy genetics as large-scale collaborative phenotyping studies come face to face with new technologies in genomic medicine. PMID:21277190

  17. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 1: Structure, Production and Environmental Effects of Soybean Protein Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz YILDIRIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean fiber (SPF is a protein based botanic fibre. These fibers exhibit very good physical properties such as brightness, softness and drape. Moreover, SPF has a variety of health functionalities and anti-bacterial properties. Fibers were first produced in the 20th mid-century. However due to the significant challenges encountered during the production of SPF, interest for these fibers was decreased. At the end of the 20 th century, SPF re-captured attention due to an increased awakening on ecological, renewable and sustainable fiber concept. Soybean is cheap and abundant. Tenacity of SPF was improved by including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Therefore, the production and the usage of SPF are increasing rapidly because of these key advantages. Soybean fibers usually is used in blends with other fibers. In Turkey, a variety of different products are produced from this special fiber. This review, about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and its enviromental effects have been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areas of SPF have been described. The purpose of this review is to fill a gap in the Turkish literature about this bio-degradable, renewable and sustainable SPF. 

  18. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  19. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    김성진

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abbreviations: SCR, Soybean curd residue; HPLC, high- performance liquid ... amino acids, and tocopherol which have several active functions (Ryoo et al., 2004; Kim and ..... of grape seeds extracts.' MS thesis, Sungshin ...

  20. Effect of space mutation of photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiao'nan; Liu Qi

    2012-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photo synthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soy bean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 >SP 3 >SP 4 >CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  1. Glyphosate tolerance of soybean mutant gained after boarding on satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lingxue; Ren Honglei; Zhang Hongyan; Liu Zhangxiong; Jin Longguo; Guo Yong; Qiu Lijuan; Tao Bo

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate-tolerant germplasm and genetic variation characteristics of SP 2 and SP 3 soybean varieties boarded on Shijian No.8 satellite were analyzed after treated by herbicide glyphosate in the field. Abundant variations of traits were produced, and the resistance within and among cultivars were different in their offspring of space mutagenesis. Plant height and maturity were used as index to screen glyphosate tolerant materials. Space mutation increased of soybean 661 SP 3 of Zhongpin, and one glyphosate-resistance variant was screened from Zhongpin 661 SP 3 . It showed that glyphosate tolerance was different among offspring of different space mutagenesis soybean materials. It is feasible to systemically screen elite traits soybean by applying space mutation breeding. (authors)

  2. Obligatory reduction of ferric chelates in iron uptake by soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, R L; Brown, J C; Tiffin, L O

    1972-08-01

    The contrasting Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) chelating properties of the synthetic chelators ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (EDDHA) and 4,7-di(4-phenylsulfonate)-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate) (BPDS) were used to determine the valence form of Fe absorbed by soybean roots supplied with Fe(3+)-chelates. EDDHA binds Fe(3+) strongly, but Fe(2+) weakly; BPDS binds Fe(2+) strongly but Fe(3+) weakly. Addition of an excess of BPDS to nutrient solutions containing Fe(3+)-chelates inhibited soybean Fe uptake-translocation by 99+%; [Fe(II) (BPDS)(3)](4-) accumulated in the nutrient solution. The addition of EDDHA caused little or no inhibition. These results were observed with topped and intact soybeans. Thus, separation and absorption of Fe from Fe(3+)-chelates appear to require reduction of Fe(3+)-chelate to Fe(2+)-chelate at the root, with Fe(2+) being the principal form of Fe absorbed by soybean.

  3. Mapping of the genomic regions controlling seed storability in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composite interval mapping identified a total of three. QTLs on linkage ..... Soybean seeds decline in quality faster than seeds of other crops (Fabrizius et al. 1999). ... harvest and postharvest management practices (Lewis et al. 1998). Cho and ...

  4. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... a role in buffering mechanisms in C and N metabolism, cyto- solic pH ... been suggested that calcium-dependent GABA homeostasis regulates pollen ... has been analysed in soybean, suggesting that the salt-induced.

  5. Soybean breeding through cross breeding combined with irradiation mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiutian; Zheng Yanhai; Yang Xiufeng; Zhang Kunpu; Jia Aijun

    2005-01-01

    Using 'Heidou 2' which immune to the race 2 of Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) crossbreeded with 'Huangsha soybean' which has high yield characteristic. The authors obtained some better cultivars of soybean. Then, the authors used laser irradiation to these cultivars and selected a variety with high yield, good quality, resistance to the race 2 of SCN, called 'Dedou 99-16' which in black seed coat. In the year 2001 to 2003, the authors joined the variety comparison and regional test of Shandong province. Its yield hit 2739.0 kg/hm 2 , crude protein and crude oil content had reached the governmental standard of good quality soybean, and it had high resistance to the race 2 of SCN. It is suitable for planting in Huanghuaihai area. (authors)

  6. Genetic divergence of roundup ready (RR) soybean cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity in 74 RR soybean cultivars from different Brazilian breeding programs. ... chosen SSR markers were effective in assessing the genetic diversity among genotypes, besides proving to be ...

  7. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  8. Limited hydrolysis of soybean protein concentrate and isolate with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... world, since its proteins have high biological value while its cost is ... literatures that limited proteolysis of soybean protein pro- ducts offered a ..... hydrolysis of soluble protein present in waste liquors from soy processing.

  9. Natural occurrence of heavy metal, fungi and mycotoxins in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Heavy metals are a definite human health hazard be- cause of their .... The mean values of nutrient composition of the soybean meal samples ..... A food borne disease outbreak due to the consumption of moldy sorghum and.

  10. The chromosomal arrangement of six soybean leghemoglobin genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Kirsten; Abildsten, Dorte; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1983-01-01

    Clones containing six leghemoglobin (Lb) genes have been isolated from two genomic libraries of soybean. They encompass two independent DNA regions: a 40-kb region containing four genes in the order 5' Lba-Lbc(1)-[unk]Lb-Lbc(3) 3' with the same transcriptional polarity, and another 40-kb region...... containing two genes in the order 5' Lbc(4)-Lbc(2) 3' with the same polarity. The order in which the Lb genes are arranged in the soybean genome imply that they are activated in the opposite order to which they are arranged on the chromosome. There is a close similarity between corresponding DNA regions...... differs from that of the Lb genes. The existence of two very similar Lb gene clusters in soybean suggest that soybean may have evolved from an ancestral form by genome duplication. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  11. Soybean hulls as an iron source for bread enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Berry, M.F.; Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean hulls, a concentrated source of iron, may have potential as a source of iron fortification in baked products. Retention of 59 Fe in rats from white bread containing intrinsically labeled soybean hulls did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from extrinsically labeled white bread fortified with bakery grade ferrous sulfate (70.4 and 63.1%, respectively). Physical and sensory evaluations of bread containing up to 5% soybean hulls did not differ from white bread in loaf volume, cross-sectional area, tenderness or overall acceptance. These results suggest that soybean hulls are a good source of available iron and may be added to bakery products without deleterious effects in baking performance and sensory acceptability

  12. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) plants mediated via whisker-supersonic (WSS) method. MM Khalafalla, HA El-Shemy, SM Rahman, M Teraishi, H Hasegawa, T Terakawa, M Ishimoto ...

  13. The cryoprotective effects of soybean lecithin on boar spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Soybean lecithin has been attracted increasing attention and has been used to replace egg yolk in the .... with a selective staining of the whole acrosome; 2) negative sper- .... The causes of reduced fertility with cryopreserved.

  14. Proteome analysis of soybean roots under waterlogging stress at an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    To gain better insight into how soybean roots respond to waterlogging stress, ... death- and signal transduction-related proteins suggest that they have a role to play during stress. ...... work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under.

  15. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  16. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G A; Fuertes, A B; Sevilla, M

    2015-11-16

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g(-1) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm(-3) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g(-1) in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg(-1) at a high power density of ~2 kW kg(-1).

  17. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-11-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g-1 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm-3 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1 in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg-1 at a high power density of ~2 kW kg-1.

  18. Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Soybean Production in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugbabe, OO.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and collaborating partners have been introducing and disseminating short season soybean varieties among farm households in the Sudan savannas of Northern Nigeria since 2008. Yet, there is no empirical information on the profitability and technical efficiency of soybean production. This study estimated the profitability and efficiency of production of the early maturing soybean. Nine hundred soybean farming households in thirty communities from three Local Government Areas (LGAs in Kano State were sampled for the study. Partial budget technique and stochastic frontier production function were used to analyze the data elicited from the sampled farm households. Results from the study established the profitability of soybean production in all the three LGAs of Kano State. The highest profit of N178,613/ha and returns per naira invested of 2.5 respectively was earned by the soybean producing households of Dawakin-Tofa LGA. Net profit was N157,261in Shanono with a returns of 1.75 per naira invested. In Bunkure, net benefit was N143,342 with returns of 1.66 per Naira invested. The mean technical efficiency was highest for the Dawakin-Tofa LGA soybean growing households (87%, followed by Bunkure LGA (68%, and Shanono LGA (59%. This result implies that given the current level of resources available to the soybean producing households, they can increase their soybean output in the short run by a margin 13%, 32% and 41% in Dawakin-Tofa, Bunkure and Shanono LGAs respectively through efficient utilization of their available resources. Farmer-specific efficiency factors, which comprise age, education, access to credit, extension contact and farming experience, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the farmers in the 3 LGAs. It was recommended that the soybean farmers through the assistance of extension agents should be encouraged to adhere

  19. How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Ranae; Liebman, Matt; Ewing, Robert; Helmers, Matt; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Archontoulis, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world's population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency (sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and

  20. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.

  1. Replenishment of Cultivated Soybean Varietes Market (Glycine hispida Maxim, Moench..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Безручко

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There provided ways of using valuable protein crop, soybean, as well as its production worldwide growth rates during recent years, possibility and necessity of attaching to the crop a strategic importance in our State and the tasks and outlooks of soybeanrecourses generation. A complete description of new soybean varieties listed in the Register of Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine has also been provided.

  2. Induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max L.) breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max, L.) breeding is studied. Seed treatment with gamma-rays or methanesulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMs) is used in the following varieties: Parana, Santa Rosa, UFV-1, Foscarin 31 and IAC-8. The study to obtain resistance to the soybean bud blight virus and mutants resistant to rust was done. Early mutants are also researched. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Effect Of Soil Acidity On Some Soybean Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah, Diana Sofia; Lubis, Alida; Asmarlaili

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the mechanism of adaptation and morphophysiology character of soybean genotypes to soil acidity levels. Research using randomized block design with four replications, the first factor consists of soybean varieties: Tanggamus varieties, Detam 2, Anjasmoro and Detam 1, while the second factor is the media's treatment consisted of medium acid soils and limed soil. The results showed that the low level acidity of planting medium will affect the growth and ...

  4. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  5. Genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation in maize and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, Osamu; Amano, Etsuo; Takahashi, Tan.

    1992-01-01

    Somatic mutation on leaves of maize and soybean were observed to investigate genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation. Maize seeds were irradiated with N, Fe and U ions and soybean seeds were irradiated with N ions. This is a preliminary report of the experiment, 1) to examine the mutagenic effects of the heavy ion irradiation, and 2) to evaluate the genetic effects of cosmic ray exposure in a space ship outside the earth. (author)

  6. Irradiation effects on the variability of yield characteristics of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, K.; Egri, K.; Toeroek, Z.; Bornemiszane, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The seeds of soybean varieties 'Merit' and 'S-1346' were irradiated by fast neutrons with doses between 4 and 174 Gy. The doses in the range of 57-174 Gy proved to be lethal. After low dose irradiation, shorter breeding time and the stimulation of plant growth could be observed. The effects of irradiation on the oil and protein contents of soybeans were contradictory. (V.N.)

  7. Immediate catalytic upgrading of soybean shell bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, Melisa; Sedran, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of soybean shell and the immediate catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over an equilibrium FCC catalyst was studied in order to define its potential as a source for fuels and chemicals. The experiments of pyrolysis and immediate catalytic upgrading were performed at 550 °C during 7 min with different catalysts to oil relationships in an integrated fixed bed pyrolysis-conversion reactor. The results were compared under the same conditions against those from pine sawdust, which is a biomass source commonly used for the production of bio-oil. In the pyrolysis the pine sawdust produced more liquids (61.4%wt.) than the soybean shell (54.7%wt.). When the catalyst was presented, the yield of hydrocarbons increased, particularly in the case of soybean shell, which was four time higher than in the pyrolysis. The bio-oil from soybean shell produced less coke (between 3.1 and 4.3%wt.) in its immediate catalytic upgrading than that from pine sawdust (between 5 and 5.8%wt.), due to its lower content of phenolic and other high molecular weight compounds (three and five times less, respectively). Moreover, soybean shell showed a higher selectivity to hydrocarbons in the gasoline range, with more olefins and less aromatic than pine sawdust. - Highlights: • Soybean shell is a possible source of fuels with benefits as compared to pine sawdust. • Bio-oils upgraded over FCC catalyst in an integrated pyrolysis-conversion reactor. • Pine sawdust bio-oil had more phenols than soybean shell bio-oil. • Soybean shell bio-oil produced more hydrocarbons in gasoline range and less coke.

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  11. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  12. Resistance of Advanced Soybean Lines to Pod Borrer (Etiella zinckenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kuswantoro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and stabilizing of soybean product in Indonesia face many limitations. One of the limiting factors is pod borrer (Etiella zinckenella Treitschke infestation that is able to cause yield loss up to 80%. Objective of the research was to find out some advanced soybean lines that resistant to pod borrer. Design was randomized complete block with three replications. Soybean lines were grown gradualy to ensure the simultanously flowering. The plants were caged at 35 days after planting (DAT and infested with the imago of E. zinckenella at 56 DAT. Results showed that different soybean lines affected imago population, eggs population, larvae population, infected pods and infected seeds. Some genotypes were consistantly resistant to E. zinckenella. The resistance of those genotypes were non preference resistance based on eggs population, larvae population, infected pod and infected seeds. This study discovered nine soybean lines that is resistant to E. zinckenella, so that it can be beneficial for improving soybean resistance to this pest through releasing as a new resistant pod borer variety after tested further in potential yield and genetic x environment interaction trials. In addition, there were three varieties and two germplasm accessions that can be used as gene sources for improving the resistance of the varieties. The three varieties are able to be cultivated directly in field to decrease the E. zinckenella occurrence. 

  13. Drought stress responses in soybean roots and nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kunert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  14. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  15. A new soybean variety ''Ichihime''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajika, M.; Takahashi, M.; Igita, K.; Sakai, S.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Ichihime, a new soybean variety registered as ''Soybean Norin 103'', was developed at Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station in 1995. It was selected from the progeny induced by a cross between Kankei 2 and Kankei 1 using gamma-ray irradiation. ''Ichihime'' is a medium-early maturing variety with determinate growth. It has broad leaflets, and purple flowers. The color of its pubescence is light tawny and its pods are dark brown. The main stem length, number of main stem nodes, and seed size are medium. It has strong resistance to the soybean mosaic virus (SMV), medium resistance to the soybean cyst nematode, and medium resistance to purple seed stain. The yield of Ichihime is slightly lower than Suzuyutaka, but classified as medium. The protein components of its seeds are medium and the firmness of the tofu (soybean curd) is the same as that of Suzuyutaka. Ichihime lacks all seed lipoxygenase isozymes and is recommended for new type of soybean food processing materials. Ichihime is suitable for growth in the southern part of the Tohoku area and the northern part of the Kanto area

  16. Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal association on the interference of Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens and Eleusine indica on soybean culture in two conditions: a plants competing without contact with roots of another species; b with contact between roots. At 60 days after planting, growth, nutrient accumulation and mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and weeds were evaluated. The contact between roots of soybean plant and weed species increased the negative interference effects for both species, with less growth and nutrient accumulation. With the individualization of roots, higher competition occurred for soil resources up to 60 days of coexistence between species. In competition with soybean, Bidens pilosa and Urochloa decumbens stood out in accumulation of most nutrients without differing from when cultivated in monocultivation. The increase of the soybean mycorrhizal colonization was 53, 40 and 33% when in competition with Urochloa decumbens, Eleusine indica and Bidens pilosa species, respectively. A positive interaction occurred for soybean mycorrhizal colonization and competing plants irrespective of weed species or root contact.

  17. Genome-wide identification of soybean microRNA responsive to soybean cyst nematodes infection by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Shichen; Todd, Timothy C; Johnson, Charles D; Tang, Guiliang; Trick, Harold N

    2017-08-02

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is one of the most devastating diseases limiting soybean production worldwide. It is known that small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play important roles in regulating plant growth and development, defense against pathogens, and responses to environmental changes. In order to understand the role of soybean miRNAs during SCN infection, we analyzed 24 small RNA libraries including three biological replicates from two soybean cultivars (SCN susceptible KS4607, and SCN HG Type 7 resistant KS4313N) that were grown under SCN-infested and -noninfested soil at two different time points (SCN feeding establishment and egg production). In total, 537 known and 70 putative novel miRNAs in soybean were identified from a total of 0.3 billion reads (average about 13.5 million reads for each sample) with the programs of Bowtie and miRDeep2 mapper. Differential expression analyses were carried out using edgeR to identify miRNAs involved in the soybean-SCN interaction. Comparative analysis of miRNA profiling indicated a total of 60 miRNAs belonging to 25 families that might be specifically related to cultivar responses to SCN. Quantitative RT-PCR validated similar miRNA interaction patterns as sequencing results. These findings suggest that miRNAs are likely to play key roles in soybean response to SCN. The present work could provide a framework for miRNA functional identification and the development of novel approaches for improving soybean SCN resistance in future studies.

  18. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  19. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  20. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  1. Non-Traditional Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  2. Making Tradition Healthy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/10/2007.

  3. Effect of dietary soybean oil and soybean protein concentration on the concentration of digestible amino acids in soybean products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, S K; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of adding soybean oil to soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs. A second objective was to compare AID and SID of AA in a new high-protein variety of full fat soybeans (FFSB) to values obtained in other soybean products. Commercial sources of FFSB (FFSB-CV), SBM, and SPC, and of a new high-protein variety of FFSB (FFSB-HP) were used in the experiment. Four diets were prepared using each soybean product as the sole source of CP and AA in 1 diet. Two additional diets were formulated by adding soybean oil (7.55 and 7.35%, respectively) to the diets containing SBM and SPC. A nitrogen-free diet was also used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The 2 sources of FFSB were extruded at 150 degrees C before being used in the experiment. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.2 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 7 x 7 Latin square design. Ileal digesta were collected from the pigs on d 6 and 7 of each period. All digesta samples were lyophilized and analyzed for DM, CP, AA, and chromium, and values for AID and SID of CP and AA were calculated. The addition of oil improved (P oil and SPC, but these values were lower (P oil. In conclusion, the addition of oil improved the SID of most AA in SBM and SPC fed to growing pigs, and the SID of AA in FFSB-HP were greater than in SBM and similar to the SID of AA in SBM with oil and in SPC.

  4. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  5. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirda, C.; Kanber, R.; Tulucu, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  6. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  7. Cross-cultural comparisons among the sensory characteristics of fermented soybean using Korean and Japanese descriptive analysis panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, L; Chung, S-J

    2007-11-01

    One of the most important initial steps in exporting a food product to another country from the R&D perspective is to describe and translate the sensory characteristics of a food product appropriately into the language of the target country. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the sensory characteristics of Korean and Japanese style fermented soybean products, and to cross-culturally compare the lexicons of the identical product generated by the Korean and Japanese panelists. Four types of Korean and 4 types of Japanese style fermented soybean consisting of whole bean type and paste type were analyzed. Ten Korean and 9 Japanese panelists were recruited in Korea. Two separate descriptive analyses were conducted, with the panelists differing in their country of origin. Each group was trained, developed lexicon, and conducted descriptive analysis independently. Analysis of variance and various multivariate analyses were applied to delineate the sensory characteristics of the samples and to compare the cross-cultural differences in the usage of lexicon. The Korean and Japanese panelists generated 48 and 36 sensory attributes, respectively. Cross-cultural consensus was shown for evaluating the whole bean type fermented soybean and white miso, which were relatively distinctive samples. However, for the less distinctive samples, the panelists tend to rate higher in negative attributes for the fermented soybeans that originated from the other country. The Japanese panelists grouped the samples by their country of origin and soy sauce flavor was the main attribute for cross-cultural differentiation. However, the Korean panelists did not make a cross-cultural distinction among the samples.

  8. Determinação do Valor Nutricional das Sojas Integrais Processadas para Aves Determination of the Nutritional Values of Processe Full-Fat Soybeans for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Café

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Três ensaios biológicos foram realizados com o objetivo de determinar o conteúdo de energia metabolizável e do coeficientes de digestibilidade do extrato etéreo da soja integral processada por diferentes métodos (extrusão e tostagem e do farelo de soja reconstituído com óleo. No primeiro e segundo ensaios, foram utilizadas a metodologia tradicional de coleta total de excretas, utilizando pintos no primeiro ensaio e galos no segundo. No terceiro ensaio, empregou-se a metodologia de alimentação forçada (Sibbald, 1976 com galos adultos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, as sojas testadas apresentaram composições bromatológicas semelhantes. Os processamentos usados para a soja integral conferiram diferenças na digestibilidade dos nutrientes da soja e os coeficientes de digestibilidade do extrato etéreo obtidos para a soja extrusada e para o farelo de soja com adição de óleo foram superiores aos obtidos para soja tostada pelo vapor. Os valores de energia metabolizável obtidos para a soja extrusada foram superiores aos encontrados para a soja tostada pelo vapor e para o farelo de soja com adição de óleo, que foram semelhantes entre si.Three-assay birds were conducted to evaluate the contents of metabolizable energy and ether extract digestibility of processed full-fat soybeans by extrusion, by toast and of the soybean meal plus oil. Two assays were carried out by using the traditional total excreta collection by chicks and by rooster, and the other assay was developed by using the force-feeding adult rooster method (Sibbald, 1976. The results showed that the feed composition of the soybean-tested were similar. The different processing caused differences on digestibility of the nutrients of the soybeans tested and the value of coefficients of the nutrients in extruded soybean and soybean meal plus oil were higher than that heated soybean. The value of metabolizable energy was superior in extruded soybean.

  9. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  10. Habitat affinity of resident natural enemies of the invasive Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on soybean, with comments on biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Noma, Takuji

    2010-06-01

    We integrated a natural enemy survey of the broader landscape into a more traditional survey for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), parasitoids and predatory flies on soybean using A. glycines-infested soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., placed in cropped and noncropped plant systems to complement visual field observations. Across three sites and 5 yr, 18 parasitoids and predatory flies in total (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae [two species] and Bracondae [seven species], Diptera: Cecidomyiidae [one species], Syrphidae [seven species], Chamaemyiidae [one species]) were detected, with significant variability in recoveries detected across plant system treatments and strong contrasts in habitat affinity detected among species. Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson was the most frequently detected parasitoid, and no differences in abundance were detected in cropped (soybean, wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], corn [Zea mays L.], and alfalfa [Medicago sativa L.]) and noncropped (poplar [Populus euramericana (Dode) Guinier] and early successional vegetation) areas. In contrast, Binodoxys kelloggensis Pike, Starý & Brewer had strong habitat affinity for poplar and early successional vegetation. The low recoveries seasonally and across habitats of Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus sp., and Aphidius colemoni Viereck make their suitability to A. glycines on soybean highly suspect. The widespread occurrence of many of the flies reflects their broad habitat affinity and host aphid ranges. The consistent low field observations of parasitism and predation suggest that resident parasitoids and predatory flies are unlikely to contribute substantially to A. glycines suppression, at least during the conventional time period early in the pest invasion when classical biological control activities are considered. For selected species that were relatively well represented across plant systems (i.e., L. testaceipes and Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani), conservation biological control efforts

  11. Comparison of soybean evapotranspirations measured by weighing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... of the surface, integrating latent heat fluxes over large areas ... to determine whether Bowen ratio system could provide accurate .... glass electrode pH-meter. ... measured in soil paste using standard Wheatstone resistance.

  12. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 2: Soybean Fibres Properties and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz Yıldırım

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean protein fibres (SPF, which is a protein based botanic fibre, has various beneficialproperties such as softness, brightness, smoothness, drape, UV and bacterial resistance. These fibers areused in production of various yarn blends, woven, knit and nonwoven fabrics to manufature apperal andhome textiles such as t-shirts, bedding, sweater and baby dress due to these superior properties. This review,about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and itsenviromental effects had been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areasof SPF have been described.

  13. Soybean adaptation in Chernobyl area (what happen to soybean if something happen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with transfer of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by the soybeans into the seeds and analysis of production of proteins on the contaminated sites of Chernobyl and Fukushima areas. The results indicate that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  14. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  15. SoyDB: a knowledge database of soybean transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliyodan Babu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors play the crucial rule of regulating gene expression and influence almost all biological processes. Systematically identifying and annotating transcription factors can greatly aid further understanding their functions and mechanisms. In this article, we present SoyDB, a user friendly database containing comprehensive knowledge of soybean transcription factors. Description The soybean genome was recently sequenced by the Department of Energy-Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI and is publicly available. Mining of this sequence identified 5,671 soybean genes as putative transcription factors. These genes were comprehensively annotated as an aid to the soybean research community. We developed SoyDB - a knowledge database for all the transcription factors in the soybean genome. The database contains protein sequences, predicted tertiary structures, putative DNA binding sites, domains, homologous templates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB, protein family classifications, multiple sequence alignments, consensus protein sequence motifs, web logo of each family, and web links to the soybean transcription factor database PlantTFDB, known EST sequences, and other general protein databases including Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology, KEGG, EMBL, TAIR, InterPro, SMART, PROSITE, NCBI, and Pfam. The database can be accessed via an interactive and convenient web server, which supports full-text search, PSI-BLAST sequence search, database browsing by protein family, and automatic classification of a new protein sequence into one of 64 annotated transcription factor families by hidden Markov models. Conclusions A comprehensive soybean transcription factor database was constructed and made publicly accessible at http://casp.rnet.missouri.edu/soydb/.

  16. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias

  17. Effects of a soybean-free diet supplied to Italian heavy pigs on fattening performance, and meat and dry-cured ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet containing non-conventional (i.e. alternative to soybean meal vegetable protein sources on fattening performance, and meat and dry-cured ham quality of heavy pigs. Fifty-six (Landrace x Large White castrated males with an initial average body weight of 50 kg were allocated to two experimental groups: a control group in which pigs received a traditional soybean meal-based diet, and a treatment group in which soybean meal was replaced by vegetable protein sources (i.e. sunflower meal, potato protein, corn gluten feed, faba beans and dehydrated alfalfa meal, mainly locally grown and not genetically modified. Pigs were slaughtered at approximately 160 kg body weight. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on fattening performance, or meat, fat or dry-cured ham properties. Results suggest that it is possible to feed heavy pigs a soybean-free diet without impairing fattening performance or the quality of meat and Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin hams.

  18. Effect of enzymatic (thermostable α-amylase) treatment on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded rice incorporated with soybean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Wu, Zhengzong; Pan, Xiaowei; Long, Jie; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effect of enzymatic extrusion on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice/soybean mixture, different mass ratios (100/0, 95/5, 85/15, 70/30, 50/50 and 25/75%, w/w) were treated with thermostable α-amylase. The reduced special mechanical energy and the enhanced product temperature were closely and regularly linked with the increase of soybean content. The bulk density and water solubility index increased, and the water absorption index and viscosities decreased remarkably after enzymatic extrusion, however, the modification caused by α-amylase were dramatically eliminated with the increase of soybean content to ∼50%. Moreover, the addition of enzyme exhibited an improvement of the total phenolic/flavonoid content (TPC/TFC) and antioxidant capacities compared to traditional extrusion. The TPC/TFC retention of extrudate (ratios of 85/15 and 70/30%) attained over 90%, but dramatically decreased (72.91 and 67.81%, respectively) with soybean added to 75%, probably due to the great reduction of starch substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sadum: Traditional and Contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Panggabean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.

  20. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  1. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  2. Nitrogen assimilation in soybean nodules, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuji; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the pathways to assimilate the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation in soybean nodules, 15 N-labeled compounds were administered to intact nodules or nodule slices pretreated with various inhibitors of nitrogen assimilation. After exposure to 15 N 2 , 15 N-incorporation into various nitrogenous compounds was investigated in attached nodules injected with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) or azaserine (AS). MSX treatment increased the 15 N content of ammonia more than 6 times, however, depressed 15 N content of most of amides and amino acids. AS treatment enhanced 15 N content of amido-N of glutamine as well as ammonia, but decreased amino-N of glutamine and most of amino acids. Experiments with nodule slices pretreated with MSX or AS solution and then fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia or amido- 15 N of glutamine showed the same trends. Aminooxyacetate inhibited nitrogen flow from glutamic acid to other amino acids. These results strongly indicate that the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation is assimilated by GS/GOGAT system to glutamic acid and then transaminated to various amino acids in situ. 15 N-incorporation patterns in nodule slices fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia, hydroxylamine, nitrite were similar, but nitrate seemed to be reduced in a definite compartment and assimilated similarly as in intact nodules fed with 15 N 2 (author)

  3. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  4. Effect of solar radiation on severity of soybean rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; George, Sheeja; Narváez, Dario F; Srivastava, Pratibha; Schuerger, Andrew C; Wright, David L; Marois, James J

    2012-08-01

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a damaging fungal disease of soybean (Glycine max). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how solar radiation affects SBR progress within soybean canopies. Such information can aid in developing accurate SBR prediction models. To manipulate light penetration into soybean canopies, structures of shade cloth attenuating 30, 40, and 60% sunlight were constructed over soybean plots. In each plot, weekly evaluations of severity in lower, middle, and upper canopies, and daily temperature and relative humidity were recorded. Final plant height and leaf area index were also recorded for each plot. The correlation between amount of epicuticular wax and susceptibility of leaves in the lower, middle, and upper canopies was assessed with a detached leaf assay. Final disease severity was 46 to 150% greater in the lower canopy of all plots and in the middle canopy of 40 and 60% shaded plots. While daytime temperature within the canopy of nonshaded soybean was greater than shaded soybean by 2 to 3°C, temperatures recorded throughout typical evenings and mornings of the growing season in all treatments were within the range (10 to 28.5°C) for SBR development as was relative humidity. This indicates temperature and relative humidity were not limiting factors in this experiment. Epicuticular wax and disease severity in detached leaf assays from the upper canopy had significant negative correlation (P = 0.009, R = -0.84) regardless of shade treatment. In laboratory experiments, increasing simulated total solar radiation (UVA, UVB, and PAR) from 0.15 to 11.66 MJ m(-2) increased mortality of urediniospores from 2 to 91%. Variability in disease development across canopy heights in early planted soybean may be attributed to the effects of solar radiation not only on urediniospore viability, but also on plant height, leaf area index, and epicuticular wax, which influence

  5. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwakeel Eman A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration

  6. Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kinloch, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of Roundup-ready soybean agriculture investigated in a D. magna model

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhra, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Paper III of this thesis is not available i Munin: III: M. Cuhra, T. Traavik & T. Bøhn. 2014. 'Life cycle fitness differences in Daphnia magna fed Roundup-Ready soybean or conventional soybean or organic soybean', available in Aquaculture Nutrition Transgenic glyphosate tolerant soybeans are constituents of an industrial production system with specific agricultural practices and supplementary agrochemicals as interwoven additional elements. Thus the material produced should not be see...

  8. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  9. The soybean and mungbean improvement programs at AVRDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugasundaram, S.; Ahn, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    At the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. and mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek are included in the Legume Program for improvement. Germplasm collection in soybean and mungbean are 9,524 and 5,108 respectively. Developing improved selections with early, uniform maturity, high yield, wide adaptability and resistance to diseases and insects are the major breeding objectives for the tropics and subtropics. Genetic diversity and genetic resources are available in the germplasm for most of the desired traits both in soybean as well as mungbean. However, for traits such as soybean rust resistance in soybean and resistance to insects in mungbean are rare. Limited amount of radiation breeding is being employed in cooperation with Korean Atomic Energy Agency to obtain desirable genes in both species. A number of AVRDC identified accessions and breeding lines are being used by the national programs to develop improved cultivars. AVRDC developed breeding selections have been released as new cultivars in Costa Rica, Fiji, Korea, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan. (author)

  10. Genetic similarity of soybean genotypes revealed by seed protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More accurate and complete descriptions of genotypes could help determinate future breeding strategies and facilitate introgression of new genotypes in current soybean genetic pool. The objective of this study was to characterize 20 soybean genotypes from the Maize Research Institute "Zemun Polje" collection, which have good agronomic performances, high yield, lodging and drought resistance, and low shuttering by seed proteins as biochemical markers. Seed proteins were isolated and separated by PAA electrophoresis. On the basis of the presence/absence of protein fractions coefficients of similarity were calculated as Dice and Roger and Tanamoto coefficient between pairs of genotypes. The similarity matrix was submitted for hierarchical cluster analysis of un weighted pair group using arithmetic average (UPGMA method and necessary computation were performed using NTSYS-pc program. Protein seed analysis confirmed low level of genetic diversity in soybean. The highest genetic similarity was between genotypes P9272 and Kador. According to obtained results, soybean genotypes were assigned in two larger groups and coefficients of similarity showed similar results. Because of the lack of pedigree data for analyzed genotypes, correspondence with marker data could not be determined. In plant with a narrow genetic base in their gene pool, such as soybean, protein markers may not be sufficient for characterization and study of genetic diversity.

  11. Optimization of prebiotics in soybean milk using mixture experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A mixture experiment was used to optimize prebiotic mixtures in soybean milk formulation. Inulin (I, galactooligosaccharides(GOS, and isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO were the prebiotic ingredients added (4% w/v to soybean milk. Thirteen formulations of soybean milk were compared using the general descriptive analysis and the growth of probiotics(Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456, Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 875, and Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1034. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in all sensory attributes (color, thickness, beany flavor, sweetness, viscosity, sweetness aftertaste among the samples. Various mixtures of the prebiotics had only a slight effect on the soybean milk color and viscosity (p0.05. The soybean milk supplemented with the optimized prebiotic mixture had higher (p<0.05carbohydrates, total soluble solid, total solid content, and viscosity than the control (without prebiotic. However, it had a lower L* value (lightness and a higher a* value (redness than the control (p<0.05.

  12. Inheritance and Gene Mapping of Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus Strain SC14 in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Chao Li; Hai-Jian Zhi; Jun-Yi Gai; Dong-Quan Guo; Yan-Wei Wang; Kai Li; Li Bai; Hua Yang

    2006-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most broadly distributed diseases worldwide. It causes severe yield loss and seed quality deficiency in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). SMV Strain SC14 isolated from Shanxi Province, China, was a newly identified virulent strain and can infect Kefeng No. 1, a source with wide spectrum resistance. In the present study, soybean accessions, PI96983, Qihuang No. 1 and Qihuang No. 22 were identified to be resistant (R) and Nannong 1138-2, Pixianchadou susceptible (S) to SC14. Segregation analysis of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 indicated that a single dominant gene (designated as Rsc14) controlled the resistance to SC14 at both V2 and R1 developmental stages. The same results were obtained for the crosses of Qihuang No. 1 × Nannong 1138-2 and Qihuang No. 22 × Nannong 1138-2 as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 at V2 stage, but at R1 stage,the F1 performed as necrosis (a susceptible symptom other than mosaic), F2 segregated in a ratio of 1R:2N:1S,and the progenies of necrotic (N) F2 individuals segregated also in R, N and S. It indicated that a single gene (designated as Rsc14o, to be different from that of PI96983) controlled the resistance to SC14, its dominance was the same as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 (without symptoms) at V2 stage and not the same at R1 stage. The tightly linked co-dominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker Satt334 indicated that all the heterozygous bands were completely corresponding to the necrotic F2 individuals, or all the necrotic F2 individuals were heterozygotes.It was inferred that necrosis might be due to the interaction among SMV strains, resistance genes, genetic background of the resistance genes, and plant development stage. Furthermore, the bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of SSR markers was conducted to map the resistance genes. In F2 of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2, five SSR markers, Sat_297, Sat_234, Sat_154, Sct_033 and Sat_120, were found closely linked to Rsc14, with genetic distances of 14

  13. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  14. Analysis of soybean supply to price changes in the domestic market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that farmers' responses were not encouraging in the production and supply of soybean in the domestic markets with respect to the dictate of prices, price expectations and price of groundnut as a chosen competitive enterprise. Keywords: Response, soybean supply, price changes, soybean market, ...

  15. Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum causing soybean root rot in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important edible legume cultivated around the world. However, soybean production is seriously impacted by the widespread occurrence of root rot disease. In this study, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot of soybean in Heilongjiang province...

  16. Dissipation behavior and risk assessment of butralin in soybean and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congdi; Liu, Rong; Li, Li; Li, Wei; He, Yujian; Yuan, Longfei

    2017-08-29

    Dissipation behavior, final residue, and risk assessment of butralin in soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil were investigated. Butralin residues were extracted with acetonitrile and then soybean samples were detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and soil samples were determined with GC with nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg/kg for soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil. Average recoveries ranged from 90.4 ~ 98.2% for green soybean, 86.2 ~ 86.6% for soybean, 86.0 ~ 98.8% for plant, and 85.0 ~ 106.8% for soil. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.0 ~ 7.2% for green soybean, 2.0 ~ 3.0% for soybean, 3.1 ~ 8.1% for plant, and 1.8 ~ 6.6% for soil. Half-lives of butralin in soil samples varied in the range of 11-22 days. At harvest time, final residues of butralin in soybean and green soybean were lower than LOQ. Risk assessment demonstrated that, at recommended dosage and frequency, butralin would not induce significant harm on humans. The study could be used as a quantitative basis for application of butralin on soybean.

  17. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  18. In the Dirac tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-04-15

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.

  19. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  20. The bioanthropology of the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Arroyo, Felipe

    1993-01-01

    Several mummies were studied, found in Colombia; not using invasive methods as the computerized scannography and the radiology, in concordance with these studies has been possible to know their diet and the demographic dynamics in the past among other parameters

  1. [Review of traditional Chinese medicine external applications to treat chemistry phlebitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sha; Liu, Weiqun; Cheng, Lushan; Ge, Jinjin

    2011-09-01

    This article reviewed the literatures in this area over the past 5 years according to three parts: simple traditional Chinese medicine external application, combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, combination of traditional Chinese medicine and physical therapy, and came to several effective prescriptions.

  2. Extruded linseed and linseed oil as alternative to soybean meal and soybean oil in diets for fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal and soybean oil respectively with extruded linseed and linseed oil on the productive performances and meat quality traits in lambs slaughtered at 90 days. Lambs weaned at 40 days were divided into 3 groups (N.=10 fed ad libitum for 6 weeks as follows: C (control, commercial feed containing soybean meal and soybean oil; LO (feed containing linseed oil instead of soybean oil; EL (feed containing extruded linseed. Meat quality traits were evaluated on the Longissimus lumborum (Ll and Semimembranosus (Sm muscles. The lambs’ growth performances and the slaughtering and sectioning data did not differ between groups. The redness of meat was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the LO and EL groups compared to the control for both the muscles tested. Ll meat samples of the EL group showed a greater cooking loss compared to LO (P<0.01 and to the control (P<0.05. The amount of linoleic acid in raw Ll meat samples was significantly (P<0.01 lower in both LO and EL groups with respect to control. The concentration of α-linolenic acid was significantly (P<0.01 higher in the EL group and this positively affected the total content of ω3 as well as the ω6/ω3 ratio.

  3. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Reham M; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Bauchan, Gary R; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2013-04-25

    The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes.

  4. Relationship between Protein Accumulation Regulation and Yield Formation in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lihua; LI Jie; LIU Lijun; ZU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Three different genotypes soybeans were adopted in this experiment under three fertilizer levels.The object of this study was to investigate protein accumulation regulation of soybean cultivars under the condition of different nutrient levels, and their effects on soybean yield and quality, and to provide theoretical evidence for breed, cultivation and agricultural production, also man-powered controllable locations. The concentration of N in the leaves declined after seedling stage, then increased again at stage of early flowering, and started to decrease up to leaf senescence, declined rapidly from seed-filling season to stage of yellow ripeness. The concentration of N in the stems and pod walls declined with growth stage. High seed protein genotypes exhibited higher N assimilating and partitioning during whole growth stages. Pod walls were media of N partitioning. Protein was accumulated mainly during the later period of reproductive growth stage up to harvest, so plant growth after stage of yellow ripeness could not be neglected.

  5. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  6. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  7. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  8. Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soertini, G.; Hendratno

    1988-01-01

    Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants. Research activities comprising of three experiments were carried out to screen several soybean varieties and mutants for symbiotic N fixation potential. The first two experiments involved screening of seven rhizobium strains/isolate for effective N fixation. Depending on the medium used, plant response to strains was different. In sterile medium, rhizobium strain USDA 136, 142 and TAL 102 showed a high nitrogen fixation potential. In soil only rhizobium strain USDA 110 had better performance and proved to be competitive to the native strains. Nitrogen-15 dilution method was used to screen nitrogen fixing ability of several soybean varieties and mutants. Guntur variety showed a better response to high dose of N fertilizer without disturbance in its fixing ability. This variety then was considered good to be introduced in the cropping system. (author). 8 refs

  9. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  10. Antioxidant properties of soybean seedlings inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Ana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds with Trichoderma asperellum, followed by mites (Tetranychus urticae exposure on lipid peroxidation (LP process and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. T. urticae is an occasional pest of soybean that causes biotic stress. Biotic stress leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS which may cause damage to vital biomolecules. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems protect plants against oxidative stress. T. asperellum is commonly used as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. It has been suggested that previous inoculation of seeds with T. asperellum may cause induced resistance against biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine LP intensity and antioxidant enzymes activity in inoculated and non-inoculated soybean seedlings with and without exposure to mites. Noticeably higher LP intensity was detected in non-inoculated group treated with mites compared to control group. Inoculated soybean seedlings treated with mites had lower LP intensity compared to noninoculated group. Also, it has been noticed that inoculation with Trichoderma asperellum itself, produced mild stress in plants. In addition, positive correlation between enzymes activity and LP was noticed. The level of oxidative stress in plants was followed by the change of LP intensity. According to results obtained, it was concluded that the greatest oxidative stress occurred in non-inoculated group treated with mites and that inoculation successfully reduced oxidative stress. The results indicate that inoculation of soybean seeds with T. asperellum improves resistance of soybean seedlings against mites attack. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31022

  11. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Pierce

    Full Text Available The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds.

  12. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  13. Methyl jasmonate induced resistance in cheniere rice and soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a compound naturally occurring in certain plants that aids in plant defense. In this study, we examined the difference in herbivory of fall armyworm (FAW) on control plants (treated without MJ) and MJ-treated plants. Seeds of cheniere rice and soybean were soaked in MJ overnight and planted in the greenhouse, although the soybean never grew. Therefore, only the mature plant leaves of cheniere rice were fed to FAW and the difference in herbivory was looked at. Our results show there is no statistical difference in the herbivory of the cheniere rice plant leaves.

  14. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  15. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  16. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the leve...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  17. The observation of soybean yield components in Ml generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.

    1978-01-01

    Some properties of the soybean yield component in Ml generation were investigated. Soybean seed variety of Taichung were irradiated with gamma rays from the cobalt source at the Gamma Atomic Energy Research Centre, Yogyakarta. Seven different doses at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 krads were used. Subsequent growth of the irradiated seed was carried out in the field and the ages of flowering, seedling height number of pods, number of fertile and infertile pods and percentage of sterility were recorded. It was found that the significant effect on the above variables was observed due to the gamma radiation doses between 8-12 krads. (author)

  18. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  19. Proteomic analysis of soybean hypocotyl during recovery after flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-21

    Soybean is a nutritionally important crop, but exhibits reduced growth and yields under flooding stress. To investigate soybean responses during post-flooding recovery, a gel-free proteomic technique was used to examine the protein profile in the hypocotyl. Two-day-old soybeans were flooded for 2 days and hypocotyl was collected under flooding and during the post-flooding recovery period. A total of 498 and 70 proteins were significantly changed in control and post-flooding recovering soybeans, respectively. Based on proteomic and clustering analyses, three proteins were selected for mRNA expression and enzyme activity assays. Pyruvate kinase was increased under flooding, but gradually decreased during post-flooding recovery period at protein abundance, mRNA, and enzyme activity levels. Nucleotidylyl transferase was decreased under flooding and increased during post-flooding recovery at both mRNA expression and enzyme activity levels. Beta-ketoacyl reductase 1 was increased under flooding and decreased during recovery at protein abundance and mRNA expression levels, but its enzyme activity gradually increased during the post-flooding recovery period. These results suggest that pyruvate kinase, nucleotidylyl transferase, and beta-ketoacyl reductase play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean hypocotyl by promoting glycolysis for the generation of ATP and regulation of secondary metabolic pathways. This study analyzed post-flooding recovery response mechanisms in soybean hypocotyl, which is a model organ for studying secondary growth, using a gel-free proteomic technique. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins extracted from soybean hypocotyls identified 20 common proteins between control and flooding-stressed soybeans that changed significantly in abundance over time. The hypocotyl proteins that changed during post-flooding recovery were assigned to protein, development, secondary metabolism, and glycolysis categories. The analysis revealed that three

  20. Heat balance characteristics and water use efficiency of soybean community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.S.; Im, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study seasonal evapotranspiration above soybean canopy and its relationship with dry matter production by the Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The soybean ''Paldalkong'' was sown with the space of 40 * 10 cm at Suwon on May 27, 1988. The daily net radiation ranged from 59 to 76 percents of the total shortwave radiation under cloudless conditions, which was lower than cloud overcast condition with record 63 to 83 percents. The latent heat flux under overcast condition was sometimes larger than the sum of net radiation, implying transportation of energy by advection of ambient air

  1. Research of composite mutagenesis on Soybean HeFeng25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Guo Tai; Wang Zhixin; Wu Xiuhong; Li Candong; Liu Zhongtang; Zhang Maoming; Han Shifeng; Liu Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    On the research four main strains agronomic characters of M2 are analyzed, using space launch and gamma radiation 60 Co-γ composite process for the test materials Soybean HeFeng25. The results show that: the plant height, the first pod hight, number of node, number of plant pod and seed were significant or highly significantlevel. There were only one strain has mutation rate. Other strains on number of node variation is not obvious. Plant hight, the first pod hight, number of plant pod, number of plant seed have different levels of mutation rate. It can be used for soybean breeding. (authors)

  2. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  3. Effect of substitution of low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Astwood, James D; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2006-02-01

    Low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) has been developed as a substitute for hydrogenated soybean oil to reduce intake of trans FA while improving stability and functionality in processed foods. We assessed the dietary impact of substitution of LLSO for hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO) used in several food categories. All substitutions were done using an assumption of 100% market penetration. The impact of this substitution on the intake of five FA and trans FA was assessed. Substitution of LLSO for current versions of HSBO resulted in a 45% decrease in intake of trans FA. Impacts on other FA intakes were within the realm of typical dietary intakes. No decrease in intake of alpha-linolenic acid was associated with the use of LLSO in place of HSBO because LLSO substitutes for HSBO that are already low in alpha-linolenic acid.

  4. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  5. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Goto

    Full Text Available Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2% caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  6. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  7. The effects of yellow soybean, black soybean, and sword bean on lipid levels and oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Sun; Lee, Sang Sun

    2010-04-01

    Soy isoflavones have been reported to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of dietary consumption of soybean have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of consuming yellow soybeans, black soybeans (Glycine max), or sword beans (Canavalia gladiate) on lipid and oxidative stress levels in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty-seven nine-week-old female rats were ovariectomized, randomly divided into four groups, and fed one of the following diets for 10 weeks: a diet supplemented with casein (NC, n = 12), a diet supplemented with yellow soybean (YS, n = 12), a diet supplemented with black soybean (BS, n = 12), or a diet supplemented with sword bean (SB, n = 11). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the BS and SB groups were significantly lower than that in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than the other groups. Hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in the YS and SB groups, and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the SB group than in the NC group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly higher in the groups fed beans compared to the NC group. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also significantly lower in the BS and SB groups than the NC group. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of various types of beans may inhibit oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by increasing antioxidant activity and improving lipid profiles. Notably, intake of black soybean resulted in the greatest improvement in risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  8. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  9. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  10. Soybean Resistance to White Mold: Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm Under Different Conditions and Validation of QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Ramkrishna; Chen, Charles Y.; Grau, Craig R.; Dorrance, Ann E.; Liu, Jean Q.; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dechun

    2018-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Barry), is a devastating fungal disease in the Upper Midwest of the United States and southern Canada. Various methods exist to evaluate for SWM resistance and many quantitative trait loci (QTL) with minor effect governing SWM resistance have been identified in prior studies. This study aimed to predict field resistance to SWM using low-cost and efficient greenhouse inoculation methods and to confirm the QTL reported in previous studies. Three related but independent studies were conducted in the field, greenhouse, and laboratory to evaluate for SWM resistance. The first study evaluated 66 soybean plant introductions (PIs) with known field resistance to SWM using the greenhouse drop-mycelium inoculation method. These 66 PIs were significantly (P greenhouse inoculation methods with disease severity index (DSI) in field evaluations. Moderate correlation (r) between PM under drop-mycelium method and DSI in field trials (r = 0.65, p greenhouse inoculation methods and DSI across field trials. These findings suggest that greenhouse inoculation methods could predict the field resistance to SWM. The third study attempted to validate 33 QTL reported in prior studies using seven populations that comprised a total of 392 F4 : 6 lines derived from crosses involving a partially resistant cultivar “Skylla,” five partially resistant PIs, and a known susceptible cultivar “E00290.” The estimates of broad-sense heritability (h2) ranged from 0.39 to 0.66 in the populations. Of the seven populations, four had h2 estimates that were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05). Single marker analysis across populations and inoculation methods identified 11 significant SSRs (p < 0.05) corresponding to 10 QTL identified by prior studies. Thus, these five new PIs could be used as new sources of resistant alleles to develop SWM resistant commercial cultivars. PMID:29731761

  11. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of calcium phosphate paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Norzita Yaacob; Idris Besar; Che Seman Mahmood; Rusnah Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate paste were prepared by mixing between calcium sodium potassium phosphate, Ca 2 NaK (PO 4 ) 2 (CSPP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (MCPM). CSPP were obtained by reaction between calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO 4 ), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ) and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in solid state sintering process followed by quenching in air at 1000 degree Celsius. The paste was aging in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hrs, 3, 7 and 14 days. The morphological investigation indicated the formation of apatite crystal were first growth after 24 hours. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown at 3 days. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown in 7 and 14 days indicated the prediction of paste would have rapid reaction with bone after implantation. (author)

  13. Determination of effective nodulation in early juvenile soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No standardized, efficient method is available to critically examine the effect of altering the genetic elements in either component by selection and/or genetic engineering. At planting, seeds of a tropical ('TGX-4E') and non-tropical ('Soma') soybean cultivar were inoculated individually in sand-filled Conetainers® in a ...

  14. Physiological response of soybean genotypes to plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, Y; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2002-01-01

    Response of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to plant density has occupied a segment of agronomic research for most of the century. Genotype differences have been noted especially in response to planting date, lodging problems and water limitation. There is limited information on the physiological

  15. Processed soybean in diets for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Stech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in development and in physiological parameters of fingerlings of the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus fed on diets with high levels of integral crude, extruded, toasted soybean and soybean meal were assessed. The products were evaluated in practical diets for pacu, initially weighing 70 ± 2.19 g, during 82 days. Nine treatments were studied in a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme which corresponded to two fish meal protein replacement levels (50 and 100% and four soybean products, plus control (100% of fish meal - FM. Development, organosomatic indexes and physiological parameters were evaluated. No differences were reported with regard to weight gain, food intake, food conversion, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. A significant interaction was registered for plasma protein between the evaluated ingredients and replacement percentage of fish meal protein. Results showed that the ingredients assessed did not affect the development of the pacu when compared to fish fed on control diet. Protein retention was favored when toasted soybean and when 50% of the diet’s protein fraction from fish meal were employed.

  16. Inactivation of proteinaceous protease inhibitors of soybeans by isolated fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.M.T.; Spekking, W.T.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Proteinaceous protease inhibitors, Kunitz Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor (KSTI) and Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI), in legume seeds reduce the digestibility of proteins in feed of monogastric animals. Enzymatic inactivation of these inhibitors will increase the nutritional value of the feed. The aim of this

  17. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-shan; ZHANG Zhong-chen; LIU Chun-yan; XIN Da-wei; QIU Hong-mei; SHAN Da-peng; SHAN Cai-yun; HU Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 SSR primers, which were screened with the two parents and amplified on the 154 lines. 12 agronomic traits different between the two parents were investigated, and QTLs of all the traits were analyzed using the software Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0. The agronomic traits included quality traits: protein content, oil content, and content of protein and oil; yield traits: pods per plant, seed weight per plant, arnd 100 seeds weight; and other agronomic traits: plant height, days to maturity, branches, nod number in main stem, average leaf length, and average leaf width. The results showed that 68 QTLs in total were found for the 12 agronomic traits. The number of QTLs per trait varied from 3 for the average leaf width to 11 for 100 seeds weight and plant height, and was 5.8 on average. Good accordance was seen in many QTLs between the results of this study and the results obtained by other similar studies; therefore, these QTLs may be valuable for molecular marker assistant selection in soybean. In this study, 68 major QTLs of 12 important traits of soybean were analyzed.

  18. Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance and economic effects of replacing soybean meal with palm kernel cake (PKC) in broiler diet was investigated in other to determine the optimal level of inclusion for maximum production in broilers. A total of 120 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups of 30 birds each.

  19. Evaluation of four improved soybean varieties under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... emergence of soybean seeds in the field from year to year such that plant population densities cannot be met. (McGee et al., 1980). The causes of these problems include the use of poor quality seeds (Nangju et al.,. 1980), poor storage conditions (Delouche, 1981), increased incidence of seed-borne ...

  20. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems. The objectives of this st...

  1. Energetic assessment of soybean biodiesel obtainment in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... Energetic outputs added up to 3,003.75 MJ and energy balance was 57,132.54 MJ. ... biodiesel, the study was divided into three stages: soybean farming, ... considering energetic consumptions with labor, seeds, diesel oil, ... model MF 283(4X2 TDA), power 63.2 kW (86 cv) in the engine, board weight.

  2. Nitrogen fixation and nodulation of soybean as affected by rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the efficacy of different adhesives added to rhizobial seed inoculum on soybean nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in a screen house and under field conditions. The experiment was a 6×3 factorial arranged in Completely Randomized Design and Randomized Complete Block Design for the pot ...

  3. SoyFN: a knowledge database of soybean functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yungang; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Many databases for soybean genomic analysis have been built and made publicly available, but few of them contain knowledge specifically targeting the omics-level gene-gene, gene-microRNA (miRNA) and miRNA-miRNA interactions. Here, we present SoyFN, a knowledge database of soybean functional gene networks and miRNA functional networks. SoyFN provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize, analyze and download the functional networks of soybean genes and miRNAs. In addition, it incorporates much information about KEGG pathways, gene ontology annotations and 3'-UTR sequences as well as many useful tools including SoySearch, ID mapping, Genome Browser, eFP Browser and promoter motif scan. SoyFN is a schema-free database that can be accessed as a Web service from any modern programming language using a simple Hypertext Transfer Protocol call. The Web site is implemented in Java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache, with all major browsers supported. We anticipate that this database will be useful for members of research communities both in soybean experimental science and bioinformatics. Database URL: http://nclab.hit.edu.cn/SoyFN.

  4. Ruminal dry matter degradability of treated soybean meal as source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... treating soybean meal for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h in the rumen of three Taleshi .... pens with concrete floors that were cleaned regularly. ... fixed effect of oil levels ( ... microbial contamination of the incubated samples (Freer.

  5. BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCTION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa USING SOYBEAN OIL AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venty Suryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization condition of the biosurfactants production by P. aeruginosa using soybean oil as substrate has been examined. The media containing 10% v/v of the soybean oil and 6 days of the fermentation time was the optimum condition for the biosurfactants production. The extraction technique using different solvent polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol, respectively was applied for the isolation of the biosurfactants. The biosurfactant was found in the extract chloroform of the crude biospasoy (biosurfactants obtained from soybean oil as substrate which then is called chlo-biospasoy. The chlo-biospasoy was identified as rhamnolipids which had oil in water (o/w emulsion type, had the CMC of 860 mg/L and could reduced the surface tension of the water from 72 mN/m to 52 mN/m. The chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifier to form emulsion between water and hydrocarbon such as palm oil, benzene, premium or toluene with various stability. The results indicated that chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing agent.     Keywords: Biosurfactants, P. aeruginosa, Soybean Oil, Emulsifier

  6. Soybean nutritional properties: The good and the bad about soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of soy foods is increasing worldwide mainly due to their acclaimed health benefits. However, nutritional demerits associated with soy foods consumption exist. Proteins and lipids, some vitamins and minerals, are major nutritionallyimportant components of soybeans; carbohydrates are major constituents ...

  7. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, 87.5% of the farmers were in their active age, and 81.7% utilized their personal saving as a major source of finance for production. The result of the production function analysis indicated that 87.21% of the variation in the output of soybean is explained for by the independent variables. Resource-use efficiency ...

  9. Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel presents a large potential for replacing other fossil-based fuels. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal efficiency and emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), in a cycle diesel engine-generator set, using soybean biodiesel and diesel as fuels.

  10. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of refined soybean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the production of biodiesel via transesterification of refined soybean oil obtained locally. Sodium hydroxide was used as the alkali catalyst and methanol (as alcohol) was used in the transesterification process due to its low cost. The methanol-to-oil molar ratio was maintained at 6:1. The effect of ...

  11. Energetic assessment of soybean biodiesel obtainment in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the result of a research that aimed to assess soybean-based biodiesel production in the West region of Paraná State, showing that the growing usage of these fuels happens due to the need for alternatives to the use of fossil fuels, once biomass-based fuels have been an environmentally-friendly ...

  12. effect of tillage, rhizobium inoculation in maize-soybean- based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    main plot, four rhizobium inoculation in soybean-maize-based cropping systems ... production systems, such as cropping systems, ... of commercial inoculants. Studies ... and distributed by IITA business incubation ... sowing, while the remaining part (2/3) was done as ...... biological nitrogen fixation potential and grain yield.

  13. Comparative Effects of Cowpea and Soybean Genotypes on N2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT:A field trial was conducted to asses N2 - fixation and N balance in five cultivars each of soybean (TGX 1945 – 1F, ... Key words: Legume genotype, N2 fixation, N balance and Nitrogen Harvest Index (NHI) ..... subsequent maize grain yield in the guinea savanna ... On-farm evaluation of biological nitrogen fixation.

  14. Interference of soybean and corn with Chloris distichophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In nature, plants interact with each other and establish positive, negative, and neutral interference relationships. In agricultural ecosystems, crops are usually affected by competition with weeds, and the effects of this process are influenced by the plant population density and proportional abundance and by the species involved. The present study evaluates the competitive interactions of soybean and corn with Chloris distichophylla. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the University of Passo Fundo during the 2011/12 crop season: one experiment involving corn and C. distichophylla and another involving soybean and C. distichophylla. The experimental units were plastic pots, and the treatments were based on a replacement series, with a constant total density of eight plants per pot. The treatments included five combinations of soybean or corn plants with the weed species (8:0, 6:2, 4:4, 2:6 and 0:8, corresponding to relative abundances of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of the crop species (and the reverse for the weed species. Competitiveness was analyzed using replacement-series experiment diagrams and competitive indices. Total dry matter and plant height were the two variables analyzed. The competitive indices indicated that corn and soybean crops were more competitive than the weed. The plant height was not affected by competition between both the species.

  15. 135 - 146 Effect of Different Levels of Soybean /Glycine Max

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    sheep were blocked into six blocks of four animals based on initial body weight and ... sheep on natural pasture hay supplemented with 375 g/day soybean meal .... sheep were made to fast for 12 hours and slaughtered ...... Swedish University of Agricultural sciences. ... Synthesis of working papers, Soil Science Bulletin.

  16. Silkworm caterpillar - soybean meal blend as dietary protein source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of silkworm caterpillar meat (SCM) blended with soybean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in the practical diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings (M±SE=17.04±_0.02g). The fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing blends of SCM ...

  17. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  18. Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat extruded soybeans on milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 0 or 5% full fat extruded soybeans meal (dry matter basis) and ... Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn .... The oven temperature was initially 180°C for 45.

  19. The Effects of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mechanical properties were determined for four varieties of soybean (TGX 297-129C, Samsoy1, TGX 306-636C and TGX 536-02D). The hardness, compressive and tensile strength determination were carried out using a Rockwell Hardness machine and tensometer. The effect of moisture content on the hardness ...

  20. Soybean seed viability and changes of fatty acids content as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of soybean seed chemical composition are related to specific processes occurring in seed during storage. These changes lead to seed aging during storage and affect seed vigour and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigour tests were applied: Standard ...

  1. Discrimination of transgenic soybean seeds by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean seeds and their hybrid descendants was examined by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation pre-treatments were applied to classify soybean seeds based on genotype. Results demonstrated clear differences among glyphosate-resistant, hybrid descendants and conventional non-transformed soybean seeds could easily be visualized with an excellent classification (accuracy was 88.33% in validation set) using the LS-SVM and the spectra with SNV pre-treatment. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy techniques together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to distinguish transgenic soybean seeds from non-transformed seeds with high efficiency and without any major sample preparation.

  2. Quantitative replacement of soybean meal with toasted African yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the result, one can conclude that 25% AYB (treatment II) compared favourably with the control diets 0% AYB in starter broiler diets and is hereby recommended as optimal for quantitative replacement of soybean in broiler starter diet. Key words: Broiler Starter diet, African Yam Bean, Soyabean replacement ...

  3. Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient studies was carried out on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles of mean weight 7.00-8.00g stocked into rectangular plastic aquarium tanks 30cm x 15cm for 120 days fed with differently processed soya bean meal. There were eight treatments labeled as diet T1-T8, diet T1 (control diet; contains no soybean meal ...

  4. Quality of second season soybean submitted to drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Pedro Hartmann Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying agricultural products reduces the moisture content to suitable levels for storage, in order to maintain the product quality. However, special care with the temperatures applied in the process is important for the integrity and longevity of the material. The present study aimed at determining the immediate and latent effect of air-drying temperatures on the quality of soybean produced as a second season crop. The grains were collected at the R8 stage, close to the physiological maturity, with moisture content of approximately 23 % (w.b., submitted to drying temperatures of 40 ºC, 50 ºC, 60 ºC, 70 ºC and 80 ºC, up to a moisture content of 12.5 ± 0.7 % (w.b., and then stored under non-controlled humidity and temperature for 180 days. Thereafter, quality was assessed every 45 days by determining the dry matter loss, color and crude protein and lipid contents, as well as the acidity and peroxide indices of the crude oil extracted. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the increase in the air-drying temperature affects the soybean quality and crude oil extracted, being this effect enhanced with the storage time; the soybean and crude oil quality decline with an increase in the air-drying temperature and storage time; the air temperature of 40 ºC has the least effect on the quality of soybean grains and crude oil extracted.

  5. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  6. Growth, assimilate partitioning and grain yield response of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation tested variation in the growth components, assimilate partitioning and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrrill) varieties established in CO2 enriched atmosphere when inoculated with mixtures of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in the humid rainforest of Nigeria. A pot and a field ...

  7. Proteomic Techniques and Management of Flooding Tolerance in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Tougou, Makoto; Nanjo, Yohei

    2015-09-04

    Climate change is considered a major threat to world agriculture and food security. To improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, the development of high-yielding stress-tolerant, and climate-resilient crops is essential. Of the abiotic stresses, flooding stress is a very serious hazard because it markedly reduces plant growth and grain yield. Proteomic analyses indicate that the effects of flooding stress are not limited to oxygen deprivation but include many other factors. Although many flooding response mechanisms have been reported, flooding tolerance mechanisms have not been fully clarified for soybean. There were limitations in soybean materials, such as mutants and varieties, while they were abundant in rice and Arabidopsis. In this review, plant proteomic technologies are introduced and flooding tolerance mechanisms of soybeans are summarized to assist in the improvement of flooding tolerance in soybeans. This work will expedite transgenic or marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in crops for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant lines or varieties under abiotic stress.

  8. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of soybean pubescence type on radiation balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.C.; Blad, B.I.; Verma, S.B.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Specht, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Increasing the density of pubescence on the leaves and stems of soybeans (Glycine max L.) should influence the radiation balance of the soybean canopy and affect the evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rates. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of increased pubescence density on various components of the radiation balance. Near-isogenic lines of two soybean cultivars (Clark and Harosoy) were grown in four adjacent small plots (18 m · 18 m) during the 1980, 1981, and 1982 growing seasons near Mead, Nebr. The soil at this site is classified as a Typic Argiudoll. The isolines of each cultivar varied only in the amount of pubescence (dense vs. normal pubescence). Measurements of albedo, reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), emitted longwave radiation, and net radiation were made over the crop surfaces with instruments mounted on a rotating boom located at the intersection of the four plots. Radiative canopy temperatures were measured with a handheld infrared thermometer (IRT). Results show that dense pubescence increased reflection of shortwave radiation and PAR by 3 to 5% and 8 to 11%, respectively. Emitted longwave radiation and radiative canopy temperature were not significantly affected by increased pubescence, although there was a slight tendency for the dense pubescent canopy to be cooler. Increased pubescence decreased net radiation over the canopy by 0.5 to 1.5%. These results suggest that soybeans with dense pubescence may be slightly better adapted to the high radiation, high temperature, and limited moisture conditions of the eastern Great Plains than are those with normal pubescence

  10. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate decarboxylase gene family. TAE KYUNG HYUN, SEUNG HEE EOM, XIAO HAN and JU-SUNG KIM http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. J. Biosci. 39(5), December 2014, 899–907, © Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary material. Supplementary figure 1.

  11. Genetic Variability in Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abush Tesfaye

    worldwide importance as food and market crop. This is mainly because of its high ... The application of inorganic P fertilizers is one of the possibilities for addressing the problem of low P availability. However ...... Soybean Research Conference held in Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, 1-5 March, 2004. Tong, X.J., X. Yan, Y.G. Lu, ...

  12. Availability and Market Penetration of GMO Corn and Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Michael D. Duffy; Robert Wisner

    1999-01-01

    The authors survey various types of GMO (genetically modified organism) corn and soybeans, including both pest-resistant and herbicide-resistant varieties, and then evaluate the extent to which farmers have begun to use GMO crops. Figures cited include percentages of acres planted with GMO crops, as well as comparisons of non-GMO versus GMO yields.

  13. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  14. 5' Analysis of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Sandal, N N; Grøn, A

    1987-01-01

    The soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene promoter was analysed in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants. Hybrid-promoter constructions and 5' deletions were studied using chimeric genes composed of the various promoters, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) coding sequence and the lbc(3) 3...

  15. Soybean allergen detection methods--a comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. Højgaard; Holzhauser, T.; Bisson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  16. The primary structures of two leghemoglobin genes from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O; Paludan, K

    1982-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes isolated from soybean DNA. Both genes contain three intervening sequences which interrupt the two coding sequences in identical positions. The 5' and 3' flanking sequences in both genes contain conserved sequences similar...

  17. Effect od Soybean/Cassava Flour Blend in the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers were also peeled, chopped, dried and milled in a similar fashion. Eventually, the soybean and cassava flour samples were blended individually with the quality protein maize flour in three different proportions: 5:95, 10:90 and 15:85, respectively. Normal maize flour was used as a control for the quality ...

  18. Amino acid profiles of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese-like product obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation and ripening of tofu. The resulting "pehtze" is salted, followed by maturation in brine. Total (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles were determined during consecutive stages of sufu manufacture, i.e., tofu,

  19. Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones were reduced using plant cell preparations of Glycine max seeds (soybean). The biotransformation of five aromatic aldehydes in water, at room temperature afforded the corresponding alcohols in excellent yields varying from 89 to 100%. Two prochiral aromatic ...

  20. Intercrop performance of different varieties of soybean (Glycine Max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... (TGX 1894-3E, medium maturing variety), gave the highest grain yield of Soybean and fresh tuber yield of cassava at 12MAP,. Key words: ... basic component of cropping systems in many areas of south eastern Nigeria. ... and aquatic environment, increased soil acidity and highly selective transport or ...

  1. Optimization of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxuan; Cong, Yahui; Liu, Yaping; Wang, Tingting; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Nana; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    High transformation efficiency is a prerequisite for study of gene function and molecular breeding. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a preferred method in many plants. However, the transformation efficiency in soybean is still low. The objective of this study is to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in soybean by improving the infection efficiency of Agrobacterium and regeneration efficiency of explants. Firstly, four factors affecting Agrobacterium infection efficiency were investigated by estimation of the rate of GUS transient expression in soybean cotyledonary explants, including Agrobacterium concentrations, soybean explants, Agrobacterium suspension medium, and co-cultivation time. The results showed that an infection efficiency of over 96% was achieved by collecting the Agrobacterium at a concentration of OD650 = 0.6, then using an Agrobacterium suspension medium containing 154.2 mg/L dithiothreitol to infect the half-seed cotyledonary explants (from mature seeds imbibed for 1 day), and co-cultured them for 5 days. The Agrobacterium infection efficiencies for soybean varieties Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 were higher than the other six varieties. Secondly, the rates of shoot elongation were compared among six different concentration combinations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The shoot elongation rate of 34 and 26% was achieved when using the combination of 1.0 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1, respectively. This rate was higher than the other five concentration combinations of GA3 and IAA, with an 18 and 11% increase over the original laboratory protocol (a combination of 0.5 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA), respectively. The transformation efficiency was 7 and 10% for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 at this optimized hormone concentration combination, respectively, which was 2 and 6% higher than the original protocol, respectively. Finally, GUS histochemical staining, PCR, herbicide

  2. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaga, F. K.; Ofori, K.; Adiku, S. K.; Kugblenu, Y. O.; Asante, W.; Seidu, H. [College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic

  3. Predicting referral practices of traditional healers of their patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting referral practices of traditional healers of their patients with a mental illness: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. ... From the TPB application, the following cognitive variables were found to predict intentions: attitudes (ß = 0.612, p< 0.01); perceived behavioural control (ß = 0.355, p< 0.01); and past ...

  4. The Past has No Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Hersh, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores how the protracted multi-layered crisis has affected the Danish model in the past decades and focuses on the policy options and institutional responses in the attempt of adjusting the economy to the demands of neoliberalism and globalization while moderating and/or managing...

  5. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  6. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  7. Maize starch biphasic pasting curves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelles, EM

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available (150–500 rev/min). The second pasting peak is attributed to the formation of complexes between amylose and low levels of lipid present in maize starch. When lipid was partially removed by extraction with methanol-chloroform (1: 3 v/v), the second...

  8. Effects of Methanol Spraying on Qualitative traits, Yield and Yield Components of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Esazadeh Panjali Kharabasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean (Glycin max L. is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. It can provide oil and vegetable protein suitable for feeding humans as well as animals. The productivity Increasing of this crop in Iran has been the subject of continuous investigation over the past few years. It is well known that adequate water supply is considered as a very important factor to affect the accumulation of dry matter in the plant as well as vegetative growth of most crops. Irrigation is an important factor affecting soybean growth and yield and its related components. Exposing soybean plants to soil moisture stress at any phase of its life cycle may lead to a detrimental effect on growth, yield and its components. The methanol spraying can lead to increase in yield, expediting in maturity and reduction in drought stress impacts and water requirement of crops. Material and Methods The experiment was conducted as split plots based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture of Moghan, Iran, in 2011. Treatments included three levels of drought stress as follows irrigation after, 40 (control, 55 and 70 percentage of available soil moisture depletion as main plots, and four levels of methanol spraying including 0 (control, 7, 21 and 35 volumetric percentage as sub plots. The studied traits were included plant height, leaf area, number of pod and seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological and seed yield, stomatal conductance and proline contents. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS version 9.1 software. Significant difference was set at p ≤ 0.05 by using Duncan’s multiple range test. Results and Discussion The results showed that the plant height, leaf area, number of pod and seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological and seed yield, stomatal conductance and proline contents as well as number of leaf per plant significantly affected by drought stress and methanol

  9. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification of geneticaly modified soybean seeds resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Maria Ângela André

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in genetic engineering permit the modification of plants to be tolerant to certain herbicides that are usually not selective. For practical and commercial purposes, it is important to be able to detect the presence or absence of these traits in genotypes. The objective of this research was to develop a procedure for identifying genetically modified soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. with resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Two studies were conducted based on germination test. In the first study, soybean seeds were pre-imbibed in paper towel with the herbicide solutions, then transferred to moist paper towel for the germination test. In the second study, seeds were placed directly in herbicide solutions in plastic cups and tested for germination using the paper towel method. Eight soybean genotypes were compared: four Roundup Ready, that contained the gene resistant to the herbicide (G99-G725, Prichard RR, G99-G6682, and H7242 RR and four non-transgenic parental cultivars (Boggs, Haskell, Benning, and Prichard. In the first study, the seeds were imbibed for 16 hours at 25°C in herbicide concentrations between 0.0 and 1.5% of the glyphosate active ingredient. In the second, seeds were subjected to concentrations between 0.0 and 0.48%, for one hour, at 30°C. The evaluation parameters were: germination, hypocotyl length, root length and total length of the seedlings. Both methods are efficient in identifying glyphosate-resistant soybean genotypes. It is possible to identify the genetically modified soybean genotypes after three days, by imbibing the seed in 0.12% herbicide solution, and after six days if the substrate is pre-imbibed in a 0.6% herbicide solution. The resistance trait was identified in all cultivars, independent of the initial physiological quality of the seed.

  11. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  12. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma

  13. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2011-09-01

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other oils. In the lipid biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the conversion of oleic acid precursors to linoleic acid precursors in developing soybean seeds. Two genes encoding FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were identified to be expressed specifically in seeds during embryogenesis and have been considered to hold an important role in controlling the seed oleic acid content. A total of 22 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines identified to have an elevated oleic acid content were characterized for sequence mutations in the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. PI 603452 was found to contain a deletion of a nucleotide in the second exon of FAD2-1A. These important SNPs were used in developing molecular marker genotyping assays. The assays appear to be a reliable and accurate tool to identify the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genotype of wild-type and mutant plants. PI 603452 was subsequently crossed with PI 283327, a soybean line that has a mutation in FAD2-1B. Interestingly, soybean lines carrying both homozygous insertion/deletion mutation (indel) FAD2-1A alleles and mutant FAD2-1B alleles have an average of 82-86% oleic acid content, compared to 20% in conventional soybean, and low levels of linoleic and linolenic acids. The newly identified indel mutation in the FAD2-1A gene offers a simple method for the development of high oleic acid commercial soybean varieties.

  14. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y

    1993-01-01

    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  15. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  16. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  17. Improved Diagnoses and Quantification of Fusarium virguliforme, Causal Agent of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Jacobs, Janette L; Byrne, Jan M; Chilvers, Martin I

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium virguliforme (syn. F. solani f. sp. glycines) is the primary causal pathogen responsible for soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) in North America. Diagnosis of SDS is difficult because symptoms can be inconsistent or similar to several soybean diseases and disorders. Additionally, quantification and identification of F. virguliforme by traditional dilution plating of soil or ground plant tissue is problematic due to the slow growth rate and plastic morphology of F. virguliforme. Although several real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays have been developed for F. virguliforme, the performance of those assays does not allow for accurate quantification of F. virguliforme due to the reclassification of the F. solani species complex. In this study, we developed a TaqMan qPCR assay based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) region of F. virguliforme. Specificity of the assay was demonstrated by challenging it with genomic DNA of closely related Fusarium spp. and commonly encountered soilborne fungal pathogens. The detection limit of this assay was determined to be 100 fg of pure F. virguliforme genomic DNA or 100 macroconidia in 0.5 g of soil. An exogenous control was multiplexed with the assay to evaluate for PCR inhibition. Target locus copy number variation had minimal impact, with a range of rDNA copy number from 138 to 233 copies per haploid genome, resulting in a minor variation of up to 0.76 cycle threshold values between strains. The qPCR assay is transferable across platforms, as validated on the primary real-time PCR platform used in the Northcentral region of the National Plant Diagnostic Network. A conventional PCR assay for F. virguliforme detection was also developed and validated for use in situations where qPCR is not possible.

  18. ACEH IN HISTORY: Preserving Traditions and Embracing Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to critically discuss on how the Acehnese in history, while trying to embrace the modern world, have made every effort at preserving their traditions. As an ethnic group which has a glorious past, Aceh has strongly been connected to “identity”; and this is expressed in various means, including “social memory.” For this very reason, “traditions”, including those of the past, are explored and preserved. Yet, the challenges of modernity are also apparent. It is in this context that the Acehnese are trapped at the crossroad. On the one hand, they tend to preserve their traditions, yet, on the other, they need to embrace modern lives. The Acehnese seem to have encountered considerable obstacles on this issue, for they tend to focus more on historical “romanticism” (nostalgia rather than historical “awareness” (consciousness. Eventually, the “spirit” of the past cannot be brought into light.

  19. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-09

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  20. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en